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\chapter{Theoretical Background}

\label{ch:2}

%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------\section{Class of Operation}

Power amplifier are classified according to high efficient they are.Write details about
different class of power amplifier.

\subsection{Conventional Amplifier}
Based on the conduction angle of device,power amplifier can be classified in Class
A, Class AB, Class B and Class C.

\begin{itemize}
\item[$\bullet$]\textbf{Class A:}

In Class A, devices operates for full cycle condition. It has the maximum
fundamental output current with zero harmonic content with a maximum efficiency
of 50. Due to this it is used in the application where high linearity is required.
\item[$\bullet$]\textbf{Class AB:}

Due to the conduction angle of the device, between pi and 2pi. It has higher
efficiency than Class AB operation. It is used in wireless communications system,
where both high linearity and high efficiency required.

\item[$\bullet$]\textbf{Class B:}

If the device operating angle is set to pi, then it is called as Class B operation.
It has higher efficiency compared to class AB operation.

\item[$\bullet$]\textbf{Class C:}

For class C operation,device is biased below pinch-off. It is used in Doherty


operation for the peaking amplifier.
\end{itemize}

\section{Non Linearity and Memory Effect}

For a simplified class B circuit, consider all harmonic impedance are set to zero.

Let us consider an unmodulated signal where RF input power is held constant. In


this model, the ideal instantaneous drain current would be,

$I_d(t)) = g_m {\ast} (v_g(t) - v_T) $, for $ v_d >0$ and $v_g >v_T $

where, $g_m$ is the transconductance of the device

$v_T$ is the threshold voltage

$I_d(t)) = 0 $, for $ v_d >0$ and $v_g <v_T $


Let, assume $v_T = 0$ i.e zero gate bias.
Under these conditions, the gate voltage becomes,

\begin{equation}
\label{E2-5}
v_g = A* cos(w_c*t)
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}
\label{E2-5}
i_d(t) = gm*A*cos(w_c*t),-{\pi}/2 {\leq}w_c*t{\leq}{\pi}/2
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}
\label{E2-5}
i_d(t) = 0,-{\pi} {\leq}w_c*t{\leq}-{\pi}/2; {\pi}/2 {\leq}w_c*t{\leq}{\pi}
\end{equation}

**with Imax,can replaced A**


The DC current is,
\begin{equation}
\label{E2-5}

i_d(t) = g_m*A/{\pi}
\end{equation}

The Fundamental RF current is,


\begin{equation}
\label{E2-5}
i_d(t) = g_m/2*A
\end{equation}

The instantaneous drain voltage becomes

\begin{equation}
\label{E2-5}
v_d(t) = V_d-g_m/2*A*R_load*cos(w_c*t)
\end{equation}

\begin{equation}
\label{E2-5}
v_I(t) =-g_m/2*A*R_load*cos(w_c*t)
\end{equation}

Two tone test is used to investigate the behavior of the power amplifier for
amplitude modulated signals.
Let us,consider an amplifier is driven by two tones of equal amplitude and
frequencies $w_1$ and $w_2$ on either side of a equally suppress carrier $w_c$.
We express this signal as \cite{two_tone_simplified},

\begin{equation}
\label{E28}
s(t) =V_ocos(w_2t+{\phi}_2)+V_ocos(w_1t+{\phi}_1)
\end{equation}

we rewrite equation~\ref{E28} as
\begin{equation}
\label{E29}
s(t) =2V_ocos(w_mt+{\phi}_m)cos(w_ct+{\phi}_c)
\end{equation}

where

\begin{equation}
\label{E2-10}
w_m =(w_2-w_1)/2
\end{equation}

Add figure from the paper using matlab two tone of two coswave

first term, equation~\ref{E29} modulates the sinewave carrier at the baseband


frequency $w_m $

We can define the gain modulation as,

\begin{equation}

\label{E2-10}
G(t) =g_o+g_t
\end{equation}

Output of the nonlinear circuit is

\begin{equation}
\label{E2-10}
S_out(t) =G(t)s(t)
\end{equation}

\subsection{AM/AM and AM/PM Conversion}


According to mathematics, gr oup is a set of elements which satisfies four axioms
\cite{Bossert} \cite{wkgroup}.
\begin{itemize}
\item[$\bullet$] Closure: $\forall a,b \in A: a*b \in A$
\item[$\bullet$] Associativity: $\forall a,b,c \in A:a*(b*c)=(a*b)*c$
\item[$\bullet$] Identity or neutral element: for any $ e, \forall a \in
A,a*e=e*a=a$
\item[$\bullet$]Inverse element: for each $a$ there is an element $b$ so that
$a*b=e$; $e$ is a neutral element.
\end{itemize}

For Abelian or Commutative group, there exists an additional axiom \cite{Bossert} :


\begin{itemize}

\item[$\bullet$]

Commutativity: $\forall a,b\in a*b=b*a$

\end{itemize}

\subsection{Intermodulation distortion}
Ring is a set of elements with two operations, addition and multiplication, such that
it satisfies some axioms \cite{Bossert}:
\begin{itemize}
\item[$\bullet$]A set $A$ has to be an Abelian group under addition
\item[$\bullet$]$A$ fulfills closure under multiplication
\item[$\bullet$]Satisfies associativity
\item[$\bullet$]Distributivity: $ \forall a,b,c \in A:a*(b+c)=a*b+a*c$
\end{itemize}

\subsection{Memory Effects}
Field is a set of elements fulfilling some axioms\cite{wkfield}:
\begin{itemize}
\item[$\bullet$]A set of elements $A$ of Abelian group under addition
\item[$\bullet$]A set of elements $A$ (except null element) of Abelian group
under multiplication
\item[$\bullet$]Satisfies Distributive law
\end{itemize}

\subsection{Two tone test}

A real power amplifier is non-linear device. Due to non-linearity, the output signal is
distorted.For modern telecommunication system, this distortion produced by the
power amplifier should be suppressed or minimized. Also,

with.

For weakly non-linear behavior, the output transfer characteristics of a power


amplifier can be presented using a third-order polynomial \cite{phd_thesis_1},

\begin{equation}
\label{E29}
V_{out} = g_{1}V_{in} + g_{3}V_{in}^3
\end{equation}

For a input sinusoidal signal,$V_{in}(t) =V_{o} sin(w_{o}t)$ , the output signal can
be written as \cite{phd_thesis_1},

\begin{equation}
\label{g1_g3}
V_{out} = (g_{1}V_{in} + \frac{3}{4}g_{3}V_{in}^3)sin(w_{o}t)+\frac{3}
{4}g_{3}V_{in}^3sin(3w_{o}t)
\end{equation}

where $g_{3}$ and $g_{1}$ are the nonlinearity coefficients. In


equation~\ref{g1_g3} , the output voltage contains the fundamental and third
harmonic component. Here, the term $\frac{3}{4}g_{3}V_{in}^3sin(w_{o}t)$
creates distortion at the fundamental frequency due to the odd-order components.
This results gain compression or AM-AM effect\cite{norwood}. The AM/AM can be
determined by differentialting the gain with respect to input power
\cite{phd_thesis_1}.

Besides gain compression and harmonics, there is another non-linearity called AMPM where Amplitude modulation(AM) in the input signal creates Phase
modulation(PM) in the output signal. The AM/PM can be determined by assuming
the input voltage of the amplifier modulated by \cite{phd_thesis_1},

\begin{equation}
\label{E29}
M(t) = A_{M}cos(w_{M}t)
\end{equation}

If the amplifier is linear, the output phase remains independent of the amplitude of
the input signal and remains constant i.e.

\begin{equation}
\label{E29}
\phi(V_{out}(t)) = K
\end{equation}

Now, if there is distortion by the amplifier, the AM present in the input signal will
make PM of the the output signal as shown below \cite{phd_thesis_1},

\begin{equation}
\label{p_m}
\phi(V_{out}(t)) = Kcos(w_{c}(t) + A_{M}cos(w_{M}t))
\end{equation}

Here, $w_{c}$ is the carrier angular frequency. equation~\ref{p_m} shows, a PM


carrier with modulated signal. AM-PM in the power amplifier arise from non-linear

input and output capacitances of the transistor\cite{norwood}. AM/PM should be


minimized at design level so that for digitally modulated signal, input phase
information should preserved in the output without deformation

\subsection{Two tone test new}


It is necessary to mention that,with un-modulated single carrier signal it is not
possible to transmit any information. Due to the spectral regrowth behavior the
current system, static CW stimuli cann't full explored it.
Compare to the CW signal, two-tone signal is a better representation of the
modulated signal used in the telecommunication system. Hence,it is widely used to
evaluating the linearity properties of a non-linear system

% Give the figue here

Two tone test is used to investigate the behavior of the power amplifier for
amplitude modulated signals.
Let us,consider an amplifier is driven by two tones of equal amplitude and
frequencies $w_1$ and $w_2$ on either side of a equally suppress carrier $w_c$ and
zero phase offset.
This can be expressed as \cite{two_tone_simplified},

\begin{equation}
\label{E28}
s(t) =V_ocos(w_1t)+V_ocos(w_2t)
\end{equation}

we rewrite equation~\ref{E28} as
\begin{equation}
\label{E29}
s(t) =2V_ocos(w_mt+{\phi}_m)cos(w_ct+{\phi}_c)

\end{equation}
where
$w_m =(w_2-w_1)/2$ and $w_c =(w_2+w_1)/2$ are the modulation and carrier
frequency.

If $s(t)$ is input a to non-linear amplifier, the corresponding output will be


\cite{phd_thesis_2},

\begin{equation}
\label{i_non}
V_{out}(t) =2V_cos(w_ct+{\phi}_c)
\end{equation}
where $w_{r} = mw_{1} + nw_{2}$ with m,n e z

equation~\ref{i_non} shows that, out composed of mixing all spectral components


with all possible combinations of $\pm w_1$ and $\pm w_2$ . Unwanted frequency
components at $2w_1-w_{2}]$ and $2w_1-w_{2}]$ are termed as lower and upper
third order inter-modulation products which is most dominant in-band distortion.

%The main source of device nonlinearity is the device transconductance


Memory effects in RF power amplifier causes IM3 sidebands as a functions of tone
spacing[1], which limits the cancellation performance predistortion techniques.
Electrical memory effects are mainly caused by the fact that in some 2nd order
nonlinearity mechanisms part of the IM3 distortion is up converted from the
envelope frequency. Therefore, the IM3 sidebands can be affected to a degree by
impedances at the envelope frequency. Since these impedances cannot be constant
over a wide envelope frequency range(mostly due to bias circuits), some memory
effects are unavoidable at high modulation frequencies.

However, non-linearity of the power amplifier might be frequency dependent if


excited with broadband signal \cite{phd_thesis_1} which termed as bandwidth
dependent non-linearity or memory-effect\cite{phd_thesis_1}. For exmaple,
WCDMA/ LTE signal has large bandwidht ranging from 5 MHz to 20 MHz. With twotone signal, following results demonstrated memory effect \cite{voulvi}

\begin{itemize}
\item[$\bullet$] variation of IM3 sidebands with frequency spacing

\item[$\bullet$] Asymmetry between upper and lower IMD3

\end{itemize}

%Memory effects in RF power amplifier causes IM3 sidebands as a functions of tone


spacing\cite{voulvi}.
Memory effect are classified as short-term memory effect and long time memory
effect. The long-term memory effect are characterized with time constants much
longer than the period of the RF Frequency\cite{norwood}.

\subsection{Bias circuit effects}

Ideally bias circuit of the power amplifier should be a short circuit at DC and open
circuit at RF. However, in practice while it is possible to achieve a very low DC
resistance, this low impedance is maintained over a limited frequency range which
is termed as video bandwidth(VBW)\cite{norwood}.Class AB amplifiers draw a
current from the main output bias supply which varies from a low value, maybe
10(percent) of the peak value, as the amplitude modulation on the input signal
swings the envelope amplitude over its full dynamic range\cite{crips}. Due to this,if
any impedance is placed in its path will create voltage modulation at the output
terminal of the device and this will in turn modulate the gain and phase of the
amplifier and cause additional distortion products \cite{crips}.

For example,two-tone signal at the input, there is beat forming. With Signals $w_1$
and $w_2$ the beat is modifying the signal envelope with $(w_1-w2)$. As a result of
nonzero supply impedance, supply voltage is modulated too and out of a
component at $w_2$ and the supply modulation with $(w_1-w2)$, mixing products
like $(2w_1-w2)$ is formed which is located at IM3 frequencies [2].