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1010

Index

Time constants ( RC). See also RC circuits


current buildup transients, 463465
notes about, 380
overview, 373
symbol, 373
universal time constant curves, 374
Time scales
ac voltage generation, 489
inductive transients and, 471473
Total conductance, 172
Total equivalent resistance, 132, 172
Transfer functions (TF)
band-pass filters, 811813, 818819
boundary functions, 792793
overview, 791792
phase shifts, 791, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797
voltage gain, 791792, 793, 794, 795, 796797
Transfer functions, RC and RL, 791800, 822
Bode plot sketching of, 792800, 801802, 808810
examples, 796798, 803805, 809810
high-pass filter circuits, 807810
low-pass filter circuits, 801806, 807
overview, 791, 792
practice problems, 798799, 806, 810
problems, 822
writing, 799800
Transformation ratio, 835. See also Turns ratio
Transformers. See also Coupled circuits; Iron-core transformers
air-core, 831, 832, 855856
construction, 831832
ferrite-core, 832
frequency response curve of audio, 855
overview, 828834
planar, 832833
power transformer ratings, 842, 869
symbols, 833
turns ratio, 835, 840, 844, 845, 851
two broad categories, 831
Transformer applications
autotransformers, 846847
impedance matching, 844845
isolation applications, 844
power supply transformers, 842, 843
problems, 869
transformers in power systems, 842844
transformers with multiple secondaries, 845846
Transformers and coupled circuits
coupled impedance, 862863, 872
Faradays law, 833834
in-process learning checks, 839840, 847848, 855, 873
introduction, 829834
iron-core transformers: ideal model, 834839, 867868
loosely coupled circuits, 833, 855860, 870871
magnetically coupled circuits with sinusoidal ac excitation,
860862, 871
overview, 828829
power transformer ratings, 842, 869
practical iron-core transformers, 848852, 869870
primary winding, 830, 831
problems, 867872
reflected impedance, 840842, 868

secondary winding, 830, 831


transformer applications, 842847, 869
transformer tests, 852854, 870
voltage and frequency effects, 854855
winding directions, 833
Transformer tests
open-circuit test, 852, 853854
problems, 870
short-circuit, 852853
Transients. See also Inductive transients
capacitive, 364
in capacitive circuits, 365, 366
current buildup, 461465, 479480
desirable, 366
inductance and, 458, 459
in inductive circuits, 365, 366, 457
overview, 346, 458
switches and, 366
undesirable, 366
Transient analysis, meaning of time in, 369
Transient analysis using computers
examples, 395
Multisim, 390393
overview, 390
practice problems, 392, 393, 394
problems, 402
PSpice, 390, 393396
Transient duration (5), 373374
Transistor, 213, 696
bias, 213
Turns ratio, 840, 844, 845, 851
overview, 835
Two-wattmeter method, 898
Ultracapacitors, 349. See also Supercapacitors
Unbalanced bridge, 271
Unbalanced loads
delta loads, 902904
overview, 901
problems, 914915
three-phase system, 901904, 914915
wye loads, 901902
Unbalanced systems, 875
Unit conversions, 7
magnetic, 411
overview, 810
problems, 1920
Unit systems. See also SI system of units
English (US Customary), 6, 7
metric, 6, 78
Universal-bias circuit, 216
Universal time constant curves, 374
Unloaded output, 218
VA. See Volt-Amperes
Valence electron, 30
VAR. See Volt-amps reactive
Variable capacitors, 349
Variable inductors, 446
Variable resistors, 217. See also Potentiometers
overview, 7173

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