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Anvikshiki

The Indian Journal of Research


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(Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008)
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Anvikshiki
nal of Resear
T he I ndian Jour
ournal
esearcch
Volume 6 Number 1 January 2012
Pa p e r s
International Investment and its Role in Social Stability and Development of India 1-10
Dr. Amit K. Srivastava
Study of Consumer Behaviour in the International Market with Respect to Cultural Factors in Delhi, India and London, UK 11-16
Vaibhav Misra and Dr. R.K Shukla
Politics of Panchayati Raj : From Exit To Voice Option 17-23
Md. Khaliqur Rahman
Globalization and its Threats: An Overview 24-28
Avinash Ranjan
Grassroots Level Democracy : An Assessment 29-32
Rajesh Kumar
The 1857 Uprising : Broad Historical Perspective 33-37
Dr. Sanjeev Kumar
Social Issues 38-42
Shivangi Joshi
Tilak and Indian National Movement : An Overview 43-46
Ritesh Kumar
Conflict Resolution - Means End and Methods 47-51
Shivangi Joshi
Situating Mahatma Gandhi in Modern India 52-56
Raghav Kumar
Challenges in Women Empowerment: Indian Context 57-66
Dr. Lalima Singh
Comparative Study of Emotional and Social Maturity of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha 67-69
Dr. B.K. Mohanty, Dr. D.K. Mohapatra and S.P. Katual
A Study of Awareness level of Graduate Students towards Female Foeticide: A Threat to Nature 70-73
Deepak Sharma
Comparative Study of Achievement and Study Habits of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha 74-77
Dr. B.K. Mohanty, Dr. D.K. Mohapatra and S.P. Katual
Collaborative Learning with Special Reference to Think-Pair-Share Strategies 78-81
Dr. Chitra Singh tomar

Educational Programmes Adopted By +2 Science Residential and Non-Residential Colleges of Odisha (MRP-UGC) 82-85
Dr. B.K. Mohanty
Tagores Gora : A Mirror of the Indian Renaissance Period 86-88
Dr. Reena Chatterjee
Ancient Cities in Tarikhe Beyhaghi 89-95
Maryam Khalili Jahantigh and Mohammad Barani
English as the Link Language 96-98
Bhavna Gupta
A Sound Hrp Really Organizes the Organization 99-101
Prof.A.D Sharma and Ritu Priya Singh
A Study on Designing and Printing of Ganesha Wall Panels with Batik Technique and New Prospects. 102-107
Mrs. Ritu Garg
Manpower Planning and HRP are Ceratinly Not Two Different Aspects of the System. 108-110
Prof.A.D Sharma and Ritu Priya Singh
Problems of Muslim Women : A Comparative Study 111-113
Farida Ahmed and Indira Bishnoi
Status of Indian Girls in Higher Education 114-117
Sukanya Chakravorty

PRINT ISSN 0973-9777,WEBSITE ISSN 0973-9777

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,1-10


Advance Access publication 21 Nov. 2011

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AND ITS ROLE IN SOCIAL STABILITY


AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA
DR. AMIT K. SRIVASTAVA*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Amit K. Srivastava the author of the research paper entitled INTERNATIONAL
INVESTMENT AND ITS ROLE IN SOCIAL STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA declare that , I take the responsibility
of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby
give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version
is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the
manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

Abstract
Foreign investments, primarily foreign direct investments (FDI) are viewed as a major stimulus to economic growth and
development. A current positive attitude to FDI is indeed striking. More than that, at the end of the twentieth century
developing countries faced a series of serious financial crises differed markedly from those which had occurred previously.
Many problems were compounded by the direct influence of transnational corporations the main players on the global
investment market and the main promoters of FDI. It will be analyzed in this paper how these problems affected or may
affect social life and sustainable development of the countries.

Introduction
India enjoys a strong position as a global investment hub with the country registering high economic growth
figures even during the peak of financial meltdown. As a result, overseas investors rested their confidence in the
economy which eventually pushed foreign direct investments (FDI) in India. The fact is further consolidated by
the excerpts of a research by Morgan Stanley which anticipates that India could attract FDI worth as much as
US$ 80 billion in next 1-2 years. Around US$ 48 billion of FDI has been pumped in the Indian economy in the
last two years.
Considering the pace of FDI growth in India, KPMG officials believe that FDI in 2011-12 may cross US$
35 billion mark.

*Professor, KIPM- College of Management GIDA, Gorakhpur (U.P.) India.e-Mail: amiyyou@yahoo.com

1
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

SRIVASTAVA

Key Statistics
FDI inflow rose by 50 per cent to US$ 20.76 billion during January-August 2011, while the cumulative
amount of FDI equity inflows from April 2000 to August 2011 stood at US$ 219.14 billion, according to
the latest data released by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
Services (financial and non- financial), telecom, housing and real estate, construction and power were the
sectors that attracted maximum FDI during the first eight months of 2011 while Mauritius, Singapore, the
US, the UK, the Netherlands, Japan, Germany and the UAE, among others, are the major investors in
India.
Indias foreign exchange (Forex) reserves have increased by US$ 858 million to US$ 318.4 billion for the
week ended October 21, 2011, according to the weekly statistical bulletin released by the Reserve Bank of
India (RBI). In the considered week, foreign currency assets went up by US$ 861 million to US$ 282.5
billion, while the gold reserves stood at US$ 28.7 billion.
Quenching its thirst for foreign assets, India Inc announced 177 M&A deals worth US$ 26.8 billion in the
first nine months of 2011. For the quarter July-September 2011, inbound deals worth US$ 7.32 billion
were registered as against the deals worth US$ 2.65 billion in the previous quarter; total value being largely
accounted for by two mega deals - BPs US$ 7.2 billion acquisition of stake in Reliance Industries oil and
gas properties and Vodafone Groups purchase of partner Essars 33 per cent stake in Vodafone Essar
Limited for US$ 5.46 billion.

Important Developments
DIPP has proposed to permit 26 per cent FDI in domestic airlines, allowing foreign airlines to hold a stake in
their Indian counterparts. The draft Cabinet note has been circulated for inter-ministerial consultation.
Indian government cleared 11 FDI proposals on October 10, 2011 entailing investment of around Rs 182.78
crore (US$ 37.53 million). Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB), headed by Economic Affairs Secretary
R Gopalan, gave its nod to the following major proposals:
Kolkata-based Pran Beverages FDI proposal for Rs 16.45 crore (US$ 3.38 million), to be pumped as foreign equity by a
Bangladesh-based company.
Another Rs 39.36 crore (US$ 8.08 million) FDI proposal by DMV-Fonterra Excipients entailing induction of foreign
investment to an extent of up to 100 per cent in the capital of a newly-formed Limited Liability partnership (LLP) firm
involved in the business of manufacturing and sale of pharmaceutical excipients.
Further, Mumbai-based Ace Derivatives and Commodity Exchanges proposal to transfer its equity shares to foreign
institutional investors (FIIs), such that the holding of each FII does not exceed 5 per cent of the equity of the company.
The proposal is worth Rs 10.53 crore (US$ 2.16 million).

South Africa-based Life Healthcare Group Holdings is buying 26 per cent stake in the healthcare arm of
Max India, valued at Rs 1,984 crore (US$ 405 million). PE firms such as Warburg Pincus, Goldman Sachs
and International Finance Corporation hold around 25 per cent stake in Max India while its Foreign Institutional
Investors (FII) also include Temasek.
Marking its second investment in India, Warren Buffets Berkshire Hathaway will induce investment in a
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) industrial unit in Gujarat, through its wholly owned subsidiary Lubrizol
Corporation. Lubrizol will initially invest Rs 1,177 crore (US$ 242 million) in the project and its construction
work is expected to commence by January 2013.
In order to tap more foreign funds, Cox and Kings has got the nod from Foreign Investment Promotion
Board (FIPB) to increase its foreign equity by 10 per cent to 53.94 per cent, from the previous 43.81 per cent.
2

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AND ITS ROLE IN SOCIAL STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA

Currently, foreign promoters have a stake of 19.87 per cent and FIIs hold 22.72 per cent. FIPB has granted
its approval to the travel company to raise Rs 750 crore (US$ 154 million) from foreign markets.
Meanwhile, Singapore-based Global Schools Foundation plans to invest Rs 300 crore (US$ 61.6 million)
and start 25 schools in India over 2011-16. The foundation owns and operates Global Indian International
Schools (GIIS) and Global School of Silicon Valley (GSSV) across eight countries all over the world.

Policy Initiatives taken by Government


Indias recently liberalised FDI policy permits up to a 100% FDI stake in ventures. Industrial policy reforms
have substantially reduced industrial licensing requirements, removed restrictions on expansion and facilitated
easy access to foreign technology and FDI. The upward moving growth curve of the real-estate sector owes
some credit to a booming economy and liberalized FDI regime. A number of changes were approved on the
FDI policy to remove the cap in most of the sectors. Restrictions will be relaxed in sectors as diverse as civil
aviation, construction development, industrial parks, commodity exchanges, petroleum and natural gas, creditinformation services, Mining and so on. But this still leaves an unfinished agenda of permitting greater foreign
investment in politically sensitive areas like insurance and retailing. According to the governments Secretariat
for Industrial Assistance, FDI inflows into India reached a record US$19.5bn in fiscal year 2006/07 (AprilMarch). This was more than double the total of US$7.8bn in the previous fiscal year. Between April and
September 2007, FDI inflows were US$8.2bn.
Recently, the government has further liberalised the FDI mechanism for allowing overseas investment in
bee-keeping and share-pledging for raising external debt.
Moreover, it has eased FDI norms for construction of old-age homes and educational institutions. The
modification endorses removal of issues pertaining to the minimum and built-up area, capitalisation and lock-in
period as applicable for other construction activities.
In a bid to facilitate addition of manufacturing capacities, technology acquisition and development in Indian
pharmaceutical sector, FDI in Brownfield investment will be allowed through the FIPB for six months, following
which such acquisitions will be coursed through the Competition Commission of India (CCI), while it will be
allowed through automatic route for Greenfield projects. When FIPB will clear the acquisition in six months,
CCI will put regulations in place to ensure effective M&A deal while monitoring public health concerns.
Meanwhile, seeing the expansion of luxury brands market in India, the government is considering raising
FDI bar to 100 per cent from current 51 per cent in single-brand retailing. The proposal has been placed
before a joint government-industry task force for consultation.
The above stated initiatives clearly show that the Indian Government continues to work on streamlining
policies and make the environment friendlier to FDI.
There is no doubt about the fact that there has been a worldwide stir about foreign direct investment in
India. Indias growth rate of 8% certainly owes a lot to foreign equity capital and foreign direct investment.
Here are the highlights of the latest trend figures concerned with FDI in India.
There is no doubt about the fact that there has been a worldwide stir about foreign direct investment in
India. Indias growth rate of 8% certainly owes a lot to foreign equity capital and foreign direct investment.
Here are the highlights of the latest trend figures concerned with FDI in India.
3

SRIVASTAVA

Sector Specific Foreign Direct Investment in India


100% FDI is permissible in the sector on the automatic route.
The term hotels include restaurants, beach resorts, and other tourist complexes providing accommodation
and/or catering and food facilities to tourists. Tourism related industry include travel agencies, tour operating
agencies and tourist transport operating agencies, units providing facilities for cultural, adventure and wild life
experience to tourists, surface, air and water transport facilities to tourists, leisure, entertainment, amusement,
sports, and health units for tourists and Convention/Seminar units and organizations.
For foreign technology agreements, automatic approval is granted if :
i. up to 3% of the capital cost of the project is proposed to be paid for technical and consultancy services including fees
for architects, design, supervision, etc.
ii. up to 3% of net turnover is payable for franchising and marketing/publicity support fee, and up to 10% of gross
operating profit is payable for management fee, including incentive fee.

Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFC)


9% FDI is allowed from all sources on the automatic route subject to guidelines issued from RBI from time to
time.
a. FDI/NRI/OCB investments allowed in the following 19 NBFC activities shall be as per levels indicated
below:
i. Merchant banking
ii. Underwriting
iii. Portfolio Management Services
iv. Investment Advisory Services
v. Financial Consultancy
vi. Stock Broking
vii. Asset Management
viii.Venture Capital
ix. Custodial Services
x. Factoring
xi. Credit Reference Agencies
xii. Credit rating Agencies
xiii.Leasing & Finance
xiv.Housing Finance
xv. Foreign Exchange Brokering
xvi.Credit card business
xvii.Money changing Business
xviii.Micro Credit
xix. Rural Credit

b. Minimum Capitalization Norms for fund based NBFCs:


(i) For FDI up to 51% - US$ 0.5 million to be brought upfront
(ii) For FDI above 51% and up to 75% - US $ 5 million to be brought upfront
(iii)For FDI above 75% and up to 100% - US $ 50 million out of which US $ 7.5 million to be brought up front and the balance
in 24 months

C. Minimum capitalization norms for non-fund based activities:


Minimum capitalization norm of US $ 0.5 million is applicable in respect of all permitted non-fund based NBFCs with
foreign investment.

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AND ITS ROLE IN SOCIAL STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA

d. Foreign investors can set up 100% operating subsidiaries without the condition to disinvest a minimum of
25% of its equity to Indian entities, subject to bringing in US$ 50 million as at b) (iii) above (without any
restriction on number of operating subsidiaries without bringing in additional capital)
e. Joint Venture operating NBFCs that have 75% or less than 75% foreign investment will also be allowed
to set up subsidiaries for undertaking other NBFC activities, subject to the subsidiaries also complying with
the applicable minimum capital inflow i.e. (b)(i) and (b)(ii) above.
f. FDI in the NBFC sector is put on automatic route subject to compliance with guidelines of the Reserve
Bank of India. RBI would issue appropriate guidelines in this regard.
FDI in Insurance sector in India: FDI up to 26% in the Insurance sector is allowed on the automatic route
subject to obtaining license from Insurance Regulatory & Development Authority (IRDA)

FDI in Telecommunication sector


i. In basic, cellular, value added services and global mobile personal communications by satellite, FDI is
limited to 49% subject to licensing and security requirements and adherence by the companies (who are
investing and the companies in which investment is being made) to the license conditions for foreign equity
cap and lock- in period for transfer and addition of equity and other license provisions.
ii. ISPs with gateways, radio-paging and end-to-end bandwidth, FDI is permitted up to 74% with FDI,
beyond 49% requiring Government approval. These services would be subject to licensing and security
requirements.
iii. No equity cap is applicable to manufacturing activities.
iv. FDI up to 100% is allowed for the following activities in the telecom sector :
a.
b.
c.
d.

ISPs not providing gateways (both for satellite and submarine cables);
Infrastructure Providers providing dark fiber (IP Category 1);
Electronic Mail; and
Voice Mail

The above would be subject to the following conditions:


e. FDI up to 100% is allowed subject to the condition that such companies would divest 26% of their equity in favor of
Indian public in 5 years, if these companies are listed in other parts of the world.
f. The above services would be subject to licensing and security requirements, wherever required.

Proposals for FDI beyond 49% shall be considered by FIPB on case to case basis.

FDI in Telecommunication sector


v. In basic, cellular, value added services and global mobile personal communications by satellite, FDI is
limited to 49% subject to licensing and security requirements and adherence by the companies (who are
investing and the companies in which investment is being made) to the license conditions for foreign equity
cap and lock- in period for transfer and addition of equity and other license provisions.
vi. ISPs with gateways, radio-paging and end-to-end bandwidth, FDI is permitted up to 74% with FDI,
beyond 49% requiring Government approval. These services would be subject to licensing and security
requirements.
vii.No equity cap is applicable to manufacturing activities.
viii.FDI up to 100% is allowed for the following activities in the telecom sector :
a. ISPs not providing gateways (both for satellite and submarine cables);
b. Infrastructure Providers providing dark fiber (IP Category 1);
c. Electronic Mail; and

SRIVASTAVA

d. Voice Mail

The above would be subject to the following conditions:


g. FDI up to 100% is allowed subject to the condition that such companies would divest 26% of their equity in favor of
Indian public in 5 years, if these companies are listed in other parts of the world.
h. The above services would be subject to licensing and security requirements, wherever required.

Proposals for FDI beyond 49% shall be considered by FIPB on case to case basis.

FDI in Trading Companies in India


Trading is permitted under automatic route with FDI up to 51% provided it is primarily export activities, and
the undertaking is an export house/trading house/super trading house/star trading house. However, under the
FIPB route:
i. 100% FDI is permitted in case of trading companies for the following activities:

exports
bulk imports with ex-port/ex-bonded warehouse sales
cash and carry wholesale trading
other import of goods or services provided at least 75% is for procurement and sale of goods and services among the
companies of the same group and not for third party use or onward transfer/distribution/sales.

ii. The following kinds of trading are also permitted, subject to provisions of EXIM Policy:
a. Companies for providing after sales services (that is not trading per se)
b. Domestic trading of products of JVs is permitted at the wholesale level for such trading companies who wish to market
manufactured products on behalf of their joint ventures in which they have equity participation in India.
c. Trading of hi-tech items/items requiring specialized after sales service
d. Trading of items for social sector
e. Trading of hi-tech, medical and diagnostic items.
f. Trading of items sourced from the small scale sector under which, based on technology provided and laid down quality
specifications, a company can market that item under its brand name.
g. Domestic sourcing of products for exports.
h. Test marketing of such items for which a company has approval for manufacture provided such test marketing facility
will be for a period of two years, and investment in setting up manufacturing facilities commences simultaneously with
test marketing.

FDI up to 100% permitted for e-commerce activities subject to the condition that such companies would
divest 26% of their equity in favor of the Indian public in five years, if these companies are listed in other parts
of the world. Such companies would engage only in business to business (B2B) e-commerce and not in retail
trading.
FDI in Power Sector in India: Up to 100% FDI allowed in respect of projects relating to electricity generation,
transmission and distribution, other than atomic reactor power plants. There is no limit on the project cost
and quantum of foreign direct investment.
Drugs & Pharmaceuticals : FDI up to 100% is permitted on the automatic route for manufacture of drugs
and pharmaceutical, provided the activity does not attract compulsory licensing or involve use of recombinant
DNA technology, and specific cell / tissue targeted formulations. FDI proposals for the manufacture of
licensable drugs and pharmaceuticals and bulk drugs produced by recombinant DNA technology, and
specific cell / tissue targeted formulations will require prior Government approval.
Roads, Highways, Ports and Harbors: FDI up to 100% under automatic route is permitted in projects for
construction and maintenance of roads, highways, vehicular bridges, toll roads, vehicular tunnels, ports and
harbors.
Pollution Control and Management: FDI up to 100% in both manufacture of pollution control equipment
and consultancy for integration of pollution control systems is permitted on the automatic route.
6

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AND ITS ROLE IN SOCIAL STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA

Call Centers in India / Call Centers in India: FDI up to 100% is allowed subject to certain conditions.
Business Process Outsourcing BPO in India: FDI up to 100% is allowed subject to certain conditions.
Special Facilities and Rules for NRIs and OCBs: NRIs and OCBs are allowed the following special
facilities:
1.
2.

Direct investment in industry, trade, infrastructure etc.


Up to 100% equity with full repatriation facility for capital and dividends in the following sectors:

i. 34 High Priority Industry Groups


ii. Export Trading Companies
iii. Hotels and Tourism-related Projects
iv. Hospitals, Diagnostic Centers
v. Shipping
vi. Deep Sea Fishing
vii. Oil Exploration
viii.Power
ix. Housing and Real Estate Development
x. Highways, Bridges and Ports
xi. Sick Industrial Units
xii. Industries Requiring Compulsory Licensing
xiii.Industries Reserved for Small Scale Sector
3. Up to 40% Equity with full repatriation: New Issues of Existing Companies raising Capital through Public Issue up to
40% of the new Capital Issue.
4. On non-repatriation basis: Up to 100% Equity in any Proprietary or Partnership engaged in Industrial, Commercial or
Trading Activity.
5. Portfolio Investment on repatriation basis: Up to 1% of the Paid up Value of the equity Capital or Convertible Debentures
of the Company by each NRI. Investment in Government Securities, Units of UTI, National Plan/Saving Certificates.
6. On Non-Repatriation Basis: Acquisition of shares of an Indian Company, through a General Body Resolution, up to 24%
of the Paid Up Value of the Company.
7. Other Facilities: Income Tax is at a Flat Rate of 20% on Income arising from Shares or Debentures of an Indian Company.

The FDI boom in India


India has been ranked at the third place in global foreign direct investments in 2009 and will continue to remain
among the top five attractive destinations for international investors during 2010-11, according to United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in a report on world investment prospects titled,
World Investment Prospects Survey 2009-2011 released in July 2009. The aggregate cost of 32 domestic
mergers and acquisition (M&A) agreements in India in January 2010 stood at US$ 2,167 million against 8
deals amounting to US$ 1,324 million and 28 deals amounting to US$ 223 million in 2009 and 2008, respectively.
In the fiscal year 2009, developing economies gained a massive share of 51.6% FDI, more than what the
developed nations gained, as per the survey by Ernst & Young on globalization. This was chiefly because of
major decline in FDI into industrial markets, that was 50% less than FDI 2008.
With the fiscal structure gaining momentum, endowment proposals in India Inc witnessed an upsurge of
around 16% in 2009 to US$ 345.3, as per the report conducted by a premiere sectoral body. In 2009, nine
tenders contributing total FDI of US$ 112.25 million was sanctioned by the central administration. Among the
sanctioned tenders, Mitsui and Company of Japan is expected to contribute US$ 69.83 million to set-up a fully
governed subsidiary in the warehousing industry.
In January 2010, the Indian government gave its consent to 14 FDI tenders which are likely to bring foreign
investment amounting to US$ 157.89 million. These encompass:
US$ 58.82 million worth FDI tender by Asset Reconstruction Company
FDI valuing US$ 44.39 million by Standard Chartered Bank that is likely to elevate to 100% from 74.9% in its portfolio
management arm

SRIVASTAVA

Tenders by Sahara One, KS Oils and NDTV Imagine


NDTV Lifestyle tender worth US$ 54.28 million
Tender by India Infrastructure Development Fund based in Mauritius that is likely to bring US$ 517.29 million.

The 2009 survey of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation released in November 2009, conducted
among Japanese investors continues to rank India as the second most promising country for overseas business
operations, after China. A report released in February 2010 by Leeds University Business School, commissioned
by UK Trade & Investment (UKT), ranks India among the top three countries where British companies can do
better business during 2012-14.
According to Ernst and Youngs 2010 European Attractiveness Survey, India is ranked as the 4th most
attractive foreign direct investment (FDI) destination in 2010. However, it is ranked the second most attractive
destination following China in the next three years.
Moreover, according to the Asian Investment survey released by the Asia Pacific Foundation in Canada,
more and more Canadian firms are now focusing on India as an investment destination. From 8 per cent in
2005, the percentage of Canadian companies showing interest in India has gone up to 13.4 per cent in 2010.
India attracted FDI equity inflows of US$ 3121 million in April 2011. The cumulative amount of FDI equity
inflow from August 1991 to April 2011 stood at US$ 1, 97,935 million, according to the data released by the
Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
The services sector comprising financial and non-financial services attracted 21 percent of the total FDI
equity inflow into India, with FDI worth US$ 3,403 million during April-March 2010-11, US$ 658 million
during April 2011 and US$ 27,668 million during August 1991-April 2011. The computer software and
hardware attracted second largest amount of FDI worth US$10,189 million during August 1991-April 2011.
Telecommunications (radio, paging, cellular mobile, basic telephone services) was the third highest sector
attracting FDI worth US$ 10,611 million during August 1999-April 2011 according to data released by DIPP.
Mauritius has led investors into India with US$ 55,203 million worth of FDI comprising 42 percent of the
total FDI equity inflows into the country during August 1991-April 2011. Singapore, USA, UK and Netherlands
invested US$ 13,070, US$ 9,529, US$ 6,643, and US$ 5,739 million into India worth of FDI comprising
10%, 7%, 5% and 4% of the total FDI equity inflows respectively during August 1991-April 2011, according
to attest data released by DIPP.

Sources: Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion - Ministry of Commerce & Industry (India FDI Fact Sheet April 2011).
8

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AND ITS ROLE IN SOCIAL STABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA

Sources: Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion-Ministry of Commerce & Industry (India FDI Fact Sheet April 2011).
In the last couple of months there has been a series of announcements of huge investments by giant foreign
and NRI companies. Bill Gates in recent visit to India announced that the Microsoft will invest around $ 1.7
billion over the next few years in India. Intel, the worlds largest computer chips company has planned to invest
over $ 1 billion in India. CISCO has announced plans to spend $ 1.1 billion over the next few years in India.
And for Microsoft, India is emerging as a big market to exploit as Microsoft doesnt have much in stake in
China. Purchasing of shares to the tune of $ 1.5 Billion in Bharti Tele ventures by Vodaphone is another big FDI
inflow into the country. A recent international agency report has explained that the Indian economy will become
one of the worlds largest by 2050 A.D. With a GDP growth rate of 8 per cent since 2003 starting with a
rebound in the Indian agriculture initially but now followed with a boom in production and service sectors
similar to that of China.
The negative side of this bouncing FDI and NRI inflow is the constraints of Indian economic growth which
are internal and not external. Ups and downs in Indian agriculture plays a major role in constraining Indian
growth rate coupled with unhealthy infrastructure like pot holed roads, incomplete flyovers, undeveloped
airport facilities etc are the main constraints in the growth of the Indian economy. Again lopsided regional
variation in the economic growth of the country is another major impediment in the economic growth. Truant
Left Parties whose support is important for the survival of the UPA government at the center is another major
bottleneck in the inflow to FDI investment. In quantitative terms, Indias global share of FDI is still very low.
However, the FDI still is shying away from the most important sectors and regions where it is direly needed.
Since the employment elasticity in the agriculture and industrial sector has gone down in the post-reform
period, creation of employment opportunities will be a gigantic task for the policy makers. FDI has come in the
most capital intensive sectors; therefore, the desired employment opportunities could not be created especially
for the manual and the semi skilled labor. High skilled labor gained substantially. That is why high growth is
called urban centric and thus has created a wedge between the rural and urban economy. There is urgent need
to fill this void. Policy making process has matured in the democratic Indian polity since the independence. It is
thus expected that the growing problems will receive mature response and policy will be articulated in such a
manner to use FDI the way China has used to enhance economic growth while taking more and more investment
to industrialize the rural sector of the Indian economy.
9

SRIVASTAVA

Conclusion
India stands today as the second most populous country in the world this makes the availability of efficient man power
pretty easy in India. This manpower can be readily ploughed in the business and can be used to take the business to newer
heights. Foreign direct investment (FDI) has boomed in post-reform India. Moreover, the composition and type of FDI has
changed considerably since India has opened up to world markets. This has fuelled high expectations that FDI may serve
as a catalyst to higher economic growth. Indian economy has reached in the orbit of high rate of economic growth. India is
being widely acclaimed and recognized as an emerging global economic power. The rate of growth recorded during the
period 1950-51 to 20102011 clearly showed a tendency of steady upward trend. However, the decade of eighties emerged
as a beginning of the high rate of economic growth or at least a dramatic departure from the past growth performance. This
tendency had continued in the 1990s and further growth stimulus has occurred in the early 21st century.

REFERENCES
A NDERSEN P.S & H AINAUT P. (2004): Foreign Direct Investment and Employment in the Industrial
Countries, http:\\www.bis\pub\work61.pdf.
BALASUBRAMANYAM V.N, SAPSFORD DAVID (2007): Does India need a lot more FDI, Economic and Political
Weekly, pp.1549-1555.
BASU P., NAYAK N.C, ARCHANA (2007): Foreign Direct Investment in India: Emerging Horizon, Indian
Economic Review, Vol. XXXXII. No.2, pp. 255-266.
CHANDAN CHAKRABORTY, PETER NUNNENKAMP (2006): Economic Reforms, FDI and its Economic Effects
in India, www.iipmthinktank.com/publications/archieve.
Economic Survey, (1992-93): Ministry of Finance, Government of India, New Delhi.
Economic Survey, (2003-04): Ministry of Finance, Government of India, New Delhi.
Economic Survey, (2009-10): Ministry of Finance, Government of India, New Delhi.
International Monetary Fund (various issues), International Financial Statistics, Washington D.C.
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.indianindustry.com
http://www.indianground.com
http://dipp.nic.in
http://www.rediff.com
http://www.ibef.org
http://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/6427.html
http://dipp.nic.in/fdi_statistics/india_fdi_index.htm
http://www.indianmba.com/Faculty_Column/FC819/fc819.html
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/6427/1/MPRA_paper_6427.pdf
http://www.theindiaeconomyreview.org/Article.aspx?aid=106&mid=5
http://www.madaan.com/sectors.html
http://business.mapsofindia.com/fdi-india/
http://www.fdi.in/fdiupsurge.htm

10

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,11-16


Advance Access publication 25 Nov. 2011

STUDY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN THE INTERNATIONAL


MARKET WITH RESPECT TO CULTURAL FACTORS IN DELHI, INDIA
AND LONDON, UK
VAIBHAV MISRA* AND DR. R.K SHUKLA**

Declaration
The Declaration of the authors for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: We, Vaibhav Misra and R.K Shukla the authors of the research paper entitled STUDY
OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET WITH RESPECT TO CULTURAL FACTORS IN DELHI,
INDIA AND LONDON, UK declare that , We take the responsibility of the content and material of our paper as We ourself have written
it and also have read the manuscript of our paper carefully. Also, We hereby give our consent to publish our paper in Anvikshiki
journal , This research paper is our original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication
anywhere else.We authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. We also give our consent to the Editor
of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of our research paper.

Abstract
This paper focus on the cultural elements present in the markets of Delhi and London. The study is done to find the
importance of cultural element on consumer behavior in the markets of Delhi and London. As the companies are
expanding their business in the foreign countries for increasing business profitability, it is focused that the companies
should not forget to consider the cultural elements while marketing the products and also while preparing the strategies.
Cultural considerations are shown as an important factor that influences the markets of Delhi and London. The cultural
importance is stated by means of examples where found necessary. The research is based on primary data that is authors
opinion, teachers lecture and local peoples opinion and secondary data that is collected from journals, magazines and
internet.
The type of relationship was found between both the markets of Delhi and London with respect to the cultural
elements present in these markets. The correlation method for finding the relationship among the markets.

Keywords : Consumer Behavior, Culture, Religion, Values, Language, beliefs, Symbols and Color

Introduction
To operate in international market the companies consider different forces that influence business decisions
taken by the marketers. One of the important factors responsible for the success in global business is Culture.

*Research Scholar, NIMS University Jaipur (Rajasthan) India.


**Director, Trivedi Institute of Management and Technology, Fatehpur (U.P.) India.

11
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

MISRA AND SHUKLA

Culture differs from country to country and is a variable factor that changes according to time and generation,
that means there would be differences among the people and their preferences. From the perspective of
consumer behavior, culture can be defined as the sum total of learned beliefs, values and customs which serve
to regulate the behavior of members of particular society. These beliefs, values and customs may influence the
behavior in general way, in so far as they provide standard which direct lifestyle. They can sometimes be very
specific by encouraging or discouraging consumption of certain products. Culture is the major factor that
influences the consumer behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on the cultural elements involved in the
London and Delhi markets.
Culture not only establishes the criteria for day- to- day business behavior but also forms general pattern of
values and motivations. (Deshpande & Farely, (2004))

Objective of the Study


The author will consider the following objectives for the study:
Identifying the Cultural Elements that effects the Consumer Behavior in London and Delhi
Identifying the relationship in the above markets with reference to the cultural factors.
Identifying the most commonly influencing cultural factors among the markets.

Literature Review
Defining Culture
Most traditional definitions of culture center around the notion that culture is sum of the values, rituals, symbols,
beliefs and thought processes that are learned, shared, by a group of people and transmitted from generation
to generation. (Herskovitz, (1959); Scupin & Decorse, (2005)).
Dutch Management Professor Geert Hofstede refers to culture as the software of the mind and argues
that it provides a guide for humans on how to think and behave; it is a problem solving tool. (Hofsted, (2001);
Douglas, (2001))
Culture is the integrated sum total of learned behavioral traits that are shared by members of a society.
(Terpstra, (1994))
Therefore, culture is a sum of values, beliefs, symbols, and rituals of individuals, group or community. The
culture is not same at every place and in every generation. Therefore, it proved that culture is dynamic in nature
and changes from place to place and from generation to generation.

Culture and Consumer Behavior


Further culture is also considered as on of the most important factor of consumer behavior, as it helps consumer
to make decisions regarding the product purchasing.
Cultures influence on consumption and consumer behavior has received some attention in the Marketing
and consumer behavior disciplines, at the national and international level. However, consumer behavior studies
have addressed individual decision-making in lieu of social and cultural influences. (Engel, Blackwell, and
Miniard, (1995))
Belch and Belch (2004) defined consumer behavior as the process and activities people engage in when
searching, selecting , purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of product and services so as to satisfy their
needs and desire.
According to Ugala (2001), two types of consumer behavior exist, i.e. cognitive and experience-oriented
consumer behavior. Consumers with cognitive behavior are logical and rational consumers while experience
12

STUDY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET WITH RESPECT TO CULTURAL FACTORS IN
DELHI, INDIA AND LONDON, UK

oriented consumers have more emotional reason to want to purchase a product. Dalqvist and Linde (2002)
characterized consumer behavior into four i.e. rational, learned, unconscious and social behavior and they are
represented by these three steps: knowledge Attitude Action.
Rational behavior: consumers with rational behavior first get some knowledge about the product and what it
may offer. By assessing this information, they get an attitude toward the product and finally act; whether or
not to buy the product. This type of behavior is mostly common when consumers are purchasing expensive
products for example cars. (KNOWLEDGEATTITUDEACTION)
Unconscious behavior: consumers with unconscious behavior begins with an attitude towards the product,
this attitude may either come from emotions or feelings. This attitude will lead the consumers to find out
more information about the product and get knowledge about it and finally act their choice.
(ATTITUDEKNOWLEDGEACTION)
Learned behavior: this type of behavior stems from habits. These Consumers do not plan their choice of
product, they do it by habit. Example of this behavior is when buying a newspaper.
(ACTIONKNOWLEDGEATTITUDE)
Social behavior: consumers with social behavior choose their products as a result of the social environment
which they live in. Their status, lifestyle and influence from others determine the product they will buy.
(ACTIONATTITUDEKNOWLEDGE).

Consumers buying behavior


Consumers buying behavior has to do with the attitude, intention, preference and strength to commitment and
the consumers ways of identification. Consumers buying behavior can also be referred to as the buying
behavior of the final consumer. Consumer buying behavior is a complicated issue due to the fact that many
internal and external factors have effect on consumers buying decision. (Sderlund, (2001))
Culturally different groups have different opinion about the purchasing and decision making. They have
different thinking that influences the consumer behavior.

Importance of Cultural Elements in Marketing


Cultural elements are also important while formulating the marketing strategies as culture affects every aspect
of marketing. The culture affects the product positioning on one hand and on other hand it also affects the
advertising strategies, similarly it is necessary to understand cultural factors in selecting the marketing channel,
it also becomes necessary to consider cultural factors while formulating pricing strategies. In other words,
culture plays important role in designing the marketing strategies, and also in executing these strategies. It is
necessary for international marketer to understand the cultural factors so as to avoid failure in the market.
Local culture should be deeply understood by marketers before marketing the products in the local markets.
(Mishra & Srivastava, 2011)

Research Methodology
The study is primarily based on Primary data. Therefore, the primary data was collected from London and
Delhi markets. There was the requirement of collecting the secondary data for the support. Therefore both
primary and secondary data were used for the analysis.
Primary data is the data collected from the respondents by taking the interviews, apart from the collected
data the authors opinion, teachers lecture and local peoples opinion about the topic is also considered as
13

MISRA AND SHUKLA

primary data. Secondary data is the ideas collected from some specialists articles we collect from internet,
books, journals and magazines. The sample size selected for the study is 100 respondents from London and
Delhi respectively. The use of stratified random sampling that is every nth respondent will be interviewed from
the research universe.

Data Analysis and Representation


The data was collected the various cultural elements that influences the consumer behavior in London and
Delhi. 100 respondents were interviewed from London and Delhi markets for collection of primary data. All
the respondents are equally divided on the basis of age, gender, education and profession. The data is represented
in the form of pie- charts and data tables.
T A B L E 1 Cultural Elements
Cultural Element

Delhi

London

Religion
Language
Values
Beliefs
Symbols
Colors
Total

24
28
15
8
14
11
100

17
31
12
10
11
19
100

Religion: Religion is considered to be most important element of culture. It is focused as an important element
for the study. The religion varies from person to person and from place to place. Every religion had different
values and norms that affect the consumers behavior of the consumers belonging to that particular religion.
Language: Language is also an important element of culture. Language varies from place to place. Language
is considered as the major element cultural advertising; this is the main tool for creating the awareness of the
product among the customers. Language helps the customers to understand the attributes and use of the
product. Therefore it influences the purchasing behavior of the customers of any country. The major language
used in London for communication is English, whereas, in Delhi it is Hindi.
Cultural Values: Values also are beliefs. Values differ from other beliefs, how-ever, because they meet the
following criteria:

They are relatively few in numbers;


They serve as a guide for culturally appropriate behavior;
They are enduring or difficult to change;
They are not tied to specific objects or situation;
They are widely accepted by members of s society.

Therefore, in a broad sense, both values and beliefs are mental images that affect a wide range of specific
attitudes which, in turn, influence the way a person is likely to respond in a specific situation. (Schiffman and
Kanuk, (1997))
Beliefs: Beliefs consist of very large number of mental and verbal statements (for example: I believe..) that
reflects a persons particular knowledge and assessment of something (another person, a store, a product,
a brand). (Schiffman and Kanuk, (1997))
Symbols: Symbols are words, gestures and pictures or objects that hold a particular meaning only recognizable
by those who share the culture. This category includes words in a language or jargon, as well as dress
codes, hairstyles, flags. New symbols can be developed and old ones disappear. (Hofstede, G. (2001))
Color: Color is considered as the important element of culture. For example- Saffron is the holy color of
Hindus where as Muslims prefer green as holy color; when customers prefer to purchase the garments or
paint for their house etc, they consider color as an important factor of influencing their decision.
14

STUDY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET WITH RESPECT TO CULTURAL FACTORS IN
DELHI, INDIA AND LONDON, UK

Now calculating the median and correlation from the tabulated data
T A B L E 2 Calculation of Median and Correlation
Median
Correlation

Delhi

London

14.5
.764

14.5

It can be determined that there is positive correlation between Delhi and London markets. As the value of r is
+.764, it can be determined that there is high positive correlation between the markets concerning the
cultural elements. The correlation is said high positive because it fulfills the following statistical condition.
r < +.75
According to Jhunjhunwala, 2008 the above condition signifies high positive correlation between the variables.
Data Representation: The above data is represented by the help of graph. The collected data that influence
the consumer behavior can be represented through following graph:
Chart 1 Cultural relationship Between the Markets

Conclusion
It is concluded that cultural factors plays an important and vital role in changing the consumers behavior. The cultural
elements such as religion, values, beliefs, symbols, language and color that influences the consumer behavior in London
and Delhi market were identified. It is necessary for the marketers to analyze these cultural factors before entering the
markets of Delhi and London as these factors influences the products success in the market. It is also found that there is
a high positive relationship between both the markets, which means there is high degree of similarity between both the
markets with reference to cultural elements. There is a similar impact of cultural elements in both the markets. The most
influencing cultural factor in both London and Delhi market is Language. Language is the main means of communicating
with the consumers in the market. Therefore, it is necessary for the marketers to understand the language preferences in the
markets before pitching them.

REFERENCES
BELCH, G. E., & BELCH, M. A. (2004) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications
Perspective, (6th: New York: NY: McGraw-Hill.
CATEORA P.R, GRAHAM J.L & SALWAN P (2007), International Marketing, 13th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi.
DALQVIST, V. & LINDE M., (2002) Reklameffekter.malmo.liber.

15

MISRA AND SHUKLA

DESHPANDE R & FARELY J U, (2004), Organizational culture, Market Orientation, Innovativeness and
Firm Performance: An International Odyssey, International Journal of Research in Marketing 21, no. 1,
pp3-22.
DOUGLAS S P, (2001), Exploring New Worlds: The Challenge of Global Marketing, Journal of Marketing, pp.
103-109.
ENGEL J, BLACKWELL R & MINIARD P, (1995), Consumer behavior. Forth Worth: The Dryden Press.
HERSKOVITZ M, (1959), Man and His Works, Alfred A Knopf, New York.
HOFSTEDE, G. (2001). Cultures Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations
Across Nations. London: Sage Publications.
JHUNJHUNWALA B (2008), Business Statistics- A Self Study Textbook, New Delhi, S. Chand & Company Ltd
MISRA V & SRIVASTAVA M.K, March 24-26, 2011, Management Strategies for Global Business - A Study of
Importance of Culture in International Market, Third Annual Global Business Summit Conference, Chennai,
India, , pp 272-282
SCHIFFMAN L G, KANUK L L, (1997), Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior, Consumer Behavior, Prentice
Hall India.
SCUPIN R & DECORSE, (2005), Chapter 10, Anthropology: A Global Perspective, Prentice Hall, NJ.
SDERLUND, M (2001), Den Lojala Kunden. MALM: LIBER EKONOMI
TERPSTRA, V. (1994), International Marketing, The Dryden Press, USA.
UGGLA H., (2001) organization av varumnke. Malmo, liber economy

16

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,17-23


Advance Access publication 1 Oct. 2011

POLITICS OF PANCHAYATI RAJ : FROM EXIT TO VOICE OPTION


MD. KHALIQUR RAHMAN*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Md. Khaliqur Rahman the author of the research paper entitled POLITICS OF
PANCHAYATI RAJ : FROM EXIT TO VOICE OPTION declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my
paper as I myself have written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my
paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent
for publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to
the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

The story of Panchayati Raj in India has been a story of ups and downs. Before independence the village
Panchayats were at best seen as schools of democracy and as instruments of political and popular education.1
At the time of independence, the Indian rulers did not think it necessary to build new institutions or to reform
the existing ones for governing the local. Hence they could not develop an appropriate concept of local government
that could be integrated with the governments at the national and state levels. Although several attempts were
made to make to institution of panchayat functional, however, none of these attempts was directed to correct
the distortions in the functioning of Indian democracy. The result was that the state governments showed very
little interest in empowering these institutions; transfer of power to the representative institutions was almost
negligible.2 Panchayats began to languish and states practically killed the institutions by not holding Panchayat
elections for decades.
In the late twentieth century, however, the most important development in the career of Indias Panchayati
Raj Institutions (PRIs) took place when these were given constitutional status through 73rd Constitutional
Amendments (1992). This led to the establishment of the new system of Panchayati Raj in the States in 1994
through the enactment of conformity legislations. Devolution of 29 functions, reservation for 33 percent seats
for women, similar reservation for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in proportion to their population,
statutory requirement to hold periodic elections under the supervision of State Election Commissions, transfer
of funds to Panchayat bodies according to the recommendations of the State Finance Commissions were some
of the highlights of the constitutional mandate rightly hailed as a silent revolution.

*Research Scholar, University Deptt. of Political Science, B.R.A.Bihar University Muzaffarpur (Bihar) India.

17
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

RAHMAN

Seventy Third Amendment: Scratching the surface


The Panchayati Raj today is virtually an arena of a massive silent revolution. Since the passing of the landmark
73rd Amendment three elections have been in place. Nearly 27 lakh members have been elected throughout
the country, 37 Percent of them being women, while 19 Percent and 12 Percent represent Scheduled castes
and scheduled Tribes respectively3. The sizeable presence of under-privileged/poor as representatives through
reservation in the grassroot political institutions is a landmark development in the rural politics of the country.
As Indians we are justified in feeling proud about the above-mentioned achievements because a decade
earlier in most parts of rural India these groups/segments were excluded from political participations and public
life. At the same time, a decade and half of Panchayati raj in India has also been a matter of debate and
speculation about its performance and impact. The studies of several distinguished scholars on the working of
the Panchayati raj in different states lead us to the inference that the Gandhian ideal of Gram Swaraj remains
an unfinished agenda even 18 years after its implementation by various states in 1994 through conformity
legislations for several reasons.4
On the one hand, there is a growing demand for strengthening the Panchayati raj system as there is a
widespread realization that genuine powers, functions and resources to match them have not yet reached the
Panchayats. On the other hand, there is also a genuine concern that due to the present domination of some big
landowner-cum-contractors in several villages, the panchayats have been captured by them in several places
and so they try to divert a lot of development resources for themselves. In other area, Panchayat representatives
of weaker section are not allowed to function independently.5
Against this backdrop, certain vital questions about the reality and prospect of panchayati raj/grassroots
democracy confronts us. What then are the Panchayats? Have panchayats contributed in changing the immobility
of the rural society? Will panchayats remain as plaything in the hands of political and bureaucratic elite for many
more decades to come? Or will they start asserting themselves more forcefully in the coming days to become
genuine representative government? This article attempts to provide/search answer to these questions.

The Ideology of Participatory Governance


As already hinted at above paragraphs, at the time of independence, the Indian rulers did not think it necessary
to build a new institutions or to reform the existing ones for governing the local. The Indian constitutions makers
ignored not only the political principles of liberal democracy from which they borrowed substantially yin drafting
the constitution, but they also chose to turn a blind eye to the rich body of thought developed by Indian thinkers
on the question of organizing the polity of free India. There were two schools of thought that emphasized the
need for decentralized and participatory governance. One was that of M.N. Roy, who developed an alternative
model of democratic framework for the country after rejecting the west minister model of representative
government.6 Roys idea, however, remained confined within a very small group of his followers drawn from
the urban intellectuals.
Although Mahatma Gandhi advocated for the creation of Gram Swaraj, a village based political formation
fostered by a stateless, classless society, his concept of Gram Swaraj was too radical for the constitutionmakers to accept as a guide for practical policy. This happened because the congress constitution committee
rejected the idea believing that the congress could neither forgo its political role nor become so utterly
decentralized as envisaged in the Gandhian concept of Gram Swaraj.7

18

POLITICS OF PANCHAYATI RAJ : FROM EXIT TO VOICE OPTION

Politics of Panchayati Raj


Even though Gandhis vision of organizing the Indian polity was not shared by the political elite, several attempts
were made to make the institution of Panchayat functional. These were no more than half-hearted attempts for
the creation of rural local government institution. The failure of the Community Development Programme,
which had been launched for bringing a silent revolution in rural society by awakening the dormant forces of
progress, led to the appointment of Balwant Mehta Study Team (1957). Its terms of reference had nothing to
do with the question of rural local government. Its brief was to assess the performance of the community
development could not succeed unless people rallied behind it. This realization prompted them to suggest a
three-tier panchayat system for the country which was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India, Pandit
Jawaharlal Nehru, at Nagaur in Rajasthan on October 2, 1959. This led to the restructuring of the rural local
government, professedly informed by the principle of democratic decentralization.8
But even this attempt led to contrary results on account of several reasons. The main among these was the
hostility of political leaders and the bureaucracy. There was no attempt to replace the bureaucratic administration
by democratic governance at the bottom level even for development purpose. The forces in favour of centralization
of political power were so strong that even the little concessions given to these first generation panchayats were
not tolerated for long. Consequently, the panchayat raj developed during 1959-1964, became stagnant during
1964-1971 and the decade thereafter. The attempts of the Ashok Mehta Committee (1978) failed to revitalize
the PRIs.

Constitutionalising Panchayats: Terminal points of a process


But the real rejuvenation process started as a result of the moving of the sixty fourth Amendment Bill in the Lok
Sabha in 1989 by the then Prime Minister of India, late Rajiv Gandhi, who appears to have been inspired by
mahatma Gandhis vision of gram swaraj (Singh:2009) . However, it would be too simplistic to assume that his
advocacy for local democracy was inspired only by his conviction. In converting his conviction into practical
policy of the state, political exigencies probably also played a major role. The Sixty Fourth Amendment Bill
was passed by the Lok Sabha by a two-third majority but failed to get the same in the Rajya Sabha and was
rejected in the upper house. His vision was subsequently institutionalized in the form of the 73rd constitution
Amendment Act (1992). This led to the establishment of the new system of Panchayati raj in the states in 1994
though the enactment of conformity legislations.

Massive Silent Revolution


We should take note of the fact that for the first time in the history of our republic, there are now over 2 million
elected representatives in the panchayat bodies, thanks to the seventy-third constitutional Amendment. Nearly
a million of them are women, most of whom have come out of their homes for the firwst time in centuries to hold
public offices and to participate in public activities. This has been the most effective formal step towards
political empowerment of women. The result is that thirty three per cent of reservations of women in the PRIs
is widely commended by intellectuals, politicians and policy-makers. With elections every five years, larger
numbers of women are coming into the political arena. It is not only that those who get elected are getting
empowered formally and substantively. All the women who participate in the election or in the election process
are also getting empowered. Women so empowered are not going to let go the advantage easily. Progress
made cannot be reversed. It has its own dynamics of moving forward much of which may not be immediately
discernible from outside.9 This is a quantitative advance in the silent revolution of the panchayati raj, but there
are many hurdles in the way of elected women including the age-old male domination leading to the cases of
proxy roles played by the male members of the family.
19

RAHMAN

Conservative framework of Rural India breaking out of stagnation


The new panchayats have released a new liberalizing force for Dalits, STs and members of the disadvantaged
and economically-exploited classes. It is a new phenomenon in the political field, which is likely to have its
impact on the current political equilibrium dominated by land-owning propertied classes/castes in the countryside.
Not that they are going to yield power easily. But Panchayats have provided space to the politically-excluded
classes/segments of society to regroup and direct their energies to carve out a position in the existing power
equation in which even though they may not dominate, they would not be subservient to the upper classes/
castes. In this context, it seems important to quote what Mahatma Gandhi thought about the inherent strength
of public opinion generated from the grassroots in an ideal system of local government. He observed: when
panchayat raj is established, public opinion will do what violence can never do. The present power of Zamindars
and the capitalist and the rajas can hold sway so long as the common people do not realize their own strength.
If the people non-cooperate with the evils of zamindary or capitalism, it must die of inanition. In Panchayat raj
only the panchayats will be obeyed and the panchayats can work through the law of their making.10
But it is worth noting that political power does not always match social and economic power in the countryside.
So these politically excluded classes might not have been very effective everywhere; they face stiff opposition
and discrimination from the dominant castes/classes to allow them to fully exercise their rights (Baviskar:
2008). However, there is no denying that there are sign of assertion and independence. In many places they are
now more united and more assertive than before.

Identity Crisis
The crux of the problem concerning the Panchayati Raj Institutions is really the transfer of three-Fs- functions,
funds and functionaries without which the panchayats cannot function effectively as the third tier of democratic
government. Infact, one and a half decade of the functioning of Indias Panchayats is adequate enough to
examine their function and financial measures to further strengthen them. The real empowerment of the Panchayats
can be measured in terms of the transfer of three Fs available with them and their capacity to use them.
(Baviskar:-2008).
The seventy third Amendment envisages devolution type of democratic decentralization and not the
deconcentration type of administrative decentralization under which the superior body retains various types
of control including the power of withdrawing the power/authority given to a body. Accordingly some observers
noted that with the 73rd amendment, a third stratum of governance at the local level had been institutionalized.11
However there is no attempt at devolution type of transfer of functions, functionaries and financial resources
from the state governments to the panchayats.
It is true that the constitution gives the Panchayats autonomy and the state governments do not have unfettered
rights over these institutions, as they used to have previously. There are mandatory provisions in the constitution
as regards direct election, obligatio nto conduct election every five year, reservation of seats for women and
SC/ST communities, etc. But in respect of devolution of functions, the constitution left the matter to the discretion
of the state legislators, the Eleventh schedule being only in the nature of an indicative list of functions that could
be transferred to these bodies. The states have taken advantage of this and have chosen to keep the powers
and authority of the panchayats unaltered.
True, the Panchayat acts of different states to conform to the requirement of the constitutional amendments
have nothing new to offer. Every acts gives list of a wide range of functions to be performed by the panchayats.
But no exclusive functional area/domain for these bodies is carved out. The result is that, only eight states and
20

POLITICS OF PANCHAYATI RAJ : FROM EXIT TO VOICE OPTION

one Union Territory have transferred all the 29 functions or subjects to the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).
In this context, it seems essential to point out that if panchayati raj has born fruit in some western and southern
parts of the country, it was owing to these reasons that these states are relatively sound from the point of view
of economy, are vibrant socially, and have active civil societies. On the contrary, the northern states with
extreme social and economic inequality and deep schisms of caste and low pace of governance resulted in
weak Panchayats.12
But if we take a glimpse of the, exemplary Panchayati raj reforms that have taken place in Kerala, Madhya
Pradesh and Bihar in the Post-73rd amendment era, we find that it got its fruition due to the strong political will
of the political leadership of these states. In Kerala, the peoples planning campaign was predicted on a high
level of popular mobilization that was made possible by high level of literacy and professional support with a
mass based social movement.13 The examples of West Bengal and Kerala are well known where the PRIs
have played a major role in sustaining village and civil society and renovating them on a more democratic and
less divisive mode because of the deeper level of land reforms carried out earlier and of course the prevalence
of systematic political activism at the local level.14
Moreover, financial and administrative resources necessary to discharge such functions that every panchayat
act religiously specify continue to remain with the state government and are not transferred to the Panchayats.
The grants and funds percolating to grassroots institutions through governments are mainly for welfare
programmes and developmental works and hence the panchayats are lacking total control over such resources.
In absence of these resources, the list of functions that every panchayat act religiously provides remains sterile.

Supervision of the Panchayats by a new Set of Magnets


The undeniable fact is that transferring certain categories of functionaries and placing them under the control of
elected panchayat personnel is the need of the hour. But the major impediment is that the bureaucracy, particularly
at the local level, accustomed to overlord, resent the prospect of being lorded over by the elected panchayat
personnel, treat the PRIs as a threat to its authority and do everything in their power to scuttle them
(Baviskar:2008). It is also noteworthy that the reins of power and authority are still held by it. It is not answerable
to the people it serves, but to the department of which it is a part. It manipulates the panchayats as per their
needs and skillfully subverts them.
The situation has been further aggravated by the fact that the MPs and MLAs also, through a misrepresentation
of their roles, often stands in the way of the proper functioning of the Panchayats. The system of local area
development fund of MPs and MLAs portrays glaringly the elitist mindset, which harbours an inherent distrust
of the local-level non-elite leadership. The money is spent in the constituency of the MP or the MLA at his/her
own sweet will. So, if the MP or the MLA comes from a rural constituency, to get a portion of the fund the
panchayat representatives will have to appeal to him or her, perpetuating a system of subservience. As minister
also, peoples representatives flinch from taking any significant step, which may, in any way, jeopardise the
departmental prerogatives and strangleholds over departmentally-fractured developmental decision and
developmental spending.

Gram Sabhas Need Teeth


Last but not the least, in the panchayat system the most important institution for direct popular participation in
the gram Sabha where the entire electorate of the territory participate to debate and decide on the plan of
activities and programmes of the gram panchayat. (Bandyopadhyay: 2007). However, in most cases, the gram
Sabhas do not function in the right spirit. They are often looked upon as a ritual to fulfill the formal requirement.
21

RAHMAN

Infact, all over the country, attendance in these meetings has been unsatisfactory excepting in Kerala
(Bandyopadhyay: 2007). This low participation can mainly attributed to a strong and invincible social and
economic stratification in villages.
From this popular apathy, one could infer that the panchayats have not been able to create that ground swell
of social and political mobilization so necessary to bring about a significant change in the established political
equation of the dominant economic, social and political forces. Prima facia, such an inference is well warranted.
But one has to look at the other side. Since the panchayats are treated as the extended arms of the state
administration with very little of their own to do, due to lack of F3-functions, finances and functionaries-people
do not get enthused to attend such meetings.

Summing up
The above mentioned analysis of the deficiencies in the functioning of Indias panchayats in the post-seventy
third amendment era reveal that today panchayats are acting as mere spending agencies implementing only
some centrally-sponsored or state-sponsored straitjacketed programmes with little autonomy of their own.
There is hope for the PRIs to progress further if they meet the above-mentioned challenges with confidence
and determination. Therefore, a new approach to rural problems appears urgent and immediate. The first step
in this direction is to shift the emphasis to village and plan from the bottom. At the same time, substantial
devolution from the state to the panchayats on a permanent footing, not depending on the whims of the state
government alone can solve their problems. To delegate larger functions to the panchayats without devolution
of resources will render panchayat raj a mockery.
Further, in the contemporary world system the various initiatives of self-governance through the PRIs are
unfolding an experiment that needs to be watched as these can pave the way for a gradualist revolution or help
transformation to take place. This fact needs added emphasis that panchayats may emerge as an instrument of
transformation, if they are thoroughly radicalized. Wherever strong peasant movements have proceeded, the
panchayats have become a more effective instrument. Though land reform is on the margin of the panchayat
movement, yet in the states where land reforms have taken place there the panchayats have fared well. Leveling
in village/rural society ultimately breeds a democratic consciousness. A radicalized panchayat can become an
instrument of alternative building.
Obviously, there has not occurred, in the realm of panchayati raj, an actual transfer of three Fs - functions,
finance and functionaries, which is the Sine-qua-non for the smooth and successful functioning of the panchayats.
As a result, the panchayats have largely remained ineffective. Yet it would be near the truth to assert that a
process of political and social churning has started for which panchayats are increasingly providing an institutional
base. It need to be underscored that panchayats are emerging as a new force field where diverse forces and
different types of players are contending. There is a possibility that the coming years will see the Indian political
discourse being structured to a considerable extent around this conflict.

REFERENCES
1.

VENKATRANGAIYA, M. & M. PATTABHIRAM, Local Government of India: Select Readings. (Allied Publishers,
Calcutta, 1969) p. 109.
2.
YATINDRA SINGH SISODIA, Implementation of PESA and Peoples Empowerment Local Government
Quarterly, Mumbai, Octobr-December 2008, pp. 94-97.
3.
B.S. BAVISKAR, Panchayati Raj after 15 years: Challenges Ahead Mainstream, Vol. XLVI, No. 18,
April 19, 2008, p.5.
4.
RANBIR SINGH, Fifty years of Panchayati Raj Mainstream, Vo.. XLVII, No. 43, October 10, 2009, pp.
13-14.

22

POLITICS OF PANCHAYATI RAJ : FROM EXIT TO VOICE OPTION


5.

BHARAT DOGRA, Village Pradhans from Weaker Section on the Reality of Panchayati Raj Mainstream,
Vol. 49, November 21, 2009.
6.
M.N. ROY, Draft constitution of Free India (Renaissance Publishers, Kolkata, 1944).
7.
Granville Austin, The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a National (Clarendon Press, Oxford,
1966) p. 29.
8.
R. PRASAD , Indias Panchayat system in Indias Development in D.N. Mallik (ed.) Realities and
Desirabilities of the Indian political system (Janaki Prakashan, Patna, 1985) p. 145.
9.
D. BANDOPADHYAY, S.K. GHOSH & B. GHOSH Dependency versus Autonomy in Manoranjan Mohanty,
R. Vaum, Rong Ma and George Mathew (eds) Grass-roots Democracy in India and China (Sage publication,
New Delhi, 2007) pp 53-72.
10.
MAHATMA GANDHI , Harijian, 7 July, 1947.
11.
NIRMAL MUKHERJEE, The Third Stratum Economic and Political Weekly, 28(18): 1993, 1807-12.
12.
M ARK R OBINSON , A Decade of Panchayati Raj Reforms: The challenge of Democratic
Decentralization in India in L.C. Jain (ed.) Decentralization and Local Governance (Orient Longman, New
Delhi, 2005).
13.
T.M. THOMAS ISSAC & RICHARD W. FRANKE, Local Democracy and Development: Peoples campaign for
Decentralized planning in Kerala (Leftwood, New Delhi, 2000)
14.
CRISPIN BATES and SUBHO BASU(ed.), Rethinking Indian Political Institutions (Anthem Press, London,
2005)p. 169.

23

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,24-28


Advance Access publication 28 Oct. 2011

GLOBALIZATION AND ITS THREATS: AN OVERVIEW


AVINASH RANJAN*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Avinash Ranjan the author of the research paper entitled GLOBALIZATION AND
ITS THREATS: AN OVERVIEW declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written
it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This
research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I
authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal
to own the copyright of my research paper.

Globalization is a current social phenomenon and not just an ideogical label for populist banter which has
already generated too much of debate among its proponents as well as opponents. Some consider it as a
recent arrival of neo-capitalism, or neo-imperialism or a new stage of modernization or developmentalism,
whereas, others regard it as a new industrial revolution, backed by the state-of art and amazingly powerful
technologies, which has led to explosion of several innovative ideas. Its newness further extracts our linguistic
and political resources for its proper understanding and management. As a result, globalization appears as a
very complex issue, which on the one hand, raises jubilations as Americans and its few wealthy allies feel, but,
on the other, causes serious concerns of exclusion, or inclusion or marginalisation etc which are voiced by the
poor and developing countries of the Third World.1
These concerns about globalization, at other level, further causes a sort of helplessness which has raised it
to metaphysical heights, where it becomes an inevitable process and nothing can be done as it has its own
raisond etre. That it is an endless journey towards unreachable destination, or it has the potential to destroy
any civilisation in just few weeks, further, complicate the matter. Such confusions and ambiguities about
globalization cause to equate it as a bunch of idea, a multiplicity of sites, a seduction, a juggernaut, a set of
currents and cross currents, a master narrative, or even a genocide or something else. These metaphors lead us
to nowhere.2 Consequently, it cannot be strictly defined, Hence, the best course would to unravel its meaning
as it emerges in usual practice. In this context, few interrelated factors need to be properly considered as these
make globalization difficult to understand in terms of earlier histories of state and market.
But despite these difficulties, globalization describes the political, economic and cultural atmosphere of
todays world. Now globalization is rising above the din of political wrangle as there has been a qualitative

*Research Scholar, University Deptt. of Political Science, B.R.A.Bihar University Muzaffarpur (Bihar) India.

24
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

GLOBALIZATION AND ITS THREATS: AN OVERVIEW

difference in the way people are beginning to relate to one another. This transition has occurred slowly as
Friedman recount: Globalisation 1.0 began with Columbus journey in 1492 and lasted till 1800, and the agent
then was physical power. In Globalisation 2.0 from 1800 to 2000, the driving force was MNCs. In the current
phase of Globalisation 3.0, the defining force is the individual : the lever that is enabling individuals and groups
to go global so easily is not hard ware but soft ware. This amazing technological power and, resultant,
financial integration have led the world shrink at the click of a mouse.3
In this paper an attempt has been made to historicizes and contextualize contemporary views and debates
about globalization, providing an introduction to the discourses, practices, technologies and politics all grouped
together under that term, and also theorizing its challenges and effects.
First and for most is the role of finance capital in the world economy which especially in its speculative
forms is faster, more multiplicative, more abstract and more invasive of national economies then ever as compared
to earlier times. It is more or less independent of any national or international regulation because of its innovation
and loosened links to manufacture and other forms of productive wealth. The second factor is related to the
peculiar power of information revolution in its electronic forms. The new financial instruments which are based
upon advanced electronic information technologies, also posses technical powers exempting them from protocols
of regulation. Consequently the idea of national economy is gradually fading out which has also raised the
question of national sovereignty as an unsettled project for specific technical reasons. Lastly, the new mysterious
and almost magical forms of wealth generated by electronic finance markets seem directly responsible for the
growing gap between the rich and poor, even in the richest countries of the world Resultantly, the enemies of
globalization view it as a legitimizing of insatiable capitalist appetite preying on the worlds poor and hungry
vulnerable population.4
Taking into account the above mentioned factors the turn of 1990s assumes considerable significance
because it witnessed serious turmoil in the interrelation of world forces, which was caused by many factors,
particularly shift in the international balance of forces resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union; the
disintegration of world socialist system; disbandment of the Warsaw pact; demolition of Berlin Wall and finally,
the end of the cold war, marked by end of history or clash of civilizations and paving the way for unipolarity
in international relations where the USA, as the global policeman, rules the roost. All these form the context of
historical setting in which globalization has evolved as an objective description of global reality, to acquire the
centre-stage of the acquire the centre-stage of the world.5
Several definitions of globalization, so far, have been put forward by scholars which try to express the
complex and dense interdependency existing across all levels of social interaction and between economic,
political and cultural sphere. According to J.H. Gylinas J.B. The term globalization reflects a more comprehensive
level of interaction that has occurred in the past, suggesting something different from the word international.6
It implies a diminishing importance of national borders and the strengthening of identities that stretch beyond
these rooted in a particular country or region. Often emphasis is placed on the increasing speed and intensity
of exchanges (by implication in finance and communications etc.) As Giddens is of the view that, Globalization
can, thus, be defined as the intensification of world wide social relations which link distant localities in such a
way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa7. This time-space
compression, as underlined by these definition, has the way for one worldism and the economic sphere, it has
raised fears about the potential globalization to homogenise economic and cultural life.
Evidently, this one worldism resulting due to time-space compression helps us to a large extent in clarifying
the meaning of globalization as evolving and setting up a single system of authority in the world. And this
exercise is not new. History is full with such examples of legendary herores like Alexander the Great, Napolean
Bonaparte etc., who fought tooth and nail to put the whole world under their single rule of dominance. This
process of globalisation got impetus from the middle of 19th century as the principle of free trade came into
25

RANJAN

limelight in the world, which resulted into crumbling trade barriers and increased cross border flows of goods,
capital and people as Picciotto comments that the core of globalization is the market, or at least ideologies of
free trade and open markets. What seems to be more important is the increased potential for such flows (of
international market transactions), resulting from the reduction of elimination of national and local barriers to all
kinds of trade and investment.8
Unfortunately, between 1914 and 1991, this process slowed down, for which many factors may be attributed
: two world wars, the Bolshevik Revolution the emergence of the Soviet Block; the collapse of colonialism and
many countries demanding to reserve their markets and resources for their domestic industries. The onset of
Cold war during the late 1940s and its onward journey also created bottlenecks. During this period trade
barriers and restrictions on capital flow became the routine matters. During 1930, the USA imposed high tariffs
and in retaliation, other countries also followed the suit. As a result, the volume of world output and that of
trade substantially declined. These restrictions went on even after the second world war as the allied powers
desired to maintained fixed exchange rates of their currencies. The Bretton Woods agreement of 1944 was
also conscious of this aim. Later, the allied power, when trapped in deep economic recession, agreed to reduce
the trade barriers for their own economic recovery. For this purpose, they introduced the GATT in 1948.
Afterwards the USA and other capitalist countries could not maintain the value of their currencies and not only
dollar but other currencies, too, were allowed to float freely against one another at the rates determined by the
market. Hence during early 1970s the Bretton Woods system collapsed and this led to reincarnation of the
global capital market. Thus while Bretton Woods was meant to be victors conference, the USA set the agenda
of liberal system based on capital mobility and free trade.9
Evidently, the economic issues particularly, capital, come to acquire centrestage in the process of globalization.
Earlier the attempt by conquerors to bring the world under one system of rule was primarily related to looting
the wealth and politically subjugating the conquered people. But, during those days, wealth could not be
converted into capital in order to buy labour power, raw materials and instruments to turnout commodities in
order to amass profits. Wealth could be converted into capital only when human society entered the stage of
capitalism and wealth plundered from the conquered could be transformed into capital. This transformation led
to further rise of capitalism from the 19th century onwards when it emerged as a worldwide system and the
whole world fell into its grip. its further advancement resulted into the search for cheap labour, raw material and
also of markets which led to the establishment of colonial rule in poor developing countries of Asia, Africa and
Latin America known as Third World by rich countries having enough capital. Thus the dynamics of capitalism
led to cause Imperialism, as well commented by Lenin that Imperialism is the last stage of capitalism. Similarly
Marx and Engels in The Communist Manifesto had clearly presented their vision of capitalisms triumphant
globalization.10
This vision was the outcome of the logic of capitalist development. It would go on revolutionising technology
in every sphere of life. Already scientific and geographical discoveries and inventions had expanded both the
market and the scale of production, the later growing faster than the former. Thus, capitalism breeds capital
formation which not only brings prosperity and riches to the owners of the capital but also provides them
sufficient leverage and opportunity to extend their mantle over poor and developing countries. These rich and
industrialised capitalist countries also control and direct the international financial institutions, because of being
the big contributor to it, to provide aid/ capital to the needy countries and, thus, dictate their terms over them
so as to suit their won economy. This policy of aid with strings has always been criticised and resisted by the
Third World countries. Their big industrial empires in the form of multinational corporations i.e. MNCs. trade
all over the world and carry huge profits to their parent countries. This has led to concentration of capital into
few hands which serve the global market demand of high income consumers.11
The huge profits earned by such capitalist production, later, caused to press for export of capital as their
capital cannot be invested in their domestic markets because they were already saturated. Hence, the problem
26

GLOBALIZATION AND ITS THREATS: AN OVERVIEW

of surplus capital came to forefront. This has been a cause of worry for advanced capitalist countries. Empirical
Observations point out the fact that during 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, the average rate of profit and share of
profit in national product of advanced capitalist countries had declined. In the USA alone, the average profit
rates went down in manufacturing, transportation and other old-line industries and agriculture. This explains the
pressing need for outlets for growing volume of surplus capital. Foreign direct investments deployed in
manufacturing, real estates, raw material extraction, financial sector, advertising, media etc. Between 1980 and
1990, the amount of capital directly invested in foreign lands nearly tripled. Evidently, the capital has assumed
global character and its upsurge and diversification has been leading to change in politico-economic conditions
of almost all countries.12
Recent scientific revolutions, particularly in the field of information technology and economic liberalisation
have contributed in accelerating the onwards process of globalization. Infact, Information and Communication
Technology (TCT) are the driving force of globalisation in the 21st century. The electronic information technologies
are part and parcel of the new financial instruments many of which have technical powers which are clearly
ahead of the protocols for their regulation. As regards economic liberalisation, the formation of WTO and
MIGA are the landmark achievements towards integration of world economy which is supposed to boost
productivity and elevate the living standards in all parts of the world. This globally integrated, as expected, can
lead to a better division of labour between countries, permitting low-wage countries to specialise in labour
intensive talks while high-wage countries use workers in more productive ways.13
Thus, the process of globalization through, trade, investment and capital flows and advancements in technology,
including information technology has had a profound impact on all aspects of international relations. As a result
of technological development which have greatly affected all areas of human life and especially the development
process in the third world. Further, globalization can be a powerful and dynamic force for strengthening
cooperation and accelerating growth and development. It presents opportunities as well as risks and challenges.
The following is a brief discussion of the ill-effects of globalisation.
The empirical evidence shows, among other, that the income gap between developed and developing
countries has widened. Even those countries have widened. It is clear that there is no automatic process by
which income levels of developing countries will converge towards those of developed nations. The challenge
before the international community is to ensure that globalization should take into account the development
dimension.14 Thus the increased marginalization of the large number of developing countries, especially Least
Developed countries, owing to the globalization process, particularly in finance, trade and technology sections,
is a cause of worry. There is an urgent need for effective and beneficial integration of the LDCs into the global
economy and the multilateral trading system as its main driving force.
Further since MNCs are the real agents of globalization there is a fear of their dominance over the internal
affairs of developing countries as they will interfere into political and economic freedom of these countries. As
a noted Scholar Sudhanshu Tripathi comments: What emerges in this globalized pattern of production is a
challenge to the traditional relationship between the economy and the state. The globalized market system
stretches beyond the political authority of any single government. Faced with a network of connections that
escape their power of surveillance or regulation, national governments have become increasingly unequal to
providing the legal, monetary, or protective functions that are their contribution to a well working economy.
Worse the home nation finds itself with divided loyalties on the one hand eager for its firms to maximize
revenues, which are subject to national taxation, on the other hand, reluctant to see employment or research
capabilities that it wants as part of its national economic strength located in a competitive national entity.15
In addition, the process of globalization has increased the vulnerability of these countries of the Third World
which are in the process of being integrated into the world economy. Hence, there is an increasing need for
reform of the international financial architecture. A more democratic and fair ordering of any mechanism, which
27

RANJAN

provides effective participation of developing countries in the management of the international economy, needs
to be ensured. It will also be important to ensure that the reform of the international financial architecture
addresses financing for development as well as issues of financial stability including the need for the regulation
of hedge funds and highly leveraged institutions and strengthening of the early warning system to provide for
improved response capabilities to help countries deal with emergencies and spread of financial crises.16
Last but not the least, an irony, in the context of globalization, is that poor and developing countries have not
yet been able to share in the benefits of it on an equal footing with the developed countries and have been
excluded from the benefits of this process. Asymmetries and imbalances have intensified in international economic
relations, particularly, with regard to international cooperation, even further widening the gap between the
developing and the industrialized countries. As a result, the socio-economic conditions of these countries have
deteriorated. Further, the new technology from industrialized countries and its large scale adoption has caused
serious environmental degradation and has virtually destroyed the traditional education and skills.17
To conclude, globalization is a process which can be uneven and unpredictable but if it is properly harnessed
and managed, the foundation for enduring and equitable growth at the national and international level can be
laid. In this context national efforts need to be complemented by intensified international cooperation in order
to reverse the marginalization of poor countries and also to manage the risks, overcome the challenges and
seize the opportunities created by globalization. But this ought not be devoid of human face.

REFERENCES
1.

FRIEDMAN, JONATHAN; Cultural Identities and Global Process, Safe Publication, London, 1999, P. 61.
2.
TRIPATHI, SUDHANSHU, Globalisation and its consequence, South Asia Politics, New Delhi, Vol.9, Nos,
3-4, July-August 2010,
3.
Friedman (1999)
4.
LEVITT, THEODORE, The Globalisation of Markets Harward Business Review, May-June 1983, pp. 92103.
5.
IBID
6.
GULINAS, J.B. Juggernaut Politics, Understanding Predatory Globalisation, Zed Book, London and New
York, 2000, p. 86.
7.
GIDDENS, ANTHONY, The consequence of Modernity, Potting Press, Cambridge, 1990, p.64.
8.
Tripathi, Sudhanshu (2010).
9.
GUPTA, SAMIR DAS & RAY KIELY (ed), Globalisation and After, Sage, New Delhi, 2006, p. 102.
10.
IBID.
11.
Gupta, Samier, Das (2006).
12.
BELLOW, WALDEN, Deglobulisation- Ideas for a New World Economy, University Press Ltd. Dhaka, 2002,
p. 114.
13.
IBID.
14.
POLET, Francois, Globalisation Resistance, Pluto Press, London, 2004.
15.
Sudhanshu, Tripathi(2010).
16.
POLANAYI, KARL, The Great Transformation, Becon, New York, 1957.
17.
HAMPEL, A.C., Environment Governs: The Global Challenge, Washington, DC, 1996.

28

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,29-32


Advance Access publication 8 Nov. 2011

GRASSROOTS LEVEL DEMOCRACY : AN ASSESSMENT


RAJESH KUMAR*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Rajesh Kumar the author of the research paper entitled GRASSROOTS LEVEL
DEMOCRACY : AN ASSESSMENT declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have
written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki
journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication
anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of
Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

In the ancient City States of Greece, the people directly used to participate in the governance of their territory.1
In modern nation states, such participation is obviously impossible and representatives directly elected by the
people undertake the responsibilities of government. India from time immemorial has had a genius for finding
via media solutions to every problem. Thus ancient India combined the principle of direct democracy with the
authority of the king and fostered Panchayats in each village to look after their affairs.2
The Panchayat system of governance, wherein a small village was an independent political entity and acted
as an administrative unit is unique to India. The word Panchayat means governance by five persons. It finds
reference in the ancient scriptures, taking us back to Vedic times, and continued for centuries to govern, guide
and direct the daily lives of the people. Panchayats had judicial and magisterial powers too and made villages
autonomous with full authority over their jurisdiction. The Panchayat is best suited to the Indian social norms
inasmuch as Indian society believed in devolution of powers, decentralization of the authority and upliftment of
the self, family, community, village and so on.3
India is perhaps the only country in the world today, which can boast of a continuity of history, culture,
religion and society spanning thousands of years. In this continuity, Tamil Nadu occupies pride of place in the
Panchayat Raj system. The civilisation of the past not merely exists but throbs with life. The study of the stone
inscriptions in Uthiramerur throws abundant light on the administration of villages during the reign of the
Cholas, and the method of elections to village councils. Historians have recorded that, even a thousand or so
years ago, in the Chola Kindom there was such an enviable democratic rule, wherein the concept of democracy
and purity of public administration were beautifully blended. If the Britishers feel proud of their unwritten
constitution, we could feel proud of our written Constitution, written a thousand years ago and left for posterity
inscribed on stones.4

*Research Scholar, Political Science, B.R.A. Bihar University Muzaffarpur (Bihar) India.

29
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

KUMAR

Though statutory recognition had been accorded to Panchayat in the Government of India Act of 1919,
village Panchayats assumed importance only with the beginning of the Planning Era. Parliamentarians returned
for the first time on adult franchise from rural areas clamoured for greater attention towards rural development
and against the earlier urban bias. The concept of Block Development and Community Projects took shape
and marked development of village roads, schools and medical facilities took place. The people offered
enthusiastic cooperation for local development works and made their contribution also. Subsequently Panchayats
began to languish and the States practically killed the institution by not holding Panchayat elections for decades.
Bureaucracy replaced the elected Panchayats and there was no way of compelling States to hold Panchayat
polls.
Although the Father of Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, advocated for a village based political formation fostered
by a stateless, classless society for the creation of Gram Swaraj, the idea of Pachayati Raj did not find a place
in the Draft Constitution of India. This happened because the Congress Constitution Committee rejected the
idea believing that the Congress could neither forgo its political role nor become so utterly decentralized as
envisaged in the Gandhian concept of Gram Swaraj.5 So much so that the Chairman of the Drafting Committee
of the Indian Constitution and the Minister of Law, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, did not care to reply to the letter dated
May 10, 1948 from Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the President of the Constituent Assembly, as to why the Draft he
had circulated did not even use, the two words Panchayati Raj. Instead, the reply came four months later in
September 1948 from the Secretary of the Law Ministry saying that the Draft had already been circulated and
that it was far too late to make any changes and if any amendments were desired, the same would be moved
on the floor of the House.6
Not only this, Ambedkars response to the criticism by Gandhians like H.V. Kamath, Arun Chandra Guha,
T. Prakasam, K. Santhanam, Shibban Lal Saxena, Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar, N.G. Ranga, M. Anathsayanam
Ayyangar, Mahavir Tyagi, K.T. Shah and others was: Village Republics (Panchayats of Village Communities)
were a cause of the ruination of India. They were nothing but sink of localism and of ignorance and
communalism and I am glad that the Draft Constitution has discarded the village and adopted the individual
as its unit. His stance on Panchayats was perhaps based on his apprehension that the Panchayats shall be
dominated by upper castes and exploit and repress the Scheduled Castes. But, the then Prime Minister of
India and the leader the Congress Parliamentary Party, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, chose to remain silent on this
issue; perhaps, he favoured a centralised polity for making India a modern and developed state.7
But, the passionate pleas of the Gandhians like Prof. N.G. Ranga and others virtually forced Ambedkar to
accept an amendment moved by K. Santhanam which later on got incorporated into Article-40 of the Directive
Principles of State Policy in the Constitution of India. It directed the state to set up Village Panchayats and
endow them with the authority to function as units of self government.8|
This did lead to the enactment of Gram Panchayat Acts by various States; these were no more than halfhearted attempts for the creation of rural local government institutions. But the failure of the Community
Development Programme, which had been launched for bringing a silent revolution in rural society by awakening
the dormant forces of progress, led to the appointment of Balwantay Mehta Study Team. It was the scheme of
democratic decentralization suggested by this Team (1957) that led to the creation of the Panchayati Raj which
was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, at Nagaur in Rajasthan on
October 2, 1959.9
It was the Panchayati Raj that set up local democracy at the district, block and village levels in the form of
Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishad respectively. However, the Panchayat Raj proved to
be the proverbial God that failed on account of several reasons. The main among these was the hostility of
political leaders and the bureaucracy. Consequently, the Panchayati Raj developed during 1959-1964, became
stagnant during 1964-1971 and the decade thereafter. The attempt of the Ashoka Mehta Committee (1978)
30

GRASSROOTS LEVEL DEMOCRACY : AN ASSESSMENT

failed to revitalise the Panchayati Raj Institutions.10 However, the States of West Bengal, Karnataka and
Andhra Pradesh did take the lead in this direction.
But the real rejuvenation process started as a result of the moving of the 64th Amendment Bill in Lok Sabha
in 1989 by then Prime Minister of India, Late Rajiv Gandhi, who appears to have been inspired by Mahatma
Gandhis vision of Gram Swaraj. It was passed by the Lok Sabha by a two-thirds majority but failed to get the
same in the Rajya Sabha and was rejected in the Upper House. This vision was however, subsequently
institutionalized in the form of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act (1922). This led to the establishment of
the new system of the Panchayati Raj in the States in 1994 through the enactment of conformity legislatios.11
Panchayat reform contemplated in recent times, and the consequent laws adopted in various States including
Bihar, do have significance from the point of view of democratising and decentralising the administration of the
institution. The policy of reservation of seats for underprivileged, SC/ST population and women, in the governance
of the institutional set-up at the grassroots, is widely commended by intellectuals, politicians and policy-makers.
The reservation of 50 per cent of the seats for women in Panchayats has particularly been welcomed.
But none of these would however make any impact unless there is decentralisation of power, delegation of
authority and adequate resources for the implementation of programmes. India has witnessed phenomenal
growth in agriculture, industry, power, communications, and science and technology. We have achieved selfsufficiency in food and established a sizeable buffer stock. In value added by manufacture and volume of
industrial production we are within the first fifteen in the world. Our infrastructure growth, particularly power
and communications, is very impressive. At the same time forty five years of planning has resulted in centralisation
of economic and political power. It has widened the gap between the rich and the poor, the urban and the rural
population. It has also led to greater concentration of economic power in fewer hands. It cannot be denied that
the rural and weaker sections have also improved their conditions, but only a tackle. The use of sophisticated
labour saving machinery, inescapable in countries with shortage of manpower, has in our country accentuated
the scourge of unemployment.

Conclusion
The passage of the Seventythird Amendment to the Constitution of India has once again made Panchayat Raj the focus of
considerable public attention. The amendment essentially lays down certain ground rules with basic structural framework,
so that it can withstand external interference and establish itself as an effective and strong peoples institution.
But the studies of several distinguished scholars on the working of the Panchayati Raj in different States and the Status
Report of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj (1996) lead us to the inference that the Gandhian idea of Gram Swaraj remains an
unfinished agenda even after fifty two years of the implementations of the Panchayati Raj on the recommendation of the
Balwantrai Mehta Team on October 2, 1959 at Nagaur in Rajasthan and even 19 years after the enactment of the 73rd
Amendment and 17 years after its implementation by various States in 1994 through conformity legislations for several
reasons. The foremost among them is lack of political will in most of the governments of the States. Even the concerted
efforts of the former Union Minister of panchayati Raj, Mani Shankar Iyer (2004-09), have failed to make much difference.
Therefore, concerted, schematic and sustained endeavours are needed on the part of those for whom Gram Swaraj remains
a cherished dream for the empowerment of people and for making India a participatory democracy.

REFERENCES
1.

J.C. JOHARI, Indian Government and Politics, Vishal Publication, Jalandhar, 2001, pp. 510-513.
IBID.
3.
L.C. JAIN, Decentralization and Local Government, Orient Longman, New Delhi (2005).
4.
R. VENKATARAMAN, Decentralization is the key, Mainstream, Vol. XLVII, No. 8, Feb. 2009, New Delhi,
pp. 5-8.
2.

31

KUMAR
5.

GRANVILLE AUSTIN, The Indian Constitution: Corner Stone of a Nation, (Oxford, New Delhi, 1986), pp. 29-

36.
6.

IBID.
IBID.
8.
S. MAHESHWARI, Local Government in India (Lakshmi Narain Agrawal, Agra, 2004), pp. 182-185.
9.
S. Maheshwari (2004).
10.
Ashoka Mehta Committee (1978)
11.
L.C. Jain (2005).
7.

32

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,33-37


Advance Access publication 29 Oct. 2011

THE 1857 UPRISING : BROAD HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE


DR. SANJEEV KUMAR*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Sanjeev Kumar the author of the research paper entitled THE 1857 UPRISING :
BROAD HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have
written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki
journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication
anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of
Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

The 1857 uprising stands sharply demarcated from all the earlier anti-British wars of resistance fought on
Indian soil. In the broad historical perspective of Indias struggle against British domination what needs being
stressed is not the limitation and narrowness of the 1857 uprising, but its sweep, breadth and depth. It is
admitted by all historians and chronicles, British and Indian alike, that the 1857 national insurrection was the
biggest ever anti-British combine that has so far been massed in armed struggle against British authority in
India. In the earlier wars people of a single kingdom, which very often coincided with a specific nationality,
fought single-handed. Earlier attempts at broader combinations had failed. But during 1857 people of various
castes, tribes, nationalities, religions, who have lived under different kingdoms rose together to end the British
rule. It was an unprecedented unity of the Indian people. Marx, the most farsighted thinker of the age, duly
noted this new phenomenon.
Before this there had been mutinies in the Indian army but the present revolt is distinguished by characteristic
and fatal features. It is the first time that the sepoy regiments have murdered their European officers; that
Musalmans and Hindus, renouncing their mutual antipathies, have combined against the common matters; that
disturbances, beginning with the Hindus, have actually ended in placing on the throne of Delhi a Mohammedan
Emperor; that the mutiny has not been confined to a few localities.1
As it is important to stress the above positive aspect of the 1857 national uprising, it is equally important to
state which decisive areas and sections of the Indian people did not join the national uprising and how some
were even led to supporting the British side. There were several factors involved but let us examine the main,
the national factor.

*Research Scholar, Deptt. of History, B. R. A. Bihar University Muzaffarpur (Bihar) India.

33
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

KUMAR

The Gurkhas and the Sikhs played a decisive role on the side of the British. The Nepal war had been fought
by the British with the help of the Hindustani Army. Rana Jung Bahadur, who was centralizing Nepal under
Ranashahi, was promised by the British a permanent subsidy and large tracts in Terai and he brought his
Gurkha soldiers down, in the name of revenge, for subduing Oudh. The Sikh had their own historic memories
against the Moghuls and after initial hesitation the British were able to recruit the unemployed soldiers of the
Khalsa Army and the retainers of the Sikh princes and sardars. From the Marathas the heir of the Peshwas had
risen in revolt but the Maratha princes had their own rivalries and historic feuds both with the Nizam in the
South and Moghuls in the North. The Rajputana princes had their own historic memories of earlier Moghuls
and later Maratha domination, besides their being under British grip now.
These historic memories from the past of our feudal disunity kept the people of large parts of the country
paralysed and moved by their feudal self-interest the Indian princes helped the British usurpers. Nehru has put
the whole position in very succinct words:
The revolt strained British rule to the utmost and it was ultimately suppresses with Indian help.2

As it is true that the 1857 revolution was the biggest national uprising against British rule, so it is equally true
that the British were able to suppress it by using Indians against Indians. Divide and rule was the traditional
British policy and they used it with devastating effect during 1857 uprising. The peasant was anti-British but this
outlook was confined within his village, his political knowledge did not go beyond the affairs of the kingdom in
which he lived under his traditional Raja.
The political-ideological leadership of the country was yet in the hands of the feudal ruling classes. They
shared the general anti-British sentiment but they feared their feudal rivals more. They were a decaying class
and their historic memories were only of the feudal past of disunity and civil wars and the vision of a united
independent India could not dawn upon them. The conception of India as our common country had not yet
emerged. Not only did the feudal historic memories come in the way but the material foundations for it had not
yet been laid but had only begun.
The conception of India as common motherland grew later and the great experience of 1857 rising helped
it to grow. The London Times aptly noted the rise of this new phenomenon.
One of the great results that have flowed from the rebellion of 1857-58 has been to make inhabitants of
every part of India acquainted with each other. We have seen the tide of war rolling from Nepal to the borders
of Gujarat, from the deserts of Rajasthan to the frontiers of the Nizams territories, the same men over-running
the whole land of India and giving to their resistance, as it were, a national character. The paltry interests of
isolated States, the ignorance which men of one petty principality have laboured under in considering the habits
and customs of the other principality all this has disappeared to make way for a more uniform appreciation of
public events throughout India. We may assume that in the rebellion of 1857, no national spirit was roused, but
we cannot deny that our efforts to put it down have sown the seeds of a new plant and thus laid the foundation
for more energetic attempts on the part of the people in the course of future years.3
What was the aim of the insurgents, what sort of a political and social order did they seek to establish in
India? A sound characterization of the 1857 struggle depends upon the correct answer to the above problem.
For it will help to decide whether it was reactionary or progressive. It is amazing that there is virtual agreement
on this question between not only British and some eminent Indian historians but also some foremost Indian
political leaders. Pandit Jawaharla Nehru has stated his opinion thus:
Essentially it was a feudal outburst, headed by feudal chiefs and their followers and aided by the widespread antiBritish sentiment Not by fighting for a lost cause, the feudal order, would freedom come.4

Dr. Majumdar, a noted historian concludes in these words:


The miseries and bloodshed of 1857-58 were not the birth pangs of a freedom movement in India, but the dying groans
of an obsolete aristocracy and centrifugal feudalism of the medieval age.5

34

THE 1857 UPRISING : BROAD HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Dr. Sen, the official historian, improves upon and carried forward Nehrus characterization:
The English Government had imperceptibly affected a social revolution. They had removed some of the disabilities of
women; they had tried to establish the equality of men in the eye of the law, they had attempted, to improve the lot of the
peasant and the serf. The Mutiny leaders would have set the clock back; they would have done away with the new reforms,
with the new order, and gone back to the good old days when a commoner could not accept equal justice with the noble,
when the tenants were at the mercy of the talukdars, and when theft was punished with mutilation. In short they wanted a
counter-revolution.6

One can understand British statesmen and historians advancing the thesis of their own role being progressive
and the insurgent cause reactionary, in sheer self-defence. But when Indian leaders and historians repeat the
same old British thesis the least one can say is that they are mistaking the form for the substance. It is true that
the 1857 uprising was led by Indian feudals (but not them alone) and they were not the makers of events. There
were other social forces of the common people in action during this struggle and they had brought new factors
and ideas into play. It is a pity Drs. Majumdar and Sen and Pandit Nehru have given neither thought nor weight
to them. If we study them carefully and seriously, the conclusion is inescapable that during the 1857 national
uprising, the popular forces were active enough, healthy in their aspirations and clearheaded enough in their
ideas to check a reactionary feudal restoration in India.
One of the great positive achievements of the 1857 uprising acclaimed with justified pride by the Indian
national movement has been the noble attempt to forge, and sustained efforts to maintain, against British
machinations, Hindu-Muslim unity for the successful conduct of the struggle. Playing upon Hindu-Muslim
differences had become so much a part of the flesh and blood of the British representatives in India that Lord
Canning spontaneously began thinking, when the first signs of the storm burst during May 1857, whether the
Hindus or Muslims were behind it? Kaye states the problem and the significance of the new situation facing the
British rulers:
But, before the end of the month of April, it must have been apparent to Lord Canning that nothing was to be hoped from
that antagonism of Asiatic races which had even been regarded as the main element of our strength and safety. Mohammedans
and Hindus were plainly united against us.7

The British Officials, however, did not give up but persisted in the policy of stirring Hindu-Muslim dissensions.
I shall watch for the differences of feelings between the two communities, wrote Sir Henry Lawrence from
Lucknow to Lord Canning in May 1857. The communal antipathy, however, failed to develop; Aitchison
ruefully admits:
In this instance, we could not play off the Mohammedaa against the Hindu.8

The insurgent leaders were fully aware of this disruptive British tactic. Allamah Fazle Haq, himself a Muslim
revivalist, wrote:
They (the British) tried their utmost to break the revolutionary forces by their tricks and deceptive devices, make
ineffective the power of the Mujahids and uproot them, and scatter and disrupt them No stone was left unturned by them
in this respect.9

The insurgent leaders consciously laid great stress on Hindu-Muslim unity for the success of the struggle. In
all areas liberated from British rule the first thing the insurgent leaders did was to ban cow-slaughter and
enforce it. In the highest political and military organ of insurgent leadership Hindus and Muslims were represented
in equal numbers.10 When Bahadur Shah found that he could not manage the affairs of state, he wrote to the
Hindu Rajas of Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Alwar that if they would combine for the purpose (of annihilating the
British) he would willingly resign the Imperial power into their hands.11
There is another very important aspect of this problem. Hindu-Muslim unity was one of the important keys
in deciding the fate of the issue. The British side knew it and tried their hardest and best to disrupt it. The Indian
side also knew it and did their utmost to realize and maintain it. But this by itself would be a static statement of
35

KUMAR

the problem. The better Hindu-Muslim unity was forged in the insurgent camp, the longer the struggle could
last; the longer the struggle lasted, the more chances the popular forces got to come to the fore and the more
the ideological-political influence of feudal forces became weakened; the more the feudal forces weakened the
less chances were left of a feudal restoration. Such is the dialectics of all popular and national struggles. During
the last phase of the struggle in 1857-58, the feudal forces stood thoroughly exposed and weakened. The
popular forces were not yet powerful, conscious and organized enough to overwhelm them and carry on the
struggle to victory. What actually took place was British victory and not feudal restoration. When the modern
national movement began in the next generation, the glorious heritage of Hindu-Muslim unity was taken over
from the 1857 struggle and the next two generations gave a more and more democratic programme to the
conception of Hindu-Muslim united front against British domination.
The British side also learnt its lesson from this historic phenomenon. Forrest in his Introduction to State
Papers, 1857-58, states:
Among the many lessons the Indian Mutiny conveys to the historian, none is of greater importance than the warning
that it is possible to have a revolution in which Brahmins and Sudras, Hindus and Mohammedans could be united against
us, and that it is not safe to suppose that the peace and stability of our dominions, in any great measures, depends on the
continent being inhabited by different religious systems The mutiny reminds us that our dominions rest on a thin crust
ever likely to be rent by titanic forces of social changes and religious revolutions.12

The destruction of the ancient land system in India and the law on the alienation of land stirred the whole
countryside into action against the rural classes, from the zamindars to the peasants, lose their lands to the new
section of merchants, moneylenders and the Companys own officials, and which had played havoc with the
their life. The large-scale peasant participation in the 1857 uprising gave it a solid mass basis and the character
of a popular revolt.
Peasants joined as volunteers with the insurgent forces and, though without military training, fought so
heroically and well as to draw tributes from the British themselves. In the words of Charles Ball,
The whole country was swarming with armed vagabonds hastening to Lucknow to meet their common
doom and die in the last grand struggle with the Firangis.13
After the fall of Bareilly and Lucknow, the insurgents fought on and adopted guerilla tactics. Its pattern is
contained in Khan Bahadur Khans General Order:
Do not attempt to meet the regular columns of the infields because they are superior to you in discipline, bandobast and
have big guns but watch their movements, guard all the ghats on the rivers, intercept their communications, stop their
supplies, cut their dak and posts and keep constantly hanging about their camps, give them (the Firinghis) no rest!14

All contemporary British chronicles of the story of this war in Rohilkhand, Bundelkhand, Oudh and Bihar
contain numerous stories of how the Indian peasantry loyally and devotedly carried out the behests of the
insurgent high command. Let us take only one example:
Even when the cause of the mutings seemed to be failing, they testified no good will but withheld the information we
wanted and often misled us.15

In a national uprising that has failed, the role and contribution of any class can best be estimated by the
amount of sacrifice it makes. Measured in these terms, the peasantry is at the top of the roll of honour of the
1857 uprising.
The pattern of struggle was to eliminate the new landlords created under the British regime, destroy their
records, hound them out of villages and seize their lands and attack at all the symbols of British authority
especially the Kutchery (law-court), the tehsil (revenue office) and the thana (the police outpost). Thirdly, the
base of the struggle was the mass of the peasantry and the rural poor while the leadership was in the hands of
the landlords disposed under the British laws. Fourthly, this pattern of struggle fitted into the general pattern of
the 1857 national uprising, the class struggle in the countryside was directed not against the landlords as a
36

THE 1857 UPRISING : BROAD HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

whole but only against a section of them, those who had been newly created by the British under their laws and
acted as their loyal political supporters.

REFERENCE:
1.

MARX, unsigned article, New York, Daily Tribune, July 15, 1857.
2.
NEHRU, op. cit., p. 279.
3.
Quoted by Savarkar, op. cit., pp.534-35.
4.
NEHRU, op. cit., p. 279.
5.
MAJUMDAR, op. cit., p. 241.
6.
S. N. SEN, Eighteen Fifty Seven, pp. 412-13.
7.
JOHN WILLIAMS KAYE, A History of the Sepoy War, vol. I p. 565.
8.
Quoted by Asoka Mehta, The Great Rebellion, p. 42.
9.
FAZLE HAQ, op cit., p. 33.
10.
VIDE TALMIZ KHALDUNS PAPER, The Great Rebellion presented at the symposium held on the occasion
of the centenary of the 1857 Revolt.
11.
METCALFE, op. cit., p. 220.
12.
G. W. FORREST, op. cit., vol. II, p. 150.
13.
BALL, op. cit., vol. II, p. 241.
14.
Quoted by Asoka Mehta, op. cit., pp. 51-52. Also Savarkar, op. cit., p. 444.
15.
M. R. GUBBINS, An Account of Mutinies in Oudh, p. 53.

37

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,38-42


Advance Access publication 3 Dec. 2011

SOCIAL ISSUES
SHIVANGI JOSHI*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Shivangi Joshi the author of the research paper entitled SOCIAL ISSUES declare
that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written it and also have read the manuscript of my
paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my original work and
no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal
to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

It is an irony of history that the Indian National Congress which was originally conceived by Mr. Hume as an All
India National Union to concentrate more or less on social questions, kept itself assiduously aloof, for about
35 years of its existence, from socio-economic questions. During this period it devoted itself almost exclusively
to the attainment of the political objective and touched the socio-economic problems only in so far as they had
a bearing on its politics. Indeed a section of Congressmen, headed by Lokmanaya Tilak was so much against
the intrusion of the Congress into the field of social conference in immediate succession to the National Congress
in the same pandal and in 1895, when the Congress met at Poona, they threatened to burn the Congress
pandal if the Congress allowed it to be used by the Social Conference.1
The Congress barring a few notable exceptions, continued to be so till 1920, when Gandhis advent changed
its entire character. Hence he refused to subscribe to the argument that work of socialreorganization could be
undertaken only after the achievement of political independence. The sooner it is recognized, he told the
congress, that many of our social evils impede our march towards Swaraj; the greater will be our progress
towards our cherished goal. To postpone social reform is not to know the meaning of Swaraj.2 And soon the
Congress was not only resisting and fighting the British rule but also launching a crusade against social and
moral evils and laying the foundation of cultural regeneration by experimenting with a new type of educational
system Gandhi was not merely a great social scientist and social inventor 3 as Gregg describes him, but a man
of a social revolutionary insight and judgement.4 Little wonder that the war which the congress declared
against social evils under his general ship, proved a veritable revolution embracing the removal of untouchability,
the emancipation of women and a crusade against drink evil.

*Dept. of Modern History , K.B.P.G. College Mirzapur (U.P.) India. (Life Time Member)

38
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

SOCIAL ISSUES

Untouchability
The hereditary untouchables were assigned such low functions as those scavengers of removers dead cattalos
and others. They were socially and legally debarred from any other profession. They had no right to study or
enter temples and had to reside in separate areas in village or town and had no freedom to use public well and
tank, which the caste Hindu used, this social operation of untouchables had religious sanction.5
The institution of untouchability was the most painful and difficult social problem with which history has
ever cursed the civilized people. Under the influence of this evil system, Hindus condemned some of their coreligionists, known as, Antayas, Ashprashya of Panchma etc. , to a life of social lepers. The physical touch
or sometimes even the very sight of these unfortunate people was regarded as contamination by Hindus of
higher castes and they were denied such elementary rights as entry to temples, use of public wells and schools
and often even of roads. In short this institution was nothing less than segregation gone mad.6
Before advent of Gandhi, the congress in 1917 under the presidentship of Annie Besant passed a resolution
urging upon the people of India the necessity, justice and righteousness of removing all disabilities imposed by
custom upon the depressed class.7 Then came the great crusade of the Indian National Congress against
untouchability which, conducted under the able guidance of Mahatma Gandhi, constituted the fifth and the
most effective stage of the fight against untouchability because during this stage removal of untouchability,
instead of being a problem of purely social significance, became a part and parcel of struggle for national
emancipation. Among those who fought against the demon of untouchability, Gandhi occupies a unique place.8
Most of the earlier champions of untouchables had attacked untouchability as rebels against Hinduism. Gandhi,
on other hand, tackled the problem, after the immemorial Indian fashion in an in direct way and his eyes were
on the masses. He has been direct enough, aggressive enough, but without challenging the original basic functional
theory underlying the four main caste. He has attacked the rank under growth and over growth, knowing well
that he was undermining the whole caste structure thereby. He attacked untouchability not as rebel against
orthodox Hinduism but as Hindu Mahatma. Time without number he claimed to be a Sanatani Hindu.
Gandhi inaugurated his campaign against untouchability by admitting an untouchable family to his ashram
and adopting their child Lakshmi as his daughter. He was the first to realize the truth that one could not raise
anybody without stopping to lift and decided himself to become a scavenger or a bhangi, the lowest among
Hindu, by cleaning latrines.9 This profoundly affected the Indian masses.
The Congress Working Committee in its resolution passed in 1922 Bardoli advised all congress organization
to work for the betterment of untouchables and persuade the people to allow the untouchables to use the
common walk. In 1923 The CWC appealed to Hindu Mahasabha to- make strenuous efforts to remove the
evil from Hindu Community.10 CWC also sanctioned a grant of Rs.3000 to Indian National Conference for
the removal of untouchability and promotion of temperance and inter community unity.
On 30 March, 1924, the Kerala Congress Committee, with some encouragement from Congressmen
elsewhere, decided to launch a Satyagraha in Vaikom, a village in Travancore, where the road to a temple had
been forbidden to depressed classes. Bills were introduced- one in the Madras Legislative Council and four in
the Central Legislative Assembly regulating the entry of untouchables to the Hindu temples. But all this did not
evoke much enthusiasm among the untouchables.
In 1924 M.K Gandhi in his presidential address to annual session of Congress said- Untouchability is
another hindrance to Swaraj. Its removal is just as essential for Swaraj as the attainment of Hindu-Muslim
unity. This is an essentially Hindu question and Hindu cannot claim or take Swaraj till they have restored the
liberty of the suppressed classes. In 1926 in Gauhati Srinivas Iyenger the Congress president said in his
presidential address-The removal of untouchability was long confined to the platform of social or religious
reform and did not then make rapid progress. Motilal Nehru in his presidential address said in 1928 in
39

JOSHI

Calcutta that no person who refuses to associate with untouchables as his equals should be permitted to
belong to any Congress organization.11
On 3rd January 1929 the Working Committee, at its meeting at Calcutta appointed a sub-committee, headed
by R. Gopalachari, to carry on its crusades against untouchability, which achieved considerable success in
improving the lot of untouchables and securing for them access to wells, temples and schools.12 J.L Nehru
analyzed the problem in its economic context and opened that the social problems can be redressed with
economic solutions. Gandhi objected to inter dining and inter marriage. Gandhiji participated as the sole congress
representative, in the Round Table Conference. At this conference Gandhi came into conflict with Dr. Ambedkar
who demanded separate electorate for the Depressed Classes. Possibility of creating separate electorate for
the untouchables which Ramsay MacDonald had apparently endorsed pained the Mahatma most of all. The
release by Ramsay MacDonald of the Communal Award on 16 August 1932 confined the worst fears of the
Mahatma. In response to the appeal made by Gandhi and due to the efforts of other leaders temples and
public wells throughout India began to be thrown open to the untouchables. He gave them the beautiful and
significant name of Harijans, i.e. the children of God. He worked for next two years for nothing but removal of
untouchability. In Orissa, the movement against untouchability had a special significance. Gandhis famous
padayatra for the Harijan movement began from Orissa in 1934.That had resulted in awakening mass
consciousness regarding the matter.
The work of Congress in 1937 gave a great fillip to anti-untouchability campaign. For the first time Harijans
were given a share in state authority by being appointed as ministers and parliamentary secretaries.

Prohibition
The case of prohibition was advocated on the Congress platform as early as 1889. The serious increase in the
consumption of liquors led to a demand for a policy promoting sobriety and temperance. Prohibition was given
a place of honour in the Congress programme in March 1921. AICC and CWC passed several resolutions for
removing the evils and Congress was confident that the habit of taking intoxicating drinks and drugs will totally
disappear from the land by the persistent and continuous efforts of self sacrificing workers.
Though the picketing was the most common programme of the Congress against drug and liquor but on
11th February 1922 in Bardoli the CWC resolved that-to organize the temperance campaign amongst the
people addicted to the drink habit by house to house visits and to rely more upon appeal to the drinker in his
home than upon picketing. In January 1929 the Working Committee appointed a special committee with C.
Rajagopalachari as its chairman to carry out the programme of prohibition. The achievements of this committee
were substantial enough to attract not only Indian but also International attention. The Civil Disobedience
Movements of 1930s led to a great intensification of prohibition work and picketing of liquor shops became
one of the most important activities of the Congress.13
In UP, the government started working on the policy of prohibition from 1 April 1938 gradually to cover the
whole province. In the central province, prohibition was first introduced in the districts of Sagar, Narsinghpur
sub-division, Akola Taluk and the industrial towns of Katni, Hinganghat and Badnera. A prohibition bill was
passed by the Bihar Legislative Assembly on 26 April 1938. It was modelled on the Madras Bill, giving
government authority to introduce prohibition in selected areas. It was quite clear that there was no genuine
enthusiasm for the cause among the congressmen, and no clear conception of the subject. Referring to prohibition
in the Bombay city, Gandhi declared that the Bombay government was not introducing prohibition but only
shutting down liquor shops. The constitution incorporated prohibition as one of the Directive Principles which
the state was morally bound to honour. At the party level, prohibition occupied an important place. All
congressmen were work to abstain from drinking and the membership of the organization was open only to
one whom abstained from alcoholic and intoxicates drugs.
40

SOCIAL ISSUES

Upliftment of Women
It was widely appreciated that India cannot rise if half the nation less behind and remain ignorant and uneducated.
Indian womanhood was in pitiable condition at the beginning of this century. Both law and religion gave her a
subordinate status in comparison with man. She was denied educational facilities and bartered away in marriage
at a tender age when she knew not what it meant to be a wife. Gandhi stood up against injustice to which Indian
womanhood was being subjected. He declared, Woman is the companion of man, gifted with equal mental
capacities. She has the right to participate in every activities of man, and she has an equal right to freedom and
liberty with him. 14 Before Gandhi, several organizations like Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj etc. raised the
banner of revolt against evils like -child marriage, purdah, dowry etc.
The Congress had a special contribution to make the feminist regeneration. Uplift of women was one of the
programmes of constructive work prescribed by the congress in 1941 for every Satyagrahi. In 1920s Indian
womanhood was in the feminist rearguard, now she is in the feminist vanguard the world over. It would be no
exaggeration to say that, the Indian woman today has more say and influence in her nations affairs than any
woman on earth.

Education
Education was an important part of congress social philosophy. It laid great emphasis on the quantitative and
qualitative expansion of education in the country. The annual session of the Indian National Congress in 1888,
1889 and from 1885 to 1895 passed resolutions requesting the government to increase the expenditure on
education. The Congress prescribed adult education as one of the important items of the constructive programme
for every individual Satyagrahi. The congress also laid great emphasis on the promotion and expansion of
industrial and technical education. Congress again emphasized on the educational policy, which incorporates
physical culture, Hindu Muslim unity and removal of untouchability.
The Congress does not regard any such institution to be national which does not employ some Indian
languages as the medium of instructions and which does not actively encourage Hindu Muslim unity and Education
among untouchables which does not make hand spinning and carding and training in physical culture and self
defence compulsory and in which teachers and student over the age of 12 years do not spin for at least half an
hour per working day and in which students and teachers do not habitually wear khaddar.
Thus the Congress, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi did not only fought against foreign domination,
struggled against, economic misery, crusaded against social evils but also took up the work of educational
reconstruction in order to snap the chains of cultural slavery and to lay down the foundations of a just and
sound social order. It created Hindustani Tagline Singh for the sole purpose of propagating a national system of
education.

REFERENCES
1 B.R AMBEDKAR, What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables, Thacker and co. Bombay,
1946. P-13.
2 Young India. (Ahmedabad), June 28, 1928.
3 R.B Gregg in Radhakrishnan (Ed.), Mahatma Gandhi, Essays and Reflections, 2nd ed., Jaico Publishing
House,Bombay, 1957, p-69.
4
MAHADEV PRASAD, Social Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, Gorakhpur, Vishwa Vidayalaya Prakashan, 1958.
5
A.R DESAI, Social Background of Indian Nationalism, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1987 p-264.

41

JOSHI
6

LOUIS FISCHER, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi, Granada Publishing. London, 1982, p-181.
B.P SINGH, The Indian National Congress and cultural Renaissance, Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 1996,
p-51.
8
IBID. p-149.
9
IBID. p-163.
10
IBID. p-230.
11
A.M ZAIDI, Congress Presidential Address, (1921-1939) Vol. IV. New Delhi, S. Chand and co. New Delhi,
1988. P-348.
12
A.M ZAIDI & S.G ZAIDI, the Encyclopedia of Indian National Congress, Vol. IX, 1925-29, S. Chand and co.
New Delhi, 1980, p-636.
13
P.D KAUSHIK, The Congress Ideology and Program, 1920-1985, Gitanjali Publishing House, New Delhi,
1986, p-165.
14
M.K GANDHI, Women and Social Injustice, Navajivan, Ahmedabad, 1958, p-4.
7

42

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,43-46


Advance Access publication 15 Nov. 2011

TILAK AND INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT : AN OVERVIEW


RITESH KUMAR*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Ritesh Kumar the author of the research paper entitled TILAK AND INDIAN
NATIONAL MOVEMENT : AN OVERVIEW declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself
have written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki
journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication
anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of
Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak represented the forces of extreme nationalism during the freedom struggle of India.
Through his dynamism, dedication and versatile genius, he could be the pathfinder of Indias freedom. His
impressive role as a restless nationalist, a crusader for political freedom, a fearless journalist and a
committed educationalist made him a living force for all time to come. His slogan, Swaraj is my birth
right and I will have it still evokes the revolutionary thoughts and makes the struggle for freedom vibrant.
His years of rigorous imprisonment, indomitable courage to declare war against the British rule, concern
for the downtrodden and identification with the masses made him the first popular leader in Indias political
history. He became truly the darling of India people and came to be adored as Lokmanya. Jawaharlal
Nehru rightly pointed out that the real symbol of the new age was Bal Gangadhar Tilak.1
At the outset, it seems pertinent to note that freedom struggle of India was led by leaders having
different perceptions of their own. Some leaders like Ranade, Gokhale had moderate approach. Aurobindo
Ghosh, M.N. Roy, Bhagat Singh, Khudiram had terrorist approach and some others like Lala Lajpat
Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal had extremist approach; Bal Gangadhar Tilak though initially had moderate mind
but subsequently changed his mind to that of an extremist because he lost faith in British administration.
Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1889. At that time congress leaders adopted the method
of prayer and petitions and restored strong faith in the British sense of justice. Tilak began as a moderate.
During this phase he said that he did not desire to weaken the government but to render it impregnable
to all assaults whether from Russians or nay other foes. He asked for greater association of Indian in the
administration. But later on his impression changed. In 1887 he said for the last twelve years Indians
have been shouting hoarse about their grievances but has no more affected the government than the

*Research Scholar, Deptt. of History, B. R. A. Bihar University Muzaffarpur (Bihar) India.

43
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KUMAR

sound of a gnat. But his real extremism became vivid during the middle of the first decade of this century.
He strongly advocated that political liberation of India lay not in supplication but in self-assertion, not in
submission but in direct action. Political rights, he said will have to be fought for. The moderates think
these can be won by persuasion; we think that they can only be got by strong pressure.2
Tilak realised that the British Raj had caused much harm to the economy of India. The government
remained indifferent to the peoples cause during famine and plague. Tilak as the member of Bombay
Legislative Council lambasted the Government for being indifferent to the mass suffering of the people
during famine. When as a member of the Legislature he was once criticised for plain-speaking he observe
a membership is, as I view it, no sop or gag intended to stop honest and fair criticism. But if it is, I should
certainly give it up rather than consent to draw the curtain over the gross negligence or the palpable
errors of officials however high they may be. Tilaks voice marked the voice of a fearless nationalist and
a spirited extremist who was bent upon the mission of fighting against the British rule. Though he was reelected to the legislature, he resigned as he was jailed for sedition. In 1897, after the killing of Rand, the
Plague Commissioner, in Poona and his assistant Lt. Ayerst, the government blamed Tilak for airing
sedition and violence through his article in the Kesari and the Mahratta. Unfortunately, though three
Indian jurors held that he was not guilty but six European jurors gave different opinion. Tilak was asked
to apologise. This, he refused, saying that his position among the people depend entirely upon his character
and if he was cowed down by the prosecution then living in Maharashtra is as good as living in Andamans.3
He was sentenced to eighteen months rigorous imprisonment. Tilak was the first leader of Indian National
Congress to be imprisoned for sedition.
After being released from jail on the ground of ill health, Tilak jumped into more vibrant political
activism. He wanted to regenerate the spirit of nationalism in the minds of people through religion. He
organised the festival of Ganapati, the Hindu god, to unite the people under one banner. He also started
Shivaji festival and converted it into a national force. He justified the killing of Afzal Khan by Shivaji. But
he was never against the Muslims. Muslim leaders like Shaukat Ali openly admitted his faith in Tilaks
leadership.4
Partition of Bengal came in 1905 during the period of Lord Curzon. In spite of the protest from the
people Bengal partition was made. The moderate policy of prayer and petition had failed. Hence Tilak,
Aurobindo Ghosh, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal voiced their opposition to the policy of Congress
leaders. Tilak visited different parts of the country and called upon the people to get ready for the struggle
for freedom. He asked the people to get ready for the struggle for freedom. He asked the people to
support the extremists for the emancipation of mother India. This was the year, when Tilak emerged as
the national leader, an uncompromising champion of Swaraj.5 He ridiculed the moderate policy of three
ps - Pray, Please and Protest and said that their policy would never be effective. Though he asked the
people to see the examples of Ireland, Japan and Russia and referred to the terrorist methods of Irish and
Russian freedom fighter he never openly advocated violence. But in January, 1907 Tilak declared We
are not armed, and there is no necessity of arms either. We have a stronger weapon, a political weapon
in boycott. He alongwith other extremists started four fold political programmes of Swaraj, Swadeshi,
Boycott and national education.6
Differences between moderates and extremists became bitter day by day. Such differences finally
culminated in a split of the Indian National Congress in 1907 at Surat. Though Tilak wanted unity among
the Congress people but split became inevitable. Since the Congress was in the fold of moderates, Tilak
had to leave the Congress.
But Tilak, whom Valentine Chirol described as the father of Indian unrest, was again imprisoned for
six years on the charge of sedition. The allegation against him was that Tilaks writing contained covert
44

TILAK AND INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT : AN OVERVIEW

threat of mutiny and that his real usage was Swaraj or bombs. First he was kept in Sabarmati jail and
then he was deported to Mandalay jail in Burma. Tilak used his time in the jail for reading and writing.
Since he was not allowed to newspapers, he asked for books like sociology by Spencer, Bible, Rousseaus
Social Contract, Voltaire by Moroley, Tukarams Gatha, Essay on Vedantism by Shrupati, Dasbodh by
Ramadas etc. Here in this jail he wrote the book The Arctic Home of the Vedas and the Gita Rahasya.
But while he was in jail, his wife died. Tilak could not see his loving life partner excepting the telegram
paper which wrote his wife was dead.7
After Tilaks return from the jail, people thronged to his house and shouted slogans like Bal Gangadhar
Tilak Zindabad. The session of the Indian National Congress was held at Madras in December, 1914.
Tilak was requested by Mrs. Besant to attend the Congress. But his was opposed by a section of the
congressmen. Hence Tilak decided to organise his Nationalist party and then enter the Congress as an
organised group. The opportunity came in the year 1916. He rejoined the Congress alongwith his comrades
at the Lucknow session of the congress. He also formed the Indian Home Rule League in 1916 with the
objective of achieving self-government for Indians within British Empire. He preferred this expression
because it was a parliamentary, legal term.8 He wanted to keep the word Swarja undefined to keep
unity among the extremists like B.C. Pal and Sri Aurobindo Ghosh on one hand and the moderates on the
other. He went to London in 1918 to influence the British Government and public opinion in favour of
Indians right to rule themselves in their own country.
After his return on November 6th, 1919, he saw a tremendous change in Indian Politics - the reemergence of the revolt of 1857. The merciless massacre of people at Jallianwala Bagh by General Dyer
led ultimately to the decision of non-cooperation movement. Gandhiji was waiting to know the reaction
of Tilak in the special session of the Indian National Congress to be held at Calcutta9. But Alas ! Lion of
India, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak could not reach the Congress session. Death reached him earlier.
He suffered from an attack of malaria which finally claimed his life on 1st August, 1920.
From the above, it is clear that Tilak was the first mass leader in modern India. His courage, dedication
and conviction made him permanent in the memory of the people. But he was misunderstood for some of
his rigid stand on some common issues. Critics condemned him as a reactionary when he opposed social
reform bills like Age of Consent Bill and education of women by Christians. He was also branded as a
Hindu nationalist and anti-secular when he introduced Lord Ganesh, the Hindu God, as the symbol of
national unity. He was also criticised as a conservative for his reference to old Indian religious scriptures
like Bhagavad Gita and the Mahabharat and Opposition to western culture.
But critics have been overdosed in their criticism. Because a nationalist and revolutionary having faith
in democratic values can never deserve such criticism. Tilak was a realist in the Indian political process.
He was not opposed to social reforms. He was opposed to social reforms brought up by the British
rulers. Reforms in order to be successful should be initiated by the people. Tilak rather was a true social
reformer who suggested reforms in marriage age, prohibition of dowry and alcohol which have been
mentioned earlier. His declaration that he would not recognise even God if he said that untouchability was
ordained by him is even more forthright than Gandhis oft-quoted remark that he would prefer Hinduism
die than untouchability live. He was a reformer in real sense and in real life. He had all sympathy for
Muslim people. Had he been a Hindu fanatic, he would ot have been invited to All India Khilafat Committee
held in Allahabad on 9th June, 1920. He had said He and his party would support whatever action was
unanimously adopted by the Musslmans of India. He argued that in matters of Khilafat, Muslims should
take the lead and Hindus should join them. A number of Muslim leaders including Jinnah, Ansari and
Shaukat Ali had high admirations for Tilak. Tilak was not a conservative. He had supported English
education in India and sent his daughter to English medium school. He himself read J.S. Mill, Herbert
45

KUMAR

Spencer and others. But his upbringing in a Brahmin family had influenced his thought and faith in the
religious teachings of Hindu Shastras. He was a progressive link between the forces of continuity and
change in India.
To conclude, Tilaks fight for Swaraj, crusade against injustice, oppression and tyranny, his endeavour
to create an effective public opinion through newspaper like the Kesari and the Mahratta, his emphasis
on mass education, his concern for the peasants, workers, tillers and the downtrodden, his identification
with the masses, and his call for national awakening in India made him a symbol of nationalism and
liberalism in India. An indepth study will reveal that his nationalism was allergic to emotionalism. He
represented realism in Indian politics. His unique political acumen made him sanguine about his political
techniques. But his realism never led him to support politics of power and violence. He was unlike
Machiavelli and Nietzsche. He as an apostle of humanist realism. Tilaks uniqueness was summed up by
Gandhi in the following tribute.
It is difficult to believe of Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak as dead. He was so much part of the
people. No man of our times had the hold on the masses that he had. He was unquestionably the idol of
the people. A giant among men has fallen. The voice of a lion is hushed. What was the reason of his hold
on his countrymen? His patriotism was a passion with him. He knew no religion but love of his country.
He was the consistency and insistence of the Lokmanya. He will go down to the generations yet unborn
as a maker of modern India. They will revere his memory as of a man who lived for them and died for
them.

REFERENCE
1.

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, The Discovery of India, Calcutta, 1947, p. 295.


2.
DHANANJAY KEER, Lokmanya Tilak, Bhageswar Bhavan, Lord Hardinge Road, Bombay, p.15
3.
SANKAR G HOSH, Modern Indian Political Thought, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, p. 89.
4.
D.R. BALI, Modern Indian Thought, Sterling Publishers, p.97.
5.
N.R. I NAMDAR, The Political ideas of Lokmanya Tilak in Pantham & Deutsch(ed) Political Thought
in Modern India, Sage, New Delhi, p. 115
6.
N.G., JOG, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Publication Division, Govt. of India, p.32.
7.
Vithal Ramji Shinde in Reminiscences and Antedotes about Lokmanya Tilak.
8.
V.P. V ARMA, Modern Indian Political Though, Agarwal Publication, Agra, p.202.
9.
I.M. REISNER, Social and Political Contribution of B.G. Tilak in I.M. Reisner (ed.), Tilak and the
Struggle for Indian Freedom, p.6

46

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,47-51


Advance Access publication 3 Dec. 2011

CONFLICT RESOLUTION - MEANS END AND METHODS


SHIVANGI JOSHI*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Shivangi Joshi the author of the research paper entitled CONFLICT RESOLUTION
- MEANS END AND METHODS declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written
it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This
research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I
authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal
to own the copyright of my research paper.

Social Philosophy is concerned with the validity of social idealist on its constructive or synthetic side. The
character and validity of human organization and social change are judged by the criteria of value. The study of
values being part of philosophical discipline, social philosophy becomes involved with the validity of social
ideals from the point of view of value judgements. Congresss ideal of nonviolence was a new social ideal.
Though to Congress, individual freedom was a value but it also endorsed the unrestrained individualism is the
law of the beast of the jungle. It recognized fully the limitations of the individuals. Congress emphasized the
validity of social ideals as corrective directive and even impelling forces in social evolution. It also recognized
that in every society there is conflict of forces, as the force of industrialization which Gandhiji thought as
contrary force of an economy of self sufficient villages. Non-violence was a social force and the society like a
living entity was extremely influenced by it.
Initially Congress refused to take up the issues of social importance but later on it realized that social reform
was necessary for political unity of Indian people. In 1917 Congress passed a resolution and appealed to
people to remove the social evils which were causes of ill-treat of depressed classes. J.L Nehru in his presidential
address to Congress in 1936 said- Economically speaking, the Harijans have constituted the landless proletariat
and the economic solution removes the social barriers that custom and tradition have raised.1 In other words
Congress looked into the economic aspect of social values and considered it as the biggest hurdle to achieve
the real equality and social honour for the depressed classes.

*Dept. of Modern History , K.B.P.G. College Mirzapur (U.P.) India. (Life Time Member)

47
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JOSHI

The Base and Superstructure


It is well known that Karl Marx and Frederick Engles built a model of changing social formations or social
systems. The essence of this model is to show how the process of contradiction on conflict between the
economic base and the super structure is resolved by means of a revolution establishing a correspondence and
adjustment between the two. This was simultaneously a theory of change, a theory of conflict and theory of
conflict resolution, either peaceful or violent, depending upon the degree of resiliency of the elements holding
together a given social formation.
Philosophy of Congress was different from Marxian view. To the Congress Indian society cannot be analyzed
based on the principle of ownership of the means of production, but on the basis of status and power and
occupation. To Congress, the problem of conflict resolution was one of harmonizing the super structure- the
top layer of the rich, the intelligentsia and the elite- with the requirements of agriculture-based society. Congress
wanted to change the super structure in order to strengthen the base of its conception without following a
pattern of development calculated, to mould the base to suit the interests of the superstructure. As a phenomenon
and as an ethical issue, the means-end conflict touches the core of social philosophy and for that matter, social
philosophy of the congressat a most sensitive spot is the frame of reference of the theories of social action,
underlying modern social and political movements.
Should not the end justify the means? The ethical answer would be contained in the following counterquestion: what will justify the end? it is the means which will justify the end. The importance of violence as
means to social ends, as Gandhi has urged. Arises from the fact that what is denied by violence is the affirmative
principle of the power of consent that sustains society and the state as the organized social power. The power
complex is a reality that rests on a moral basis. Violence is merely an instrument which may be used, within
limits, to sustain it and maintain it, largely as a force held in reserve. It cannot be proved by the fact massive civil
resistance of a nonviolent kind as Gandhi demonstrated, can succeed in the assertion and re-affirmation of the
moral reality of the power of the society or the state. Even if peaceful civil resistance is suppressed by violence
what comes out in the defeat of non-violence is the triumph of non-violent power.2
The technique and strategy of non-violent action, when an attempt is made to change a political or social
system, or to resolve a basis conflict or contradiction in the socio political situation, that has aroused a widespread spirit of resistance, have to be different. Non-violence does not mean passivity. Gandhi described it as
activist force in the world

Revolutions and Violence


In Websters dictionary we get two meanings signifying this primary connotation of revolution: (1). A continued
course; a space of time marked by some cycle or by succession of similar events; the passage of time; a change
produced by time; (2). A rolling or other motion back-ward; the return to a point before occupied. The
revolution is thus a cyclical movement, a rolling back, or the return to a point occupied earlier, or one may think
of Zig- Zag movements-up and downs along a straight line, not necessarily inclined upward to indicate the
nineteenth century concept of progress.
History records three revolutions, the political character of which is emphasised by any analysts. Webster,
for instance while expounding the meaning of revolution speaks of three principal revolutions in terms of their
political characters as follows:
(1) The American Revolution
(2) The English Revolution
(3) The French Revolution

48

CONFLICT RESOLUTION - MEANS END AND METHODS

Congress was working not only for political transformation but also for socio-economic change in the
society. Congress envisioned a society based on non-violence-a transformation strictly through nonviolent
means. Congress used all legitimate means to achieve the goal. Congress chose Non-violent method for
revolution. Gandhiji believed that means and ends can be achieved only through truthful and non-violent
means. To Gandhi non-violence was the essence of Satyagraha. He was not pleading for India to practice
non-violence because it was weak but wanted her to practice non-violence being conscious of her strength
and power.3
It was not that Gandhi was not conscious of Congress antipathy towards non-violence. Indeed he was very
much alive to this fact, and repeatedly laid emphasis on it. The result was a constant struggle inside the Congress
between Gandhi and his non-violence wallas on the one hand and other leaders on the other4. The seeds of this
struggle were visible even in 1920s. From its very beginning the non-co-operation movement was qualified as
non-violent in character. 1934 Gandhi, however, decided to give expression to his dissatisfaction about the
Congress attitude towards non-violence and to get it corrected if possible.

Non-Violence and War


With the gathering of war clouds in 1938 and its actual outbreak in 1939 this question became the most
important issue in the eyes of Gandhi. Gandhi-the prophet overpowered Gandhi the politician. He felt that the
world is looking for something new and unique from India.5 This new and unique thing was the message of nonviolence. From 1938 to 1942 Gandhi made nearly half a dozen attempts to bring the Congress round his
views. But every time he was stoutly resisted and his suggestions were either side-tracked or rejected. The
question was first raised by Gandhiji in September 1938 at the Delhi sitting of the working committee, but the
issue did not assume any serious proportion, then as the Munich Agreement postponed the war. The issue was
raised for a second time at the Wardha meeting of the working committee in August and September 1939.
The question was raised by Gandhi for a third time at Ramgarh Congress, but again Maulana Azad was
successful in persuading Gandhi to postpone the decision. The issue was raised, for a fourth time in June-July
1940 and this time the differences between Gandhi and Congress became so manifested that a rupture, at least
for the time being, between the two became inevitable.
The British Government, however, was not prepared to concede the Congress demands and the Congress
prodigal had to return to the father after wasting his talents-empty handed, repentant, trustful and importunate.
The Bombay A.I.C.C. (15, 16 September 1940) requested Gandhiji to resume the active leadership of the
Congress. This restored harmony between the Congress and Gandhi. Gandhi took up the leadership of the
Congress again and organized the famous individual Satyagraha Movement. But this harmony could not last
long. Thus ended the epic struggle inside the Congress between the forces of non-violence as a policy and nonviolence as a creed with a clear cut victory for the former. After the Bardoli decision of December 1941
Gandhi never raised the issue again and as time passed it became clearer that the Congress acceptance of nonviolence was a matter of mere necessity and not of conviction.
The end, which the congress adopted under Gandhian leadership, was the attainment of Sara which besides
others, had 3 important characteristics; first it was a just and truthful end; secondly it was to be Sara not only
of the classes but also of the masses and as the masses of India were peasants, it was to mean a peasants Sara;
Thirdly it was to be both external as well as internal-externally it aimed at the removal of foreign yoke or at
political independence; internally it aimed at the removal of social, moral and economic ills of the Indian society.
Gandhi found that the world knew no means which could satisfy all these requirements. Hence he devoted
his life to forging a new weapon. The new weapon was Satyagraha. It was based on truth and non-violence
and was capable of being used by physically strong as well as the physically weak.
49

JOSHI

Means- Satyagraha and Non-Violence


Satyagraha literally means persistence for truth. In 1915 Gandhi established his famous Satyagraha Ashram
at Sabarmati and prescribed certain observances for the inmates of the Ashram. He considered these
observances to be the attributes of an ideal Satyagrahi; these as explained by Gandhi himself, were- Truth,
Non-violence, Chastity (Brahmacharya), Control of the palate, Non-stealing, Physical labour, Swadeshi,
Fearlessness, Removal of untouchability and tolerance.

Weapons of Satyagraha
The Gandhian armoury of Satyagraha had many weapons. The most important, were;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Non-co-operation with an unjust Government.


Civil disobedience of unjust laws.
Hartal Gandhi distinguished Hartal from civil disobedience.
Picketing
Fasting
Prayer

Rules of Satyagrahi Warfare


Satyagraha has been hailed as the moral equivalent of war, hence it is but it is natural that there should be
certain moral rules guiding the conduct of Satyagrahi warfare or non-violent direct action. The First rule of
Satyagrahi warfare is that of internal purity. Secondly, the issue must be some serious grievance of the community,
and not a mere private inconvenience and the opponent must have been given the fullest chance to correct
himself, that is, all other remedies must have been exhausted before one resorts to satyagraha. Thirdly, the
demands of the Satyagrahis must be concrete and an irreducible minimum. The Fourth, rule of Satyagrahi
warfare is open dealing or the absence of secrecy and underground activity. Fifthly, the Satyagrahi must be
ready for compromise without surrendering the principles.
Another important rule is the democratic dictatorship of the leader, it is democratic because the followers
have the right to choose and kick out the leader, yet it is dictatorship because so long as the followers acknowledge
a leader they must obey him implicitly.

Method: Swadeshi and Constructive Programme


The method which Congress adopted in the leadership of Gandhi was unique not only because it was based on
non-violence but also because it put almost as much emphasis on construction as on destruction. Western
political revolutions had been mainly destructive. They aimed at the capture of power. All constructive work to
remodel nations life used to be done after the old order was destroyed and power captured. The result was
not one but a series of revolutions before things could settle down and constructive work begun.
The moderates did not like the anti-government lone of the Swadeshi movement but even they did not
oppose is mainly because its popularity with the nation at large and partly because they saw in it a means of
securing countrys industrial development. Swadeshi which Congress accepted in the leadership of Gandhi
was entirely different from this negative and destructive concept.

50

CONFLICT RESOLUTION - MEANS END AND METHODS

Constructive Programme-Concept and Practice


Constructive programme was an integral part of Satyagraha as well as a distinct and independent programme
of national regeneration. It was an integral part of Satyagraha because without it nonviolent direct action could
not be launched successfully. It was an independent programme because it was to be carried out even when
Satyagraha had been suspended and because while there was to be little room for non- violent direct action
after the Independence had been achieved Swadeshi and constructive programme were to supply the foundations
on which the palace of Sara was to be constructed.6
As an integral part of Satyagraha the importance of constructive programme was twofold. Firstly it was to
create those conditions and qualities without which non-violent direct action could not have been a success and
secondly, it was to serve the purpose of an elective or non-violent direct action.
The attitude of the average congressmen towards the constructive programme was, however, just the
reverse, while despite Gandhis protestations they had been enthusiastic towards the parliamentary programme;
they remained, despite Gandhis exhortations lukewarm towards constructive programme.

REFERENCES
1

A.M. Zaidi Congress Presidential Address, (1921-1939) Vol. IV, S Chand & Co., New Delhi, 1988 p 434.
2
B.N. GANGULI, Gandhis Social Philosophy, Perspective and Relevance, Vikas Publishing House, Delhi,
1973.
3
Young India, Ahmedabad, August 2, 1920.
4
P.D. KAUSHIK, Congress Ideology and Program (1920-1985), Gitanjali Publishing House, New Delhi, 1986
p. 220
5
IBID, October 14th 1939.
6
IBID, p. 211-212.

51

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,52-56


Advance Access publication 13 Dec. 2011

SITUATING MAHATMA GANDHI IN MODERN INDIA


RAGHAV KUMAR *

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Raghav Kumar the author of the research paper entitled SITUATING MAHATMA
GANDHI IN MODERN INDIA declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written
it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This
research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I
authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal
to own the copyright of my research paper.

M.K. Gandhi was by common consent one of the greatest leaders Asia has produced in an era of colonial
nationalisms and decolonization, who in his own life time was called a saint and a Machiavellian politician,
and who has become in independent India both a national myth and an embarrassment. Accounts of the
importance of Gandhi in modern India tend to fall into two main categories. There are those who dismiss
him, often regretfully, as an idealist whose utopian plans for a democracy of village commonwealths and
a non-violent society have collapsed in the face of economic and political necessity and the machinations
of unscrupulous politicians. On the other hand, there are those who hail him as the Father of India and try
to draw direct causal connexions between his ideals and many of the major changes which have occurred
in India since 1947, particularly the official abolition of Untouchability and the institution of panchayat raj.
Bearing in mind these types of analyses and their weakness, an attempt has been made in this article to
trace some of the main idea Gandhi put forward and discuss influences, which coincide with or militate
against these ideas, and investigate their fate in modern India.
It needs to be noted that Gandhis ideals have often left little mark on Indian society and politics; and
where they have been influential they have often been distorted in practice by social conditions. What is
left by the Mahatma in modern India is not a social and political reformation, but merely a tiny group of
devoted Gandhians. They believe that the future of India lies with village communities and the end of
party politics and factional strife. Others have caught the public imagination by sounding a note of simplicity
and tradition in a period of rapid change and deviation from traditional paths. In a strange way they
provide a focus for much of the current political discontent in India, even though many of their ideas are

*Research Scholar, Deptt of History B.R.A. Bihar University Muzaffarpur (Bihar) India.

52
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SITUATING MAHATMA GANDHI IN MODERN INDIA

virtually impossible to enact. They are present as a constant reminder of the heroic days of the nationalist
movement, and are a standing critique of any Indian government.
But surely it is to the days of the nationalist movement that we must turn if we are to see the influence
of Gandhi on modern India? Gandhis role as a leader can be described as essentially that of a mediator
between various groups and forces. In the first place, though on occasion not even a Congress member,
he became the acknowledged leader and symbol of the anti-British agitation. As such, he held together a
group of political leaders, mediating between their diverse ideologies and aims. His very rise of power in
1920 was based on this mediatory function.
Congress from its inception until 1920 had been the preserve of educated groups, predominantly
Hindus of high case, who came from the three Presidencies which had been longest under British influence.
They alone were equipped by their education to fence with the raj in western-style institutions for political
power; they alone had the qualifications which would make them the beneficiaries of the concessions of
place and powers in government service and the Legislative Councils which were the heart of their
political demands. Standing outside this tiny, sophisticated world of the professional politicians were vast
groups, areas and communities whose aims might be very different if their political potential was ever
released.
It was this potential which Gandhi began to release in 1920. It was not that Gandhi completely swamped
the older style politicians, but rater that his novel support made him the most dangerous opponent and the
most powerful potentially in the political situation of 1920. Even B.G. Tilak, in the weeks before he died,
was acutely aware that his followers were faced with a critical decision by Gandhis increasing power.
But precisely because of the increasing diversity of those who had begun to participate in politics with
their own particular aims under Gandhis leadership, his mediation between the different groups had on
occasion to be dictatorial. One of the earliest examples of this occurred in June 1920 at a meeting of the
All-India Khilafat Conference, when Gandhi was trying to ride both Hindu and Muslim horses. Congress
had deferred a decision on non-cooperation over the Khilafat issue until the special session in September,
and Gandhis unenviable task was to keep the Muslims sufficiently happy and under his control so as not
to alienate the Hindus by wild speeches or actions. He did this by delivering an ultimatum to the Muslims:
they could have his mediation and a potential Hindu alliance on his terms only, otherwise he would retire.
Both the mediation and the dictatorial tendency were present from then throughout Gandhis career.
There were those who refused to accept both. Most spectacular was the refusal of the Muslim community
after the brief rapprochement with Congress on the Khilafat issue, despite Gandhis insistence that his
lifes work was to bring together Hindus and Muslims. Some Hindus as well turned against him, particularly
those under the influence of Subhas Chandra Bose, and the members of the Hindu Mahasabha. But on
the whole the Hindu politicians preferred to stick together under Gandhi and preserve a united antiBritish front in a Congress which became a coalition of different interests.
In a second way Gandhi was a mediator during the national movement- between the educated, high
caste groups who had moved easily in politics since the late nineteenth century, and the wider social
groups which have moved into politics since the First World War. It is often said that Gandhi was
instrumental in creating mass political awareness and participation in India, and that from 1920 onwards
he harnessed together the feelings of the masses and the ambitions of an elite. As more work is done on
the actual mechanics of Gandhis political leadership it becomes clear that this an over-simplification.
It is quite true that Gandhi moved with ease in the club-rooms of the Indian Bars and the political
associations of the professional politicians, as well as in the market towns and villages, interpreting the
different groups to each other but it was between the politicians and those whom one might call rural and
small town elites that Gandhi acted as political mediator, and rarely between the politicians and the
53

KUMAR

masses. But generally speaking to the really poor and illiterate Gandhis message and appeal was social
and religious. To the more prosperous peasants, and the traders and professional men of small towns his
appeal became more overtly political ; while at the highest levels of political participation he could couch
demands in the language of legislatures and constitutions. It was between these latter groups that Gandhi
acted as a political mediator.
This process can be traced in Gandhis career right from the time when he launched himself into Indian
politics with the Champaran satyagraha of 1917. In Champaran, though he moved through the villages,
his key men were a small group of professional men from Bihar towns, most of whom ere lawyers.
Among them as Rajendra Prasad from Chapra who was to become one o Gandhis chief hencemen in
Bihar. The only one of the group ho had hitherto had much real political experience was Braj Kishore
Prasad, who had been a member of the Bihar Legislative Council, and had attended Congress. Among
Gandhis helpers were also business men from local towns who realized that if Gandhis campaign against
the planting community was successful it might increase their own power and prosperity in the area. Of
the four main peasant leaders; whom Gandhi used, the most prominent was the son of a prosperous
Brahmin cultivator who had personal grievances to vent against the planters. Clearly such men belonged
to a rural and urban elite, and association with them was not political contact with the masses. Similarly in
the Kaira satyagraha of 1918 Gandhis work was not with the poorest peasants, but with the prosperou
Patidar community of this district o Gujarat, while his most important helpers were either Patidars themselves
or lawyers from Gujarati towns, working through the infant political association they had begun, particularly
the Gujarat Sabha, the Gujarat Political Conference and the local branches of the Home Rule League.
Both Patidar and lawyer, Vallabhbhai Patel was the foremost of these associations. The same pattern of
leadership appears in the Rowlatt satyagraha of 1919 and in the non-cooperation movement begun in
1920. in every case Gandhi used a middle group between the masses and the politicians in the role of
political sub-contractor. In Bihar in 1920 this middle group consisted not only of small towns pleaders
but also of muslim religious leaders, particularly the maulvis, who were interested in the Khilafat cause in
Maharashtra the police reported that the ordinary villages understood virtually nothing of what was said
at non-cooperation meetings, but that village officials like the talatis, patels, and shroffs did, and villagers
behaviour would depend on their bidding.
But though Gandhis leadership did not create mass political awareness as is sometimes glibly suggested
without a detailed study of the mechanics of that leadership, his kind of political sub-contracting significantly
extended the range of real political participation both in towns and in the countryside. An interesting
corollary to this is the very recent indication that in some places the rural elites mobilized by Gandhi are
now being displaced or challenged in politics by groups from below them in social and economic ranking
group who were barely touched by Gandhis leadership.
From 1917 onwards Gandhi mediated between the small groups to whom politics had become a
natural activity over several decades and a wider spread of groups who began to be active in politics for
the first time. As he did so her trained a new kind of leader who has risen to prominence in the years since
independence. The Nehrus and Patels of politics urbane, fluent in English, often educated in England or
qualified at the English Bar-are giving way to, or at least needing the assistance of, men like Kamaraj who
until recently spoke no English, the late Prime Minister Shastri who had never left India until he took up
office. This new style of leader is better equipped to represent and understand the rural groups whose
power has increased since the introduction of adult suffrage, and to deal with local party bosses than
were the political leaders of the days when politics were still the preserve of an unban elite. Indias
comparatively smooth transition from elitist politics to a stage of far wider participation in political activity
owes much to Gandhis ability to interpret between different groups and to train new leaders who could
54

SITUATING MAHATMA GANDHI IN MODERN INDIA

tap a wider range of support than their predecessors. This is a political dividend of very great value to an
ex-colonial territory where violence can so easily erupt from the bitterness of social, economic, and
regional divisions if those divisions are reflected in a monopoly of political power.
In a third sphere also Gandhis role was that of mediator in matters of social and political ideology.
Compared with an older generation of politicians who owed much of their political thinking to education
on English liberal lines, and made progress the sober morning-dress affairs that it once was, Gandhi
appeared both in outward appearance and in his attitudes and argument to be far more traditionally
Indian. Indeed this was part of his strength as he stretched out to groups not yet involved in the sophisticated
game of western-style politics. One of the most obvious examples of this was his western education, but
he took care always to clothe these ideas in traditional forms, stressing that varnashrama was a purification
of corrupt Hindu practice, and not a departure from Hindu tradition.
In somewhat the same way Gandhis ideal of an Indian nation, and a good Indian, at first owed much
to examples of nationalism and heroism, from outside India. In South Africa he set himself the task of
uniting the Indian community and educating its members in the qualities he thought made nations great,
using his writings and the columns of Indian Opinion in particular. He drew heavily on the lives of nationalist
leaders from outside India, like Mazzini and Mustafa Kamal Pasha; and exhorted his audience to follow
men as diverse as Oliver Cronwell, George Washington and Florence Nightingale, in the belief that
nations were as great as the people they contained. By the time he returned to India, however, his
writings were orientated far less towards western examples, and his stress fell increasingly on the traditionally
India hence his use of words like Swaraj and Swadeshi, his emphasis on vernacular education, village
communities and the wearing of khadi. This new kind of exposition was part of the ideological structure
he built up round his concept of the supremacy of satyagraha, truth or soul force.
Much of that ideology and the resulting personal idiosyncrasies were rejected in India, but Gandhis
restatement of western political ideals of nationhood and independence in overtly Indian, even Hindu,
terms and symbols was of great psychological importance to the leaders of the national movement. It
removed the sting of the charge the British has always laid against them, that they were denationalized,
representing nothing but themselves, a group of over-educated babus. It also helped to unify the groups
who participated in the movement by stressing the traditional in opposition to the divisions which British
rule and influence had caused or exacerbated. Even in the mundane matters of dress and language, by
dressing the leaders in khadi and exhorting them to speak a vernacular, Gandhi brought them closer to the
rest of the population, appearing to iron out the differences between rich and poor, educated and illiterate.
Literally and metaphorically Gandhi clothed the leaders of modern India in the robes of tradition, and thus
eased Indias passage into the modern world.
In discussing Mahatma Gandhis influence on modern India it is misleading to study his ideals and to
try to see them as legacies left to this country. Society and politics are far too complex to reflect the ideals
of one man, even though he was one of the greatest leaders India has produced and at times even seemed
to personify the Indian nation. Only the collusion of ideals with social and economic pressures can produce
radical change, where the ideal alone is present, in practice it is either forgotten or distorted. This can be
seen in microcosm in the fate of satyagraha and its political application in non-violent passive resistance.
This above all was Gandhis message to India. It was for him the manifestation of a consuming vision of
a non-violent world, as well as a superby adaptable technique for conducting and resolving conflicts.

REFERENCES
P. Mason(ed.) Indian and Ceylon : Unity and Diversity, London 1967, p.295

55

KUMAR

H.P. V ARMA (1959), The Political Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi and Sarvodaya, Agra.
G. ROSEN (1967), Democracy and Economic Change in India (Revised Edition), Berkeley and Los Angeles,
p.64
M. WEINER (1967), Party Building in a New Nation. The Indian National Congress, Chicago and London,
pp. 469-472.
V. CHIROL , India Old and New, London, 192, pp. 201-2
L.I. RUDOLPH & S.H. RUDOLPH , The Modernity of Tradition, Political Development in India, Chicago and
London, 1967, pp. 157-249.

56

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,57-66


Advance Access publication 9 Dec. 2011

CHALLENGES IN WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: INDIAN CONTEXT


DR. LALIMA SINGH*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Lalima Singh the author of the research paper entitled CHALLENGES IN
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: INDIAN CONTEXT declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as
I myself have written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in
Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for
publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the
Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

Empowerment is now increasingly seen as a process by which the ones without power gain greater control
over their lives. This means control over material assets, intellectual resources and ideology. It involves power
to, power with and power within. Some define empowerment as a process of awareness and conscientization,
of capacity building leading to greater participation, effective decision-making power and control leading to
transformative action. This involves ability to get what one wants and to influence others on our concerns. With
reference to women the power relation that has to be involved includes their lives at multiple levels, family,
community, market and the state. Importantly it involves at the psychological level womens ability to assert
themselves and this is constructed by the gender roles assigned to her specially in a cultural which resists
change like India. The questions surrounding womens empowerment the condition and position of women
have now become critical to the human rights based approaches to development. The Cairo conference in
1994 organized by UN on Population and Development called attention to womens empowerment as a
central focus and UNDP developed the Gender Empowerment measure (GEM) which focuses on the three
variables that reflect womens participation in society political power or decision-making, education and
health. 1995 UNDP report was devoted to womens empowerment and it declared that if human development
is not engendered it is endangered a declaration which almost become a lei motif for further development
measuring and policy planning. Equality, sustainability and empowerment were emphasized and the stress was,
that womens emancipation does not depend on national income but is an engaged political process. Drawing
from Amartya Sens work on Human capabilities - The emphasis was that we need to enhance human well
being flourishing and not focus on growth of national income as a goal. Peoples choices have to be enlarged
and they must have economic opportunities to make use of these capabilities. States and countries would

*Reader-Sociology, S.S. Khanna Girls Degree College Allahabad (U.P.) India.

57
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SINGH

consider developments in terms of whether its people lead a long healthy painless life or no are educated and
knowledgeable and enjoy decent standards of living. The intuitive idea behind the capability is twofold according
to Martha Nussbaum (2003) first, that there are certain functions that are particularly central to human life.
Second, that there is something do these in a truly human way, not a mere animal way. The list of capabilities
that she draws is cross-cultural as necessary element of truly human functioning. They include:
1. Life-being able to live to the end of human life of normal length: not dying prematurely, or before ones life is so reduced
as to be not worth living.
2. Bodily health being able to have good health including reproductive health, to be adequately nourished, to have
adequate shelter.
3. Bodily integrity Being able to move freely from place to place, to be secure against violent assault, including sexual
assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sex satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
4. Senses, imagination and thought Being able to use the sense, to imagine, think and reason in a truly human way
including but not limited to literacy. Being able to use ones mind and imagination protected by freedom of expression.
5. Emotions being able to have attachments, to love, to grieve to experience longing gratitude and justified anger. Not
having ones emotional development blighted by fear and anxiety.
6. Practical Reason Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about planning of
ones lifes protected by liberty of conscience.
7. Affiliation Being able to live with and toward others to have social interactions, to have the capability of both justice
and friendship. This would entail freedom of assembly and free speech. Having social bases for self-respect and nonhumiliation, being protected against discrimination on the basis of race, sex sexual orientation religion caste or region.
8. Other species Being able to concern with nature.
9. Play being able to laugh, play and enjoy.
10. Control over ones environment. a) Political. Being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern ones
life, having the right to political participation, protection of free speech and association) Material. Being able to hold
property to seek employment on equal bases and having freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being
able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual
recognition with the workers. These capabilities cover the so called first generation rights (political & civil liberties)
as well as the second generation rights (economic and social rights.

It has been emphasized that women all over the world have been short shifted and have not found support
for their central human functions. Women are capable of these functions given sufficient, nutrition, education
and other support. Women are most often not treated as subjects. Women are as capable as men of exercising
will, controlling desires and taking decisions but males enjoy support of social institutions and women are
excluded as the other. Women are often not treated as ends in themselves persons with dignity who
deserve respect from laws and institutions instead they are treated instrumentally as reproducers, caregivers,
sexual receivers, agents of familys general prosperity. Human development report since 1999 demonstrate
that practically no country in the world treats its women as well as men according to the measures of life
expectancy wealth and education. Developing countries present especially urgent problems where caste and
class result in acute failure of human capabilities of women. Women in this part of south East Asia lack essential
support for fully functioning human lives. Within the country there are many issues to be addressed closely.
GDI: Inter State Comparison The virtues of a measure such as the GDI, which can project the status of
women by encapsulating achievements in three basis dimensions, soon become clear to policy makers. It
spurred efforts to rank States in India by calculating their GDI (Shiv Kumar 1966, Seeta Prabhu, Sarkar and
Radha 1996; Aasha Kapur Mehta 1996; Hirway and Mahadevia 1996). A comparison of the HDI and GDI
reveal that in Punjab, Haryana, Bihar. West Bengal and Rajasthan development has been iniquitous and
women did not get equal share in the development. For Uttar Pradesh which has the lowest HDI rank as well
as the lowest GDI rank, the challenge is to see how men and women can more from being equal partners in
slow development to partners in dynamic growth. Empowerment of women is a commitment for PACS and
some others strategic programmes, while developing strategies for empowering women some programmes are
sensitive to recognizing women s contribution and their knowledge as the first step. The appreciate that
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CHALLENGES IN WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: INDIAN CONTEXT

women require principally social support to fight their sense of inadequacy and fears to enhance their selfrespect and dignity. Empowering women means control over their bodies sand becoming economically
independent, controlling resources like land and property and reduction of burden of work. A society or
programme which aims at womens empowerment needs to create and strengthen sisterhood and to promote
overall nurturing, caring and gentleness. PACS emphasis on emphasis on women SHGs as a collective is one
such efforts. Being conference 1995 had identified certain quantitative and qualitative indicators of women
empowerment. Beijing conference 1995 indicators of women empowerment, qualitative & quantitative
Qualitative:
1. increase in self-esteem, individual and collective confidence;
2. increase in articulation, knowledge and awareness on health, nutrition reproductive rights, law and literacy;
3. increase an decrease in personal leisure time and time for child care;
4. increase on decrease of work loads in new programmes;
5. change in roles and responsibility in family & community;
6. visible increase on decrease in violence on women and girls;
7. responses to, changes in social customs like child marriage, dowry, discrimination against widows;
8. visible changes in womens participation level attending meeting, participating and demanding participation;
9. increase in bargaining and negotiating power at home, in community and the collective;
10. increase access to and ability to gather information;
11. formation of women collectives;
12. positive changes in social attitudes;
13. awareness and recognition of womens economic contribution within and outside the household;
14. womens decision-making over her work and income.

Quantitative indicators:
A. demographic trends maternal mortality rate fertility rate sex ratio life expectancy at birth average age of marriage
B. Number of women participating in different development programmers
C. Greater access and control over community resources/government schemes-crche, credit cooperative, non formal
education
D. Visible change in physical health status and nutritional level
E. Change in literacy and & enrolment levels
F. Participation levels of women in political process Monitorable targets for the Tenth Plan and beyond had certain key
issues related to gender.

All children in school by 2003; all children to complete five years of schooling by 2007.
Reduction of gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least 50% by 2007.
Reduction of IMR to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and 28 by 2012.
Reduction of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to 2 per 1000 live births by 2007 onto to by 2012.
Indias declining sex ratio caused through foeticide, infanticide and systematic neglect requires urgent and
comprehensive action. It is well evidenced that low literacy, endemic under nutrition and social inequality are
closely related gender inequality is a crucial antecedent to endemic under nutrition. Education: Womens education
is extremely important intrinsically as it is their human right and required for the flourishing of many of their
capacities. It is, however, noticed that most programmes for education of girls and women in India have
reinforced Gender roles specially motherhood in curriculum as well as impact of evaluation. The huge study of
nearly 94% of Indias population done by Drez and others looks at female literacy and its negative and statistically
significant impact on child mortality. The questions of power are interlinked and we understand that what is
necessary is both objective power in terms of economic resources, laws, institutional roles and norms held by
others as well as subjective power in terms of self efficacy and entitlements. Empowerment of women is closely
related to formal and informal sources of education. Late 19th century & 20th century reformers advocated
womens education as a principal strategy to answer the t h womens question. Many innovative efforts are
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accelerated after the NPE. In UP a renewal process of correcting gender stereotyping was initiated in 1998
looking at textbooks and training besides infrastructure and community mobilization. There is marked
improvement in girls enrolment and steady decline in drop out rates. Despite statistically positive trends closer
studies show that privileged spaces in classrooms are occupied by boys. Girls are rarely addressed by their
names. Girls sit in last rows in classes of mathematics and rarely muster courage enough to come close to the
board where the teacher sits (usually a male in most remote areas? Private school initiative for gender concerns
is rare Madarsas have large number of girls but like convents and Arya Kanya Pathshalas gender transformation
is not their agenda. Moral science text books still have preponderance of men. Women as agents of social
reform are not mentioned. CSO efforts have very often shown greater enhancement of girls self-esteem but in
many cases there is poor cognitive development generally attributed to low paid, low qualified but highly
motivated instructor. Kanya Vidya Dhan, free uniforms, mid-day meal, school attached crche, mothers meetings
have all had positive results. In various surveys conducted by ISST it has been apparent that parental apathy or
opposition to girl child education is fast reading even in traditional male dominated states of north Indian.
Given the right infrastructure-schools located in neighbourhoods, preferably with female teachers parents
would allow girls to study as long as they would like to. It may however be noticed as evidenced by researchers,
the same families who are willing to see girls in college react violently if the girl decides to choose her partner in
marriage or challenge other norms of feminine behaviour. Health: 2005-06 National Family Health Survey
(NFHS 3) conducted through 18 research organizations between 2005 December and August 2006 provides
us with several important data based insights not provided by earlier surveys. There has been a steady increase
in institutional delivery percentages from NFHS 1 to 3 from 26 to 41 the increase in rural from 17 to 31 is
more promising than urban from 58 to 69. Overall fertility rate has declined from 3.4 to 2.7. The states of
Punjab and Maharashtra have reached the replacement level of fertility, i.e. around 2 children per woman.
Women in Chhattisgarh and Orissa are expected to have an average of about 2.5 children at current fertility
rates. The urban areas in five states studied by NFHS, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa and Punjab
have reached below replacement level fertility. There is a difference between the fertility of women with no
education and those with 10 or more years of schooling. Trends in antenatal care have remained more or less
constant in NFHS 1 and 2 between rural and urban women but have increased from 65 to 77% total. The
five state study shows regional imbalances in post natal care from only 23 per cent in Chhattisgarh to 54-59 per
cent in Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat more than 40% ever married women and about one third men in
Orissa and Gujarat are thin for their height, under nutrition is much lower in Punjab (12-14%) obesity is the
major problem in Punjab 38% women are overweight. Overweight or obese women percentages has increased
in the last 7 years from 16 to 20 per cent in Gujarat from 12 to 17 per cent in Maharashtra and from 4 to 7 per
cent in Orissa. The extent of overweight is greater in women than men. Overall 14.8% women are obese.
Except in Punjab in the other states more than 50 per cent of the children of women without any education
are underweight. The percentage of anaemia ranges from 38% in Punjab to 63% in Orissa. Anaemia prevalence
is alarming among pregnant women 57.9 which is more than last recorded 49.7%. 33% of women still have
BMI below normal, which has declined from 36.2. IMR has gone down but gender differences persist. This is
true also of under 5 mortality. Life expectancy of women however stands a level higher than that of men. From
1961 to 2001 both in total population as well as in the population of 0-6 there has been a decline in sex ratio
from 943 to 935 and 976 to 927 respectively. There is a fear that overall reduction of state resources in the
welfare sector and specially less than 1% investment in health is going to exacerbate the existing gender bias in
society. Political Participation: Womens political participation has been considered a major measure of womens
empowerment. Globally, through histories of the world we have records of very few regents, sovereigns, and
active agents in nobility who were women. Champions of liberalism like John Stuart Mill had advocated
womens participation in governance by the struggle for women suffrage in the self avowed liberal west very
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CHALLENGES IN WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: INDIAN CONTEXT

well illustrates the entrenched nature of Patriarchical resistance to womens empowerment. In the last century
more women heads of state could be counted in Asia as compared to Europe and the struggle for women
suffrage in India was physically less violent but this is not reflective of greater acceptance of women in decisionmaking in public spaces. To measure womens empowerment now GEM takes 3 indicators, womens
participation in economic, political and professional activities. Within political power what is measured is mainly
women in parliament, judiciary or in local bodies. Womens empowerment or disempowerment has to be seen
in all areas physical, socio cultural religious, political legal and economic. It is also now often pointed out that
womens empowerment must be seen as a process where in we must consider womens awareness
consciousness, choices with live alternatives, resources at their disposal, voice, agency and participation.
These are all related to enhancement of womens capabilities and decisions they take individually or collectively
for themselves. Several programmes in India like Mahila Samakhya have accepted the process nature of
womens empowerment. The understandings of empowerment in PACS has also been similar but planning of
activity, time and budgets to ensure the empowering processes need greater scrutiny. Womens education,
livelihood and personal exercise of agency have to be systematically promoted .The 73and 74 Amendments of
the Constitution have impacted nearly 600 million Indian people in 500,000 villages. Interestingly the percentage
of women at various levels of political activity have risen from 4-5% to 25-40%. Both nationally as well as at
the state and local levels women in elected bodies have been very few and even those who have been elected
when observed from closer quarters present a complex picture. The money and muscle associated with the
electoral process inhibits a large number of women from joining politics. Restriction on mobility, lack of control
over resources and low literacy rates are well known obstacles but recent panchayat elections have evidenced
a phenomenally large number of elected leaders much beyond reserved 33% seats. Areas where PACS,
Mahila Samakhya or other CSO initiatives are working women are more articulate and vigilant and have used
opportunity to improve ICPS centres, primary schools sanitation and have also publicly dealt with issues of
misbehaviour with girls, violence and alcoholism as well as sensitive issues of widowed women dressing in
coloured clothes. Women are increasingly demanding not only basis but also land literacy and fuller longer
trainings instead of being short changed through orientations. It is obvious that a more active Gram Sabha
which is sensitive to womens specific issues is a much desired goal as a woman sarpanch or BDC member in
a gender hostile panchayat may not be able to accomplish and sustain much for the benefit of women or the
village community at large. More women in grass root organizations; better law and order will ensure better
engagement of women in decision-making. More than one million women have now entered political life in
India and 43% of the seats are occupied by them district, province and national level. Womens participation
is understood in terms of voter turn out, number of women contestants apart from the number of those who
succeeded in winning an interesting study sponsored by State Planning Commission in U.P. 2006 about 45%
women both rural and urban reported being influenced by men of the family (father/husband) in decisionmaking in the exercise of their ballot. 9 per cent reported external influence while 46 per cent exercise independent
choice. However, the battle to make the PRIs affective instruments of local rural governance is a battle, a
struggle of the grass roots, population (women and men) against administrative apathy and listlessness, against
ignorance and low awareness. For women these odds are accompanied and intermeshed with deep rooted
patriarchal practices that determine and sanction norms of speech and behaviour both within and outside the
home. Thus while Pre election trainings of voluntary organisations and CSVOs serve to build awareness about
the duties, responsibilities of PRs and about voting practices, the presence and working of womens voluntary
organisations at the grass roots have served to sharpen womens understanding about the operation of patriarchy
in personal lives and work places and the methods and practices to overcome and combat them individually
and collectively. Organisations such as Mahila Samakhya working to conscientise and organise women in
groups and sanghas are able to address the issue of women and their participation in a two fold manner. On the
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one hand they organise intensive training programmes for women PRI representatives to make them effective
functionaries and on the other hand there own programmes with their members within there collectives serve to
build a culture of questioning, critical thinking, collective decision-making and mobilisation on public issues, a
mobilised community of women is thus able to raise issues of significance to the local community within the
meetings, demand accountably from representatives and administrative officials regarding financial and procedural
matters and intervene with creative suggestions. It is thus that the dominance of patriarchy money power, party
politics muscle power are steadily undercut and eroded and womens concerns are gradually pushed to the
forefront of local politics. Drawing from intensive discussions at the level of sanghas and mahasanghas and the
experiences culled called from functionaries and from trainings, Mahila Samakhya has drawn out methods to
strengthen womens participation in the Panchayats. A memorandum incorporating these has been presented
to the Panchayat Raj Department. It states :

It is imperative to inscribe the budget for the village on the Panchayat Bhawan.
There should be rules and strategies to train and activate women members who have been elected to the post of
Pradhans or members.
There should be strict rules for ensuring the participation of 2/3 voters in the open meeting.
the signatures of the people in the executive register of the open meeting should be ensured.
It should be compulsory for the Pradhan/Secretary to sit in the panchayat Bhawan.
The development plan should be widely disseminated so that it can reach the general public.
The dates and time of the panchayat meetings in the state of U.P. should be decided in advance.
The venue of the meeting should be either the Panchayat Bhawan ofr a public place, to enable all Gram Sabha members
to present their problems.

Thus it is apparent that women see effective and efficient functioning of panchayats closely linked to the
issue of active womens participation. (Mahila Samakhya U.P. Annual Report 20045-05. Entry into public
space, utilisation of authority in practice, trainings by government and non- government agencies are all part of
a process of gradual growth of knowledge, self-esteem and empowerment, which gives women the agency to
function effectively in the political process. Even proxy and dummy candidates may experience this process of
empowerment women who stand and win from general seats are more likely to have a higher commitment
towards, and an understanding of the political process. Having a high participation of women at the local self
government level can create an environment which is enabling for other women, receptive to the idea of gender
based initiatives and can serve to monitor and implement community and gender based programmes of the
government related to education, nutrition and health. It offers a potential opportunity which can be utilised at
an optimum level by appropriate trainings both capacity binding and information enhancing by government
departments and the NGO Sector. Decision-Making: In terms of decision-making NFHS II had reported in
the rural areas women take 71% decisions regarding what items to cook 26% decisions regarding obtaining
health care for herself 10 % in purchasing jewellery or other major household items. 12% decisions were taken
by women with reference to staying with their parents or siblings and 37% about how to spend money, which
they had earned. In the urban areas these figures were 71%, 35%, 13%, 18% and 57% respectively. Women
between ages 15 to 19 nearly 24% are not involved in any kind of decision-making only. 14% do not ask
permission to go to the market. In rural sector 10% are involved with any decision-making and 74% need
permission for going to the market. In urban sector however only 7% are not involved with any decisionmaking and 53% need permission for going to the market. Survey reports that of the 52% illiterate women
74% of urban resident and 55% of rural resident have access to money. Small studies on elected Panchayat
leaders show episodic increase of their decision-making in personal, social and political spaces. Studies of the
NFHS scale are necessary to retrieve such data specially in PACs programme areas. This could be done with
reference to internal lending of SHGs as well as leveraging through other agencies in terms of both economic
status enhancement and their decision- making. Interestingly some studies reflect that womens working outside
62

CHALLENGES IN WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: INDIAN CONTEXT

home in paid job does not always translate into appreciably greater autonomy within the household for most
women. In a sample study at Sonipat and Noida 66% need to consult somebody and take permission before
changing jobs 27.6% women in Noida and 35.3% in Sonipat said they are allowed to buy nothing at all.
Working outside home women do believe that they have more experience (91.6%), enlarged social networks
(48.3%) and stronger personality (32.2%) and an increased self esteem 985.3%) besides their decisionmaking power (62.2%). The researchers however observe that objective state of affairs do not bear this out
and womens decision-making is concentrated to making small purchases. In buying and selling assets they
have no say. Methodologically here there is a dilemma about privileging of perspective that of the respondent
or that of the urban middle class educated researcher. This is particularly pertinent as the sense of being
empowered is also importantly about feeling empowered. Self Help Groups: PACS programme has largely
utilized SHGs as an empowering instrument. More than 80% of these are exclusively for women. The fifth
national synthesis report (Draft) reports that Official perception has changed as SHGs are firmly raising
voices and SHGs are being used to achieve RTI awareness:
Women members are elected as PRI representatives.
SHG/PRIs are regularly organising Gram Sabha as a forum for public appraisal.

Anecdotal accounts suggest that women are economically empowered those suffering domestic violence
are given legal reference and awareness to prevent child marriage promote girls education and prevent dowry
marriage and alcoholism. Self-help groups have emerges as an important strategy for empowering women and
alleviating poverty. SHGs are based on idea of dialogic small groups, which shall function at developing
collective consciousness. Linked with micro credit these groups are able to access credit and subsidy to meet
crisis needs as well as developmental needs reducing their dependence on money lenders. There is fair amount
of evidence to suggest that PACS SHGs have successfully ensured peoples entitlements including women.
Statistically PACs initiatives in realizing entitlements show that In Balika Samriddhi Yojana 189 females
have been benefited realizing 2572400 Rs. in Employment Guarantee Scheme 55397 women have been
provided, 1271 girls enrolled and 9524 women provided Indira Awas Yojna. Kanya Vidya Dhan has been
availed by 131 girls while Mahila Samridhi Yojana has benefited 7 women. Maternity benefits have reached
2943 women and NFE educated 862 women. Old age pension went to 7774 women while no woman
benefited from the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna. Sam Vikas Yojna benefited 975 women compared to 467
men Bridge courses benefited 740 girls. Widow pension was ensured to 2948 wome and 217 women get
yellow cards. The realization of entitlements has been primarily through RTI, NREGS and the women further
train communities. in Jharkhand a large number of women were trained in social audit. In total number of
beneficiaries of entitlement 13342 women in Bihar 156217 in Jharkhand 19906 women in Maharashtra 18762
in M.P. and Chhattisgarh and 55114 in U.P. were reached. Men have however benefitted more except in
Bihar.Violence: The questions regarding crimes against women are most entrenched, as most of them are
committed within the family NCRB records that the highest percentage of crime against women is torture
(37.7%) followed by Molestation (22.4%), Rape (11.8%), Kidnapping (8.8%) and immoral traffic (3.7%).
4.6 Dowry Death and 6.5% eve teasing were recorded. the further details report that in victims of rape 532
were below 10 and 1090 below 14. 3189 within ages of 30-50. No age is safe for women. In U.P. nearly
32% crimes against women were committed within the family by husbands and relatives. This figure when
compounded with 12% dowry deaths makes 45% of crimes domestically located. Incidents of honour killings
and battery through not large are often threats to womens functioning and their emotional development is
severely blighted. In caste ridden society womens caste membership increase her vulnerability. Small efforts to
train police by UN agencies and state initiatives are encouraging but very small in scale. They require followups and support monitoring. Women and Work: Womens work is statistically less visible non monetized and
relegated to subsistence production and domestic side this accounts for 60% of unpaid family work and 98%
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of domestic work. The non paid work includes domestic chares like cooking, cleaning, child care and care for
the elderly and the handicapped-traditionally understood as womens work. Subsistence activities like pitches
gardening post harvest processing, feeding farm hands, live stock maintenance, gathering of fuel, forest produce,
unpaid family labour in family farm or enterprise are done by women who are reported to be non working
housewives Census estimates 51.93% men & 25% women workers while NSS estimates 52.7 male and
25.68 female workers. Most men are in stable employment. Micro studies report many challenges 20 out of
104 women reported in a survey as non working were actually winnow wing, thrashing or parboiling (WB).
S. Mukhopadhyaya in her study reports 4 times more work participation in her study. Female work
participation rate in U.P. is reported as 11% with a Gender gap of 52% equal to. West Bengal but less than
Punjab. 56% women are in community service 17% in Manufacturing & 8.6 rural women in agriculture. Only
4% women as against 10% men are in the formal sector. If womens work is rendered visible specially unpaid
household work there will be many dramatic results. Studies show that working women but 664 hours &
others put 872 hours on child care, womens share of work in 55% womens unpaid work is 51% while mens
is 33%. R. Malathys extrapolation estimates 23,773 core as the value of womens household reserve rendered
by women in the urban sector alone. From 17% womens contribution will increase to 33% of agricultural
earning will include unpaid household work. Restriction on womens mobility, complete child care responsibility
ideology of female seclusion, vulnerability to abuse, low access to information and mass media, low literacy,
assumption that womens supplementary and confinement to largely manual untrained tasks leads to womens
poor access to income. Women and Reforms: It is often argued that economic reforms have had a differential
gender impact but there are further complexities. The reforms have meant more openness in trade regime and
progressive decontrol of domestic production sector. There seems a steady withdrawal of state presence from
the production sector arguing that this would promote greater efficiency and accountability. There has however
been much protest that this will leave labour more vulnerable as profit motive alone drives the market. Market
argue that since women are crowded towards the bottom end of labour market they will be more adversely
impacted. The 55 round of National Sample Survey organization (1999-2000) generally reflects that over t h
the years specially in urban areas gender differences in the structure of industrial and occupational distributions
and distribution of labour status categories seems to have lessened. There is higher demand of female labour in
some sectors which can be linked to a thrust towards export orientation and deregulation in the domestic
production sector. According to Swapna Mukhopadhyaya changes in structure of job opportunities have not
translated into overall reduction in the degree of market segmentation along gender lines. There is marginal
decrease in employment of men and marginal increase for women in urban India. Educated women in the
labour market who are unemployed are for more than their male counterparts 62.7% unemployed women in
rural areas as compared to 56.9% men. It seems IT enabled sectors in recent years may have benefited
educated women. There is not enough reliable data but persistently low wages of women to the tune of 50% to
80% compare to men suggest systematic wage discrimination. Wage earnings in casual female workers in
1999-2000 were 64.70% of corresponding male earnings in rural India are even lower at 60.57% in urban
India. 2005 HDR reports that women spend 457 minutes at work as compared to 391 minutes per day for
men. Ownership of Land: A recent legislation of the Central Government, the Hindu succession Amendment
Act 2005 has also moved towards womens equality in property rights. It makes Hindu womens inheritance
rights in agricultural land legally equal to those of men. All daughters including married daughters age Copartners in joint family properly daughters now have the right to claim partition and to become Karta.
All daughters, married or unmarried can reside, seek partition of the parental dwelling place. This law of the
centre well have the power to displace any conflicting laws of the state which are unequal to women. this is a
far reaching message to assure women control over property. According to a recent study made by Bina
Agarwal in Kerala, womens risk of physical violence from husbands is dramatically less of they own hand or
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CHALLENGES IN WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: INDIAN CONTEXT

a house. The incidence of violence is 49 per cent among women without property, but 18 per cent among land
owning women and 7 per cent of they own both land and house. Recent initiative of the state of U.P. (ordinance
of 23 Feb. 2006) regarding the reduction of stamp duty on the purchase of land from 7 per cent 6 per cent has
worked in the direction of more land being bought in the name of women in the family. This transfer of asset in
favour of women though initially used by male members of the family to save family money will gradually
contribute to build womens agency. 2,97715 transactions have been done in the name of women in 68
districts of Uttar Pradesh between April 2006 and August 2006. The women move out of their homes to sign
the papers in Tehsils and in many cases it is their first exposure to an office. This initiative developed with
womens trainings on legal, land and human rights literacy will go a long way. However, this effectiveness is
greatly linked with the willingness of the state administration to devolve effective administrative and financial
power to the local self-governing units, and the responsiveness and sensitivity of the lower echelons of the
administrative machinery to the aspiration and needs of the local population. Alcohol has not favoured women
and increase in indirect taxes has also impacted them poorly. The thrust of budgets also seems to push people
to private providers. Government schemes could be seen as Relief policies like widow pension schemes.
Gender reinforcing assistance like mother support schemes in health and Empowering schemes for
women to demand and enjoy full human rights. State Initiatives: Development writers are so often used to
repeating that focus of women development in India has shifted from welfare in the 50s to development in the
70s and now to empowerment. This is hardly borne out in the programmes on the ground. There are largely
schemes for relief like old age and widowhood schemes and major schemes related to Gender reinforcing
assistance related to reproduction National Institute of Public Finance and Policy undertook the first gender
budget exercise and categorized expenditure in 3 categories. National Institute of Public Finance & Policy
Gender Analysis of the Budget NIPFP undertook the first gender budget exercise and categorized expenditure
in 3 categories.
1. Specificallya targeted expenditure on women.
2. Pro women allocation composite expenditure in the women component (at least 30%).
3. Mainstream expenditure with gender differential impact.
It was understood that public expenditure can be clustered in terms of 4 categories:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Protective and welfare services accounting for 67%


Social service-education, water housing health 26%
Economic resources-self employment training fuel supply management 4%
Regulatory services awareness generation NCW 3%

Allocation for women directed scheme is pitiful. Only ten ministries/Departments have specially targeted
schemes for women in India. The share of women specific programmes in departments like education, agriculture,
tribal affairs and social justice is also only around one percent. No proper administrative mechanism for execution
and monitoring of expenditure. Heads still under rubric of benefits for mother and child. Shelter homes and
counselling centres are still low on priority. NIPF observed that reduction in cost of foreign liquor has not
positively impacted them. It is, however, necessary that even though schemes are relief oriented the process of
accessing them has often been an individual and collected struggle which has sometimes led to empowerment
and at others disheartening. PACS strategy of collective pressure to access public resources for women has
largely been empowering though anecdotal. There are several critical issues to ensure a just an equitable state
with reference to gender. Some issues are not addressable due to procedural limitations of data collection
which makes specific recommendations difficult. There is need to develop a workable gender audit system for
govt. & CSO programmes which would look at targets, training recruitments promotion, infrastructure and
decision making opportunities. The verbal change from women welfare to women rights needs to be converted
into reality. This has some direct fall outs. Pitiful allotment for Vriddha and Vidya Pension and minimum wages
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SINGH

will have to be reconsidered in terms of living wages, recent work and human right to opportunities for highest
form of physical and mental health. Greatest inequity exits in family but poverty alleviation schemes address
only the family. Just as one poverty calculation takes per capita consumption it should also address per capita
income enhancement not family. Gender budgets need participation of other departments besides the existing
ones. Gender auditing of all organizations is necessary. As is evidenced in many studies level of awareness of
government schemes is very low so more effective publicity is necessary. A more effective MIS system for
monitoring women welfare, women empowerment programmes is to be developed which is simple, transparent
and involves both government and non government functionaries. Gender resource centres with autonomy
need to be established in all states and in case of larger states there must be more than one such centre involving
academic & activities. Practically no schemes exist to encourage women in non stereo typical occupations.
Training of women in leadership market research and entrepreneurship with follow ups must be institutionalized.
At the national as well as state levels we need a full fledged mechanism to ensure gender sensitive policy,
implementation through a participatory apex body. Clearer definition of work, Joint Pattas for women & men
will ensure better control of women over resources as well as their acknowledgement in National income.
Countrys inclusive agenda requires a consistent engendering at all levels.

REFERENCES
GAAG N V (2005), Womens Right , Rawat Publication, Jaipur.
HUDSON, k (1970), The place of women in society, Ginn, London.
JHUNJHUNWALA, B (2004), Indian approach to women empowerment, Rawat Publications, Jaipur.
KYNCH, J. & SEN , A (1983), Indian women: well being and survival, Cambridge Journal of economics.
KALIA H L (2005), Women work and family, Rawat publication, Jaipur.
KARLEKER, M, (2004), Domestic violence in Handbook of Indian sociology, Edited by Veena Das, Oxford
publication, New Delhi.
MISRA , K. K. (2007), (ed) Recent studies on Indian women, Rawat publication, New Delhi.
PAKRASI, KANTI B (1970), Female infanticide in India, Temple press, Calcutta.
SEN, A (1987), Gender and cooperative conflicts, Harvard institute of economic research.

66

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,67-69


Advance Access publication 4 Nov. 2011

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL MATURITY OF


TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL GIRLS IN ODISHA
DR. B.K. MOHANTY*, DR. D.K. MOHAPATRA** AND S.P. KATUAL***

Declaration
The Declaration of the authors for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: We, B.K. Mohanty, D.K. Mohapatra and S.P. Katual the authors of the research paper
entitled COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL MATURITY OF TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL GIRLS IN
ODISHA declare that , We take the responsibility of the content and material of our paper as We ourself have written it and also have read
the manuscript of our paper carefully. Also, We hereby give our consent to publish our paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper
is our original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else.We authorise the
Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. We also give our consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own
the copyright of our research paper.

Abstract
The investigator has attempted to study the Emotional and Social Maturity of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls. For this
purpose 650 class-IX students in the district of Mayurbhanj, Odisha has been taken as the sample. The Emotional and
Social Maturity Scale Scores has been administered to know the Emotional and Social Maturity of the Students. Data
has been analyse by the t - test. The findings indicates that, Significant/ Insignificant.

Introduction
Article 46 of the Indian Constitution lays down a directive principle of State Policy. It provides that, the state
shall promote with special care the education and economic interest of Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes,
and shall protect them from social injustices and all form of exploitation.
Article 275 provides for the grant of special funds by the Union Government to the State Government for
promoting the welfare of the Scheduled Tribe and for providing them with better administration.
Since Independence, there is no doubt that women education in India is in progress but still it is lagging
behind when compared to other countries. Still millions of women are deprived of this basic right. Some
greater thinkers opinion that, the progress of women education is not satisfactory due to socio, economic,

*Reader, C.T.E., Balasore (Odisha) India.


**Reader, B.J.B. Autonomous College, Bhubaneswar (Odisha) India.
***Lecturer in Education, S.M. Degree College Manida, Mayurbhanj (Odisha) India.

67
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

MOHANTY, MOHAPATRA AND KATUAL

cultural and political factors. It is observed that literacy percentage of Tribal Girls is less than the Non-Tribal
Girls. The investigator has selected the problem to study the Emotional and Social Maturity of Tribal and
Non-Tribal Girls.

Objectives of
1. To Study the Emotional and Social Maturity of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.
2. To Study the Emotional and Social Maturity of Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.
3. To Study the Emotional and Social Maturity of Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.

Hypotheses
1. There is no significant difference the Mean Emotional and Social maturity Scale Scores of Tribal and NonTribal Girls.
2. There is no significant difference the Mean Emotional and Social maturity Scale Scores of Rural Tribal and
Rural Non-Tribal Girls.
3. There is no significant difference the Mean Emotional and Social maturity Scale Scores of Urban Tribal and
Urban Non-Tribal Girls.
Methodology: Descriptive Survey method has been followed for the study.
Sample of the Study: The sample of the prsent study consisted of 650 Ninth grade students from twenty eight
(28) high schools in the district of Mayurbhanj, Odisha.

Analysis of Data and Interpretation of Results


i) Study the Emotional and Social Maturity of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.1 t- test between Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls on mean Emotional and Social Maturity Scale Scores.
Category of Girls

Mean

S.D.

Tribal
Non-Tribal

46.855
50.202

11.3
9.78

465
185

t- value
3.764

Result
Significant at 0.01 level

Result: From the Table 4.1, it was observed that the t value is significant at 0.01 level. It means the mean
Emotional and Social Maturity Scores of Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
ii) Study the Emotional and Social Maturity of Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.2 t - test between Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls on mean Emotional and Social Maturity Scale
Scores.
Rural Category

Mean

S.D.

t- value

Result

Tribal Girls
Non-Tribal Girls

50.074
57.117

10.24
10.13

435
130

6.943

Significant at 0.01 level

Result: From the Table 4.2, it was observed that the t value is significant at 0.01 level. It means the mean
Emotional and Social Maturity Scores of Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
iii) Study the Emotional and Social Maturity of Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.3 t test between UrbanTribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls on mean Emotional and Social Maturity Scale
Scores.
Urban Category

Mean

S.D.

t- value

Result

Tribal Girls
Non-Tribal Girls

50.833
52.228

10.56
10.45

30
55

0.584

NotSignificant

68

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL MATURITY OF TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL GIRLS IN ODISHA

Result: From the Table 4.3, it was observed that the t value is not significant. It means the mean
Emotional and Social Maturity Scale scores of Urban Non-Tribal Girls and Urban Tribal Girls are similar.

Findings of The Study


After careful analysis of the collected data and interpretation of the result, the following finding were obtained.
1. The Mean Emotional and Social Maturity Scale scores of Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the
Tribal Girls.
2. The Mean Emotional and Social Maturity Scale scores of Rural Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that
of the Rural Tribal Girls.
3. The Mean Emotional and Social Maturity Scale scores of Urban Tribal Girls are Similar.

Recommendation
Some of the recommendations about the present study are given below :
i) The study of Emotional and Social Maturity of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls is essential for defining the learners problems.
ii) Orientation training programme given to teachers for solving the Tribal Girls problems.
iii) Trained teachers are to be appointed by the Government as well as other agencies running tribal schools for teaching to
tribal students.
iv) Required teachers recruitment from scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes categories.
v) Teachers and Government understand the Social system of the Tribal People.
vi) Residential schools including Ashram Schools should be established on a large scale for the Tribal Girls.
vii)The Curriculum of education should be designed so as to create an awareness of the rich cultural heritage and to
develop their creative talent.
viii)Co-operate to Tribal Girls for their development.
ix) Advance programmes as to be launched to solve the problems of Tribals.
x) More appointment Opportunities given to Tribal Girls.
xi) Appointed to Tribal language teachers.

Educational Implecations: The present studys maximum problems solve by the Teachers, Parents, Curriculum
Designer, Text Book writer, Administrators, Headmasters, etc.

69

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,70-73


Advance Access publication 30 Nov. 2011

A STUDY OF AWARENESS LEVEL OF GRADUATE STUDENTS


TOWARDS FEMALE FOETICIDE: A THREAT TO NATURE
DEEPAK SHARMA*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Deepak Sharma the author of the research paper entitled A STUDY OF AWARENESS
LEVEL OF GRADUATE STUDENTS TOWARDS FEMALE FOETICIDE: A THREAT TO NATURE declare that , I take the
responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully.
Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or
its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify
and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

Abstract
India being a traditionally religious country, People have deep faith in religion. They are bound to their traditional
beliefs and one common faith being, there must be one male boy in the family who can perpetuate generations. The desire
for male child is insanely common among people. Due to this desire, Female infanticide has become a common phenomenon
in our country for a very long time. Sex selective abortion is a fairly recent phenomenon but its roots are merged in Indian
society since ancient time. Britishers made Infanticide Act in 1870 against this but it could not be enforced in the country
in a very effective manner. This inhuman practice continues even today though we feel proud to say that we are highly
educated and civilized. All has been happening due to advancement of science and technology. We are threatening
nature & its ways. This paper highlights the serious aspects of the problem which is creating a skewed sex ratio.

Introduction
India being a land of rich traditions, Religion is part of peoples life. It is considered as an integral part of all its
traditions. Worshipping deities plays a significant role in every aspect of human life in the country. It is believed
in philosophy of Manu, a man has to be reborn as a man to attain Moksha. A man cannot attain Moksha unless
he has a son to light his funeral pyre. It is also said that a woman who gives birth to only daughters may be left
in the eleventh year of marriage. This concept has changed the ideology of Indian people. The Indian society,
in the modern age, due to ignorance and lack of education has deeply fallen into the ditch of superstitions. Only
a small fraction of society which is educated and has a broad outlook, is free from all bias regarding sex of their

*Assistant Professor, P. K. R. Jain P.G College of Education[Affiliated to K.U.K & NCTE NAAC-B] Ambala City (Harayana) India. (Life
Time Member) e-Mail:deepak.sharma20102hotmail.com

70
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

A STUDY OF AWARENESS LEVEL OF GRADUATE STUDENTS TOWARDS FEMALE FOETICIDE: A THREAT TO NATURE

child. The condition of rural class or the uneducated masses is so much worse that most of the parents expect
male baby boy but never girl baby. They consider the girl child to be a burden for family. It is, this, main
reason of female foeticide in the country. The desire for son rather than daughter has skewed sex ratios in India.
According to the census 2011, 934 girls were born after every 1000 male children. The intensity of sex ratio
imbalance in the 0-6 age group in some states like Haryana is alarming. No only rural area, but urban area is
now its grip. In India since 1978, the sex determination test is being used as sex reselection test. This test has
become extremely popular. The ultrasound technique has blinded the ideology of human beings. It was invented
for the welfare of human beings but we are misusing it for selfish motives. The sex of the foetus can be
determined by sophisticated machines with in 13-14 weeks of Pregnancy by trans-vaginal sonography and by
14-16 weeks through abdominal ultrasound.

Need of the Study


We as human beings have immense greed for power with a little push; we become creators and destroyers,
trying to decide who will live or who will die on this earth. The question is this, who are we to do it and who has
given us this right? In a land of Goddess Luxmi, Sarswati, Durga, kali this growing tendency of female foeticide
is an alarming concern. We have every need to do a little soul-searching at this juncture. Who are we to destroy
life when we can not create life or make the dead alive? If we see the ground reality in India, we will find that
the choice is always for male child and it is the female only that is unwanted child. In order to stop this crime,
we have to do something extraordinary for the removal of this crime. We have to change the mindset of the
people. The policy environment is supportive to the reproductive choices of male, though sustained Similar
efforts at the national level resulted in the enactment of central pre-natal diagnostic techniques (Regulation and
Prevention of misuse) Act 1994. A negative outcome of the PNDT act was that the Practice of sex determination
was driven nonetheless. There should be a complete ban on ultra sound machines. It has been proved that the
role of government in this field is quite limited. The act 1994 was amended in 2002 and in 2003. Various rules
were framed by the central government under section 32 of the act. These rules may be called Pre-conception
and pre-natal diagnostic techniques rules 1996. The govt. must take suitable actions to enforce it. We can be
truly educated if we will implement it in our lifetime with true dedication.

Statement of the Topic


The statement of the study is as under: A Study of Awareness level of Graduate Students towards Female
Foeticide: A Threat to Nature.

Hypotheses of the Study


The following hypotheses were formulated for the present investigation:
1. There is no significance difference between awareness levels of Graduates (Arts) Students towards Female Foeticide
which is a threat to Nature.
2. There is no significance difference between awareness levels of Graduates (Commerce) Students towards Female
Foeticide which is a threat to Nature.
3. There is no significance difference between awareness levels of Graduates (Science) Students towards Female
Foeticide which is a threat to Nature.

Sample:The sample of the study consisted of 300 college students of different streams. The sample was
selected randomly and divided into two groups
71

SHARMA

Design of the Study


The present study will be based on survey method which was conducted on the College Students of Ambala
Sample of College Students of Ambala
B.A
100
Boys
50

B.Com.
100
Girls
50

B.Sc
100

Boys
50

Girls
50

Boys
50

Girls
50

Tools used: For the collection of data the investigator has used self made questionnaire of 20 questions on the
basis of different aspects. It was evaluated by Dr. S. K. Mohanty.

Statistical Techniques
For the analysis of data, following statistical techniques were used:

Mean
S.D
S.E
t value

Methodology: The data was collected following the normative survey method of investigation for study to
know the awareness levels of Graduate students towards Female Foeticide.

Findings of the Study


S.No.

Variable

Description

Mean

S.D.

S.E.

t-value

B.A
Students

Male
Female

50
50

87.7
88.9

15.7
14.6

3.03

0.41

Significance level
Not
Significant

From the values of the above table the following findings can be attained at:
The calculated t-value 0.41 reveals that there is no significant difference between the two means (Male-Mean 87.7, Female88.9) with S.D 15.7 & 14.6 respectively on the basis of awareness levels of B.A Students towards Female Foeticide.
S.No.

Variable

Description

Mean

S.D.

S.E.

B.Com
Students

Male
Female

50
50

79.8
78.5

2.47
2.25

0.46

t-value
0.86

Significance level
Not
Significant

The calculated t-value 0.86 reveals that there is no significant difference between the two means (Males, Mean 79.8,
Females-78.5) with S.D- 2.47 & 2.25 respectively on the basis of awareness levels of B.Com Students towards Female
Foeticide.
S.No.

Variable

Description

Mean

S.D.

S.E.

B.Sc

Male
Female

50
50

75.4
75.2

2.5
2.4

0.5

t-value
0.4

Significance level
Not
Significant

The calculated t-value 0.4 reveals that there is no significant difference between the two means (Male-Mean, 75.4, Female75.2) with S.D, 2.5 & 2.48 respectively on the basis of awareness levels of B.A Students towards Female Foeticide.

Conclusion
72

A STUDY OF AWARENESS LEVEL OF GRADUATE STUDENTS TOWARDS FEMALE FOETICIDE: A THREAT TO NATURE

India society is male dominated which has resulted in acute desire for a male child. This tendency is bringing untold misery
to many in the form of no bridge for sons, skewed sex ratio and female foeticide. The implications of this problem are far
reaching and any educated individual needs to understand the importance of stopping this inhuman practice. Through this
study, it has come to the fore that there is an urgent need to make the upcoming youth aware of the grim situation.y male
power which causes the desire for male child among people is common. As we all know, it is the natural process, we can not
deny for the same. But still, Female infanticide has become a common phenomenon in our country. Sex selective abortion is
a fairly recent phenomenon but its roots are merged in Indian society since ancient time. People consider that girl child is
burden for family. It is the main reason of female foeticide in the country. The desire for son rather than daughter has
skewed sex ratios in India. We have to aware for this concept through education. We say us part of civilized society. Be
aware from God who is ultimate reality at all.

REFERENCES
MATHUR, S.S. (2010), Educational Psychology, Aggarwal Publication, Agra-2
KING RICHARD A (2007), Introduction to Psychology, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New
Delhi.
PARKASH, DR. PREM (2007), Psychological foundation of Education, Kanishka Publishers Distributors,
New Delhi.
SINGH, UMA KANT, (2009), Modern Essays,Arihant Publications (1) Pvt Ltd, Meerut
www.wikipedia.com
www.google.com.

73

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,74-77


Advance Access publication 4 Nov. 2011

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT AND STUDY HABITS OF


TRIBALAND NON-TRIBAL GIRLS IN ODISHA
DR. B.K. MOHANTY*, DR. D.K. MOHAPATRA** AND S.P. KATUAL***

Declaration
The Declaration of the authors for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: We, B.K. Mohanty, D.K. Mohapatra and S.P. Katual the authors of the research paper
entitled COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT AND STUDY HABITS OF TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL GIRLS IN
ODISHA declare that , We take the responsibility of the content and material of our paper as We ourself have written it and also have read
the manuscript of our paper carefully. Also, We hereby give our consent to publish our paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper
is our original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else.We authorise the
Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. We also give our consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own
the copyright of our research paper.

Abstract
The investigator has attempted to study the Achievement and Study Habits of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls. For this
purpose 650 class-IX students in the district of Mayurbhanj, Odisha has been taken as the sample. The last Final
Examination marks of class-viii student who have been promoted to class-ix have been considered as the achievement
test Scores of the student. The study inventory has been administered to know the Study Habit of the Student. Data has
been analyse by the t - test. The findings indicates that, Significant/ Insignificant.

Introduction
Article 46 of the Indian Constitution lays down a directive principle of State Policy. It provides that, the state
shall promote with special care the education and economic interest of scheduled caste and scheduled tribes,
and shall protect them from social injustices and all form of exploitation.
Article 275 provides for the grant of special funds by the Union Government to the state Government for
promoting the welfare of the scheduled Tribe and for providing them with better administration.
Since independance, there is no doubt that women education in India is progress but still it is lagging behind
when compared to other countries. Still millions of women are deprived of this basic right. Some greater
thinkers opinion that, the progress of women education is not satisfactory due to socio, economic, cultural and

*Reader, C.T.E., Balasore (Odisha) India.


**Reader, B.J.B. Autonomous College, Bhubaneswar (Odisha) India.
***Lecturer in Education, S.M. Degree College Manida, Mayurbhanj (Odisha) India.

74
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT AND STUDY HABITS OF TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL GIRLS IN ODISHA

political factors. It is observed that literacy percentage of Tribal Girls is less than the Non-Tribal Girls. The
investigator has selected the problem to study the Achievement and Study Habits of Tribal and -Non-Tribal
Girls.

Objectives of the Study


The following objectives were undertaken :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

To Compare the Achievement of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.


To Compare the Study habits of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.
To Compare the Achievement of Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.
To Compare the Study habits of Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.
To Compare the Achievement of Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.
To Compare the Study habits of Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls in Odisha.

Hypotheses
In the present study following null hypotheses were formulated keeping in view the nature of the topic and its
objectives.
1. There will be no significant difference the Mean Achievement scores of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls.
2. There will be no significant difference the Mean Study Habits scores of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls.
3. There will be no significant difference the Mean Achievement scores of Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal
Girls.
4. There will be no significant difference the Mean Study Habits scores of Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal
Girls.
5. There will be no significant difference the Mean Achievement scores of Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal
Girls.
6. There will be no significant difference the Mean Study Habits scores of Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal
Girls.
Methodology: Descriptive Survey method has been followed for the study.
Sample of the Study: The sample of the prsent study consisted of 650 IX-class student from twenty eight (28)
high schools in the districts of mayurbhanj, Odisha.

Analysis of Data and Interpretation of Results


i) Study the Achievement of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.1 t test between Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls on mean Achievement Test Scores.
Category of Girls

Mean

SD

Tribal
Non-Tribal

49.716
53.609

10.01
9.61

465
185

t- value
4.63

Result
Significant at 0.01 level

Result: From the Table 4.1, it was observed that the t value is significant at 0.01 level. It means the mean
Achievement test scores of Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
ii) Study the study Habit of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.2 t test between Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls on mean Study Habit inventory Test Scores.
Category of Girls

Mean

SD

t- value

Result

Tribal
Non-Tribal

50.08
59.77

9.89
11.08

465
185

10.374

Significant at 0.01 level

75

MOHANTY, MOHAPATRA AND KATUAL

Result: From the Table 4.2, it was observed that the t value is significant at 0.01 level. It means the mean
Study Habit inventory test scores of Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
iii) Study the Achievement of Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.3 t test between Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls on mean Achievement Test Scores.
Category of Girls

Mean

SD

t- value

Result

Rural Tribal
Rural Non-Tribal

50.282
61.576

9.85
10.34

435
130

11.05

Significant at 0.01 level

Result: From the Table 4.3, it was observed that the t value is significant at 0.01 level. It means the mean
Achievement test scores of Rural Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Rural Tribal Girls.
iv) Study the Study Habit of Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.4 t test between Rural Tribal and Rural Non-Tribal Girls on mean Study Habit Test Scores.
Category of Girls

Mean

SD

t- value

Result

Rural Tribal
Rural Non-Tribal

49.683
52.5

10.26
11.27

435
130

2.553

Significant at 0.01 level

Result: From the Table 4.4, it was observed that the t value is significant at 0.01 level. It means the mean
Study Habit test scores of Rural Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Rural Tribal Girls.
v) Study the Achievement of Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.5 t test between Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls on mean Achievement Test Scores.
Category of Girls

Mean

SD

t- value

Result

Urban Tribal
Urban Non-Tribal

50.5
54.955

9.21
10.34

30
55

2.039

Significant at 0.01 level

Result: From the Table 4.5, it was observed that the t value is significant at 0.01 level. It means the mean
Achievement test scores of Urban Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Urban Tribal Girls.
vi) Study the Study Habits Inventory of Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls
T A B L E 4.6 t test between Urban Tribal and Urban Non-Tribal Girls on mean Study Habits inventory Test Scores.
Category of Girls

Mean

SD

t- value

Result

Urban Tribal
Urban Non-Tribal

49.834
55.955

10.54
10.52

30
55

2.142

Significant at 0.01 level

Result: From the Table 4.6, it was observed that the t value is significant at 0.01 level. It means the mean
Study Habits Inventory test scores of Urban Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Urban Tribal
Girls.

Findings of The Study


After careful analysis of the collected data and interpretation of the result, the following finding were obtained.
1. The Mean Achievement Test Scores of Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
2. The Mean Study Habit Inventory Test Scores of Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
3. The Mean Achievement Test Scores of Rural Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
4. The Mean Study Habit Scale Scores of Rural Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
5. The Mean Achievement Test Scores of Urban Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.
6. The Mean Study habit Scale Scores of Urban Non-Tribal Girls is more higher than that of the Tribal Girls.

76

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT AND STUDY HABITS OF TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL GIRLS IN ODISHA

Recommendation
Some of the recommendations about the present study are given below :
i) The study of Achievement and study Habits of Tribal and Non-Tribal Girls is essential for defining the learners
problems.
ii) Orientation training programme given to teachers for solving the Tribal Girls problems.
iii) Trained teachers are to be appointed by the Government as well as other agencies running tribal schools for teaching
to tribal students.
iv) Required teachers recruitment from scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes categories.
v) Residential schools including Ashram Schools should be established on a large scale for the Tribal Girls.
vi) The Curriculum of education should be designed so as to create an awareness of the rich cultural heritage and to
develop their creative talent.
vii) Advance programmes as to be launched to solve the problems of Tribals.
Viii)More appointment Opportunities given to Tribal Girls.
ix) Appointed to Tribal language teachers.

Educational Implecations: The present studys maximum problems solve by the Teachers, Parents, Curriculum
Designer, Text Book writer, Administrators, Headmasters, etc.

77

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,78-81


Advance Access publication 2 Dec. 2011

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THINKPAIR-SHARE STRATEGIES


DR. CHITRA SINGH TOMAR*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Chitra Singh tomar the author of the research paper entitled COLLABORATIVE
LEARNING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THINK-PAIR-SHARE STRATEGIES declare that , I take the responsibility of the
content and material of my paper as I myself have written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give
my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is
published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript.
I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

the collaborative learning is a relationship among learners that requires positive interdependence(a sense of sink or
swim together),individual accountability(each of us has to contribute and learn),interpersonal
skills(communication,trust,leadership,decision making and conflict resolution),face to face primitive interaction and
processing(reflecting on how well the team is functioning and how to function even better.
The concept of collaborative learnig, the grouping and pairing of learners for the purpose of achieving a learning
goal, has been widely researched and advocated. In this type of learning, learners are responsible for one anothers
learning as well as their

Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners
working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product.colleborative learning is based on
the idea that learning is naturally social act in which the participants talks among themselves. It is through the
talks that learning occurs.
There are many approaches to collaborative learning:
1. learning is an active process whereby learners assimilate the information and relate this new knowledge to a framework
of prior knowledge
2. Learning requires a challenge that opens the door for the learner to actively engage his/her peers, and to process and
synthesize information rather than simply memorize and regurgitate.
3. Learners benefit when exposed to divers viewpoints from people with varied backgrounds.
4. Learning flourishes in a social environment where conversation between learners takes place.
5. learners are challenged both socially and emotionally as they listen to different perspectives, they are required to
articulate and defend their ideas and they begin to create their own unique conceptual framework and not rely on an
expert, framework thus, in; collaborative learning setting, learners have to opportunity to converse with peers, present
and defend ideas, exchange diverse bliefs,question other conceptual framework, and be actively engaged.

*Assistant professor, Dept. of Education S.N.Sen P.G College (The mall) Kanpur (U.P.) India. (Editorial Board Member)

78
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COLLABORATIVE LEARNING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THINK-PAIR-SHARE STRATEGIES

Collaborative learning- is instruction that involves student working in team to accomplish a common goal,
under conditions that include the following elements (Johnson, Johnson, andsmith, 1991):
Positive interdependence-: team members are obliged to rely on one another to achieve the goal. If any
team members fail to do their part, everyone suffers consequences.
Individual accountability-: all students in a group are held accountable for doing their share of the work and
for mastery of all the material to be learned.
Face-to-face primitive interaction-: Although some of the group work may be parceled out and done
individually, some must be done interactively, with group members providing one another with feedback,
challenging one anothers conclusions and reasoning, and perhaps most importantly, teaching and encouraging
one another.
Appropriate use of collaborative skills-: students are encouraged and helped to develop and practice trustbuilding, leadership, decision-making, communication, and conflict management skills.
Group processing-: team members set group goals, periodically assess what they are doing well as a team,
and identify changes they will function more effectively in the future.
Collaborative learning to the extent that the listed elements are present
1. critical thinking items-involves analysis, synthesis and evaluation of the concepts.
2. drill and practice items-: item that pertains to factual knowledge and comprehension of the concepts.
3. formal learning groups-: teams established to complete a specific task, as perform a lab experiment, write a
report, and carry out a project. These groups may complete their work in a single session or over several
weeks.
Individual learning-: learners work at their own level and rate towards an academic goal.
Informal learning groups-: temporary clustering of learners within a single session.
Study teams-:long-term groups with stable membership whose primary responsibility is to provide members
with support, encouragement, and assistance in completing a learning session, requirements and assignments.
1. develops higher level thinking skills
2. promotes student-faculty interaction and familiarity
3. increases student retention
4. build self esteem in students enhances student
5. enhances student satisfaction with the learning experience
6. promotes a positive attitude toward the subject matter
7. develops oral communication skills
8. develops social interaction skills
9. promotes positive race relations
10.creates an environmentofactive, involved, expletory learning
11.uses a team approach to problem solving while maintaining individual accountability
12.encourage diversity understanding
13.encourage student responsibility for learning
14.involves student in developing curriculum and class procedures
15.student explore alternate problem solutions in a safe environment
16.stimulates critical thinking and help students clarify through discuss and debate
17.enhances self management skills
18.fist in well with the constructivist approach
19.establish an atmosphere of cooperation and helping school wide
20.students develop responsibility for each other
79

TOMAR

21.builds more positive heterogeneous relations


22.encourages alternate student assessment teqnique
23. fosters and develop interpersonal relation ships
24.modeling problem solving techniques by students peers
25.students are thought how to criticize ideas, not people
26.sets high expectations for student and teachers
27.promotes higher achievement and attendance
28.students stay on tasks more and are less disruptive
29.Greater ability of students to view situation from others, perspectives.
30.Creates a stronger social support system.
31.Creates a more positive attitude towards teachers, principals, and other school personnels.
32.Promotes more creative classroom techniques.
33.Classroom anxiety is significantly reduced.
34.Skill building and practice can be enhanced and made less tedious.
35.Creates more positive attitude of teachers towards their students.
36.Increases leadership skills of female students.

Four Collaborative Learning Strategies


Think-pair-share
1. the instructor poses a question, preferable one demanding analysis, evaluation, or synthesis and gives students
about a minute to think through an Appropriate response. This think time can be spent writing also.
2. student then turn it a partner and share their responses.
3. during the third step, student response can be shared within a four person learning team, within a larger
group, or with an entire class during a follow-up discussion. The caliber of discussion is enhanced by this
technique, and all students have An opportunity to learn by reflection and by verbalization.

Three Step Interview


1. one student the other.
2. students switch roles.
3. this four member learning team then discusses the information or insight gleaned from the initial paired
interviews.
Simple Jigsaw: each learning team is divided in to four expert teams where they teach the other group members.
Numbered Heads Together: class time is usually better spent because less time is wasted on inappropriate
responses.
While Think-pair-share is relatively a low risk and short collaborative structured learning, and is ideally
suited for instructors and learners who are new to collaborative learning. In these strategies the instructor
poses a challenging or open-ended question and gives learners one minute to think about the question.
Learner then pair with a Caltrop member sitting nearby and discuss their ideas about the question for
several minutes.
The think-pair-share, gives all learners the opportunity to discuss their ideas. This is important because learners
start to construct their knowledge in these discussions and also to find out what they do and do not know.
This active process is not normally available to them during traditional lectures.After several minutes the
instructor solicitsComments to be shared with the whole group. The responses received are often more
80

COLLABORATIVE LEARNING WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THINK-PAIR-SHARE STRATEGIES

intellectually concise since learners have had a chance to reflect on their ideas. The think-pair-share structure
also enhencesthe students oral communication skills as they discuss their ideas with the one another and
with the whole group.One variation of this structure is to skip the whole group discussion. Another variation
is to have learners write down their thoughts on note cards and collect them. This gives the instructor an
opportunity to see whether there are problems in comprehension.

REFERENCES
BACKMAN, M (1990), collaborative learning: preparation for the workplace and democracy college
teaching, 38(4), 128-133.
COLLAR, P.G (1980), peer-group learning in higher education studies in higher education ,5(1), 55-62
COOPER, J (1990), cooperative learning& college teaching tips from the trenches, teaching professor, 4 (5)
1-2.
SLAVING, R. F (1980), cooperative learning review of educational research, 50(2), 314-342.
TOPPINS, AD. (1989), Teaching by testing: a group consensus approach college teaching, 37(3), 96-99.
Study group pay off teaching professor, 1991, 5(7), 7.

81

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,82-85


Advance Access publication 24 Nov. 2011

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES ADOPTED BY +2 SCIENCE


RESIDENTIAL AND NON-RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES OF ODISHA
(MRP-UGC)
DR. B.K. MOHANTY*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, B.K. Mohanty the author of the research paper entitled EDUCATIONAL
PROGRAMMES ADOPTED BY +2 SCIENCE RESIDENTIAL AND NON-RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES OF ODISHA (MRPUGC) declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written it and also have read the
manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my
original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial
Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright
of my research paper.

Abstract
To study the Socio Economic Status, Achievement, Study habit, Infrastructural facilities, Staffing Pattern, Curricular and
Co-curricular Programmes of Residential and Non Residential +2 Science Colleges were the objectives of the study.
Survey Method was used for the purpose of collection of data from 540 Residential and Non-Residential college
students. SES scale, Intelligence Test, Study Habit inventory and Questionnaire for the Principal were administered over
the sample. Statistical technique like t test was used. The result indicated that the residential students are higher in
SES, Achievement, Study Habits than that of the Non-residential students and there is no difference in Intelligence of
both the groups. The 80% infrastructural facilities of both type of colleges are similar but the residential colleges
provide more importance to the curricular programmes.

Introduction
Education is the manifestation of heart already in a man
Swami Vivekananda.
Education is an indispensable instrument for national development and social reconstruction. It helps to develop
many sided qualities of learners. In the Era of new technological, economic, Scientific and Political development

*Reader in Education, C.T.E, Balasore (Odisha) India.

82
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EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES ADOPTED BY +2 SCIENCE RESIDENTIAL AND NON-RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES OF ODISHA


(MRP-UGC)

and transformation, higher education plays a prominant role due to globalization and privatisation in Education.
The residential colleges are being established by the private management. The private institutions are attracting
the common people and students through their well planned, well implemented programmes and new visions of
Education. Even if they demand high capitation from the students. The enrolments in the government and aided
institutions are decreasing in the present day. The question arises what type of quality of Education and
programmes are implementing by both the residential and non-residential +2 Science Colleges of Odisha. For
this purpose the investigator has taken up this study.

Objectives
1. To study the Socio-Economic Status (SES) of +2 Science Residential and Non-residential college students.
2. To study the Intelligence of +2 Science Residential and Non-residential college students
3. To study the achievement of +2 science Residential and Non-residential College students in the +2 Science
Final Annual Examination.
4. To study the Study Habit of +2 science Residential and Non-residential College students.
5. To study the availability of infrastructural facilities of +2 Science Residential and Non-residential Colleges.
6. To study the staffing pattern of Residential and Non-residential +2 Science Colleges.
7. To study the curricular programmes organized by the +2 science Residential and Non-residential College
students.
8. To study the co-curricular activities organized by the +2 Science Residential and Non-residential Colleges.

Sample
Purposive sampling method was used for the purpose of collection of data. +2 Science students of 23 Nonresidential and 10 Residential Colleges were taken. Total 540 students of both Residential and Non-residential
students were included as the sample of the study. Out of the total sample, 290 and 250 students belong to the
Non-residential and Residential College students respectively.

Tools Used
1.
2.
3.
4.

Socio-Economic Status Scale.


General Mental ability Test.
Study habit Inventory
Questionnaire for the principal.

Analysis of Data
1. Study of Mean SES Scale Scores of Residential and Non-Residential College Students.
T A B L E 3.1 t test between Mean SES Scores of Residential and Non-Residential College Students.
Groups

Mean

S.D.

Residential

49.14

11.28

250

t Value
3.2

Non-Residential

46.15

10.86

Result.
Significant at
0.01 level

290

Result : The Mean SES Scores of Residential College Students is significantly higher than the Non-Residential
College Students.
83

MOHANTY

2. Study of Intelligence of Residential and Non Residential College Students.


T A B L E 3.2 t test between Mean Intelligence Test Scores of Residential and Non-Residential Students.
Groups

Mean

S.D.

Residential

46.40

7.03

250

t Value
0.39

Non-Residential

46.04

7.04

Result.
Not
Significant at

290

Result : The Mean Intelligence Test Scores of Residential and Non-Residential College Students are similar.
3. Study of Achievement of Residential and Non-Residential Students.
T A B L E 3.3 t test in Mean Achievement Test Scores of Residential and Non-Residential Students.
Groups

Mean

S.D.

Residential

73.92

18.94

250

t Value
6.38

Non-Residential

67.55

21.27

Result.
Significant at
0.01 level.

290

Result : The Achievement of Residential college students is significantly higher than that of the Non-Residential
Students .
4. Study habit of Residential and Non-Residential Students.
T A B L E 3.4 t test in Mean Study Habit Scale Scores of Residential and Non-Residential Students.
Groups

Mean

S.D.

Residential

64.2

8.67

250

t Value
4.04

Non-Residential

60.93

10.11

Result.
Significant at
0.01 level

290

Result : The study habits of Residential college Students is significantly higher than that of the Non-Residential
Students.
5. Study of infrastructural facilities of Residential and Non-Residential Colleges. Land, Campus, Boundary,
Principals Office, Staff Common Room, Office Room, Class rooms, Reading Room, Library Room,
Magazine, Laboratory, Equipments, Furnitures, Common Rooms for boys and girls, Toilet, Water facilities,
Garden, Playground are available in the both Residential and Non-Residential Colleges.
6. Study of staffing pattern of Residential and Non-Residential Colleges. The staffing pattern like Principal,
PET, Computer Instructor, Demonstrator, librarian, Senior Assistants, Junior Assistants, Laboratory
Attendants, Technical Staff, Lady Attendant, Peons and waterman are available in both the Residential and
Non-Residential Colleges.
7. Study of Curricular facilities organized by Residential and Non-Residential Colleges. From the Analysis
it was found that the curricular facilities in respect of suitable time table, Regular theory class, Half yearly
Test, Practice class, Vocational guidance programme, Maintenance of lesson diary by the Teachers and
Conduct of Institution research work are available in both the Residential and Non-Residential Colleges.
Curricular facilities like Weekly Test, Monthly Test, Quarterly Test, Regular feedback, Correction work of
students, Career counseling, Entrance test, Audio system in the class room, Projector in the class room,
Tutorial class, Invitation to subject expert, Invitation to resource Persons, Research work, visiting higher
authority and Inspection of class are conducted more regularly and frequently by the Residential Colleges
than that of the non-Residential Colleges.
8. Study of Co-curricular facilities organized by Residential and Non-Residential Colleges. From the
Analysis, it was found that the co-curricular activities in respect of observation of Puja, National Days,
Teachers Day, Birth Day of great persons, Annual Sports, Annual drama, Literary competition, Indoor
competition, Publication of Annual Magazine, Publication of wall Magazine, Study tour, and Welcome
meeting are organized by both the Residential and Non-Residential colleges, with equal importance.
84

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES ADOPTED BY +2 SCIENCE RESIDENTIAL AND NON-RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES OF ODISHA


(MRP-UGC)

Health care programmes are more organized in Residential College than the Non-Residential Colleges. But
NCC, Scout, Guide, NSS and College election are organized in the Non-Residential Colleges than the
Residential Colleges.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Findings
The socio-Economic status, Achievement and Study Habits of Residential College students are more higher
than that of the Non-Residential College Students.
The Intelligence of Residential and Non-Residential College Students are similar.
80% infrastructural facilities of both the Residential and Non-Residential Colleges are similar.
50% post of Lecturers and Readers have not been filled up by the Govt. in the Non-residential colleges.
The Residential Colleges give more priority on the conduct of curricular programmes than the Non-Residential
Colleges.

Recommendations
Govt. should improve the infrastructural facilities of the Non-residential colleges.
Govt. should fill up the vacant post of lecturers and readers in the Govt. and aided colleges.
Non-residential colleges should conduct regular continuous and comprehensive evaluation.
Residential colleges authorities should organize various types of co-curricular activities.

REFERENCES
DEVLIN, MAUREEN & J.W. MYERSON (eds) (2001), Forum Futures : Exploring the Future of Higher Education,
San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.
DUDERSTADTY J. (1997), The Future of the University in an Aged Knowledge. Journal of Asynchronous
Learning Networks, Volume 1, Issue 2, August.
DUCTRSTADT, JAMES et al.(2002), Higher Education in the Digital Age, West Port C.T. : Praeger Series on
Higher Education, and Ancrican Council on Education.
GEE, JAMES P (2003), from video Games, Learning About Learning Chroniche of Higher Education, June
20.
KAT Z, RICHARD (2005), The Future of Net working in Higher Education, Educause, July/Aug.

85

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,86-88


Advance Access publication 6 Nov. 2011

TAGORES GORA : A MIRROR OF THE INDIAN RENAISSANCE PERIOD


DR. REENA CHATTERJEE*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Reena Chatterjee the author of the research paper entitled TAGORES GORA : A
MIRROR OF THE INDIAN RENAISSANCE PERIOD declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper
as I myself have written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper
in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for
publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the
Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

To introduce Rabindranath Tagore is like to introduce an age. He is really a phenomenon. His Excellency is in
his quality, his immense range and his fabulous variety. He is our Chaucer and Shakespeare, Our Dryden and
our equivalent of the English translators of the Bible. He compresses in one mans life time, the development of
several centuries. Tagore is the worlds most complete writer. His prolific creations captured the minds of
countless individuals. He stopped at the thresholds of thousands of minds, not just in India but worldwide, and
entered them, I feel like a painted Poet with a stone war- club, Ezra pound told it to a friend after spending the
afternoon with Tagore. Mahatma Gandhi called Tagore, The great sentinel, I regard that literary genius, a
sentinel warning us against the approach of enemies called bigotry, lethargy, intolerance, ignorance inertia and
other members of that brood. When Jawaharlal Nehru, Indias first prime minister, was perceptive when he
wrote in his jail diary on 7th Aug 1941, after hearing of Tagores death:
Gandhi and Tagore two types entirely different from each other and yet both of them typical of India, both in the long
line of Indias great men .judged as types of men. I have felt for long that they were the outstanding in examples in the
world today. There are many of course who may be abler than them or greater genius in their own line. It is not so much
because of any single virtue but because of the tout ensembles that I felt among the worlds great men today Gandhi and
Tagore were supreme as human beings what good fortune for me to have come into close contact with them.

His radical humanism captures our heart when he evokes. He amar hridoy! punno tirthe jagore Dhire,Ai
Bharoter Mahamanober Sago Tire i.e. It O My heart ! Awake slowly on the sacred sea shore of humanity of
Mother India.
Tagore was not an analytical thinker. He was always an intuitive one who preferred a poetical analogy to a
prosaic argument. Sometimes his thinking was inchoate on occasions, he could be chauvinistic but without

*Asst. Prof. Dept. of English, Arya Mahila P.G. College Varanasi (U.P.) India. (Editorial Board Member)

86
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TAGORES GORA : A MIRROR OF THE INDIAN RENAISSANCE PERIOD

exception he was courageous. In 1916 speaking in Japan and across the USA to large gatherings he eloquently
warned each nation about the dangers of militaristic nationalism unbridled commercialism and love of the
machine for its own sake; lectures which formed the basis of nationalism. In 1919, by repudiating his knighthead
Tagore became the first Indian to make a public gesture against the massacre at Amritsar. More than any other
thinker of his time, Tagore had a clear conception of civil society, as something distinct from and of stronger
and more personal texture than political or economic structures; Wrote E.P. Thompson in (1911) introducing a
new edition of Tagores nationalism (1917) Thompson commented;
It would be folly to accuse Tagore of sentimental alarmism. Nationalism is a prescient even prophetic work whose
foresight has been confirmed sufficient evidence two world wars. The nuclear arms race, environmental disasters, technologies
too clever to be controlled. If its assertive denunciations of the nation sometimes appear to be repetitions and tedious, this
is in part because the indictment has become over to million since Tagore drew up.

When Rabindranath was born in 1861, the contry was suffering from racial inferiority and superiority
engrained in educated minds eastern and western .The first Nobel Asian laureates creations cover the every
forms of literature. In the field of novel he was inspired by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, whose novels are still
widely read in Bengal. But Tagore remains the only novelist in Bengali literature that has been read widely by
non- Indians. Though he wrote thirteen novels, his reputation beyond India rests chiefly on just one. Gora
was published in Bengali in 1924.It has been characterized as the greatest novel of modern India. It is the
biggest novel of Tagore, in any estimate. It deserves to be one of the most important novels in Bengali literature.
The name of a central character Gora (Gaur Mohan) is in the name of the book. The plot revolves around the
life, attitude and idea of Gora and his best friend Binay Bhushan (Binoy). Religious conflict of the time between
Hinduism and Brahmoism, colonial British rule in India and its reaction, condition of women in society all these
have been depicted by Tagore in the novel. Multi dimensional conflicts have been depicted by Tagore in this
novel. Tagore through his different characters tried to exhibit the contemporary socio-political and cultural
milieu.
The brain-striking thing of this novel is that Tagore tried to show some harsh realities of his time. He
represented through his characters how the members of Hindu and Muslim were eager to make good relationship
with colonial rules, so that they could get facilities and earn more money and get more prestige and influence in
the society.
In the course of the novel the members of this family have occasion to interact with a prominent Brahmo
family. Gora, who believes despite his white complexion that Brahmin is convinced that the redemption of
modern India can be achieved only as its people return to their roots in Hinduism and tradition. Gora is the
adopted son of Krishna dayal and Anondomoyoi having Irish parents. He undergoes radical changes in his
ideas and beliefs several times. Since his childhood he has hated the British colonial rulers. He dreamt for the
independence of his country. He was the ardent follower of Brahmo Samaj after listening Keshav Chandra
Sen, and started to criticize everything related to Hinduism. Then in the end he came to this realization that real
India is higher than any religion or caste. A real God who can be worshipped by anyone and is not limited to
just, one religion.
Through the character of Gora, Tagore tried to put that Hindus did not understood the main philosophy of
the religion and were limited to following rules. Colonialism is an important aspect in this novel. On 1857 British
Government in London took under the administration of India. So it was Queen Victoria who reigned over
England. About colonial impact Tagore seems to be talking in the same way like George Orwell did in Shooting
and Elephant. Orwell in his creation showed that the colonial rule not only hurt the oppressed people but also
did no good to the colonial rulers.
In this way novel represents a vignette of the struggles faced by educated Indians in the 19th and 20th
century. Indeed it is the reflection of Indian renaissance. Tagore himself nurtured in the Brahmo Samaj but he
87

CHATTERJEE

was keenly sensitive to the tendencies in the Samaj toward excessive western, and its particular excessive
Christian, influence. He was himself torn between his own nationalist loyalties and the appeal of a universal
religion and culture of which a purified Hinduism might be a central part.
The Renaissance period in 19th century Bengal that followed the Indian rebellion of 1857, witnessed a
uniquely refined blend of dazzling intellectual brilliance fueled by western rationalism on one hand and the other
hand the outburst of an creations brought to life by simple beauty and graceful expressions inspired by the
traditional styles the Bengali literary horizon. It was remarkably said that it was guarded by three celestial
sentinels: Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (bent moon) Rabindranath Tagore (regal sun) and Sarat Chandra
Chatterjee (autumn moon). Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, the eldest of the trio is regarded the pioneer of
literary Renaissance and Raja Ram Mohan Roy was regarded the first Reformist of Renaissance in Bengal.
Bankims Ananda Math made great influence in the mind of Tagore. The protest of the sanyasi in Ananda
Math against the British colonialism brought about new genre of writing in the field of literature. The characters
of Gora do not belong the sanyasi group but the protagonist Gora including Anondomoyi, Binoy Bhushan and
Sucharita also make protest against different kinds of exploitations, superstitions, religious dogmatism and
social taboos. Tagore characterized the principal women in the novel, Sucharita - the liberated young woman
with a strong mind of her own and equally at ease within and outside home as well as Aandamoyi or mother
of the protagonist (Gora), confined only to home yet with a liberated outlook ready to break the shackles of
dogma. Tagore represents Sucharita, a very independent and out spoken woman who tries to break the
shackles made by society. Anandamayi is the symbol of maternity or a person who spends her life serving the
men at home we find her, to be a noble hearted woman who does not get into verbose argumentation. She is
the woman in this novel represents how she embodies Tagores expensive vision of India. Tagore represents
the intimate relationship between Andndomayi and India and the intricate way in which he draws Anondomoyi
on the canvas of India unique philosophical heritage Tagore identifies Anondomoyi with mother India, the
more universal she becomes, his essential Indian infiguration lead to configuration of India where no boundaries
can be formed. She is the symbol of women empowerment in modern India that Tagore has ever created. We
find the glimpse of renaissance women that came out after the reformation movement lead by Raja Ram
Mohan Ray in Bengal.
Here we can observe that Tagore utilizes the importance of idea of swami Vivekananda who highlighted the
importance of women as he makes us realize that history of India was incomplete without any understanding of
the trials and tributaries of women. Women constituted half of Bharat Borsho. India is a nation of people. As it
is seen is the great Indian epic written by Vyasa muni, the Mahabharata that presents much social, religious,
political and philosophical discourses through the dynamics of a few members of a large family. Tagore does
the same thing with the people in Gora. The female characters in Gora are as powerful as Kunti and
Draupadi in Mahabharata.

BOOKS CONSULTED
BHABATOSH CHATTERJEE, Rabindranath Tagore and Modern Sensibility (Oxford University press, India 1996).
COPF. DAVID (1979), The Brahmo Samaj the shaping of the Modern Indian Mind, Princeton, Princeton University
press.
E. THOMPSON, Ravindranath Tagore; Life and work (Hashel House, 1974).
MANINDRA NATH JANANA (Education for Life; Tagore and Modern Thinkers, South Asia Books, 1984).
PATRIC CALM HOGAN, Rabindra Nath Tagore University in Gora, Fairleigh Dickinson University press 1992.
RABINDRA NATH TAGORE, Gora(novel).
RABINDRA NATH TAGORE, An Anthology Edited by Krishna Dutta & Andrew Robinson (Published by Picador an
imprint of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 25 eccleston place, London SWIW ONF and Basingtoke 1999)

88

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,89-95


Advance Access publication 28 Nov. 2011

ANCIENT CITIES IN TARIKHE BEYHAGHI


MARYAM KHALILI JAHANTIGH* AND MOHAMMAD BARANI**

Declaration
The Declaration of the authors for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: We, Maryam Khalili Jahantigh and Mohammad Barani the authors of the research
paper entitled ANCIENT CITIES IN TARIKHE BEYHAGHI declare that , We take the responsibility of the content and material of our
paper as We ourself have written it and also have read the manuscript of our paper carefully. Also, We hereby give our consent to publish
our paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is our original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been
sent for publication anywhere else.We authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. We also give our
consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of our research paper.

Abstract
Tarikhe Beyhaghi is the valuable work of Abolfazl Beyhaghi in the fifth centur and according to late Hoseyn Bahrol
Olum This should be known as the masterpiece of lucid prose writing. (Mohammad Jaafer Yahaghi 69:1388) This
prose, apart from historical preference the honesty, authenticity and accuracy of the writer also contains useful information
regarding archeological cities which now come in the territories of the neighboring countries like Afghanistan and
India, but in the past these cities came under Iranian boundaries.
The main aim to write this article is to introduce some of these ancient cities of the fifth century mentioned in Tarikhe
Beyhaghi. This valuable historical work has very vigorously hidden the reminiscence of valour, courage and destruction
and defeat of that period.

Keywords: Tarikhe Beyhaghi, Ancient cities, Arhan, Danbur, Veyhand, Espijab, Andarqaz, Bagh, Bavan, Balaf.

Introduction
Tarikhe Beyhaghi by Abolfazl Mohammad bin Hoseyn Beyhaghi (385-470 H.Q) is one of the most important
histories of the Ghaznavid period. Unfortunately a greater portion of this historical work is lost and only the part
which comprises the history of Masoods reign is left.
This work apart from having historical advantages is also a very important literary prose and it can be called
as a literacy historical text. The prose apart from providing historical facts comprises of details regarding Irans

*Associate Professor,Persian Dept, University of Sistan And Baluchestan (Iran). e-Mail : maryam2792@yahoo.com
**Associate Professor,Persian Dept, University of Sistan And Baluchestan (Iran). e-Mail : baaraani.m@gmail.com

89
The Author 2012,Published by Mpasvo Press (MPASVO).All rights reserved.For permissions e-Mail : maneeshashukla76@rediffmail.com.
Read this paper on www.onlineijra.com.

JAHANTIGH AND BARANI

national festivals like Nouruz, Jashne Sadeh and Mehrgan, and about religious festivals like Eide Adha and
Eidol Fetr, marital and mourning ceremonies, the custom of award giving to the poets, about the custom of
greeting and decorating the city and about the various manners of games like Polo etc. Apart from this Beyhaghi
has introduced various geographical places in this valuable book which at present are known as part of
archeological cities and these places can be called as the forgotten historical places which at times were the
center of various historical incidents but today these places have turned into ruins and are only memoirs of
historical and archeological nations.
The background of this article dates back to the articles of Abdol Hayye Habibi and Gholam Sarvar
Homayoon from Kabol University with the title Research on a few places in Tarikhe Beyhaghi and A few
new features regarding Tarikhe Beyhaghi. Both these articles were read in a conference regarding Abolfazl
Beyhaghi in Mashhad in 1349 and these articles were then published in the conference magazine by the
University of Ferdousi Mashhad in 1350. Apart from these two articles Farhange Tarikhe Beyhaghi by Sayyed
Ahmad Hoseyni Kazeruni published in 1384 and illustrations given by Mohammad Jaafar Yahaghi and Mehdi
Sayyedi in the book Tarikhe Beyhaghi published in 1388 are also very helpful in this research. Tarikhe Beyhaghi
comprises of various names of ancient territories and some of them are Arhan, Adraskan, Espijb, Asfazr,
Esfand, Afqn l, Andaxod, Andarb, Andarqz, Urganj, Uzgand, Un, Bn, Bvard, Boruqn, Bozyn,
Bost, Baqln, Belsqun, Balq, Faryb, Parovar, Parvn, Ponaqn, Panjhir, Puang, Taxrestn, Tarnak,
Taginbd, Jlqn, et, owkni, Haamgard, Xlenjoy, Xolm, Dabusi, Darqn, Danpur, Daranqn, Ruyn,
Setj, Tbarn, Talxb, Qarjestn, Farveh, Qosdr, Komijiyn, Kiknn, Gorgnj, Mar Manre, Nuq, Vax,
Veyhand, Holbak, Heybn, Heyb. Today the ruins of these places could be found in Iran, Afghanistan,
Pakistan, Uzbekistan, and India etc. But no traces can be found regarding their past glory and dignity.

A few ancient cities of Tarikhe Beyhaghi


Arhan (rhan)
Arhan or rhan is one of the ancient cities named in Tarikhe Beyhaghi: The master should come to Valvlj,
stay there and set an example so that they should grow grass within one month and the same practice should be
followed in Ravn, Arhan and Boghln so that poverty should not prevail.(Abolfazl Beyhaghi, 1388: vol 1,
p 56)
As defined by V. Barthold in The geographical history of Iran the name of this city is present in all the
manuscripts and in the published works by Morli and Said Nafisi, but late Adib Peshavari has omitted this
name and without any reason he has replaced it with another name Borqn which was not a populated territory
of Taxrestn, whereas Arhan or rhan has been a historical place in Taxrestn. (V. Bartold, 1372: p 58)
In 1349 Abdol Hayye Habibi in a conference commemorating Abolfazl Behaghi said: This word has only
come once in one of the books and that also in late Nafisi`s editing, therefore it cannot be found in Professor
Fayyz`s edition. (Mohammad Jaafer Yahaghi, 1388: p 127) Sayyed Ahmad Hoseyni Kazeruni has also
extracted the same matter from Professor Habibi`s article and he has done this without referring his name.
(Hoseyni Kazeruni, 1384: p 200).
Yahaghi and Sayyedi are of the opinion that Fayyaz in both his editions the old (p 555) the university edition
(p 734) without giving any reference or due to grudge with Said Nafisi, he has followed Adib. (Abolfazl
Beyhaghi 1388: vol 2, p 1465)
Therefore it is clear that before Fayyaz, Adib Peshvari has used the name of Boruqn instead of Arhan.
In various geographical books the name Arhan has also come as Ahrang and rhan (Samaani 14/90: vol 1/
75 and Estakhri, 1373: p 270). In Loghat Nmaye Dehkhoda rhan is said to be a city of Taxirestn under
the influence of Balkh. (Dehkhoda, 1372: vol , p 70). According to Farhange Jahangiri it is the name of a small
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ANCIENT CITIES IN TARIKHE BEYHAGHI

towm of Badakhshn. (Mir Jamaloddin Enju Shirazi, 135: vol, p 840). Rahim Afifi adds on the same page in
the footnotes that the name Arhang could not be found in geography book, Ebne Howghal in the book
named Suratul Arz on page 242 has used the name of Arhan passageway in the city of Badakhshn and Le
Strange writes in the book Historical Geography of the Lands of Eastern Caliphate The water before crossing
river Jeyhun falls in river Arhan. (Enju Shirazi, 1351: volume 1, footnote p 840). Therefore Afifi does not
accept that Arhang is the name of a town in Badakhshn. Abdol Hayye Habibi also after narrating from
Borhane Qatei where Arhang has been considered as a town of Badakhshn writes: Arhan being a town of
Badakhshn is not correct, but only if sometimes in the past it had an extensive territory and Arhang being a
part of it. (Mohammad Jaafer Yahaghi, 1388 p 135). Therefore Habibi keeping Afifi`s research in view comes
to a conclusion that Arhan was not a town of Badakhshn. But as defined in Borhane Qatei, Shauri, nandrj
and Moidol Fozala, There is a shrine in the town (Arhan) and according to the believes of the locals Emam
Hoseyn`s head has been buried here and is known as Arhange Hoseyn. (Dehkhoda 1372: vol 2, p 1637).
The same has been repeated in Farhange Moin (Mohammad Moin 1362, vol 1, p 112). Habiibi says that
it is obvious from all what is said regarding this that this city is the place which today is known to be as Hazrat
Emam and therefore people also support this hearsay.
Keeping these narrations in view if we now go a little deeper we see that rhan was also an important place
at the time of the advent of Islam. For example Hiwan Tosang a Chinese pilgrim who crossed these places
twice has mentioned this place in his travel account named O-Li-ni and has painted it on the southern bank
of river Wax (Yahaghi, 1388: 796). Therefore it seems that before the advent of Islam there was a Buddhist
temple in that region and due to this, this town was considered holy and Buddhist pilgrims visited frequently. As
described by Barthold, After the advent of Islam Mohammad Jogi a Teymurid emperor ordered a very big
cooking pot which could bear meat of 300 Sheeps at a time for the pilgrims. (Mohammad Jaafer Yahaghi,
1388: 136). There are several other narrations regarding this holy place, and according to one of them is that
when Emam Alqama had a wrong intention regarding Emam Hoseyn`s head it turned into stone. (Barthold
1366: p118-120). From all the above citations we come to a conclusion that the ancient Arhan or Arhang is a
city, the traces which today are called as Ziaratgahe Emam Sahab or Ziaratgahe Emam Hoseyn on the left
bank of river Jeyhun, 71 kilometers towards north of Qandooz - the centre of Takhr province of Afghanistan.
Before the preaching of Islam there was a Buddhist temple which was a religious place for the Buddhist
pilgrims like Hivan Tosang in the timed period. After the advent of Islam and Muslims being powerful this
temple like other temples in India was changed into sacred Muslim places and slowly and gradually the hearsay
regarding Emam Hoseyn head being buried there spread all over and offerings were bought like the cooking
pot ordered by Mohammad Jogi-the Teymurid princes.

Danbur/Danpur
Danbur or Danpur is also one of the ancient cities mentioned in Tarikhe Beyhaghi. And I Bolfazl heard from
Khwaja Abdossamad about the murder of Qayed Malanjuq in the year when Amir Maudud came to Danbur.
(Abolfazl Beyhaghi, 1388, vol 1: 318). Danbur is said to be the name of a city in India and some are of the
opinion that it is the name of a hill or a mound across Kashmir and is known as Nambar. (Mir Jamaloddin Enju
Shirazi, 1351, vol 2, p 1812). In this regard Yahaghi and Sayyedi write: The name Dinur which has come in
the geographical list published by Fayyaz seems to be Donbor as used in Shahnama:
Ze Zbolistan ta be Daryay e Hind
Hame Kabol o Donbor o Mye Hind

(From Zabolitsan to Indian sea all Kabul, Donbor and Indian water.) which is located in present Jalalabad
on the west of Kabol (Abolfazl Beyhaghi, 1388, vol 2, p 1510). The author of Hodud al Alam talks about a
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JAHANTIGH AND BARANI

mountain which passes across Kashmir, Vihand, Danpur and Lamghan. He also talks about a river which used
to cross Lamghan and Danpur. (Hudud al Alam, 1362: 28 & 41). Loghatnameh defines the name Danbur
as:Danpur is a city next to Lamghan on the bank of a river in India. In this city there are merchants from all
over Khorasan and there are temples there. The merchants are Muslims. It is a flourished and prospering city
and it seems to be the same as has come in the Shahnama as Donbor. (Dehkhoda, 1373, vol 7:p 9791).
Danpur is the name of a city of India (Moniri, 1385: vol 1, p 434). But as this name is connected with
Lamghan which has been one of the regions of Ghazneyn. (Enju Shirazi: 1351: p 1731). It seems that it might
be one of the ancient cities of present Afghanistan and as described in the Loghatnameh under the name
Lamghan: It is a city of Sind enforced under Ghazneyn. (Dehkhoda, 1373, vol 12: p 17451).

Veyhand
Veyhand is also the name of a city mentioned in Tarikhe Beyhaghi. It was decided to depart and go this winter
season towards India crossing Veyhand, Marmanareh, Parshor, Giri till the other end. (Abolfazl Beyhaghi,
1388: p703).
This city is one of the important ancient Indian cities near Parshawar (Peshawar) in Sind valley and located
15 miles towards north of Abbak. (Bosworth, Clifford Edmond, 1362, vol 2: p23). This city was known as the
most popular city in the sub continent before the advent of Islam, till the time when Mahmud Ghaznavi after
conquering Peshawar took hold of this city in 353A.H. (Gardizi, 1384: p 66). Regarding this city Biruni says:
Veyhand was the capital of Gandhar in the Sindh Valley (Abolfeda, 1349: p 357). He in his book Tahghiqhe
Malal Hind writes: The Veyhand valley is a water channel of river Sind as the waters of Kabol, Ghurband and
Panjhir, near Barshwar (Peshawar) at the end of Qandahar i.e. Veyhand fall into river Sind. (Biruni, 1362: p
347). In the book Ahsanal Taqsim it is said that Veyhand is the capital of Hindu kings where a number of
Muslims live but the majority of dwellers are Hindus (Moghadassi, 1361: p 477). This city is also known as
Avadhahindapura. and Avahind. (Yahaghi and Sayyeddi, 1388, vol 2, p 1575). The author of Hodudal
Aalam has also located Veyhand more or less in that same vicinity; but Moghaddasi has illustrated it a few
steps ahead on the eastern side of Ghazneyn and Gardiz (Moghaddasi, 1361, vol 2, p 511). Nazir Ahmad also
explains the location of Veyhand as 15 miles ahead of Attock on the left bank of river Indus and its present
name is Hond. (Nazir Ahmed, 1388: 654) some relics of that period have been seen in this ancient city.

Espijb
Espijb is also one of the oldest cities mentioned in Tarikhe Beyhaghi. And Qadar Khan died after one year.
Arsalan Khan who was his heir became the Khan of Turkistan and he gave the region of Tarz, Espijb and the
surrounding places to his brother Bughra Khan. (Abolfazl Beyhaghi, 1388, vol 1,p 526). It is such said in
Farhange Jahangiri that Espijb is the name of a city of Transoxiana and in Turkey it is called as Siran.
Sayyed Serajoddin Shirazi in a verse says:
Heaven placed his throne of magnanimity in Rome and Constantinople. The world found the objective of its gratitude
in and Espijb.(Mir Jamaloddin Enju Shirazi 1351: vol. 1, p 1258)

Rahim Afifi the editor of Farhange Jahangiri writes The location of the city of Espijb if compared with the
city of Sirm shows that it was 8 miles far to the east of Chamkant near river Aris( River Badam) one of the
channels on the right side of river Seyhun. Le Strange also confirms his views and he adds that the name Sirn
comes after Espijb was destroyed by the Mongols. (Le Strange, 1364: p 515) It is said in the Loghat Nameh
that Espijb is a city in Transoxiana which is known as Shabran in Turkish rhyming with Gabran and the
Arabicized form of it is Esfijab. From Mojamal Boldan we come to know: It is one of the greatest cities of
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ANCIENT CITIES IN TARIKHE BEYHAGHI

Transoxiana almost near Turkistan, having a wide region and many hamlets. It is 98 1/3 longitude and 39
degree and 50 minutes latitude . It is the most popular city with wide and lush green lands and richly blessed
with trees and flowing waters and gardens. There is no place in Transoxiana which is exempted of paying taxes
but Espijb, because it is a magnificent region therefore it is exempted from paying taxes so that its dwellers can
utilize the tax money for the betterment of this region and the same was practiced in its neighboring cities such
as arz, Sabran, Sanikth and Farb. But this all changed with the passage of time. (Yaqut Hamuye Baghdadi,
1380, p 71) Mohammad Jaafar Yahaghi and Sayyedi have considered the two beautiful cities of arz and
Chagal as the cities of Espijab (Abolfazl Beyhaghi, 1388: vol. 2, p 1572). Abu Abdollah Moghaddasi writes in
Ahsanal Taqasim that this province consisted about 50 famous cities. (Moghaddasi, 1361: p 263). Ebne
Hawqal in the book Suratul Arz considers this city as one third of which had a fort, a small town and an
abode where each of them was surrounded by an enclosure and the abode area was about six kilometers
(farssakh). The city had four main gates and there was a caravansary in front of each gate. There were separate
market places in the city and dwelling areas. (Ebne Hawqal, 1366: 489).

Andarqz / Darqn
Andarqaz is another city mentioned in Tarikhe Behaghi. The Turkamans and the Seljukides joint hands with
him that each year it was accustomed that they used to come from Nur Bukhara to Andarqz and stayed there
for some time. (Abolfazl Beyhaghi,1388, vol 1, p 734).
It seems that distortion has occurred in the word Darqn and the scribes have written it as Andarqz
because there was no city is Khwarazm named as Andarqz but there was a place named Darqn where in
summers Seljukides used to come from Nur Bukhara. (Abolfazl Beyhaghi, 1388, vol. 2, p 1469). In Tabaqte
Nasiri it is narrated by Beyhaghi that Every year they used to come from Nur Bukhara to Darqn in search
of grass lands. (Qazi Menhaj al Seraj Juzjani, 1363, vol. 1, p 247). This name has also come in one of
Onsari`s poetry:
It is now in the hands of one of Gods servants The whole reign from Bahira till Darqn.(from Dehkhoda, 1373, vol 7, p
9338)

In Loghatnamaye Dehkhoda the word Darqn is explained as: A city on the bank of Jeyhun which is the
strong border of Khwarazm. It is an upper region of Jeyhun and lower region of Aamol on the way to Marv. It
is approximately 2 miles away from Jeyhun comprising of farmlands and gardens and Yaqut says that he saw
this place in the year 616 A.H. (Dehkhoda, 1373: 1338). Yaqut in this regard writes: Darqn is a city located
at an elevated point or a mound. In between this city and river Jeyhun lies the cultivated land and orchards of
the residents. It is at a distance of 2 miles from river Jeyhun and the other side of this city is dry. It is a desert and
between Darqn and Hazr Asb on the bank of river Jeyhun there is another city called Sadur. (Yaqut, 1380,
vol. 2: p 567). Regarding this city such is said in the book Masalek wa Mamalek that Towards north of
Tahereyyeh near the close end of river Jeyhun is the city of Darqn which is proportionate to Jorjaneyeh.
(Estakhri, 1368: p 235).
L estrange in his book Historical Geography writes that Darqn is situated near the close end of river
Jeyhun. It has a mosque which is unique of its kind and is decorated with marble. The city itself is extended to
12 kilometers (2 farsakh) on the river bank and there are vineyards in the outskirts of this city. (Le Strange,
1364: p 480). Therefore it can be said indecisively that Andarqz is actually Darqn. The ancient city of
Khwarazm which has been spelled wrongly by the various scribes of Tarikhe Beyhaghi.

Baq/Baqur
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JAHANTIGH AND BARANI

Another ancient city mentioned in Tarikhe Beyhaghi is the city of Baq also named as Baqur On Sunday 6th
Zilhajja Amir Masood started on the way to Bavan, Baq and Bdghis. (Abolfazl Beyhaghi, vol. 1, 1388:
426). As explained by Mohammd Moin, Baq is a city between Marv and Herat and related to it according to
the Arabic context it is Baqvi (Moin, 1362, vol 5, 272). In Loghatnamaye Dehkhoda the word Baqur is
defined as: It is the name of a city between Sarakhs and Herat and the synthetical meaning is Baqe ur, where
Baq stands for a ditch and in Arabic it is translated as. A Salty ditch (Dehkhoda, 1372, vol. 3, p 4242),
This city lies between Badghis and river Marv on Herat highway towards river Marv in a low watered waste
land.(Hodudal Alam, 1372: 93). It is quite interesting that Ata Malek Javini while explaining the attack of the
Mongols on Khorasan calls this city as two lands and writes: And he left for Joq, Baq and Baqur from Marv
route. (Ata Malek: 1386: vol. 1, p 118) It seems that this city was destroyed after the invasion of the Mongols
and was replaced by another city named Mari aburqn. This village later came to be known as Mowr
(Barthold: 1350: 65). Today the ruins of this city could be found near Mowr fort, the southern part of
Turkmenistan near Afghan border (Sayyedi, 1383: 48).

Bavan
Another ancient city mentioned in Tarikhe Beyhaghi is Bavan. Bavan is a city of Bdghis. It has flowing waters
and grape syrup is extracted (Dehkhoda ,1372, vol. 3, p 4417). This city in the past was known as Baban
and Babane. Estakhri calls this city as Baban and Moghaddasi calls it Baban and Babane a few miles away
from Heart. (Estakhri, 1373: p 213, Moghaddasi, 1361, vol. 1: p 72) This city was destroyed during the attack
of Mongols therefore its actual location is not known (Sayyedi and , 1383: p 494) May be the previous
location of Bavan was the border line of Afghanistan and within Turkmenistan. In Tarekhe Beyhaghi this place
has been named as Bavan but the scribes have mistakenly named it Tavan (Abolfazl Beyhaghi, 1388, vol.
2, 1483). Overall it can be said that this city has been considered as the Sultanate of Baq city and bigger than
Puang and not had much distance till Bamyan. (Le Strange, 1364, 440).

Balf or Balq / Balaf or Balaq


And they came rejoicing and with cheer till Balf. (Ablfazl Beyhaghi, 1388: vol. 1, p 245). Balq is a village
of Ghazna, the land of Zabolistan (Dehkhoda 1373, vol. 3, 4309). In the books edited by Said Nafisi and
Yahaghi the name Balf has been mentioned but some believe that it is in the south of Kabul on the road leading
to Ghazna and is considered to be the old form of Barak Logar (Hoseyni Kazeruni, 1384: 346). Abdol
Hayye Habibi also confirms this place with the recent city in southern Kabul named Barak and has introduced
it as the old Barak city. He also adds that Yaghut and Samaani have introduced Balf or Balq as the dependency
of Ghazna in their respective books.

Conclusion:
The archeological cities seem to be a part of collective nations and one can hear the voice of history culture and civilization
from its ruins. The works of old authors particularly the historical works which possess the names of historical cities and
places actually discovers the lost historical subsistence and makes it everlasting. Tarikhe Beyhaghi has also preserved the
name of cities which with the passage of time do not exist anymore. The cities which have been introduced to the readers
are actually the ones who have veiled the sound of laughter and cry of nations and have fallen like the doors and windows
of a house and have adjoined eternity. The ancient cites talk to us and remind us of the past. The cities of Arhan, Danbur,
Veyhand, Espijb, Andarqz, Baq, Bavan and Balf are some of the very ancient cities that we dont even know the correct
pronunciation of their names and it is quite difficult for us. But Abolfazl Beyhaghi who as an historian has tried to record and

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ANCIENT CITIES IN TARIKHE BEYHAGHI

register historical moments, the moments of life, culture and civilization and various thoughts and all this has inscripted his
name as it is not an easy thing to write each fact and figure.
One of the main task of archeology is to study the materialistic culture of different nations and this can only be achieved
by investigating about the ancient cities and like this authentic documents and records can be found which helps the
present generation to know about the various cultural states of the forgotten nations and it also provides them national
identity.

REFERENCES
Abolfeda (1349) Taghvimal Boldan, Translated by Abdolmohammad Ayati, Bonyade Farhange Iran, Tehran.
Bosworth Clifford Edmond (1362) Tarikhe Ghaznaveyan, Translated by Hasan Anushe, Tehran: Amir Kabir,
vol. 2.
BIRUNI, Mohammad Ebne Ahmad AbuRaihani (1362) Tahghighe Malalhind, Translated by Manuchehr Saddughi,
Tehran: Institute of Cultural research and studies
BEYHAGHI, Abolfazl Mohammad bin Hoseyn(1388) Tarikhe Beyhaghi, Edited by Mohammad Jaafar Yahaghi
and Mahdi Sayyedi, Tehran: Sokhan (vol. 2)
Ebne Howghal(1366) Suratal Arz, Translated by Jaafer Sheaar, Tehran: Amir Kabir
Estakhri, Abol Eshagh Ebrahim(1373) Masalek va Mamalek, Translated by Mohammad Ebne Asaad Ebne
Abdollah Tastari, Edited by Iraj Afshar, Tehran: Bonyade Moghofate Mohammad Afshare Yazdi
ENJU SHIRAZI, Mir Jamaloddin Hoseyn Ebne Fakhroddin Hasan (1351) Farhange Jahangiri, Edited by Rahim
Afifi, Mashhad: Ferdawsi University, Volume 2.
GARDIZI, Abu Said Abdol Hayye bin Zahhak(1366) Tarikhe Gardizi, Edited by Abdol Hayye Habibi, Tehran:
Donyaye Ketab
GHAVAM FORUGHI, Ebrahim(1385) Sharaf Namaye Manyari, Edited by Hakimeh Dabiran: Pajuheshgahe Olume
Ensani
HAMAVI BAGHDADI, Yaghut (1380) Moajamal Boldan, Translated by Ali Naqi Monzavi, Tehran: Pazhuheshgahe
Sazmane Mirase Farhangi
JOWZJANI, Qazi Menhaj Seraj (1363) Sazmane Mirase Farhangi, Edited by Abdol Hayye Habibi, Tehran: Donyaye
Ketab
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MOIN, MOHAMMAD (1362) Farhange Farsi, Tehran Amir Kabir (vol 6)
MUGHADDASI, Abu Abdollah(1361) Ahsanal Taqasim, Translated by Ali Naqi Monzavi, Tehran: Sherkate Moallefan va Tarjoman
SAMAANI, Abu Said Abdolkarim bin Mohammad bin Mansur(1419 Q) Al-Ansab, Edited by Mohammad Abdol
Qader Ata, Beirut: Darul Ketab al Elmiyyah (vol 5)
SAYYEDI, MAHDI W... (1383) Farhange Joghrafeyaye Tarikheye Turkmenistan, Tehran: Almahdi
V. BARTHOLD (1350), Abyari dar Turkestan, Translated by Karim Keshawarz, Tehran: Tehran University
V. BARTHOLD (1366), Turkestan Nameh, Translated by Karim Keshawarz, Tehran: Agah
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YAHAGHI, Mohammad Jaafer(1388) Yad Namaye Abolfazl Beyhaghi, 4th Edition, Mashhad: Ferdawsi University,
Abdol Hayye Habibis article, titled Tahghighe Barkhi az Amakene Tarekhi and Gholam Sarvar Homayuns
article titled Chand noktaye Taze darbaraye Tarikhe Beyhaghi

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Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,96-98


Advance Access publication 9 Dec. 2011

ENGLISH AS THE LINK LANGUAGE


BHAVNA GUPTA*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Bhavna Gupta the author of the research paper entitled ENGLISH AS THE LINK
LANGUAGE declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written it and also have read
the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is
my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial
Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright
of my research paper.

English communication has become a necessity to stand out in the world of competition. In todays society, life
has become very difficult for a person who is not able to converse in English. In todays world of competition,
it is very embarrassing not to speak English.
On the professional front also, the personality of a job seeker is not merely measured by virtue of his IQ.
Instead it is measured on the basis of his effective communication. So here it becomes important to learn
English. English is the leading language of science, technology, computers, and commerce; and a major medium
of education, publishing, international negotiation & business management of the world & as a consequence of,
which over a billion people speak English to at least a basic level. Because of this reason, it has often been
referred to as a World language, the lingua franca of the modern era. We must make the best use of it to
develop ourselves culturally and materially so that we can compete with the world. We can say that English
language is our window to the world.
Learning English is a skill which we can improve by ourselves. The young learners nowadays have to impart
skills to merge into a dynamic society where knowledge, culture, technology and attitude are changing at an
alarming speed. English can be difficult sometimes or confusing! Perhaps we find English spelling rules, irregular
verbs, and phrasal verbs confusing. Also, its working knowledge has become a requirement in a number of
fields, occupations and professions such as medicine and computing; as a consequence of which over a billion
people speak English to at least a basic level. Modern English is the dominant language or in some instances

*Assistant professor, AMPG college Varanasi (U.P.) India. (Editorial Board Member)

96
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ENGLISH AS THE LINK LANGUAGE

even the required international language of communications, science, business, aviation, entertainment, radio
etc. It is also one of six official languages of the United Nations.
There are five facts which make English an international language:
The main language used throughout the world on the internet. So it is no wonder that the mother tongue of the Web is
English.
Of all the worlds languages, it is arguably the richest in vocabulary
It is the most widespread language in the world and is more widely spoken and written than any other language.
It is the medium for huge amount of the information stored in the worlds computers.
Because a working knowledge of English is required in many fields and occupations, education ministries around the
world mandate the teaching of English to at least a basic level.

It has been almost two centuries that English education was introduced in India and since then it has been
playing an important role in our national life, not to mention our educational system. Most people believe that
the British rulers needed some cheap native clerks who could work in their offices much like what Lord
Macaulay called a class of people, Indian in blood and color, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in
intellect. But I personally dont hold this view. Even ardent patriots like Raja Ram Mohan Roy expressed that
learning English would help Indians to understand the philosophical and scientific advancement of the west.
Later on English became a national link language and made Indians united in their struggle for independence. It
has also improved our languages and literatures to a great extent.
But after independence, the role and importance of English in our educational system as well as national life
was seriously questioned by many. According to some of our leaders, English was a symbol and instrument of
colonial exploitation. Hence, it should be done away with completely from our systems. In the end, wise senses
prevailed and English was kept initially for 15 years as an Associate Official Language for inter-state
communications and communications between the states and the centre so as to give time to the learning of
Hindi. Jawaharlal Nehru opined that If you push out English, does Hindi fully take its place? I hope it will. But
I wish to avoid the danger of one unifying factor being pushed out without another unifying factor fully taking its
place. In that event there will be a gap, a pause. The creation of any such gap or pause must be avoided at all
costs. It is very vital to do so in the interest of the unity of our country. It is this that leads me to the conclusion
that English is likely to have an important place in the near future.
Jawaharlal Nehru could see that some day English would not only be a link language between the languages
for communications, but it would become the most important language for national and international dealings.
It has been 65 years that we have attained independence and instead of diminishing the importance of English,
it has increased far beyond anybody envisaged at the time of independence. With the changing world environment
and exponential growth of the use of English all over the world, we must put great emphasis on teaching and
learning of English in order to take advantage of our huge human resource. According to a recent study by the
department of human resource development, sixty percent of our population will be at working age by 2020
whereas that of China, Japan, the USA, will be around forty percent. So, Indian government is emphasizing in
giving technical as well as English training to the next generation so that Indians can take over the world.
Hence, we find that English still occupies and will continue to occupy an important place in our educational
system and curriculums at different levels should be constructed accordingly. Unfortunately, despite repeated
recommendations by different education commissions constituted by the Government of India, the position of
English in the curriculums and methods of teaching have always been in a state of unrest. For example, in 1984,
the West Bengal government completely removed teaching and learning of English from primary school curriculum
but from 1999 onwards, it had to reintroduce it as second language from class II.
Things have mostly been like this for the last few decades in relation to teaching and learning English. While
some elite private schools have complete system teaching-learning in English, not many can afford to send their
children to these schools. And the condition of teaching-learning of English in government schools is mostly
97

GUPTA

pathetic. The standard of achievement in the subject has been falling day by day. A large number of failures at
the secondary stage have been due to the pupils poor achievement in English. Low standard of teaching the
subject is also responsible to a great extent. In most cases the teacher of English has no idea of the goal he or
she has to achieve. The old Translation-Grammar Method still reigns supreme. The so-called Functional
Communicative Approach associated with Learning English series of text books has not helped either. We
are yet to evolve a uniform method of teaching English as a second language keeping its socio-economic setup, available resources and existing infrastructure without importing it from any other country.
Despite all odds, nobody can deny the importance of English in our educational system. It is through English
that we are able to keep ourselves updated with recent developments around the world. New age economies
like software development and call centers have made learning of English compulsory for those who want to
find a good livelihood in this competitive environment. English is also of outmost importance incase of higher
studies and research in the fields of science and technology.
We cannot forget that English is our link to the world and (its use) cannot be avoided. Even countries
like China and Japan are now taking to English in a big way. Not only was English the language of technology,
but it was also a tool of communication. In India its slowly becoming the language of communication for the
classes and the masses in various corporate offices, MNCs, colleges, schools etc. Slowly but surely people
have started to get the hang of it. Spoken English classes are booming and mushrooming in every nook and
corner of India. Thanks to the satellite TV and internet revolution more and more people are getting easy
access to the once foreign tongue; now Indians are getting to watch the Hollywood blockbusters in the comfort
of their drawing rooms and getting to know the culture of the west through soaps etc. This globalization and
liberalization has boosted in the overall development of the country. English has become part of life for many
Indians, and many can speak fluently and idiomatically like native speakers. For the younger generation it has
become the passport to success and prosperity. Over the years the BBC and the British Council have done a
yeoman service in spreading and taking the language to the common man. I personally feel indebted to these
institutions who have opened vistas of knowledge and learning.
By encouraging children to learn English as a second language early on, we are setting them up for a number
of advantages that will carry out through the rest of their lives. The 2002 U.S. Census indicates that approximately
14% (more than 7.5 million) children between the ages of 5 and 17 are fluent in more than one language, and
this number is expected to increase in the coming years. However, the benefits of learning English reach
beyond economic, educational, and employment advantages. It also increases a childs linguistic abilities because
bilingual children are better able to comprehend the complexities associated with a particular languages meaning
and grammar. Since some words across various languages share a similar pronunciation and vocabulary, the
connection is made for children early on and makes learning a new language more attainable. In addition,
children who learn English as a second language are able to expand their vocabulary across both languages at
a faster rate than their mono-linguistic peers.

REFERENCES
www.bbc.co.uk
en.wikipedia.org/wiki
www.jstor.org

98

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,99-101


Advance Access publication 23 Nov. 2011

A SOUND HRP REALLY ORGANIZES THE ORGANIZATION


PROF.A.D SHARMA* AND RITU PRIYA SINGH**

Declaration
The Declaration of the authors for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: We, A.D Sharma and Ritu Priya Singh the authors of the research paper entitled A
SOUND HRP REALLY ORGANIZES THE ORGANIZATION declare that , We take the responsibility of the content and material of
our paper as We ourself have written it and also have read the manuscript of our paper carefully. Also, We hereby give our consent to
publish our paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is our original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or
has been sent for publication anywhere else.We authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. We also
give our consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of our research paper.

Abstract
It is not a mere surmise to say that HRP organises an organisation. HRP really initially puts a foundation to any firm and
then it develops the whole system.
It is indeed men who does everything concerning an activity,economic,social ,polotical or anything else.For engaging
a person to lead an activity we have certainly to do some HRP. It is only then we can succed in achieving our goals with
respect to the system.
HRP would make a dependable reserve of human power so that adequate succes becomes a reality.Enough stock of
skill has to be arranged for a firm and for that purpose enough planning for human resource has to be undertaken.Even
reserves have to be created and maintained for adequately many the neccesary activities.Without HR and therefore HRP
no results can be obtained.

Introduction
While talking about any organization the first thing cames to in our mind is about the resources of the
organization.The term resource sums up everything which an organization needs for functioning of the
organization.By all considerations the most imporatant resource is Human Resource because due to lack of it
no plan can be made,no machines can move,no team can work,no production ,no departments can
function.So,the human resource is the most important part of an organisation as is the BLOOD FOR BODY.

*Retd. Proffesor, Dept. of Economics, University of Allahabad (U.P.) India.


**Research Scholar, Dept. of Economics, University of Allahabad (U.P.) India.

99
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SHARMA AND SINGH

HRP is Earnestly Needed


To meet the demand of human resources we have to make a precise plan for it .A proper concrete planning is
needed for smooth functioning of an organisation.It can oraganise the whole organisation without hurdles which
can break the working of business .
Planning is somewhat of estimating the future of an organisation keeping in mind the present position of
business. The demand and supply of human resources form the centre point of Human Resource Planning.

A Real Work Force


Human Resource is a term used to describe the individuals who make up the work force of an organisation .
The main concept which comes out from HRP is to meet the supply of future demand and organise the whole
procedure of recruiting the personnel . It is very important for an organisation that only the right people are
placed in right places otherwise it can disturb the work of the whole organisation and other eployees will also
be affected by that. So it all depends on HRP that the right employees are placed at right places and they are
sincirely performing there jobs .

Analysing Demand & Supply


The most important part of HRP is to analyse the demand of personnels in future and the departments where
they are required . If the future demand is not estimated or analysed at the right time then the whole organisation
can suffer for it . It is very important for the organisation to analyse the demand at right time . It is not easy task
to find the right person for the right job . So, HRP has to work a lot on findings the right person for the right
job .HR department has to always keep an eye on the mobility of the personnels and do planning so the
organisation will not suffer with the insufficiency of personnels which may effect the whole organisation. If the
HR planning fails then it might be possible that every department of the organisation will suffer beacause
departments are interconnected with each other and failure of one department effects the another departments.
HRP is thus vital and is the life -blood of any organisation, of any industry , of an economy and thus even of
any country.

The Omnious Problems Without HRP


For a moment if we think that organisation is working without HRP then fallowing problems can arise :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Organisation will not know about the future deficiency of employees.


Wrong person can be placed at important positions .
Organisation will not able to know about the retirement possibilities of employees .
If organisation is launching or introducing any new machinary then without planning how can they appoint the right
employees for that functioning or to train the employees for the new performance .
Without HRP the time of the organisation may go waste in searching of employees at the time of need .
Due to lack of HRP the organisatin may not run in an organised way because when the employees are not hired at right
time then the whole organisation will run in an unorganised manner.
If the HRP has been undertaken in a right way then it lessens the burden of other deparments because other departments
have not to worry about employees hiring.
HRP also helps in finding out the demand of employees .
Without HRP no organisation will know

a) How to recruit ?
b) where to recruit?

100

A SOUND HRP REALLY ORGANIZES THE ORGANIZATION

c) Demand of employees is fulfilled by current employees or to hire new one?


d) Which type of training they need to meet the demand ?
e) Is organisation ready to meet the funds of recruiting new people?
10) If organisation is introducing any new policy or project then the employees are ready to face it and the employees are
sufficient to handle that?

Conclusion
Above analysed are the points which clearly explains the importance of HRP and from the above points it is very clear that
HRP plays a vital role in management of the organisation .HR are the key personnels of organisation and good HRP may
give sunshine to the organisation .For the upbringing and downsizing of organisation the emloyees are responsible and
if HRP places right people at right jobs then the organisation may rise at a fast speed .
HRP is needed in every department and can be used at all levels in the organisation and over the short and the long term.
EX-If the CEO is retiring then through HRP the organization will try to fill that post by a competent employee by
promoting or will adopt some other option from outside .So it is all decided through HR department by planning or
estimating the future need of employees of certain post.
HRP deals with the different levels within organizations and with different purposes in mind ,there is a need for HR
planners to integrate them such that each informs the other.
In conclusion ,we can say that organisations at some time or another ,in some location or another ,may be involved in all
aspects of HRP. The way it is applied will suit individual organisational circumstances and the particular needs of the
moment.

REFERENCES
Armstrongs Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice by Michael Armstrong
HRM book, Author : Robert L. Mathis John H.Jackson
Human Resource Management in the Knowledge Economy: New Challenges, New Roles, New Capabilities
-by Mark L. Lengnick-Hall, Cynthia A. Lengnick-Hall
Human Resource Management at Work: People Management and Development by Mick Marchington,
Adrian Wilkinson
PIETER A. GROBLER, SURETTE WARNICH, MICHAEL R. CARRELL, NORBERT F. ELBERT & ROBERT D. HATFIELD,
Human Resource Management in South Africa.
Managing Human Resources by George W. Bohlander, Scott A. Snell,
Transforming HR: Creating Value Through People, 2nd edition by Martin Reddington, Mark Withers, Mark
Williamson
Technology, Outsourcing & Transforming HR Graeme Martin, Martin Reddington, Heather Alexander
The Workforce Scorecard: Managing Human Capital To Execute Strategy by Mark A. Huselid, Brian E.
Becker, Richard W. Beatty

101

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,102-107


Advance Access publication 13 Nov. 2011

A STUDY ON DESIGNING AND PRINTING OF GANESHA WALL


PANELS WITH BATIK TECHNIQUE AND NEW PROSPECTS.
MRS. RITU GARG*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Mrs. Ritu Garg the author of the research paper entitled A STUDY ON
DESIGNING AND PRINTING OF GANESHA WALL PANELS WITH BATIK TECHNIQUE AND NEW PROSEPECTS. declare
that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself have written it and also have read the manuscript of my
paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is my original work and
no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal
to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

Abstract
Printing is the embellishment of the cloth. Present study was conducted to know the preference of respondents regarding
Batik printing with Genesha to know the preference of respondents regarding motif. Batik printing with wall panels
constructed using one selected motif with Genesha.

Introduction
Homage to lord Ganesha is a mantra, which is considered auspicious as he is the seeker of wisdom, prosperity,
remover of obstacles and is granter of success, It is difficult to find occasions, which Ganesha is not called into
bless with his favour. He is god of good lck and of all fortunate enterprise, prudent and sagacious and full of
policy. (Martin, 1996).
Of all the handicrafts, textile farmed a class by itself. Clothing is one of the basic needs of life, so fabric has
always found to be most suitable and acceptable material of expression of art. The icons of Ganesha ranges
from fabric, canvas, glass, wood metal etc. One of the forms which are most prevalent in market is fabric. The
icons are made by painting, embroidery or printing. Among all there process printing enjoys special status.
(Dass, 1992).
The craft of batik originated in Indonesia centuries ago and although the techniques involved may have
become more mechanized over the years they have basically changed very little. Indonesia batik motifs have

*(Msc.Clothing & Textile, M.Phil) Lecturer in Shri Ram Girls College Muzaffarnagar (U.P.) India.e-Mail : ritu77.garg@gmail.com

102
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A STUDY ON DESIGNING AND PRINTING OF GANESHA WALL PANELS WITH BATIK TECHNIQUE AND NEW PROSPECTS.

special meanings derived partially from primitive symbolism, but also influenced by India, Chinese and Arabic
decorative art patterns, may be definite in form and repeated at set interval over the fabric or free with no
repetition. The geometric patterns indicate the Indonesia influence while the free forms are based on Hindu and
some time Chinese designs. According to Vaastu Shastra Ganesha the elephant headed God of wisdom hold
prides of place at the entrance of Hindu home. There are literally hundreds of interesting forms of this much
loved deity. There is no canonical strictness either about his form or material in which his icon cane be casted.
The poorest of the poor can make his image even in day on draw it on his mud wall. Woman may embroider
him on cloth or carpenters may sculpt his on cloth or carpenters may sculpt his in wood. (Bhardwaj, 1998).
Wall panels like mobiles have become increasingly popular in recent years. Dispensing as they do with the
need for costly picture framing, they provide an economical and bright answer for cheering up a large expanse
of blank wall. The motifs used for making wall panels can be varied that is they may be geometrical, floral,
modern or traditional.
The present study on gives and insight into the use of traditional technique batik along with traditional motif
that is Ganesha on wall panels. The wall panels are made with batik technique to accentuate the beauty of
home with colors.

Aims & Objectives


1- To study the historical development of Batik Printing.
2- To study the technique of Batik Printing.
3- To collect the twenty designs for wall panels and select the one most preferred designs.
4- To print the wall panels with selected motifs using the Bees & Paraffin wax.
5- To evaluate the wall panels.

Limitations
1- The design of wall panels was limited with only Ganesha motifs.
2- The size of wall panels was also limited to 2x2feet.
3- One color combination is used in all wall panels.
Review & Literature : Review of literature is done in order to record the historical genesis of the present
research topic with developments and modifications that occur time and also the conditions prevailing at
present.

History of Ganesha
Ganesha the name is derived from Gana- is a lord of Ganas that is troops of inferior deities and evil spirits and
more specially those subordinate deities who are in attendance of Siva, who had delegated the command of
them to Ganesha. This deity is most widely worshipped of all the Hindu gods. His grotesque, unwisely figure is
found over the lintel of the door of countless Hindu dwellings. (Martin, 1996).
The popularity of Ganesha is not limited to only India but is extended to Nepal, China, and Turkestan and
crossed the seas to Java, Bali while his warship was not unknown in Tibet, Burma, Indonesia China and Japan.
(Aggarwal, 1992).

103

GARG

Forms of Ganesha
There is no canonical strictness either about his form or the material in which his icon can be eased. The
Mudgala and Ganesha Pureness, which have glorified Ganapati as the ultimate reality have mentioned many
forms of Ganesha impages. The former mentions thirty two Forms befitting the various roles taken by the god.
The main characteristics of the thirty two forms are taken from the Dhyan Sholokas and are given Bala Ganapati,
Taruna Ganapati, Bhakti Ganapati, Vera Ganapti, Shakti Ganapti, Dwija Ganapti, Siddhin Ganapti, Unhhishta
Ganapati, Vighna Ganapati, Kashipra Ganapati, Herambha Ganapati, Lakshmi Ganbapti, Maha Ganapati,
Vijaya Ganapati, Nritya Ganapati, Irdhya Ganapati, Ekaakashara Ganapati, Vara Ganapati, Tryakshara Ganapati,
Kashipra-Prasada Ganapti, Haridra Ganapati, Ekadanta Ganapati, Shrishti Ganapati, Uddanda Ganapati,
Ruhamochan Ganapati. Dhundhi Ganapati, Dwinukha Ganapati, Trimukha Ganapati, Simha Ganapatim Yoga
Ganapati, Durga Ganapati, Sankatahara Ganapati. (Jagannathan, Krishna, 1974).

History of Batik
The roots of batik are ancient, every where and difficult to trace. No one know exactly where and when
people first began to apply wax, vegetable paste, paraffin or even mud to cloth that would then resist the dye.
But it was on the Inland of java and nearly Madura that emerged as one of the great art forms of Asia. Batik is
known to have existed in China, Japan, India, Thailand, East Turkistan, Europe and Africa and it may have
developed simultaneously in several of there areas. Some scholars believe that the process originated in India
and was later brought to Egypt.

Batik Equipments
The equipments required to produce batik consists of:
a) Tap, b) Tainting, c) Brushes, d) Was (Paraffin, Gees), e) Dyes, f) Fabric (Cotton, Silk etc.)

Batik Technique
Batik is a direct technique for producing batik the pattern is drawn on the fabric then the wax is applied in
accordance with the design. When the waxing has been completed on one side, the cloth is turned and proration
repeated on the back. Then the fabric is dyed according to the colors required. Finally the material is rinsed
very thoroughly and transferred to a hot water bath. In this, the wax will belt away from the fabric and float at
the top of the vat from where it is ladled, collected and cane be used for waxing of dark colors. (Keller, 1966).

Methodology & Pesearch Design


The present study was been conducted for imparting a completely new look to the traditional art of batik
printing. The sample was selected on random basis and the study was carried out with the help of interview
method. I have used this work. The history of Batik printing technique. I have prepared 32 motifs and selected
one. After I have prepare these work with one selected motif. After preparation of samples was evaluated by
100 textile student graduate & post graduate) and 4 textile experts from some reputed institutes.
I have used kora cotton cloth for traditional batik printing. First of all one sample prepare with selected
design, selected wax combination, selected 2 colour combination and selected accessory by the respondent
and Judges, selected empty areas in the motif were fill with selected accessory. So as not to suppress the effect
of printing.
104

A STUDY ON DESIGNING AND PRINTING OF GANESHA WALL PANELS WITH BATIK TECHNIQUE AND NEW PROSPECTS.

Evaluation of Samples
Finally this phase was focused on the evaluation of printed wall panels. The printed wall panels were evaluated
on the basis of appearance, work man ship and celerity of designs. Ten wall panels were printed and displayed
in front of all the five judges. All these judges were lecturers from G.N.G. College Yamuna nagar with Master of
Science, Home Science as their minimum qualification.
The two evaluations ere done to verify the results and to rule out any kind of error created by biased
opinion.

Continum Scale Method


A ten point continuum scale was formed with marks ranging from 10.00, 9.5, 9.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.00. The judges
were requested to assign marks to different wall panels. Marks code by each wall panels were added and then
calculation were done (Performa used is shown in Appendix D)
Ranking Method: For this evaluation the judges were asked to examine the wall panels in accordance with
appearance, workmanship and clarity of design and gave marks accordingly. This evaluation was done by
ranking method.

Results & Discussion


The interview method has been used as an instrument for data collection. The results have been analyzed to
draw the conclusion and tables have been shown for easy understanding. Thus the analysis of this chapter was
divided in to the following:
-

Tabulated, - Un-tabulated (information)

Abbreviations used are


F%NS.No.

Frequency
Percentage
Total number of respondents
Serial Number

The result and discussion of the study were given under three sections.
Section A: This section dealt with general information.
Section B: This section dealt with the specific information regarding of the biases material, the color combination,
the ten most preferred designs, one of the best proportion of the wax.
Section C: This section dealt with evaluation of the wall panels with the continuum scale and evaluation of the
wall panels with the ranking method.
T A B L E No.1 Distribution of the respondents of the basis of their qualification.
N=100
S.No.

Qualification

1
2

Post Graduates
Undergraduates

65
35

65
35

The data in the above table disclosed that majority (65 %) of the respondent were post graduate students in
home science and rest (35%) of them graduate students in home science students.
T A B L E No.2 Distribution of respondents according to the preference of the base material for the wall panels.
105

GARG

N=30
S.No.

Base Material

No. of Respondents (F)

1
2
3
4
5

Poplin
Linen
Cotton
Silk
Muslin

2
3
18
5
2

6.7
10.0
60.0
16.6
6.7

Thus it is concluded that cotton was most preferred because this material is durable, economic and requires
less care while handling.
T A B L E No.3 Distribution of marks of the respondents about the choice of color combinations of the wall panels.
S.No.

Colour Combination

Score

Rank

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Violet Mauve Pink


Golden Yellow-coffee brown-orange
Lemon Yellow- Red-Maroon
Mustard-Maroon-Red
Orange-Maroon- Green
Navy Blue-Pink-Violet
Black Red-Lemon Yellow
Violet-Pink-Orange
Orange-Brown-Green
Lemon Yellow-Black-Green

164
178
150
188
177
150
148
162
183
140

V
III
VII
I
IV
VIII
IX
II
X

Thus it concluded that mustard-maroon-red combination was most preferred, as it will give more traditional
look to traditional wall panels.

Selectio of The Ten Most Preferred Designs


For the selection of design for printing, all the 30 designs were displayed before the respondents. A Performa
was given to each respondent and asked them to rate the design. They were requested to give marks out of 30.
30 marks being highest and 1 mark being lowest i.e. marks given in descending order. The results were
obtained through the statistical analysis method.
Date in the table depict that the most preferred panel design was design no 2nd the least preferred panel
design was design no. 29, Ten most preferred panel design were design no. 2,4,7,23,14,12,26,9,6 and 29
respectively.
T A B L E No. 4
N=5
Sample No. Judge NO.

1
2
3
4
5
Sum
Rank

3
2
3
4
4
16
IV

5
4
6
5
6
26
II

6
6
5
6
5
28
I

4
5
4
2
3
18
III

2
2
2
3
2
12
V

1
1
1
1
1
5
VI

Thus it is concluded that a proportion with 60 % paraffin wax and 40 % bees wax was used for final wall
panel.
T A B L E No.5 Distribution of marks given by judges to evaluate the wall panels on continuum scale.
Design No. Sale 2

23

14

106

12

26

29

A STUDY ON DESIGNING AND PRINTING OF GANESHA WALL PANELS WITH BATIK TECHNIQUE AND NEW PROSPECTS.

10.00
9.50
9.00
8.50
8.00
7.50
7.00
6.50
6.00
5.50
5.00
4.50
4.00
3.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
Total
Ranks

47.5
II

42.5
IV

49.5
I

45.5
III

28.5
IX

20.5
X

32.5
VII

42.0
V

37.0
VI

28.0
VIII

Thus it is concluded that by continuum scale design No.7 got the 1" rank.
T A B L E No.6 Distribution of marks given by judge to evaluate the wall panel with traditional style and new
prospect.
Sr.No.

Sample No.

1
2

1
2

Marks

Sample No.1 is traditional style and the sample No.2 is some new prospects. It is concluded that sampleno.
2 got most high rank compare sample No.1.

Conclusion
Thus it concluded thad Batik printing is used from times for fabric decoration. Can produce great effect when used in
combination with some accessory. Similar effect which was tried out in this study also showed good results. After evaluation
Batik printing was found to be preferred with some accessory with mustered, red. Brown batik color most preferred wall
panel was panel no.7.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
AGGARWAL AARTI, JAIN, JYOTINDRA (1984), Museum of India New Delhi; Lustre Pvt. Ltd.
BHARDWAJ, MONISHA, (1998), Inside India; Quintessential India Style, Kyle catlie Ltd.
DASS, SUKLA, (1992), Fabric Art (Heritage of India), Abhinav Publications.
JAGANNATHAN, SHAKUNTHALA, KRISHNA , NANDITA, (1974) Ganesha [The Auspicious.The beginning]
Bombay,. D.B. Taraporevalla Sons & Co. Operative Pvt. Ltd.
KELLER, LLA, (1966). Batik the art & craft. Vermant & Tokya, Japan; Charles E. Tuttle Company; Publishers
Rutland.
MARTIN, OSTOORN, (1996). The Gods of India. Delhi; Cosmo Publications.

107

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,108-110


Advance Access publication 8 Dec. 2011

MANPOWER PLANNING AND HRP ARE CERATINLY NOT TWO


DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE SYSTEM.
PROF.A.D SHARMA* AND RITU PRIYA SINGH**

Declaration
The Declaration of the authors for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: We, A.D Sharma and Ritu Priya Singh the authors of the research paper entitled
MANPOWER PLANNING AND HRP ARE CERATINLY NOT TWO DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE SYSTEM. declare that ,
We take the responsibility of the content and material of our paper as We ourself have written it and also have read the manuscript of our
paper carefully. Also, We hereby give our consent to publish our paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is our original work and
no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication anywhere else.We authorise the Editorial Board of the
Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. We also give our consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of our
research paper.

Abstract
Human resource planning and manpower planning certainly mean the same thing for a firm and really for just any
institution or for any corporate body.
Ofcourse without human power or human skill or without human action nothing happens and actually nothing can
happen .
If human effort has to gain or obtain an achievement an adequate planning has to be done so that the manpower or
the human resource can be appropriately utilized and proper results can be obtained .Without human resource planning
no activity can really take place and no action can be realized with good and proper results.

Introduction
Prior to setting up any organisation the first thing which strikes on an entreprenuers mind is the manpower
which is the backup of every activity concerning the organisation .
No organisation can work without adequate and competent manpower from the begining to the end .

*Retd. Proffesor, Dept. of Economics, University of Allahabad (U.P.) India.


**Research Scholar, Dept. of Economics, University of Allahabad (U.P.) India.

108
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MANPOWER PLANNING AND HRP ARE CERATINLY NOT TWO DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE SYSTEM.

Manpower is The Strength


Manpower is needed everywhere .Innovation of establishment of an organisation can be done by the man only
not by machines .Machines can only make the work easier and faster but cannnot perform the task without
manpower .Man actually is the power of an organisation and manpower is the strength of the organisation
depending on which the organisation can face any challenges and perform any task .Without manpower no
machine can work ,no production,no department can work ,no management ,no sale ,no purchase .It can thus
be claimed that manpower is of a very basic importance for an organisation.
Manpower Planning is a process which incubates forecasting ,developing and controlling -by which a firm
ensures that it has the right number of people of a very right kind ,at right places at the right time doing work for
which they are economically most useful. Manpower planning plays a vital role in meeting the needs for employees
in future.
Manpower Planning has to estimate the demand of manpower for future.To meet the demand of personnel
planning is done to prepare an inventory pf personnel through neccesary programmes like recruitmnt ,selection
,training ,deployment ,utilisation ,transfer ,promotion,development ,motivation and compensation for meeting
the future manpower needs.
Planning plays an important role in management of organisation .Due to lack of planning the organisation
can face problems of insufficiency of workers which may lead to a failure of the whole organisation.A proper
manpower planning of organisation is always prepared to face future challenges .

Objectives of Manpower Planning


As under we can forsee the objectives of manpower planning:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Prediction of manpower requirement.


Controlling the deployment of employees .
Helps in knowing the training needs of available employees .
Ready to adopt new technology with the help of manpower palnning .
To meet the deficiency of employees in future.
To attain the satisfaction of employees .
Manpower planning helps in knowing the lead time that is available to select and train the required additional manpower.
Through manpower planning financial need for the upliftment and recruiting new employees can be estimated.

we can say that Manpower Planning is done at the initial stage during the establishment of organisation as
the personnels are very important for an organisation.From the point of idea -genration and to implement the
idea manpower is needed .
Manpower Planning needs a proper foreseeing of future demand of people in organisation and by an exact
estimation the right people to be put at the right place .So ,it all depends on proper planning that management
is able to face all challenges regarding manpower .If the manpower planning fails then it leads the organisation
to face challenges by less manpower when the organisation needs more employees and due to which a loss can
occur.
Now a days the estimation of employees and planning for recruitment is known as HRP.Prior,to HRP this
planning used to be known as manpower planning and the same work and planning is now done under HRP.

What is HRP ?
HRP is the process of anticipating and making provision for the movement of people into,within and out of an
oganisation.In simple words HRP is understood as the process of forecasting an organisations future demand
for ,and supply of, the right type of people in the right number.
109

SHARMA AND SINGH

HRP is a sub-system in total organisational planning.All other HR activities like recruiting ,training ,
promotion ,remuneration ,transfer are a part of HRP only.HRP should be planned in such a way that all the
functions or activities related to HR are done wuth ease and the work is not to suffer with deficiency and
shortage of personnel.

Imporatance of HRP
1. Analysing Future Personnel Needs : Planning helps in determiming the future personnel needs and makes
organisation ready to overcome the needs .Surplus or deficiency of labour in staff strength is result of the
absence of or a defective human resorce planning.
2. Recruiting Talented Personnel : With the help of HRP the organisation can estimate the future needs and
have time to hire or search right persons for the right jobs .In an absence of HRP the organisation may
recruit less talented people because at the time of need they have to recruit what they get at that very time
to fill the current needs.
3. HRP Helps in Development of Employees : HRP provides scope for advancement and development of
employees through training and development etc.HRP also concern about the overall development of
employees and it finds an exact reason of lower performance by employees
4. Monitors Retention of Employees : HRP monitors the retention of employees and makes a very sound
attempt to avoid losses due to retention.
5. Keep A Track Record of Retention : HRP keeps a track of wastage and also keeps a record whether the
number of employees is constant or is fluctuating day by day.

Conclusion
Manpwer planning and HRP performs the same work and works on the same strategy.Earlier planning or forecasting
regarding employees used to be known as manpower planning but now a days all the functions of manpower planning are
known as HRP.
There are some drawbacks in manpower planning and HRP works out to overcome those drawbacks.A process by
which an organisation attempts to estimate the demand for labour and evaluate the size ,nature and sources of supply of
labour which will be required to meet the demand ,can be known as HRP.
Manpower Planning plans for future needs by deciding as to how many people,with what skills the organisation will
need in future .Only manpower has the ability to meet the demand of an organisation.Manpower is the most essential
ingredient of organisation because all the work is performed by human beings and their skill is needed for performing any
task.Thus Manpower Planning is very important for any organisation.
Extending the above-text,the work performed by Manpower planning is same as the HRP performs.By both of them
planning is done for human skills and action is planned to estimate the demand for manpower for future.
So,Manpower planning and HRP both are the same for any organisation but they are only known by different names
.Actually there is no difference between both of them as far as planning is concerned except their names .Prior to the
evolution of HRP it was commonly known as Manpower planning.

REFERENCES
Human Resource Management, 4th edition by Alan Price, editor HRM Guide
JOHN BRATTON & JEFFREY GOLD ,Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice
JOHN HAROLD JACKSON, Human Resource Management
MICK MARCHINGTON & ADRIAN WILKINSON, Human Resource Management at Work: People Management
and Development.
ROBERT L. MATHIS & JOHN H. JACKSON , Human Resource Management
WENDELL L. FRENCH, HARDCOVER, Human Resources Management

110

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,111-113


Advance Access publication 22 Oct. 2011

PROBLEMS OF MUSLIM WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY


FARIDA AHMED* AND INDIRA BISHNOI**

Declaration
The Declaration of the authors for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: We, Farida Ahmed and Indira Bishnoi the authors of the research paper entitled
PROBLEMS OF MUSLIM WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY declare that , We take the responsibility of the content and material
of our paper as We ourself have written it and also have read the manuscript of our paper carefully. Also, We hereby give our consent to
publish our paper in Anvikshiki journal , This research paper is our original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has
been sent for publication anywhere else.We authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. We also give
our consent to the Editor of Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of our research paper.

Abstract
The present study was conducted in the Benia Bagh area of Varanasi city with objective to identify the
problems in education and employment of Muslim women and to suggest some remedies to the identified
problems. For this purpose 15-15 women from each Hindu and Muslim communities were selected
randomly and from analyzing the data the problem in education and employment were identified: lack
of parental support, difficulty in attending the school, problem of household work, educational
backwardness of parents and lack of support of community elders.
Keywords: Muslim women, problems, education, employment.

Introduction
Islam emphasizes the importance of educating and bringing up girls well. The Prophet Mohammed (peace be
upon him) said Seeking of knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim. But still education is the area where
Muslim women are lag behind at present. In urban areas, the literacy level of Muslim women is 47 per cent. In
rural areas, it is 32 per cent (Express India, 2004). Muslim women are more likely to be illiterate than Hindu
women. It is well known that the work participation of Muslim women is very low. Muslim woman has access
to falls in the lowest paid and most exploited categories of labour. Such activities-self-employed in low-

*Lecturer, Department of Home Science, Mahadev Mahavidyalay, Bariyasanpur Varanasi (U.P.) India.
**Professor, Department of Home Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.) India.

111
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AHMED AND BISHNOI

productivity activities in the informal sector, as casual labourers and domestic servants-imply poor working
conditions and low wages (Ghosh, 2004). Keeping this in view a study was conducted with objectives:
1. To identify the problems in education and employment of Muslim women.
2. To suggest some remedies to the identified problems.

Methodology: The present study was conducted in the Benia Bagh area of Varanasi city. The required
informations were collected from only a female of the family of the selected household as respondent.
Finally, total thirty, 15-15 women from each Hindu and Muslim communities were selected randomly. The
quantitative information regarding the profile and information needs is collected through general survey,
interview and discussion. The collected data were classified and tabulated in the background of the objectives
of the research study. Use of appropriate statistical methods like frequency, percentage was used to analyze
quantitative data.

Results and Discussions


TAB LE 1
Sl. No.

Educational Level

Hindu Women
Frequency

i
ii
iii
iv
v

Primary
High school
Intermediate
Graduate
Post Graduate
Total

Muslim Women

Percentage (%)

6
2
3
4
15

40
13.33
20
26.7
100

Frequency
4
5
5
1
15

Percentage (%)
26.67
33.33
33.33
6.67
100

In the survey it is found that literacy among Muslim women was lower than Hindu Women. The proportion of
Muslim women in higher education is only 1 per cent. Thats lower even than that of Hindu women, which is 7
percent. Compared to the Hindu women percentage of Muslim women education is really very low. Muslim
women were found to be more literate than their Hindu counterparts in the area. It was found in survey that
boys were frequent dropouts from schools, girls who reach primary, high school and intermediate levels were
made to discontinue because they will be over qualified in the marriage market.
T A B L E 2 Distribution of respondents according to problems faced by them in acquiring higher education
Sl. No.

Options

Hindu Women
Frequency

i
ii
iii
iv
v

Low interest
Family restrictions
Problem of household work
Financial problem
No problem
Total

Muslim Women

Percentage (%)

Frequency

6.66
40.01
6.66
46.67
100

3
4
5
2
1
15

1
6
1
7
15

Percentage (%)
20
26.67
33.33
13.34
6.66
100

It is evident from table 2 that maximum (33.33 percent) Muslim women were facing problem of household
work in acquiring higher education. The respondents who were faced other problems like followed family
restrictions and low interest and financial problem were accounted in 26.67 percent, 20 percent and 13.34
percent respectively. In the study area problems like lack of female education and restrictive purdah were
existing.
T A B L E 3 Distribution of respondents according to their self dependency
Sl. No.

Options

Hindu Women

112

Muslim Women

PROBLEMS OF MUSLIM WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Frequency
i
ii

Yes
No
Total

Percentage (%)

6
9
15

Frequency

40
60
100

Percentage (%)

15
15

100
100

Table-3 reveals that only 40 percent Hindu women were self dependent.
T A B L E 4 Problems faced by respondents in the adoption of employment
Sl. No.
i
ii
iii
iv

Problems

Hindu Women

Problem of household work


Lack of parental support
Lack of support of community elders
No problem
Total

Muslim Women

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Frequency

Percentage (%)

5
1
9
15

33.33
6.66
60.01
100

5
8
2
15

33.33
53.33
13.34
100

The above table 4 shows that the majorities (53.33 percent) of female Muslim respondents were facing lack of
parental support in the adoption of any employment. Other problems faced by respondents in the adoption of
any employment like household work and lack of support of community elders accounted as 33.33 percent
and 13.34 percent respectively.

Conclusion and Suggestions


In the survey it is found that literacy among Muslim women is lower than Hindu Women. In the study area Muslim boys are
frequent dropouts from schools, girls who reach pri-middle or secondary school levels are made to discontinue because
they will be over qualified in the marriage market. From survey some problems were identified in Muslim girls education:
lack of information, lack of parental support, difficulty in attending the school, problem of house hold work, educational
backwardness of parents, lack of community support, match fixing in kinship, early marriage was cited as an important
reason for dropping out of school. On the whole, a slightly higher proportion of Muslim women than Hindu women
reported that they faced obstacles in their schooling. The vast majority of women surveyed, irrespective of education
levels, claimed to be unaware of any programmes directed towards women. The advantages of most government schemes,
which over the years have specifically targeted women, have generally not accrued to them. The only solution of these
problems is to liberate Muslim women from the shackles of ignorance, illiteracy exploitation is through education. Muslim
women were unable to make as much social progress as did the Hindu women.
This comparative study proves that Muslim women are not being held back from pursuing an education because of
Islamic ideals, but more because of economic and social reasons. Therefore NGOs and the government have come together
to make some educational and poverty alleviation programmes through which Muslim women become educationally
empowered. If Muslim girls become literate woman, avenues will be open for her; she will feel meaning of life and her
existence. She may embrace economical and social position. This accession will serve her ultimately and it will beneficial for
our society.
The real issues of livelihood and development of the Muslim women should become the priority of the policy makers.
The following issues need immediate attention for the improvement of the conditions of Muslims in India:
1. The government should provide scholarships and hostel facility to the students from Muslim community on par with SC
and ST to raise their educational levels.
2. The government should allot funds to the Muslim women in the poverty alleviation schemes in proportion to their
population among the below poverty line population.
3. There should be specific quota for the Muslims women in all the government schemes in proportion to their population.
4. The government should provide loans to the artisans and self employed youth on liberal terms through National
Minorities Finance Corporation and state level Minorities Finance Corporations and nationalized banks.

REFERENCES
EXPRESS INDIA (2007), Education can improve status of Muslim women.
GHOSH. JAYANTI (2004), Muslim Women in India, Frontline, Vol.-21, Issue-19.

113

Letter No.V-34564,Reg.533/2007-2008
ANVIKSHIKI ISSN 0973-9777

INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH(2012)6,114-117


Advance Access publication 13 Nov. 2011

STATUS OF INDIAN GIRLS IN HIGHER EDUCATION


SUKANYA CHAKRAVORTY*

Declaration
The Declaration of the author for publication of Research Paper in The Indian Journal of Research Anvikshiki ISSN 0973-9777
Bi-monthly International Journal of all Research: I, Sukanya chakravorty the author of the research paper entitled STATUS OF
INDIAN GIRLS IN HIGHER EDUCATION declare that , I take the responsibility of the content and material of my paper as I myself
have written it and also have read the manuscript of my paper carefully. Also, I hereby give my consent to publish my paper in Anvikshiki
journal , This research paper is my original work and no part of it or its similar version is published or has been sent for publication
anywhere else. I authorise the Editorial Board of the Journal to modify and edit the manuscript. I also give my consent to the Editor of
Anvikshiki Journal to own the copyright of my research paper.

Education is important for everyone, but it is especially significant for girls and women. This is true not only
because education is an entry point to other opportunities, but also because the educational achievements of
women can have ripple effects within the family and across generations. Investing in girls education is one of
the most effective ways to reduce poverty. Girls who have been educated are likely to marry later and to have
smaller and healthier families. Educated women can recognize the importance of health care and know how to
seek it for themselves and their children. Education helps girls and women to know their rights and to gain
confidence. So to improve the status of women educational empowerment is very important. Higher Education
in India is one of the most developed in the entire world. There has in fact been considerable improvement in
the higher education scenario of India in both quantitative and qualitative terms. Education in India is mainly
provided by the public sector with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child
education is compulsory. Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the
states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various
articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are
Union or State Government controlled.
India continues to face stern challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 35% of its population is
still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7% graduate. As of 2008, Indias postsecondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of Indias college-age population, 25% of teaching
positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a masters or PhD degree. As of
2007, there are 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges in India with an annual studentin India.

*Lecturer, Department of Home Science, Mahadev Mahavidyalay, Bariyasanpur Varanasi (U.P.) India.
**Professor, Department of Home Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.) India.

114
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STATUS OF INDIAN GIRLS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Higher Education of girls in India Big challenges


Higher education has long been recognized as a major contributing factor to the social, cultural and intellectual
life of society by improving the quality of human life. Higher education is realy work as a backbone in human life
because it really helps in human development which is directly related to nation development. The three pillars
of education are expansion, inclusion and excellence. Education is the key to progress. It empowers the
individual. It enables a nation. Social and economic progress can be achieved through knowledge and its
application and higher education is a most powerful tool for the creation of that knowledge and the knowledge
based society. India is a nation of young people - out of a population of above 1.1 billion; 672 million people
are in the age-group 15 to 59 years, which is usually treated as the working age population. This young
population should be considered as valuable asset which if equipped with knowledge and skills, can contribute
effectively to the development of the national as well as the global economy. Thus it is the belief of our government
that if we nurture our children and young people with the right education, Indias future as a strong and prosperous
country is secure.
India has emerged as a global leader and a strong nation at the turn of this century. Education is the key to
the task of nation building as well as to provide requisite knowledge and skills required for sustained growth of
the economy and to ensure overall progress. The Indian education system recognizes the role of education in
instilling the values of secularism, egalitarianism, respect for democratic traditions and civil liberties and quest
for justice. It aims at creating citizens equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and values to build an inclusive,
just and progressive society. Thus, the development of a strong nation requires that the human resources of the
country are endowed with higher levels of education, skill and specialization. This means education does not
end with the completion of elementary cycle of schooling. Transition to higher education for an individual
implies higher personal returns over life time and for a nation, an addition to human and social capital with
potential benefit to society. The vision of a nation must be to provide secondary education to every child so that
potential human resource is further enriched with skill and understanding of social, economic and political
institutions to play an important role in nation building. Therefore, higher rate of transition from secondary to
higher education is an index of progress and prosperity to the nation.

Present Structure of the Indian Higher Education System


At present there are 504 universities and university-level institutions, 243 state universities, 53 state private
universities, 40 central universities, 130 institutions deemed to be universities, 33 institutions of national importance
established under Acts of Parliament, 5 Institutions established under various State legislations. There are
25,951 colleges including approximately 2565 womens colleges. At the beginning of academic year 2009-10,
the total number of students enrolled in the universities and colleges has been reported at 136.42 lakhs 16.69
lakhs (12.24%) in university departments and 119.73 lakhs (87.76%) in affiliated colleges. The enrolment of
woman students was 65.49 lakhs constituting 41.40% of the total enrolment. The number of doctoral degrees
awarded in 2007-08 was 13,237. The regular faculty strength in universities was 0.90 lakhs and 4.98 lakhs in
colleges, totalling 5.89 lakhs at the beginning of 2009-10. There are 66 Academic Staff Colleges engaged in
faculty training. With respect to technical education, intake is 14,09,742 students at degree level in 7,272
institutions and 5,08,157 students at diploma level in 2324 institutions. Enrolment in Open & Distance learning
is approximately 3 million. National Assessment and Accreditation Council assessed 4094 colleges and 159
universities as on 28 March 2010.
Indian higher education system is one of the largest in the world. It consists of colleges, universities, institutions
of national importance (such as Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management and Indian
115

CHAKRAVORTY

Institutes of Science, etc.), and autonomous institutions with the status of deemed universities. In 2002-03,
there were 300 universities; of which 183 were provincial, 18 federal, 71 deemed universities, and 5 were
established through central and state legislation and 13 institutes of national importance. The enrolment was
9,227,833 (about 7.8% of the relevant age group). There were 436,000 teachers in 2002-03 as against
457,000 in 2000-01. Of these nearly 83% are in the affiliated colleges and 17% in the universities. Gender
wise data is not provided by the UGCSee user-generated content.
However, the 2001-02, MHRDMHRD Ministry of Human Resource Development MHRD Master of
Human Resources Development (2001-02) provides information on the women teachers in the 12 open
universities which is 18.4% and 21.5% in the institutions offering correspondence courses. There has been
phenomenal expansion of educational opportunities for women in the field of higher education both general and
technical. Women education at the university-both college levels has been diversified and reoriented in tune
with the changing requirements of the society, industry and trade. The number of women enrolled in institutions
of higher education increased from 40,000 in 1950-51 to about 14, 37,000 in 1990-91 recording an increase
of more than 36 times over the forty-year period. And in the year 2004-05 the number increased to 3,971,407.
Proportion of women entering higher education 1950-51 was10.9 percent and in 2002-03 it was 40.04
percent. The number of women per 100 men in 1950-51 was 14 which increased to 67 in 2002-03.
There are also wide disparities in enrolment by region, caste, and tribe and by gender. These differences
impact on women from the disadvantaged groups. In 2001-02, the proportions of SC/ST students were as
follows: Scheduled Castes 11.5 percent (1,016,182) SC men 8 percent (7, 06,769) and SC women 3.5
percent (309,813). The ST students constituted 4 percent (351,880) of total enrolment; men 2.7 percent
(240,495); women 1.3 percent (114,168). In M.Phil/Ph.D. programmes, there were 53,119 students all over
the country. Of these 36.3 percent (19,299) were women; 5.9 percent (3,133) SC students; and 1.80 (951)
ST students. There were 824 SC women and 344 ST women, i.e. 4.3 percent and 1.8 percent respectively of
all women research students. It is quite well known that inspite of a very well formulated policy of positive
discrimination, the representation of SC/ST students is not adequate and the proportion of women is negligible.
They generally join general education courses and are denied access to elite/courses and institutions.
Further, disciplinary choices are affected by socio-economic factors especially in the case of Scheduled
Caste/Scheduled Tribe students whose representation remains marginal in higher education. But they too, are
better represented in states in which women have better representation and in which higher education facilities
have expanded in recent years. The issue of illiteracy and lack of education to girls is closely related to poverty.
Poverty is a major cause of various health and social issues in India. It is true that the people living a life below
the poverty line do not have enough funds to educate all their children so they prefer giving education to boys
and keep girls away from schools and colleges. Poor women are not so educated to hold the power of taking
a decision to have limited number of children. The truth they believe is More number of hands to work more
will be the income in the family. Though thats a myth but uneducated families live their entire life with this
belief. This eventually restricts the growth and development of girls in these families who are just taught to do
all the household work.
Fortunately in the metro cities and big towns, the rate of female literacy is increasing at a rapid pace but its
unfortunate that the same trend does not prevail in villages in small towns. In such places there are inadequate
school facilities that do not have enough space and room to accommodate all the children. In such schools even
the basic requirements of an educational facility like table-chair, source of clean drinking water, playground,
and library are not available. Furthermore, there is hardly one or two teacher to educate the children there. In
a situation like this parents feel that educating their sons is more important than giving education to their
daughter.
Education of girls has been a high priority with the Government of India. The National commitment to
provide free and compulsory education to all children in the 6- 14 years age group is now a Fundamental Right
116

STATUS OF INDIAN GIRLS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

of every child in India after the passing of the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act in December, 2002. Reaching
out to the girl child is central to the efforts to universalize elementary education. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, or
Education for All programme recognizes that ensuring girls education requires changes not only in the education
system but also in societal norms and attitudes. A two-pronged gender strategy has therefore been adopted, to
make the education system responsive to the needs of the girls through targeted interventions which serve as a
pull factor to enhance access and retention of girls in schools and on the other hand, to generate a community
demand for girls education through training and mobilisation.
REFERENCES
Central Statistical Organization,1994, Statistical Abstract India 1992, New Delhi.
INDIA REGISTRAR GENERAL (1995),SRS Based Abridged Life Tables 1988-92, Occasional Paper No. 4 of 1995,
New Delhi.
KING, ELIZABETH M. (1990), Educating Girls and Women: Investing in Development,
KALIA, NARENDRA NATH (1988), Women and Sexism: Language of Indian School Textbooks, in Rehana
Ghadially, ed., Women in Indian Society, New Delhi.
Ministry of Human Resource Development (1993), Selected Educational Statistics, 1991-92, New Delhi.
Registrar General and Census Commissioner (1977), Census of India 1971, Social and Cultural Tables, Series
I-India, Part II-C(ii),New Delhi. Census of India 1991, Final Population Totals: Brief Analysis of Primary
Census Abstract, Series-1, New Delhi. 1996, Sample Registration Bulletin, Vol. 30, No.1, New Delhi.

117

Note for Contributors


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BLUMSTEIN,A.and COHEN,J.(1973),A Theory of Punishment Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology,64:198-207
GUPTA,RAJKUMAR(2009),A Study of The Ethnic Minority in Trinidad in The Perspective of Trinidad Indians Attempt to
Preserve Indian Culture, India: Maneesha Publication,
RICHARDSON,G(1985),Judicial Intervention in Prison Life, in M. Maguire ,J. Vagg and R. Morgan, eds., Accountability and
Prisons,113-54.London:Tavistocs.
SINGH,ANITA.(2007),My Ten Short Stories,113-154.India:Maneesha Publication.
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