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TITLE ONE CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY

AND THE LAW OF NATIONS


Chapter One Crimes Against National Security

BOOK TWO
CRIMES AND PENALTIES
and
SPECIAL CRIMINAL LAWS
TITLE ONE
CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY
AND THE LAW OF NATIONS
CHAPTER ONE
CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY
Section One Treason and Espionage
The crimes against national security are as follows:
1.

Treason (Art. 114)

2.

Conspiracy and Proposal to Commit Treason (Art. 115)

3.

Misprision of Treason (Art. 116)

4.

Espionage (Art. 117), and

5.

Terrorism and Conspiracy to Commit Terrorism (RA


9372, The Human Security Act of 2007, An Act to Secure
the State and Protect our People from Terrorism)

The crimes against the law of nations are as follows:


1.

Inciting to War or Giving Motives for Reprisals (Art. 118)

2.

Violation of Neutrality (Art. 119)


1

CRIMINAL LAW
BOOK II OF THE REVISED PENAL CODE

3.

Correspondence with Hostile Country (Art. 120)

4.

Flight to Enemys Country (Art. 121), and

5.

Piracy in General and Mutiny on the High Seas (Art. 122)

The crimes against national security have extra-territorial


application. Even if the crimes are committed outside of Philippine territory, the offenders can be charged and prosecuted before
Philippine courts. This is an exception to the territorial application
of criminal law under Article 2, paragraph (5) of the Revised Penal
Code.
If the offender is within Philippine territory, prosecution can
proceed as a matter of course. However, if he is within the territorial jurisdiction of another country he may be brought to the country
by means of extradition if the country has an existing extradition
treaty with that country.
The crimes against the law of nations are considered crimes
against humanity or crimes against mankind. Thus, the accused can
be prosecuted wherever and whenever he may be found.
ART. 114. Treason. Any Filipino citizen who levies
war against the Philippines or adheres to her enemies, giving them aid or comfort within the Philippines or elsewhere,
shall be punished by reclusion perpetua to death and shall
pay a fine not to exceed 100,000 pesos.
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the
testimony of two witnesses at least to the same overt act or
on confession of the accused in open court.
Likewise, an alien, residing in the Philippines, who commits acts of treason as defined in paragraph 1 of this Article
shall be punished by reclusion temporal to death and shall
pay a fine not to exceed 100,000 pesos. (As amended by Sec. 2,
RA No. 7659)
Elements:
1.

The offender is a Filipino or a resident alien;

2.

There is war in which the Philippines is involved;

3.

The offender either:


a)

Levies war against the government; or

b)

Adheres to the enemies, giving them aid or comfort.

TITLE ONE CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY


AND THE LAW OF NATIONS
Chapter One Crimes Against National Security

war.

Treason is betrayal of allegiance to ones country in time of

Treason is a war time offense. It can be committed only in


time of war. It cannot be committed in time of peace because during
peace time there are no traitors.
Persons liable:
1.

Filipino citizens those who owe permanent allegiance to the


Philippine government.

2.

Resident aliens those who owe temporary allegiance to the


government.

Is there a need for a formal declaration of war before Treason can


be committed?
Answer:
No, a formal declaration of war is not needed before treason can be committed. It is not an element of the offense. When
armed hostilities have begun there is no need that the existence of war be declared. Example: During World War II, while
the Emperor of Japan was talking with the President of the
United States of America, Japan treacherously bombed Pearl
Harbor. The bombing of Pearl Harbor signaled the beginning
of war between Japan and the United States. There was no
need that the existence of war between Japan and the United
States be declared by either of them. When a Filipino citizen or
a resident alien commits any of the acts of committing treason
in the course of such armed hostilities, he is liable for treason.
Two ways of committing Treason:
1.

Levying war waging war against the government of the


Philippines.

2.

Adhering to the enemies, giving them aid or comfort.


Illustrations:
Levying war against the government:
Japan and the Philippines are at war. Japan invaded
the Philippines. X a Filipino citizen became sympathetic with
the military imperialism of Japan. X collaborated with the

FOREWORD
Professor Abelardo C. Estrada has done it again. After his
hugely successful Criminal Law Book I, he has created another
masterpiece, certainly a much awaited special treat for students
and bar examinees alike his Criminal Law, Book II of the Revised
Penal Code.
I have come across many books on criminal law, starting from
the time I was in law school and while reviewing for the bar. In
private practice and later as an advocate in the law ofce of the
government, I needed handy reference materials on the subject. For
a magistrate, the value of an authoritative volume as a guidebook
to resolve sometimes complex problems calling for the application
of criminal law provisions cannot be overemphasized. But Professor
Estradas tomes stand out as gems in that eld shining with the
depth of his knowledge, replete with illustrations plus problems
and corresponding answers, skillfully steering the reader through
potential mineelds in such an ever challenging territory.
From the way he lays down his nuggets of wisdom, one can feel
his tremendous ardor, the same passion that animates his persona
when he does one thing that he loves most, which is to teach law.
Indeed, he is a law teacher par excellence, with the rare ability to
inspire and bring out the best from his students, and can impart even
the most abstruse legal principles in a manner intelligible even to a
novice in the study of law. Deftly organized in a user-friendly style,
sprinkled with examples and keywords or mnemonic devices, his
new book, like the rst one, is the perfect companion of every student
and bar reviewee who wishes to gain some mastery of criminal law.
Notably, this format appeals to a very wide audience, as it lends
itself to easy and convenient perusal even by law professors and
trial lawyers.
No doubt, Professor Estrada is exceptionally good in what he
does, whether as a litigation lawyer, law professor, lecturer and
reviewer, as well as leader of the Philippine bar. It is not an accident
that his initials are ACE, one who is an expert in any activity. He
has denitely added another feather to his cap that of lawbook
iii

author. What better way to expand the reach of his expertise than
to make it available in book form not only to those fortunate to listen
to his lectures but also to all others eager to drink from the fountain
of his vast legal knowledge.
This new book by the Ace himself again tells us that in the
hands of a master, learning law need not be tedious and boring.
In fact, it could be quite an exhilarating experience. Every reader
would enjoy grazing on it, in much the same way that I gained great
pleasure from soaking up every page.

JUSTICE MAGDANGAL M. DE LEON

Manila, Philippines
July 17, 2010

iv

PREFACE
Lawless are they that make their wills their law.
William Shakespeare
This is not the rst time that the author would be publishing
a book amidst request of law students and bar reviewees and yet
overcoming the delay of coming up with this material, could be
likened to a sea of deep appreciation from readers engulng all
unfathomable emotions. From the time my Book One of the Revised
Penal Code, Criminal Law Made Easy, was released, law students
and bar reviewees have been constantly following up the publication
of its sequel, Book Two, Crimes and Penalties. It is very inspiring
to know that the Philippine Military Academy has chosen to use
my Book One as the ofcial text book of the academy. Hopefully,
Book Two shall follow as its ofcial text book too. Considering
the many special criminal laws that we have now, I decided to
incorporate in my Book Two special criminal laws, their effects and
their amendments to the Revised Penal Code to keep the students
of law and even practitioners abreast with updates in law and
jurisprudence. Knowing that the authors books are given value
by the academe, colleagues and friends, brings a magnitude of joy
that is simply incomparable. Furthermore, the challenges in writing
each book give a strong feeling that greatly crafts and molds ones
pedagogy.
The complexity of the subject makes it imperative to present
the topics in a clear and simple language for easier understanding.
The many illustrative cases and examples including applications of
the law to given problems were carefully designed for each reader to
get a good grasp of the elements and concepts of the law. Although
this book is intended primarily for law students and bar candidates,
it is of sincerest hope that other students, law practitioners, the
bench, as well as those merely fascinated with the penal laws of this
country would nd this humble work useful and instructional.
The writer owes his passion, mission and vision in writing
this book to the encouraging words of students, friends and loved
v

ones who continue to inspire him in his life-long journey in this


noble profession. This work would not have been possible without
the support of a lot of people too many to mention. They know
who they are and the writer owes them a tremendous gratitude
for the realization of this humble work. Special thanks and
heartfelt gratitude go to my wife Imelda, daughters Lorelie, Karen
Mae and Abegail and sons Shieldon, Job Vernon, Hanz Zoilo and
Jan Charlo for providing constant inspiration, support, love and
attention; to Renz Jan Ugay Tamondong and Laura F. Quinto
whose zeal and energy in the preparation and drafting of this book
had made possible its publication and to my partners, associates
and ofce staff in the Law Firm for their invaluable technical and
professional assistance and who unselshly lent their time and
provided research materials available whenever needed. To Atty.
Louella Xylee Apilado who shared her valued time and effort in
special research, my special and profound appreciation.
For the very beautiful and inspiring foreword, my special
thanks to the amiable and erudite professor Justice Magdangal De
Leon of the Court of Appeals.
The writer hopes youll enjoy reading this book as much as he
had enjoyed writing it.

DEAN ABELARDO C. ESTRADA

July 14, 2010


Baguio City, Philippines

vi

CONTENTS
BOOK TWO
CRIMES AND PENALTIES
AND
SPECIAL CRIMINAL LAWS
TITLE ONE
CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL SECURITY
AND LAW OF NATIONS
Chapter One
Crimes Against National Security
SECTION 1. Treason and Espionage.....................................................
The crimes against national security ...........................................
The crimes against the law of nations .........................................

1
1
1

ART. 114. Treason ..................................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Persons liable.................................................................................
Is there a need for a formal declaration of war before treason
can be committed?................................................................
Two ways of committing Treason .................................................
Adherence to the enemies, giving them aid or comfort ...............
Two ways of proving Treason .......................................................
What is the quantum of evidence needed to prove Treason? ......
Confession of guilt in open court ..................................................

2
2
3

ART. 115. Conspiracy and proposal to commit Treason .......................


What are the punishable conspiracies .........................................
Is proposal to commit a felony punishable? .................................
Proposal to commit Treason .........................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Proposal to commit felony which is punishable by law ...............
Conspiracy to commit Treason .....................................................
Elements of Conspiracy to commit Treason.................................
Persons liable for Conspiracy to commit Treason .......................

8
9
9
9
9
11
11
11
11

vii

3
3
4
5
5
7

Conspiracy to overthrow the government is not proposal


to commit Treason ...............................................................

12

ART. 116. Misprision of Treason ............................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Essence of the crime ......................................................................
Penalty Imposable in Misprision of Treason ...............................
Who may commit the crime?.........................................................
Relationship is not exempting ......................................................

12
13
14
14
14
15

ART. 117. Espionage ...............................................................................


Two modes of committing Espionage under the RPC .................
Elements of the rst mode ............................................................
Elements of the second mode ........................................................
Commonwealth Act No. 616 .........................................................
Acts punished ................................................................................

15
15
16
17
17
17

SECTION 2. Provoking War and Disloyalty in Case of War ................


ART. 118. Inciting to war or giving motives for reprisals ....................
Elements ........................................................................................

18
18
18

ART. 119. Violation of neutrality ...........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

19
19

ART. 120. Correspondence with hostile country ...................................


Elements ........................................................................................

20
20

ART. 121. Flight to enemys country .....................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

21
21

SECTION 3. Piracy and Mutiny on the High Seas


or in Philippine Waters .................................................................
ART. 122. Piracy in general and mutiny on the high seas
or in Philippine waters ........................................................
What is Piracy? ..............................................................................
Three Kinds of Piracy....................................................................
Piracy in the high or open seas can be committed
by the following ....................................................................
Who may commit Piracy in the high or open seas? .....................
Who are pirates in the high or open seas? ...................................
Piracy in Philippine Waters ..........................................................
Who may commit Piracy in Philippine waters
(internal waters)?.................................................................
PD 532 was superseded by RA 7659, The Anti-Heinous
Crime Law ............................................................................
Abetting Piracy ..............................................................................
Mutiny ............................................................................................
Elements of Mutiny .......................................................................
Two kinds of Mutiny .....................................................................

25
26
27
27
28

ART. 123. Qualied Piracy .....................................................................


When is Piracy qualied?..............................................................
Qualied Piracy .............................................................................
Qualied Mutiny ...........................................................................
Republic Act No. 6235 (The Anti-Hijacking Law) .......................

28
28
29
29
31

viii

22
22
23
23
23
24
24
24
24

Four Situations Governed by the Anti-Hijacking Law ...............


When is an aircraft considered in ight? .....................................
Republic Act No. 9372 ...................................................................
What is Terrorism?........................................................................
Acts of Terrorism under United Nations Conventions
and Protocols ........................................................................
Declaration of Policy of RA 9372 ..................................................
What is Terrorism under RA 9372?..............................................
Revised Penal Code .......................................................................
Special Laws ..................................................................................
Provided the requisites are present .............................................
Manner of commission of Terrorism.............................................
Motive of Terrorism .......................................................................
Penalty for Terrorism ....................................................................
Terrorism is a crime of result .......................................................
What is Conspiracy to commit Terrorism? ..................................
Penalty ...........................................................................................
Who are the persons liable for Terrorism and Conspiracy
to Commit Terrorism? .........................................................
Accomplice to the crime of Terrorism ...........................................
Who can be an Accomplice to the crime of Terrorism? ................
Accessory to the crime of Terrorism .............................................
Penalty ...........................................................................................
Accessory to the crime of Terrorism .............................................
Accessories to the crime of Terrorism who are exempt
from criminal liability..........................................................
Accessory ........................................................................................
What are the acts authorized by RA 9372? ..................................
Declaration (proscription) of Terrorist and outlawed
organizations, associations, or group of persons ...............

31
32
33
33
34
34
34
34
35
35
35
36
36
36
39
40
40
40
40
41
41
41
42
43
43
44

TITLE TWO
CRIMES AGAINST THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW
OF THE STATE
Chapter One
Arbitrary Detention or Expulsion, Violation of Dwelling,
Prohibition, Interruption and Dissolution of Peaceful
Meetings and Crimes Against Religious Worship
What are the crimes against the fundamental laws of the State? .......
Who are liable for crimes against the fundamental laws
of the State? ...................................................................................

46

SECTION 1. Arbitrary Detention or Expulsion ....................................


ART. 124. Arbitrary detention ...............................................................
Who may commit the crime of Arbitrary Detention? ..................

47
47
47

ix

46

Elements ........................................................................................
What are the crimes known as Arbitrary Detention? .................
Legal grounds of detention of a person ........................................
Absence of legal grounds ...............................................................
Distinctions between Arbitrary Detention and Illegal
Detention ..............................................................................
Three instances when a public ofcer can make arrest
even without warrant of arrest ...........................................
Arrest of a prisoner who has escaped from detention
or connement......................................................................
Arbitrary detention is committed by public ofcers
who have the power to make arrest and detention ............
ART. 125. Delay in the delivery of detained persons
to the proper judicial authorities ........................................
Elements ........................................................................................
What is the meaning of the term delivering the person
legally arrested to the judicial authorities? ......................
Afictive penalties .........................................................................
Correctional penalties ...................................................................
Light penalties ...............................................................................
Duties of an arresting ofcer who legally arrested a
person without warrant of arrest........................................
Important things to remember .....................................................

47
47
48
48
48
48
50
50
52
53
53
54
54
54
55
56

ART. 126. Delaying release ....................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Acts punished ................................................................................
Who may commit the crime?.........................................................

56
57
57
57

ART. 127. Expulsion ...............................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

58
58

ART. 128. Violation of domicile ..............................................................


58
Elements 59
Three acts of committing Violation of Domicile
under Art. 128 ......................................................................
59
Instances where search and seizure may be made without
a warrant and the evidence obtained therefrom
may be admissible................................................................
59
What are the three ways of committing Violation
of Domicile? ..........................................................................
61
ART. 129. Search warrants maliciously obtained and abuse
in the service of those legally obtained ...............................
Two acts punished .........................................................................
Elements of procuring a search warrant without just cause ......
ART. 130. Searching domicile without witnesses .................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Who must be present when a valid search is conducted
on a domicile? .......................................................................
x

61
61
61
62
62
63

SECTION 3. Prohibition, Interruption and Dissolution


of Peaceful Meetings .....................................................................
ART. 131. Prohibition, interruption and dissolution
of peaceful meetings ............................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Two criteria can be used by peace ofcers in lawfully
prohibiting, interrupting or dissolving a meeting..............

63
63
63
64

SECTION 4. Crimes against Religious Worship ...................................


ART. 132. Interruption of religious worship .........................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit the crime?.........................................................
When is interruption of religious worship qualied? ..................
Manner of commission .................................................................

65
65
65
65
65
65

ART. 133. Offending religious feelings ..................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit this crime?........................................................

65
65
66

TITLE THREE
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER
Chapter One
Rebellion, Coup DEtat, Sedition
and Disloyalty Crimes
Crimes against public order ...................................................................
ART. 134. Rebellion or Insurrection How committed ........................
Elements ........................................................................................
Manner of commission of Rebellion ..............................................
Purpose of Rebellion ......................................................................
Who are liable for Rebellion or Insurrection? ..............................
Distinctions between Rebellion and Insurrection .......................
Is the subsequent ling of Rebellion tenable? .............................
Can Rebellion be now complexed with common crimes?.............
People v. Hernandez......................................................................
Rebellion can now be complexed with common crimes ...............

67
68
68
68
69
69
69
72
73
73
74

ART. 134-A. Coup detat .........................................................................


Manner of commission ..................................................................
Who may commit Coup detat?......................................................
Characteristics of Coup detat .......................................................
Distinctions between Rebellion, Coup detat and Sedition..........

77
77
77
77
78

ART. 135. Penalty for rebellion, insurrection or coup detat ................


Penalty Imposable .........................................................................

79
80

ART. 136. Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup detat,


rebellion or insurrection ......................................................

80

xi

ART. 137. Disloyalty of public ofcers or employees ............................


What is the crime of Disloyalty of Public Ofcers
or Employees ........................................................................

81
81

ART. 138. Inciting to rebellion or insurrection .....................................


Who may commit the crime?.........................................................
Manner of commission of Inciting to Rebellion
or Insurrection .....................................................................

82
82
82

ART. 139. Sedition How committed ....................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
ART. 140. Penalty for Sedition ...............................................................
ART. 141. Conspiracy to commit Sedition .............................................
ART. 142. Inciting Sedition ....................................................................
What are the ways of committing Inciting to Sedition? ..............

83
83
85
85
85
86

Chapter Two
Crimes Against Popular Representation
SECTION 1. Crimes Against Legislative Bodies and
Similar Bodies ...............................................................................

87

ART. 143. Acts tending to prevent the meeting of the assembly


and similar bodies .........................................................................
How the crime is committed .........................................................
By means of force or fraud ............................................................

87
87
87

ART. 144. Disturbance of proceedings ...................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

88
88

SECTION 2. Violation of Parliamentary Immunity .............................


ART. 145. Violation of parliamentary immunity ..................................
How is the crime of Violation of Parliamentary
Immunity committed? .........................................................

88
88
88

Chapter Three
Illegal Assembly and Association
ART. 146. Illegal assemblies ..................................................................
Two forms of illegal assembly .......................................................
Acts punished ................................................................................
Persons liable for illegal assembly ...............................................
Presumption if a person present at the meeting carries
an unlicensed rearm ..........................................................
Distinctions between illegal assembly and illegal
association ............................................................................

90
90
91
91

ART. 147. Illegal associations ................................................................


Distinctions between illegal association and illegal
assembly ...............................................................................

92

xii

91
92

93

Chapter Four
Assault upon, and Resistance and Disobedience
to Persons in Authority and their Agents
ART. 148. Direct assaults .......................................................................
Two forms of Direct Assaults ........................................................
Element of the rst form of Direct Assault ..................................
Elements of the second kind of Direct Assault ............................
When is there qualied Direct Assault ........................................

94
94
94
96
99

ART. 149. Indirect Assaults ...................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

100
100

ART. 150. Disobedience to summons issued by the National


Assembly, its committees or subcommittees, by the
Constitutional Commissions, its committees,
subcommittees or divisions .................................................
Acts punished ................................................................................

101
101

ART. 151. Resistance and disobedience to a person in authority


or the agents of such person ................................................
Elements of resistance and serious disobedience
under the rst paragraph ....................................................
Elements of simple disobedience under the second paragraph ..
Distinctions between resistance or serious disobedience
and direct assault ................................................................
Direct assault (the second form) is committed in four ways .......

102
102

ART. 152. Persons in authority and agents of persons in authority ....


Who is a person in authority? .......................................................
Examples of persons in authority .................................................
Who is an agent of a person in authority? ...................................

104
104
104
105

102

103
103

Chapter Five
Public Disorders
ART. 153. Tumults and other disturbances of public disorder ............
The acts punishable under this article.........................................
When is public disturbance or interruption tumultuous? ...........
ART. 154. Unlawful use of means of publication and unlawful
utterances .............................................................................
Acts punished ................................................................................

107
108

ART. 155. Alarms and scandals .............................................................


Acts punished ................................................................................
What is the crime committed if a person res his gun? ..............

109
110
110

ART. 156. Delivery of prisoners from jail ..............................................


Elements ........................................................................................
The person conned.......................................................................
Means of commission ....................................................................

111
111
111
111

xiii

106
106
107

Who may commit the crime?.........................................................


What is the crime committed if a person removes a person
from jail?..............................................................................

111
111

Chapter Six
Evasion of Service of Sentence
ART. 157. Evasion of service of sentence...............................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Three kinds of evasion of service of sentence ..............................
Qualifying circumstances that increase the penalty
in evasion of service of sentence .........................................
Can this crime be committed by a detention prisoner? ...............
What if the prisoner serving sentence returned to jail
not long after he escaped? ...................................................
ART. 158. Evasion of service of sentence on the occasion
of disorders, conagrations, earthquakes, or
other calamities ...................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
What is the effect if the prisoner who escaped on the occasion
of a calamity returns within 48 hours following the
announcement of the passing away of the calamity?.........
ART. 159. Other cases of evasion of service of sentence .......................
Elements ........................................................................................
Violation of Conditional Pardon ...................................................
What is the effect of violation of the conditional pardon? ...........

113
113
113
113
114
115

115
115

116
116
116
117
117

Chapter Seven
Commission of Another Crime During Service of Penalty
Imposed for Another Previous Offense
ART. 160. Commission of another crime during service
of penalty imposed for another previous offense .........................
Who is a quasi recidivist?..............................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
What is the legal consequence of quasi recidivism? ....................

118
118
118
119

TITLE FOUR
CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST
Chapter One
Forgeries
SECTION 1. Forging the Seal of the Government of the Philippine
Islands, the Signature or Stamp of the Chief Executive .............
xiv

121

The crimes against public interest ..............................................

121

ART. 161. Counterfeiting the great seal of the Government


of the Philippine Islands, forging the signature or stamp
of the Chief Executive ...................................................................
Acts punished ................................................................................
The acts of falsication .................................................................

123
123
123

ART. 162. Using forged signature or counterfeit seal or stamp ...........


Elements ........................................................................................

123
123

SECTION 2. Counterfeiting Coins .........................................................


ART. 163. Making and importing and uttering false coins ..................
Who are the persons liable? ..........................................................
What is counterfeiting of coins?....................................................
Kinds of coins that can be counterfeited ......................................
Is mere possession of counterfeiting money a crime? ..................
Counterfeiting of Coins: Legal Tender or Not .............................

124
124
124
124
124
124
125

ART. 164. Mutilation of coins importation and utterance


of mutilated coins ..........................................................................
What is the meaning of Mutilation of Coins? ..............................
Elements of Mutilation of Coins under the Revised
Penal Code............................................................................
Is mere possession of a counterfeited or mutilated
coin a crime? .........................................................................
Presidential Decree No. 247: Defacement, Mutilation,
Tearing, Burning or Destroying Central Bank Notes
and Coins ..............................................................................

127

ART. 165. Selling of false or mutilated coin, without connivance ........


Acts punished ................................................................................

128
128

SECTION 3. Forging Treasury or Bank Notes, Obligations


and Securities; Importing and Uttering False or
Forged Notes, Obligations and Securities ....................................

129

ART. 166. Forging treasury or bank notes or other documents


payable to bearer, importing and uttering such false
or forged notes and documents .....................................................
Acts of forgery that are punished .................................................

129
129

ART. 167. Counterfeiting, importing and uttering instruments


payable to bearer ...........................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

130
130

ART. 168. Illegal Possession and use of false treasury


or bank notes and other instruments of credit ............................
Acts punished ................................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

130
131
131

ART. 169. How forgery is committed .....................................................


What can be the objects of forgery? ..............................................
How forgery is committed .............................................................

131
131
131

xv

126
126
126
127

SECTION 4. Falsication of Legislative, Public, Commercial,


Private Documents, and Wireless, Telegraph
and Telephone Messages...............................................................
Kinds of Falsication ....................................................................
ART. 170. Falsication of legislative documents ..................................
Elements ........................................................................................
ART. 171. Falsication by public ofcer, employee, or notary
or ecclesiastic minister ........................................................
The four kinds of documents.........................................................
Falsication by Public Ofcer, Employee, Notary
Public or Ecclesiastical Minister .........................................
Elements ........................................................................................
ART. 172. Falsication by private individuals and use
of falsied documents ..........................................................
Acts punishable .............................................................................
Elements of falsication of public, ofcial or commercial
documents by a private person ...........................................
Elements of falsication of private documents by a private
person ...................................................................................
Damage or at least intent to cause Damage is an essential
Element of Falsication of Private Document ...................
Reasons why it is important to know whether a Document
is public or private ...............................................................
Use of Falsied Document ............................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
ART. 173. Falsication of wireless, cable, telegraph and telephone
messages, and use of said falsied messages .....................
Person liable ..................................................................................
Acts punishable .............................................................................

132
132
133
133
133
134
135
135
141
142
142
142
142
143
144
144
145
146
146

SECTION 5. Falsication of medical certicates, certicates of merit


on services and the like .................................................................
ART. 174. False medical certicates, false certicates,
certicates of merit or service, etc. .....................................
Persons liable.................................................................................

147
147

ART. 175. Using false certicates ..........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

148
148

SECTION 6. Manufacturing, importing, and possession


of Instruments or Implements Intended for the
Commission of Falsication ................................................

148

ART. 176. Manufacturing and possession of instruments


or implements for falsication ............................................
Acts punishable .............................................................................

148
149

147

Chapter Two
Other Falsities
SECTION 1. Usurpation of Authority, Rank, Title and Improper
Use of Names, Uniforms, and Insignia ........................................
xvi

150

ART. 177. Usurpation of authority or ofcial functions .......................


Acts punishable .............................................................................

150
150

ART. 178. Using ctitious and concealing true name ...........................


Acts punishable .............................................................................
Commonwealth Act. No. 142 (Regulating the Use of Aliases) ....
Distinctions between using Fictitious Name and concealing
True Name .....................................................................................

151
152
153

ART. 179. Illegal use of uniforms or insignia ........................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Why it is punishable? ....................................................................

155
155
155

SECTION 2. False Testimony ................................................................


ART. 180. False Testimony against a defendant ..................................
Kinds of false testimony ................................................................
Elements of false testimony against an accused in a criminal
case .......................................................................................
How is the crime committed?........................................................
Penalty to be imposed ...................................................................
Who may commit the crime?.........................................................

156
156
157
157
157
158
158

ART. 181. False testimony favorable to the defendant.........................


How is the crime committed?........................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Penalty imposable .........................................................................
The afictive penalties ..................................................................

159
159
159
159
160

ART. 182. False testimony in civil cases ...............................................


Elements ........................................................................................

160
160

ART. 183. False testimony on other cases and perjury


in solemn afrmation ....................................................................
Acts punishable .............................................................................
Falsely testifying under oath in other cases ................................
Perjury ...........................................................................................
Elements of perjury .......................................................................

160
161
161
161
161

ART. 184. Offering false testimony in evidence ....................................


Elements ........................................................................................
What is Subornation of Perjury? ..................................................

162
162
163

155

Chapter Three
Frauds
SECTION 1. Machinations, Monopolies, and Combinations................
ART. 185. Machinations in public auctions ...........................................
Two acts punishable ......................................................................
Soliciting any gift or promise as a consideration for
restraining from taking part in any public auction ...........
Elements ........................................................................................
Public Auction................................................................................
xvii

164
164
164
164
164
165

Purpose of auction .........................................................................


Purpose in Machination of public auctions ..................................
Attempting to cause bidders to stay away from an auction
by threats, gifts, promises or any other artice .................
No crime of attempted or frustrated machination
in public auctions .................................................................

165
165

ART. 186. Monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade .............


Acts punishable .............................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

167
168
168

ART. 187. Importation and disposition of falsely marked


articles or merchandise made of gold, silver, or other precious
metals or their alloys ...........................................................
Acts punishable .............................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

170
170
170

ART. 188. Substituting and altering trademarks, tradenames,


or service marks ...................................................................
Acts punishable .............................................................................
Liability of printers or lithographers ...........................................

170
171
172

ART. 189. Unfair competition, fraudulent registration


of trademark, tradename or service mark, fraudulent
designation of origin, and false description ........................
Acts punishable .............................................................................
Unfair Competition .......................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit the crime of unfair competition? .....................
False designation of origin or false description ...........................
Fraudulent registration ................................................................

172
173
173
173
173
174
174

166
167

TITLE FIVE
CRIMES RELATIVE TO OPIUM AND OTHER
PROHIBITED DRUGS
Acts punished by the Republic Act No. 6425 .........................................
Republic Act No. 9165 .............................................................................
Denition of Terms........................................................................

175
176
176

Article II. Unlawful Acts and Penalties .................................................


The chain of custody of evidence ..................................................
Who is a protector or coddler? ......................................................
Where arrest is incipiently illegal, it logically follows
that the subsequent search is similarly illegal, it
being not incident to a lawful arrest...................................
Sale of dangerous drugs and illegal possession, separate
offenses .................................................................................
Sale of shabu and marijuana: whole specimen need not be
tested ....................................................................................

181
182
183

xviii

183
184
185

People v. Barita .............................................................................


There is consummated sale of illegal drug even if the purchase
money is not presented ........................................................
Attempted sale of shabu: No agreement on the price .................
The provision of Sec. 21 of the Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002
must be faithfully complied with ........................................
Prohibition under the new Drugs Law .........................................
Qualifying aggravating circumstance ..........................................
Cases of Acquittal: based on non-compliance with
the chain of custody .............................................................
Cacao v. People ....................................................................
People v. Kamad ..................................................................
People v. Frondozo ...............................................................
People v. Partoza .................................................................
People v. Robles ...................................................................
Sales v. People......................................................................
Carino v. People ...................................................................
People v. Garcia ...................................................................
People v. Obmiranis .............................................................
Bondad v. People ..................................................................
People v. Magat ....................................................................
People v. Orteza ...................................................................
Cases of Conviction even if there is no compliance with
the chain of custody rule .....................................................
People v. De Leon.................................................................
People v. Cruz ......................................................................
People v. Ventura.................................................................
People v. Lazaro ...................................................................
People v. Resurreccion .........................................................
People v. Teodoro .................................................................
People v. Gum-oyen .............................................................
People v. Llamado ................................................................
People v. Macatingag ...........................................................
People v. Del Monte .............................................................

185
186
187
187
188
188
188
188
189
190
190
191
191
192
192
193
193
194
195
195
195
195
196
196
196
197
198
198
198
199

TITLE SIX
Crimes against Public Morals
What are the crimes against public morals? .........................................

201

Chapter One
Gambling and Betting
ART. 195. Acts punishable in gambling and betting
(P.D. 1602Gambling Law) ...........................................................
Acts punishable in gambling ........................................................
xix

201
201

ART. 196. Importation, sale and possession of Lottery


Tickets or Advertisements ............................................................
Acts punishable .............................................................................

202
202

ART. 197. Betting in Sport Contests .....................................................


ART. 198. Illegal betting on horse race .................................................
Acts punished ................................................................................
When horse race not allowed ........................................................

202
203
203
203

ART. 199. Illegal Cockghting ...............................................................

203

Chapter Two
Offenses Against Decency and Goods Customs
ART. 200. Grave scandal ........................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
What to remember in Grave Scandal ...........................................

204
204
204

ART. 201. Immortal doctrines, obscene publications and


exhibitions and indecent shows ....................................................
Kottinger Rule: Test of Obscenity ................................................

205
206

ART. 202. Vagrants and Prostitutes. Penalty ..................................


P.D. 1563, The Anti-Mendicancy Law ..........................................

207
208

TITLE SEVEN
CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS
Chapter One
Preliminary Provisions
What are the crimes committed by public ofcers? .....................

209

ART. 203. Who are public ofcers ..........................................................


Who are public ofcers? ................................................................

211
211

Chapter Two
Malfeasance and Misfeasance
Malfeasance ...................................................................................
Misfeasance ...................................................................................
Nonfeasance ...................................................................................
Who is a public ofcer? ..................................................................
What are the crimes known as Dereliction of Duty? ...................

212
212
212
212
213

ART. 204. Knowingly rendering unjust judgment ................................


Elements ........................................................................................
If you were the counsel for the judge, what is your defense?......

213
213
214

ART. 205. Judgment rendered through negligence ..............................

214

xx

Elements ........................................................................................

214

ART. 206. Unjust interlocutory order ....................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

215
215

ART. 207. Malicious delay in the administration of justice .................


Elements ........................................................................................

216
216

ART. 208. Prosecution of offenses; negligence and tolerance ...............


Acts punishable .............................................................................

217
217

ART. 209. Betrayal of trust by an attorney or solicitor revelation


of secrets ........................................................................................
Who may commit the crime?.........................................................
Three acts punishable ...................................................................

219
220
220

SECTION 2. Bribery ...............................................................................


ART. 210. Direct Bribery ........................................................................
Three forms of Bribery ..................................................................
Three ways of committing Direct Bribery ....................................
Elements ........................................................................................

224
224
224
225
225

ART. 211. Indirect Bribery .....................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Essence of the crime ......................................................................
Presidential Decree No. 46 ...........................................................
Presidential Decree No. 749 .........................................................
Republic Act No. 7080 ...................................................................
What is Plunder.............................................................................
Rule of Evidence ............................................................................
Suspension and loss of benets ....................................................
Prescriptive Period ........................................................................
Ways of committing Plunder ........................................................
May the circumstances affecting criminal liability apply
to Plunder? ...........................................................................
Is the Plunder Law void for being vague or overbreadth ............

229
229
230
230
231
232
232
233
233
233
234

ART. 211-A. Qualied Bribery ...............................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
ART. 212. Corruption of public ofcials .................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

235
235
236
236

234
234

Chapter Three
Frauds and Illegal Exactions and Transactions
ART. 213. Frauds against the public treasury and similar offenses ...
Acts punishable .............................................................................
Elements of frauds against public treasury under
paragraph 1 ..........................................................................
Republic Act No. 9134 ...................................................................
Section 65 penalizes government ofcials and employees
without prejudice to prosecution under the Anti-Graft
and Corrupt Practices Act (RA 3019) .................................
xxi

237
237
238
239

239

Who may commit the crime of Illegal Exaction ...........................


State the three ways of committing Illegal Exaction ..................

239
239

ART. 214. Other Frauds .........................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

242
242

ART. 215. Prohibited transactions .........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

243
243

ART. 216. Possession of prohibited interest by a public ofcer ............


Persons liable.................................................................................

243
243

Other Laws Applicable ...........................................................................

245

Sec. 2, Art. IX-A, Constitution ......................................................


Sec. 13, Art. VII, Constitution ......................................................
Sec. 14, Article VI, Constitution ...................................................

245
245
245

Chapter Four
Malversation of Public Funds or Property
ART. 217. Malversation of public funds or proper property ................
Presumption of Malversation. .....................................................
Who may commit the crime of Malversation ...............................
What are the ways of committing Malversation..........................
Malversation may be Intentional or Culpable .............................
Elements common to all acts of Malversation under
Article 217 ............................................................................
Decided Cases ................................................................................
Prima Facie case of Malversation can be negated .............
Conversion must be afrmatively proved...........................
Failure to account missing public funds constitutes
prima facie presumption of misappropriation:
When does the presumption not arise?...............................
Conviction may be had even if there is no
evidence of misappropriation ..............................................
Reimbursement within a reasonable time, a defense ........
Return of Funds or Property does not extinguish
criminal liability ..................................................................
Malversation does not include technical Malversation .....
Malversation through negligence .......................................
A private person may commit Malversation ......................
Malversation through Falsication ....................................

246
246
247
247
247
248
249
249
250

250
251
250
251
251
251
251
252

ART. 218. Failure of accountable ofcer to render accounts ................


Elements ........................................................................................

252
252

ART. 219. Failure of a responsible public ofcer to render accounts


before leaving the country ............................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Person liable ..................................................................................

253
253
253

xxii

ART. 220. Illegal use of public funds or property..................................


Elements ........................................................................................
May a senator of the Republic of the Philippines be
suspended for violation of the Anti-Graft Law
by the Sandiganbayan? .......................................................
May a public ofcial be suspended in a different ofce than
where the crime charged was committed?..........................

253
254

ART. 221. Failure to make delivery of public funds or property ..........


Acts punished ................................................................................
Elements of failure to make payment ..........................................

255
256
256

ART. 222. Ofcers included in the preceding provision........................


Can Malversation be committed by a private person? ................
Malversation may be committed by a private person .................

256
256
256

255
255

Chapter Five
Indelity of Public Ofcers
SECTION 1. Indelity in the Custody of Prisoners ..............................
What are the crimes known as Indelity in the Custody
of Prisoners? ..................................................................................

257

ART. 223. Conniving with or consenting to evasion .............................


Elements ........................................................................................
Classes of prisoner involved..........................................................

257
257
258

ART. 224. Evasion through negligence ..................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

258
258

ART. 225. Escape of prisoner under the custody of a person


not a public ofcer .........................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

258
258

SECTION 2. Indelity in the Custody of Documents ...........................

260

ART. 226. Removal, concealment or destruction of documents. ..........


Elements ........................................................................................
Three ways of committing indelity in the Custody
of Documents ......................................................................
Who may commit the crime?.........................................................

260
260

ART. 227. Ofcer breaking seal. ...........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

261
261

ART. 228. Opening of closed documents. ..............................................


Elements ........................................................................................

262
262

SECTION 3. Revelation of Secrets.........................................................

262

ART. 229. Revelation of secrets by an ofcer. ......................................


Act Punishable...............................................................................
Elements of Revelation of secrets .................................................
Elements of wrongful delivery of papers or copies of papers
of which he may have charge which should not
be published .........................................................................

262
262
263

xxiii

257

260
261

263

ART. 230. Public ofcer revealing secrets of private individual. .........


Elements ...................................................................................

263
263

Chapter Six
Other Offenses or Irregularities By Public Ofcers
SECTION 1. Disobedience, Refusal of Assistance, and
Maltreatment of Prisoners ............................................................

264

ART. 231. Open disobedience. ..............................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

264
264

ART. 232. Disobedience to order of superior ofcer, when


said order was suspended by inferior ofcer. ..............................
Elements .........................................................................................

265
265

ART. 233. Refusal of assistance. ...........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
ART. 234. Refusal to discharge elective ofce. ....................................
Elements ........................................................................................
ART. 235. Maltreatment of prisoners. ...................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit the crime?.........................................................
Punishments that are not authorized ..........................................
Punishments that are authorized.................................................
Illustrations of Maltreatment of Prisoners ..................................
What is a Two-tiered penalty? ......................................................
Examples of two-tiered penalty ...................................................
1. Maltreatment of Prisoners ....................................................
2. Direct Bribery ........................................................................
3. Occupation of real property or usurpation of real
rights in property .............................................................

271

SECTION 2. Anticipation, Prolongation, and abandonment


of the Duties and Powers of Public Ofce ....................................

271

ART. 236. Anticipation of duties of a public ofce ................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit crime? ...............................................................
How is it committed? .....................................................................
ART. 237. Prolonging performance of duties and powers .....................
Elements ........................................................................................
ART. 238. Abandonment of ofce or position ........................................
Elements ........................................................................................
How is the Crime Committed?......................................................

271
271
272
272
272
272
273
273
273

SECTION 3. Usurpation of Powers and Unlawful Appointments .......

274

ART. 239. Usurpation of legislative powers ..........................................


Elements ........................................................................................

274
274

xxiv

265
266
266
267
267
267
268
268
268
269
270
270
270
270

ART. 240. Usurpation of executive functions ........................................


Elements ........................................................................................

274
274

ART. 241. Usurpation of judicial functions ...........................................


Elements ......................................................................................

275
275

ART. 242. Disobeying request for disqualication ................................


Elements ......................................................................................

275
275

ART. 243. Orders or requests by executive ofcers to any judicial


authority ........................................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

275
276

ART. 244. Unlawful appointments ........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

276
276

SECTION 4. Abuses Against Chastity ..................................................

277

ART. 245. Abuses against chastity Penalties .....................................


Acts Punishable .............................................................................
Who are the Persons Liable? ........................................................
Elements of Abuse against chastity committed by a
public ofcer .........................................................................
The Woman is Interested in a Matter Pending before
the Public Ofcer for Decision ............................................
The Woman is Interested in a Matter with Respect to
which he is required to submit a report .............................
Elements of abuse against chastity committed by a warden,
jail guard or any public ofcer who has custody
of prisoners ...........................................................................
Republic Act No. 7877 (Anti-Sexual Harassment Act) ................

277
278
278
278
279
279

279
282

TITLE EIGHT
CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS
What are the Crimes against persons? ...........................................

283

Chapter One
Destruction Of Life
SECTION 1. Parricide, Murder, Homicide ............................................

284

Crimes Involving Destruction of Life ..........................................

284

ART. 246. Parricide.................................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
The Rules .......................................................................................
Killing of a father, mother, mother or child, whether
legitimate of illegitimate is parricide ................................
Killing of a lawful spouse is parricide ..........................................
Killing of Common Law spouse is not parricide .........................
Killing of a legitimate grandparent or grandchild
is parricide ..........................................................................

284
284
284

xxv

285
285
286
286

Killing of illegitimate grandparent or grandchild is


not parricide ........................................................................
Killing of adoptive parent or adopted child not parricide .........
Killing of a brother is not parricide .............................................
When the marriage is void ab initio, there is no parricide ........
Muslim spouse; killing of rst wife only is parricide ..................

286
286
286
286
287

ART. 247. Death or physical injuries inicted under


exceptional circumstances ............................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

287
288

Article 247 is a matter of defense..........................................................


By and Large, Art. 247 is not a felony .........................................
Who are entitled to the benecial provision of Art. 247? ...........
The two stages of the crime .........................................................
FIRST STAGE: The Unfaithful spouse and paramour/
mistress are surprised while having sexual
intercourse ..........................................................................
SECOND STAGE: Killing or iniction of serious physical
injury while in the act of sexual intercourse or
immediately thereafter .......................................................
Killing in the act of sexual intercourse .......................................
Killing immediately thereafter (after surprising them
in sexual intercourse) ..........................................................
Iniction of serious physical injury in the act of sexual
intercourse ..........................................................................
The benets of Art. 247 also apply ..............................................
Who are not entitled to the benets of Art. 247? ........................

288
289
289
289

289

289
290
290
291
291
292

ART. 248. Murder ...................................................................................

292

What makes the killing murder? ..................................................


What are the Qualifying aggravating circumstances? ...............
1.
Treachery .............................................................................
Requisites of Treachery.................................................................
When must treachery be present? ................................................
Essence of Treachery (Alevosia) ..................................................
For treachery to exist, two conditions must be found .................
Treachery requires the concurrence of two conditions ................
Alevosia is present when two conditions concur, namely ...........
When treachery cannot be appreciated .......................................
Treachery can exist even if the attack is frontal if it is
sudden and unexpected ......................................................
Rules when the attack is frontal ..................................................
There was no treachery: treachery is not presumed ..................
Treachery: Qualifying aggravating circumstances must
be alleged in the information .............................................
Alevosia considered even if ...........................................................
Reason for the rule ........................................................................
Treachery absorbs .........................................................................
Treachery does not change the nature of a special complex
crime like Robbery with Homicide ......................................

293
293
294
294
295
295
296
296
297
297

xxvi

298
299
299
300
301
301
301
301

Against Whom Treachery Can Be Considered? ...........................


Complex Crime (Art. 48) ...............................................................
Murder With Frustrated Homicide ..............................................
Treachery can be appreciated even if the intended
victim is not the one killed ..................................................
Night time is not a qualifying aggravating circumstance ...........
2.
That advantage be taken of superior strength, or means
be employed to weaken the defense ...................................
Meaning of advantage be taken of superior strength. ..............
There was Abuse of Superior Strength ........................................
No advantage of superior strength ..............................................
Examples of Means employed to weaken defense ...................
3.
Killing with the Aid of Persons under 15 years
of Age (Should Now Read as 15 years of
Age or Below) .......................................................................
4.
Killing be Committed with the Aid of Armed Men ............
Requisites.......................................................................................
5.
Killing by Means of Motor Vehicles, Motorized
Watercrafts, Airships or Other Similar Means. ..............
The use of a motor vehicle in killing is murder. It is a
qualifying aggravating circumstance ...........................................
6.
The Killing Be Committed In Consideration Of A
Price, Reward Or Promise ...................................................
7.
The Killing be Committed by Means of Inundation,
Fire, Poison, Explosion, Stranding of a Vessel,
Intentional Damage Thereto, Derailment of a
Locomotive, Fall of an Airship, or by the use
of any other Artice Involving great Waste And Ruin ......
8.
Killing On The Occasion Of Conagration, Shipwreck,
Earthquake, Epidemic, Or Other Calamity
Or Misfortune.......................................................................
9.
The Killing be Committed with Evident
Premeditation ................................................................................
Requisites of Evident Premeditation ...........................................
What constitutes a sufcient lapse of time depends upon
the facts of each case .....................................................................
10. The Wrong Done in the Commission of the Crime
be Deliberately Augmented by Causing Other Wrong
not Necessary for its Commission. ......................................
Number of wounds on the corpse is not indicative of cruelty
per se ....................................................................................
Cruel wounds must be inicted while the victim is alive ..........
Scofng or decrying the corpse of the dead .................................
Anal intercourse with a dead woman is outraging the
corpse of the dead ...............................................................
ART. 249. Homicide ................................................................................
xxvii

302
302
302
303
303
304
304
306
306
306

307
307
307
308
308
309

309

310
310
310
311

312
313
313
314
314
314

Elements ........................................................................................
How to distinguish homicide from physical injuries ..................

315
315

ART. 250. Penalty for frustrated parricide, murder or homicide .........


Penalty imposable in frustrated and attempted felonies ...........
Penalty imposable in frustrated Homicide .................................
Penalty imposable in attempted homicide .................................

315
316
316
316

ART. 251. Death caused in a tumultuous affray ...................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Tumultuous affray ........................................................................

316
317
317

ART. 252. Physical injuries inicted in a tumultuous affray ...............


Elements ........................................................................................
There is no crime of slight physical injuries caused in a
tumultuous affray ...............................................................

317
318

ART. 253. Giving assistance to suicide ..................................................


Acts punishable ............................................................................

318
318

ART. 254. Discharge of rearms ............................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Acts punishable ............................................................................
Purpose of the offender ................................................................
When is ring a gun illegal discharge of rearm, attempted
homicide or alarm and scandal? .........................................

321
321
321
322

SECTION 2. Infanticide and Abortion ..................................................

322

ART. 255. Infanticide ..............................................................................


What is infanticide .......................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Distinctions between parricide and infanticide ..........................

322
322
323
323

ART. 256. Intentional abortion ..............................................................


Three ways of committing intentional abortion .........................
Acts punishable ............................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
What crime is committed if the fetus had an intrauterine
life of less than 7 months? ...................................................

324
324
324
325

ART. 257. Unintentional abortion .........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Can unintentional abortion be committed through
negligence? ..........................................................................

326
326

318

322

326

328

ART. 258. Abortion practiced by the woman herself or by


her parents.....................................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

328
329

ART. 259. Abortion practiced by a physician or midwife and


dispensing of abortive ...................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit this crime under this article? ..........................
What is Therapeutic Abortion? .....................................................

329
329
329
329

xxviii

ART. 260. Responsibility of participants in a duel ...............................


Acts punishable ............................................................................

330
330

ART. 261. Challenging to a duel ............................................................


Acts punishable ............................................................................

330
330

Chapter Two
Physical Injuries
ART. 262. Mutilation ..............................................................................
Two kinds of mutilation ...............................................................

331
331

ART. 263. Serious physical injuries .......................................................


How committed ..............................................................................
What are considered serious physical injuries? ...........................
Deformity .......................................................................................

333
334
334
335

ART. 264. Administering injurious substances or beverages ...............


Elements ........................................................................................

335
335

ART. 265. Less serious physical injuries ...............................................


What can be considered as less serious physical injuries? .........
Qualied as to penalty ..................................................................

336
336
336

ART. 266. Slight physical injuries and maltreatment ..........................


What are the three kinds of slight physical? ..............................
Republic Act No. 7610 ...................................................................
The New Rape Law: Republic Act No. 8353 ................................
The States policy on Rape ...........................................................

337
337
338
338
338

Chapter Three
Rape
Republic Act 8353: The New Rape Law ......................................

340

Article 266-A. Rape: When and How Committed ........................


1. Rape by Sexual intercourse .....................................................
2. Rape by Sexual Assault............................................................

340
340
340

Article 266-B. Penalties ................................................................


Article 266-C. Effect of Pardon .....................................................
Article 266-D. Presumptions.........................................................
Salient Features of RA 8353 ........................................................
Distinctions between rape under RPC and Rape under
RA 8353 ...............................................................................

340
342
342
344

Rape under the Revised Penal Code, is a crime against


chastity. RA 8353 reclassied rape as a crime against
persons..................................................................................
2.
Who shall le the complaint or information? .....................
As a crime against chastity (Art. 355, RPC) ................................

343

1.

xxix

343
343
343

Under Republic Act 8353 ............................................................


As a crime against person ............................................................
3.
Ordinarily, rape has been understood to be a crime
against women, meaning, only men can be offenders
and women as the offended party .......................................
4.
Before the enactment of RA 8353, the slightest
penetration of the female sex organ is sufcient to
consummate the crime of rape ............................................
5.
Under RA 8353, rape includes insertion of the penis into
another persons mouth or anal orice, or any instrument
or object, into the genitalia or anal orice of another
person ...................................................................................
6.
Under the new law, marital rape can now be committed.
That is to say, husband can now commit rape against
his wife .................................................................................
7.
In marital rape, the criminal action or penalty is
extinguished by a subsequent forgiveness by the wife ......
The law on pardon ........................................................................
Pardon under Art. 344 of the RPC only bars criminal
prosecution ..........................................................................
Pardon under the RPC must be given before the institution
of criminal ...........................................................................
People v. Lim (206 SCRA 176) ......................................................
8.
Subsequent valid marriage between the offender and the
offended party extinguishes the criminal liability of the
accused or the penalty already imposed .............................
Under RA 8353; What is the effect of subsequent valid
marriage? .............................................................................
9.
Under RA 8353 rape can be committed by means of
fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority .........
Did RA 8353 Repeal Art. 337 (Qualied Seduction)
and Art. 388 (Simple seduction) of the RPC? .....................
10. Under RA 8353 the resistance of the victim against
the Act of rape maybe lesser than the resistance
contemplated under Art. 355 of the Revised
Penal Code............................................................................
Elements of rape under Art. 266-A, Par. 1(a), RA 8353 ..............
Rape by sexual intercourse .........................................................
Force ..............................................................................................
Intimidation ...................................................................................
Resistance ......................................................................................
Consent of minors not a valid defense .........................................
Consent obtained by fear is void .................................................
Sexual intercourse with a woman deprived of reason
constitutes rape ...................................................................
Complete deprivation of reason not necessary ...........................
A mentally retarded woman cannot give valid and legal
consent to sexual act ..........................................................
xxx

344
344

345

345

345

347
347
347
348
348
349

350
351
351
352

352
353
353
353
354
354
356
357
357
357
358

Carnal knowledge of a mental retardate is rape ........................


A demented person ........................................................................
Lack of knowledge of the victims mental condition not
a defense ..............................................................................
Art. 266-D of RA 8353 appears to have modied the nature
and degree of resistance required of the offended
party ....................................................................................
Meaning of treachery ...................................................................
Ignominy as an aggravating circumstance .................................

358
359
360

360
361
363

Title Nine
Crimes Against Personal Liberty And Security
Chapter One
Crimes Against Liberty
SECTION 1. Illegal Detention ......................................................
The crimes against liberty ...........................................................
The crimes against security .........................................................

364
364
364

ART. 267. Kidnapping and serious illegal detention ............................


Elements ........................................................................................
When is the crime serious illegal detention? ...............................
Who may commit the crime of kidnapping and serious
illegal detention? .................................................................
What is Ransom? .........................................................................
Essence of the crime of kidnapping .............................................
Essence of illegal detention...........................................................
Forcible abduction .........................................................................
Grave coercion .............................................................................
Illegal detention ............................................................................
Special complex crime ...................................................................
What special complex crimes would arise in kidnapping? ..........
How should the crime be designated when the kidnap
victim was killed by his abductor? ......................................
Kidnapping with Homicide: The term is used in its
generic sense .......................................................................
Kidnapping with Homicide not kidnapping with murder ..........
Kidnapping with Homicide a special complex crime
or composite crime .............................................................
Kidnapping with rape ..................................................................
Serious illegal detention with rape .............................................
Kidnapping distinguished from forcible abduction ....................
Grave coercion if there is no intent to deprive a person
of his liberty ........................................................................
Grave coercion not kidnapping if there was no connement,
detention or lock up ............................................................

365
366
367

xxxi

367
367
367
367
368
368
368
368
368
369
369
370
370
370
371
371
371
371

ART. 268. Slight illegal detention ..........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Slight Illegal Detention is committed if any of the
circumstances in the commission of kidnapping or
detention enumerated in Article 267 is not present ..........
Distinctions between Illegal Detention and Arbitrary
Detention ..............................................................................

372
372

ART. 269. Unlawful arrest .....................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit the crime?.........................................................

373
373
373

SECTION 2. Kidnapping of Minors .......................................................


ART. 270. Kidnapping and failure to return a minor ...........................
Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit the crime? ........................................................

374
374
374
374

ART. 271. Inducing a minor to abandon his home ................................


Elements ........................................................................................

374
375

SECTION 3. Slavery and Servitude ......................................................


ART. 272. Slavery ...................................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Acts punishable ............................................................................
Purpose .........................................................................................
RA 9208 (Anti-air Trafcking of Persons Act of 2003) ..............
Under Section 6, trafcking is qualied when ............................

375
375
375
375
376
376
377

ART. 273. Exploitation of Child Labor .................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
RA 9231 (Anti-Child Labor Act of 2003) .....................................

378
378
378

ART. 274. Services rendered under compulsion in payment


of debts ...........................................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

379
379

372
373

Chapter Two
CRIMES AGAINST SECURITY
SECTION 1. Abandonment of Helpless Persons and
Exploitation of Minors...................................................................

381

ART. 275. Abandonment of persons in danger and abandonment


of ones own victim.........................................................................
Acts punishable ............................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

381
381
382

ART. 276. Abandonment a minor...........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Circumstances qualifying the offense ..........................................

383
383
383

ART. 277. Abandonment of minor by person entrusted with


his custody; Indifference of parents .............................................
Acts punishable .............................................................................

384
384

xxxii

ART. 278. Exploitation of minors ...........................................................


Acts punishable ............................................................................

385
386

ART. 279. Additional penalties for other offenses ................................

386

SECTION 2. Trespass to Dwelling ........................................................

386

ART. 280. Qualied trespass to dwelling ..............................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Two forms of trespass ...................................................................

386
387
387

ART. 281. Other forms of trespass .........................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Instances when there is no trespass to dwelling
(Bar question).......................................................................
ART. 282. Grave threats .........................................................................

387
388

Acts punishable ............................................................................

389

ART. 283. Light threats ..........................................................................

389

388
388

Elements ........................................................................................

389

ART. 284. Bond for good behavior..........................................................

390

ART. 285. Other light threats ................................................................


Acts punishable ............................................................................

390
391

ART. 286. Grave coercions......................................................................


Acts punishable ............................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Two kinds of coercion ...................................................................
Ways of commission .....................................................................

391
392
392
392
392

ART. 287. Light coercions .......................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Who may commit the crime? ........................................................

393
393
394

ART. 288. Other similar coercions .........................................................


Acts punishable ............................................................................
1.
compulsory purchase of materials .....................................
2.
Payments of wages by means of tokens ............................

394
395
395
395

ART. 289. Formation, maintenance and prohibition of combination


of capital or labor through violence or threats ............................
Elements ........................................................................................

396
396

ART. 290. Discovering secrets through seizure of


correspondence ..............................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

396
397

ART. 291. Revealing secrets with abuse of ofce ..................................


Elements ........................................................................................
Persons liable.................................................................................

398
398
399

ART. 292. Revelation of industrial secrets ............................................


Elements .......................................................................................

399
399

xxxiii

TITLE TEN
CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
Chapter One
ROBBERY IN GENERAL
What are the crimes against property? .......................................

401

ART. 293. Who are guilty of robbery......................................................

402

Elements of robbery in general.....................................................


Highway Robbery (PD NO. 332) .................................................
Cattle Rustling (PD NO. 533) ......................................................
Carnapping (RA NO. 6539) ..........................................................
Qualied carnapping ....................................................................
Robbery and theft compared ........................................................
Distinctions between Robbery and Theft ....................................

402
403
404
404
404
405
405

SECTION 1. Robbery with Violence against or Intimidation


of Persons ............................................................................

405

ART. 294. Robbery with violence against or intimidation


of persons Penalties ..................................................................
Acts Punishable ............................................................................
Crimes under Robbery with violence ...........................................

405
406
407

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Robbery with homicide ...........................................................


Robbery with homicide (even if there is Arson or rape) .......
Robbery with rape ..................................................................
Robbery with arson ................................................................
Robbery with intentional mutilation .....................................
Robbery with Serious physical injuries .................................

407
407
407
407
407
408

Robbery with homicide ..................................................................


Treachery can be appreciated only in crimes against
persons: not applicable in robbery with homicide .............
If the main purpose is to kill and robbery is committed after
the killing there will be separate crimes ..........................
When robbery is consummated but homicide is attempted
or frustrated, there are two separate crimes ....................
Robbery with intimidation ...........................................................
Robbery with rape .........................................................................
Two stages of execution in robbery and theft: Attempted
and Consummated ...............................................................

408

ART. 295. Robbery with physical injuries, committed in an


uninhabited place and by a band, or with the use of
rearm on a street, road or alley ..................................................
When robbery with violence or intimidation of persons
qualied ...............................................................................
xxxiv

408
411
411
411
412
413

414
415

Robbery with serious physical injuries .......................................

415

ART. 296. Denition of a band and penalty incurred by the


members thereof ............................................................................
Requisites.......................................................................................

415
416

ART. 297. Attempted and frustrated robbery committed under


certain circumstances....................................................................
ART. 298. Execution of deeds by means of violence or intimidation ...
Elements ........................................................................................

416
416
417

ART. 299. Robbery in an inhabited house or public building


or edice devoted to worship.........................................................
This article deals with robbery with force upon things
committed in ........................................................................
Elements under subdivision (a) ....................................................
Elements under subdivision (b) ....................................................
Robbery with force upon things ...................................................
FIRST MODE: entering a house or building by any of the
following means .................................................................
Entrance through an opening not intended for entrance
or egress .............................................................................
Entrance by breaking a wall, roof or oor or breaking any
door or window ....................................................................
Entrance by using false keys, picklocks or similar tools ............
Entrance by using ctitious name or pretending to be
a public authority ................................................................
SECOND MODE: Where there is no force in entering
a house or building ..............................................................

417
418
418
419
419
419
419
420
420
420
421

ART. 300. Robbery in an uninhabited place and by a band .................


ART. 301. What is an inhabited house, public building or building,
but once inside dedicated to religious worship and
their dependencies.........................................................................
What are dependencies? ...............................................................

422

422
423

ART. 302. Robbery in an uninhabited place or in a private building ..


Elements ........................................................................................

423
424

ART. 303. Robbery of cereals, fruits, or rewood in an uninhabited


place or private building ...............................................................

425

ART. 304. Possession of picklocks or similar tools ................................


Elements ........................................................................................

425
425

ART. 305. False keys ..............................................................................

425

CHAPTER TWO
BRIGANDAGE
ART. 306. Who are brigands penalty ..................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Presidential Decree No. 532 ........................................................
xxxv

426
426
427

Brigandage ....................................................................................
Can a single person commit Brigandage? ....................................
Highway robbery under PD 532 distinguished from ordinary
robbery on a highway .........................................................
Mere fact that robbery was committed on a Philippine
highway does not give rise to highway robbery or
brigandage under PD No. 532 ............................................
Robbery with homicide: not highway robbery or brigandage
under PD No. 532: was committee on board a passenger
jeepney ..................................................................................

427
428

ART. 307. Aiding and abetting band or brigands .................................


Elements ........................................................................................

429
429

428

428

429

CHAPTER THREE
THEFT
ART. 308. Who are liable for theft .........................................................
Who are liable for theft?................................................................
When is taking considered complete? ..........................................
Finders of lost property ................................................................
Finder in fact .................................................................................
Finder in law .................................................................................
PD No. 133 (Theft of spare parts or materials) ...........................
PD No. 581 (Highgrading or theft of gold) ...................................
PD No. 1612 (The Anti-Fencing Law) ..........................................
PD No. 1612 (The Anti-Fencing Law): Intent to gain is
not an element ....................................................................
RA No. 6539 (The Anti-Carnapping Law) ....................................
Qualied carnapping ....................................................................
The crime is carnapping only if only attempted or frustrated
homicide/murder is committed in the course of the
carnapping ...........................................................................
Carnapping not qualied theft (Boundary System) ....................
What constitutes unlawful taking in carpnapping ....................
PD No. 533 (The Anti-Cattle Rustling Law of 1974) ...................
PD No. 705: Illegal Logging ..........................................................
Illegal possession of timber is malum prohibitum .....................
Illegal logging: two distinct acts punishable ............................
ART. 309. Penalties ................................................................................
ART. 310. Qualied theft........................................................................
When is the crime qualied theft?................................................
Grave abuse of condence ............................................................
Cattle rustling, qualied theft of large cattle or estafa ..............
Qualied theft is committed if only material possession
is transferred .......................................................................
Estafa is committed when both material and juridical
possession are transferred ..................................................
xxxvi

431
431
432
432
432
433
433
433
434
435
435
435

436
436
436
436
437
437
437
438
439
439
440
440
440
441

Carnapping or qualied theft of motor vehicle ...........................

441

ART. 311. Theft of the property of the National Library


And National Museum ........................................................

442

CHAPTER FOUR
USURPATION
ART. 312. Occupation of real property or usurpation of real
rights in property ..........................................................................
Acts punished ..........................................................................................
Elements .....................................................................................
PD No. 772 (Anti-Squatting Law) ................................................

443
443
443
444

ART. 313. Altering boundaries or landmarks .......................................


Elements ........................................................................................

444
444

CHAPTER FIVE
CULPABLE INSOLVENCY
ART. 314. Fraudulent insolvency...........................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

445
445

CHAPTER SIX
SWINDLING AND OTHER DECEITS
ART. 315. Swindling (estafa)..................................................................
Elements of Estafa in general ......................................................
Three Ways of Committing Estafa ...............................................
1.
2.

Estafa With Abuse of Condence ( Art. 315, Par. 1[A]) .....


Estafa By Means Of False Pretenses Or Fraudulent Acts
(Art. 315, Par. [2]) ................................................................
Violation of BP 22: (The Bouncing Checks Law) .........................
Batas Pambansa Blg. 22 (Anti-Bouncing Checks Law) ..............
How it is Violated ..........................................................................
When is there Prima Facie Evidence of Knowledge of
Insufcient Funds? ..............................................................
Exceptions .....................................................................................
Each Act of Drawing and Issuing a Bouncing Check
Constitutes a Separate Offense ..........................................
The 90-Day Period is not an Element of BP 22 ...........................
A Person who is neither a Payee nor a Holder of a Bad
Check has no Personality to Sue.........................................
Written Notice of Dishonor: Proof of Receipt is Necessary .........
Registry Return Receipt Not Proof Enough .................................
It is not necessary to present the banks representative
as a witness to testify on the dishonor
of the check...........................................................................
xxxvii

446
448
449
449
452
454
454
454
455
455
456
456
457
457
458

459

Prescription Of BP 22 Cases .........................................................


Violation of BP 22 Now Covered By The Rules On
Summary Procedure ............................................................
Effect of Accuseds Failure to Submit Afdavit ...........................
Distinguish Estafa From Violation Of BP 22 ..............................

459
460
460
460

3.

Estafa Through Fraudulent Means (Art. 315, Par. [3]) .....

461

Elements of inducing another by means of deceit, to sign


a document ...........................................................................

462

ART. 316. Other forms of swindling ......................................................


Other Forms Of Swindling............................................................
Elements .....................................................................................

462
462
463

ART. 317. Swindling a minor .................................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

464
464

ART. 318. Other deceits ..........................................................................


Acts Punished ................................................................................

464
464

CHAPTER SEVEN
CHATTEL MORTGAGE
ART. 319. Removal, sale or pledge of mortgaged property ...................
Elements of paragraph 1 ...............................................................
Elements of paragraph 2 ...............................................................

466
466
467

CHAPTER EIGHT
ARSON AND OTHER CRIMES INVOLVING
DESTRUCTION
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1613
ARTICLES 320326 B
Presidential Decree No. 1613, Amended the Law on Arson
(75 O.G 3275-3277) (Articles 320-326B, RPC) ...................
Arson ..............................................................................................
Kinds of Arson ...............................................................................
Destructive Arson is Burning of ...................................................
Other Cases Of Arson....................................................................
Special Aggravating Circumstances in Arson .............................

468
468
468
468
469
469

ART. 327. Who are liable for malicious mischief ..................................


Elements ........................................................................................

469
470

ART. 328. Special cases of malicious mischief ......................................


ART. 329. Other mischief .......................................................................
ART. 330. Damage and construction to means of communication .......
Circumstance Qualifying the Offense ..........................................

470
470
471
471

ART. 331. Destroying or damaging statues, public monuments


or paintings ....................................................................................

471

xxxviii

CHAPTER TEN
EXEMPTION FROM CRIMINAL LIABILITY
IN CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
ART. 332. Persons exempt from criminal liability ...............................
Crimes Included In The Exemption .............................................
Persons Exempted ........................................................................

472
472
472

TITLE ELEVEN
CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY
CHAPTER ONE
ADULTERY AND CONCUBINAGE
WHAT ARE THE CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY? ...................

474

ART. 333. Who are guilty of adultery ....................................................


Elements .....................................................................................
Who May Commit Adultery? ........................................................
Adultery is an instantaneous offense ...........................................

475
475
475
475

ART. 334. Concubinage ..........................................................................


Elements .....................................................................................
Only the offended spouse can le the case, just like
in adultery ............................................................................

476
476
476

ART. 335. When and how is rape committed ........................................

476

CHAPTER TWO
ACTS OF LASCIVIOUSNESS
ART. 336. Acts of lasciviousness ............................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

477
477

CHAPTER THREE
SEDUCTION, CORRUPTION OF MINORS,
AND WHITE SLAVE TRADE
Seduction .......................................................................................

479

ART. 337. Qualied seduction ................................................................


Two Kinds of Qualied Seduction ................................................
Elements .....................................................................................

479
479
479

Persons Liable:
1.
Those who abused authority ...............................................
2.
Those who abuse the condence reposed on them .............
3.
Those who abused relationship ...........................................

480
480
480

xxxix

ART. 338. Simple seduction ...................................................................


Elements .....................................................................................
Who Can Be A Victim? ..................................................................

481
481
481

ART. 339. Acts of lasciviousness with the consent of the


offended party ................................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

481
481

ART. 340. Corruption of minors .............................................................


Act Prohibited ...............................................................................

482
482

ART. 341. White slave trade ..................................................................


ART. 342. Forcible abduction .................................................................
Abduction .......................................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................

482
482
483
483

ART. 343. Consented abduction .............................................................


Elements ........................................................................................

483
483

CHAPTER FIVE
PROVISIONS RELATIVE TO THE PRECEDING
CHAPTERS OF TITLE ELEVEN
ART. 344. Prosecution of the crimes of adultery, concubinage,
seduction, abduction, rape, and acts of lasciviousness ................
To be effective, when should the pardon be given by the
offended party?.....................................................................
What are the effects of pardon by the offended party?................
In rape, extinction of criminal liability applies only to the
principal, the accused himself .............................................

485
485
485
486

ART. 345. Civil liability of persons guilty of crimes against chastity ..


Persons Who are Guilty of Rape, Seduction or
Abduction Shall....................................................................

486
486

ART. 346. Liability of ascendants, guardians, teachers, or other


persons entrusted with the custody of the offended party ..........

487

TITLE TWELVE
CRIMES AGAINST THE CIVIL STATUS
OF PERSONS
CHAPTER ONE
SIMULATION OF BIRTHS AND USURPATION
OF CIVIL STATUS
ART. 347. Simulation of births, substitution of one child for
another, and concealment or abandonment of a
legitimate child ..............................................................................
xl

488

Acts Punished ................................................................................


Simulation of births ......................................................................

488
489

ART. 348. Usurpation of civil status .....................................................

489

CHAPTER TWO
ILLEGAL MARRIAGES
ART. 349. Bigamy ...................................................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
Good faith is a defense in bigamy .................................................
Can Bigamy be committed through negligence? .........................
What is the liability if any of a person who knowingly
acts as witness to a bigamous marriage? ...........................

490
490
490
490

ART. 350. Marriage contracted against provisions of laws ..................


Elements .....................................................................................

491
492

ART. 351. Premature marriages ............................................................


Persons Liable For Premature Marriages ..................................

492
492

ART. 352. Performance of illegal marriage ceremony ..........................

492

491

TITLE THIRTEEN
CRIMES AGAINST HONOR
CHAPTER ONE
LIBEL
ART. 353. Denition of libel ...................................................................
What is Libel? ................................................................................
Elements .....................................................................................
Test of Defamatory Imputation ....................................................
Imputation May Cover ..................................................................
Dishonor .....................................................................................
Discredit .....................................................................................
Contempt .....................................................................................
When is there publication? ...........................................................
The offended party must be identiable ......................................

493
493
493
494
494
494
494
494
494
494

Two Kinds of Malice ......................................................................


1.
Malice in fact ..............................................................
2.
Malice in law ..............................................................
Guidelines When Several Persons Are Defamed .........................

494
494
494
495

ART. 354. Requirement of publicity.......................................................


Every Defamatory Imputation is Presumed to be Malicious,
Even if it be True .................................................................
What is the rule of actual malice? .............................................
Privileged communication.............................................................

496

xli

496
495
496

Kinds Of Privileged Communications ..........................................


Qualied privileged .......................................................................
Absolutely privileged .....................................................................
What are the Qualiedly privileged communications? ...............
Requisites of the First Kind of Privileged Communication:
(Private communication in the performance of legal,
moral or social duty) ............................................................
The defense of privileged communication is not tenable
if it is shown ........................................................................
Requisites of the Second Kind of Privileged Communication:
(Fair and true report made in good faith) ..........................
Things To Remember ....................................................................
Vasquez v. Court Of Appeals (G.R. No. 118971,
September 15, 1999, 314 SCRA 460) ..................................
The Rule Of Actual Malice .........................................................
Brillante v. Court Of Appeals (G.R Nos. 118757 And 121571,
October 19, 2004, 440 Scra 554) ..........................................
Prescription of Libel ......................................................................
Computation of Prescription of Offense .......................................
Absolutely Privileged Communication and Conditionally
Privileged Communication, Distinguished.........................
Examples of Absolutely privileged communications ...................
Absolutely privileged communication includes ...........................
Statements Made In Judicial Proceedings Are Privileged
but Only if Pertinent or Relevant to Case Involved ..........
Conditionally or qualiedly privileged communications ............
Requisites Of Qualiedly Privileged Communication .................
Complaint must be Addressed to an Ofcial having
Jurisdiction ..........................................................................
Sazon v. Hon. Court Of Appeals (255 SCRA 692)........................
Letter must be Addressed only to Persons who have some
Interest or Duty in the Matter Alleged ..............................
People v. Atty. Pieraz (G.R No. 142509, 485 SCRA 275) ............
What is the Multiple Publication Rule in Libel? .........................
Multiple Publication Rule In Libel ...........................................
Attack on the Private Character of a Public Ofcer is Libel ......
The Anti-Wire Tapping Act (RA No. 4200) ..................................

496
496
496
497

ART. 355. Libel by means of writing or similar means .......................


Libel by means of writing or similar means
can be committed by means of ............................................
What is the penalty imposable in Libel? ......................................
Penalty In Libel: Imprisonment or Fine ......................................
May the court impose a penalty of ne instead
of imprisonment? .................................................................

507

509

ART. 356. Threatening to public and offer to prevent such


publication for a compensation ...........................................
Acts Punished ................................................................................
Blackmail .....................................................................................

509
509
510

xlii

497
497
497
498
498
498
499
499
499
500
501
501
501
502
502
503
503
504
504
505
505
505
506

507
508
508

Blackmail is possible in the following crimes ..............................

510

ART. 357. Prohibited publication of acts referred to in


the course of ofcial proceedings.........................................
Elements .....................................................................................
The Gag Law .................................................................................

510
510
510

ART. 358. Slander (Oral Defamation) ...................................................


Kinds of Oral Defamation .............................................................
Factors that determine the gravity of oral defamation ...............
Light oral defamation....................................................................
Oral defamation ............................................................................

511
511
511
511
511

ART. 359. Slander by deeds....................................................................


Elements .....................................................................................
Slander by deed is of two kinds ....................................................

511
512
512

SECTION 2. General Provisions ............................................................

512

ART. 360. Persons responsible ...............................................................

512

Who are the persons liable for Libel? ...........................................


Where is the venue of the criminal and civil action for
damages arising from a written defamation? ....................

514

ART. 361. Proof of the truth ...................................................................


May Evidence Proving the Truthfulness
of the Imputation Admissible? ............................................
When Proof of the Truth is Admissible in a Charge for Libel ....
Proof of Truth of an Imputation of an Act or Omission
not Constituting a Crime is tot Admissible ........................
Defenses in Defamation ................................................................

514

ART. 362. Libelous remarks ...................................................................

514

514
514
515
515
515

CHAPTER TWO
INCRIMINATORY MACHINATIONS
ART. 363. Incriminating innocent persons............................................
Elements ........................................................................................

516
516

ART. 364. Intriguing against honor .......................................................


Intriguing against honor is popularly known as gossiping .........
Intriguing against honor and oral defamation, distinguished....
Intriguing against Honor and incriminating an innocent person,
distinguished ........................................................................

516
516
517
517

TITLE FOURTEEN
QUASI-OFFENSE CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE
ART. 365. Imprudence and negligence ..................................................
Elements ........................................................................................
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518
519

Is Criminal Negligence a Crime in itself or only a modality


for the Commission of another offense? ..............................
Four Ways of Committing Quasi-Offenses Under Art. 365 ........
Imprudence ...................................................................................
Negligence .....................................................................................
Reckless Imprudence.....................................................................
Elements of RECKLESS IMPRUDENCE ....................................
Simple Imprudence ......................................................................
Elements of Simple Imprudence..................................................
Distinctions between reckless imprudence and negligence ........
Is the defense of last clear chance tenable? .................................
Examples of criminal negligence or imprudence .........................
Complex crimes apply to imprudence ..........................................
Subsidiary penalty under Art. 39 of the RPC
applies to reckless imprudence ...........................................
Defense in Culpable Felony ..........................................................
Accident .....................................................................................
Elements .....................................................................................
ART. 366. Application of laws enacted prior to this Code ....................
ART. 367. Repealing clause ....................................................................

520
520
521
521
521
521
521
521
522
522
522
523
524
524
524
524
525
525

APPENDICES
Appendix A (Republic Act No. 9165)

..................................................

526

Appendix B (Republic Act No. 9262) ......................................................

585

Appendix C (Republic Act No. 9372) ......................................................

604

Appendix D (Republic Act No. 8294)......................................................

634

Appendix E (Republic Act No. 9194) ......................................................

638

Appendix F (Republic Act No. 7659) ......................................................

646

Appendix G (Republic Act No. 9344)......................................................

663

Appendix H (Republic Act No. 7080) .....................................................

695

Appendix I (Republic Act No. 4200) .......................................................

698

Appendix J (Republic Act No. 1477) ......................................................

701

Appendix K (Republic Act No. 8353)......................................................

702

Appendix L (Republic Act No. 9208) ......................................................

706

Appendix M (Republic Act No. 7610) .....................................................

722

Appendix N (Republic Act No. 3019) .....................................................

738

Appendix O (Republic Act No. 7877)......................................................

745

Appendix P (Republic Act No. 9231) ......................................................

749

Appendix Q (Republic Act No. 6539)......................................................

758

Appendix R (Presidential Decree No. 46) ..............................................

764

xliv

Appendix S (Presidential Decree No. 749).............................................

766

Appendix T (Presidential Decree No. 332) ............................................

769

Appendix U (Presidential Decree No. 532) ............................................

783

Appendix V (Presidential Decree No. 1612) ..........................................

786

Appendix W (Presidential Decree No. 533) ...........................................

789

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