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SEGMENTAL AND SUPRASEGMENTAL SOUND

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SEGMENTALANDSUPRASEGMENTALSOUND
Ramelan(2004:22)classifiessoundsintosegmentalandsuprasegmentals.Heclassifiessegmental,whichrefer
to sound units arranged in a sequential order, the example above has nine segmental feature, phonetically
transcribed in the following way /gudhvnz/. He classifies suprasegmentals, which refer to such features as
stress,pitch,lengthintonation,andotherfeaturesthatalwaysaccompanytheproductionofsegmental.
(Jones,2002:11)classifiessoundsintovowelsandconsonants.Heincludesdiphthongsinthevowelclass.He
considerslength,rhythm,stressandintonationassuprasegmentalsounds.

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a.Vowels
According to Jones(2002:12) vowel is when the tongue takes up a vowel position, a resonance chamber is
formedwhichmodifiedthequalityofproducebythevoice,andgiverisetoadistinctqualityortimber.Hedefines
avowel(innormalspeech)asavoicedsoundinformingwhichtheairissuesinacontinuousstreamthroughthe
pharynxandmouth,therebeinganarrowingsuchaswouldcauseaudiblefriction.Accordingtothepositionof
thehighestpointofthetongue,vowelscanbeclassifiedintofrontvowels,centralvowels,andbackvowels.
b.Consonants
Consonant may be classified into voice consonant and voiceless consonant. A voiced consonant is a sound
producedwhenthevocalcordsarevibrating.While,voicelessconsonantsisasoundmadewithnovibrationof
thevocalcord(DaleandPoem,2005:116).
AccordingtoBaker(2005:24)consonantsisasound,voicedandvoiceless,inwhichtheairstreamisobstructed
throughanarrowingorcompleteclosureofthemouthpassageintheotherwords.Thesoundofaconsonant
dependsonwhetherornotthevocalcordsvibrate,whereandhowitisformed.

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c.Diphthongs
Jones (2002: 22) says diphthong is when the sound is made by gliding from one vowel position to another.
Diphthongsarerepresentedphoneticallybysequencesoftwoletters,thefirstshowingthestartingpointandthe
second indicating the direction of movement. He defines a diphthong as an independent vowelglide not
containingwithinitselfeitherapeakortroughofprominence.Whatismeantbyvowelglideisthatspeech
organs start in the position of one vowel and move in the direction of another vowel. What is mean by
independent is that the glide is expressly made, and is not merely unavoidable concomitant of sounds
precedingandfollowing.Diphthongsareclassifiedintothree,namelyraising/closingdiphthong,fallingstudents
andcentringdiphthongs.
d.LengthRhythm
Thelengthorqualityofasoundisthelengthoftimeduringwhichitisheldoncontinuouslyinagivenwordor
phrase(Jones,2002:232).Rhythmisrepresentedbymeansofmusicalnotation.

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e.Stress

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The term lenght refers to the period of time during which a sound is produced in a given utterance
(Ramelan,2004:29)

Stressisthedegreeofforcewithwhichasoundorsyllableisuttered(Jones,1987:245).Stress[],moderate

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stress(nosymbol),andweakstress[,],forexampleinthewordunimportant[n,Imp:tn].

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Ramelan(2004:25)statesthatstressmeantthedegreeofforceorloudnesswithwhichasyllableispronounced
soastogiveitprominence.HesaidtherethreedegreesofstresscanbeobservedinEnglish:

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1)Strongorprimarystress
2)Mediumorsecondarystress

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3)Weakstress

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Asageneralruleitmaybesaidthattherelativestressofthewordsinasentencedependsontheirimportance.
Themoreimportantawordis,thestongeritsstresswillbe.Themoreimportantwordsareusuallythenouns,
adjectives,demonstrativesandinterogativepronouns,principalverbs,andadverbs.

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f.Intonation
According to Ramelan(2004:32)intonation may also be called the melody of speech. The proper use of
intonationisveryimportantsinceitmakesspeechmorelivelyandinterestingtothehearer.Intonationisdivided
intoatleasttwokindsnamely:risingintonationandfallingintonation.

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