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# We consider here the adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas through a

## convergent-divergent nozzle under such condition that a stationary shock

wave is formed. The gas enters the nozzle from a reservoir, where the
pressure is Po , and discharge to the atmosphere, where the pressure is Po.
In the absence of a shock wave the flow through a well-designed nozzle is
virtually frictionless (hence isentropic for the adiabatic situation being
considered). If, in addition, Pa/Po is sufficiently small, it is known that the
flow is essentially sonic at the throat (the region of minimum cross section)
and is supersonic in the divergent portion of the nozzle. Under these
conditions the pressure will continually decrease, and the velocity will
increase in the direction of the flow, as indicated by the curves in the figure
1.
However, for any nozzle design there is a range of pa/po for which such an
isentropic flow produces a pressure less than pa at the exit. Then the
isentropic flow becomes unstable. The simplest of many possibilities is a
stationary normal shock wave, shown schematically in the figure 1 as pair
of closely space parallel lines. Here the velocity falls of very rapidly to a
subsonic value, while both the pressure and the density rise. These changes
take place in an extremely thin region, wich may therefore be considered
locally one-dimensional and laminar, and they are accompanied by a very
substantial dissipation of mechanical energy. Viscous dissipation and heat
conduction effects are thus concentrated in a extremely small region of the
nozzle, and it is the purpose of the example to explore the fluid behavior
there. For simplicity the shock wave will be consider normal to the fluid
streamlines; in practice, much more complicated shapes are often observed.
The velocity, pressure, and temperature just upstream of the shock can be
calculated.
Formulate the equations and the simulation of change to determine the
conditions under which a shock wave is possible and to find the velocity,
temperature, and pressure distributions in such a shock wave, assume
steady, one-dimensional flow of an ideal gas. Use molecular models for
calculate the viscosity, thermal conduction, calorific capacity in function of
the temperature and the pressure (see: Reid, Prasusniz and Poling, The
Properties of Gases and Liquids, Mcgraw-Hill, New York, 4 edition, 1987).
Perform different simulation with the different conditions. Show the results in
graphs.
ESPAOL
Consideramos la expansin adiabtica de un gas ideal a travs de una
tobera convergente divergente bajo tal condicin que se forma una onda de
choque estacionaria. El gas entra en el inyector de un depsito, donde la
presin es Po, y la descarga a la atmsfera, donde la presin es Po. En
ausencia de una onda de choque el flujo a travs de una boquilla bien
diseado es prcticamente sin friccin (isentrpico por lo tanto para la
pequeo, se sabe que el flujo es esencialmente acstico en la garganta (la
regin de corte transversal mnimo) y es supersnico en la parte divergente
del inyector. En estas condiciones la presin continuamente se disminuir, y

## la velocidad aumentar en la direccin del flujo, como indicado por las

curvas en la figura 1.
Sin embargo, para cualquier diseo de inyector hay una gama de pa/po para
el cual tal flujo de isentropico produce una presin menos que Pa en la
salida Entonces el flujo isentrpico se vuelve inestable. El ms simple de
muchas posibilidades es una onda de choque normal estacionaria, que se
muestra esquemticamente en la figura 1 como el par de lneas
estrechamente espaciales paralelas. Aqu la velocidad cae de muy
rpidamente a un valor subsnico, mientras que la presin y el aumento de
fina, cual puede considerarse, por tanto, localmente laminar y
unidimensional, y van acompaados de una gran disipacin de energa
mecnica. La disipacin viscosa y efectos de conduccin de calor as se
concentran en una regin muy pequea de la boquilla, y es el propsito del
ejemplo para explorar el comportamiento fluido all. Efectos de conduccin
calor y disipacin viscosos as Para simplificar la onda de choque se
considerar normal el lquido optimiza; en la prctica, se observan a