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Experiment 4 : Transport Across Membrane

Objektif
1. to determine the sucrose concentration which is isotonic to potato cells
2. to determine the osmotic pressure of potato cells in atmospheric unit
3. to determine the sodium chloride concentration that cause haemolysis and creanation
Exercise 4.1 : Osmotic pressure of potato cells

Exercise 4.2 : Heamolysis and creanation of blood cells

Shrink

Swollen

Must refer to your result because different student showed different result, the intacellular constituent
of the erythrocytes is different individually

Questions
1. a) What is the concentration of NaCl for haemolysis to occur?
b) Explain your answer
must refer to your result (less or equal to 0.4%, different student showed different result)
because the solution is clear at that concentration, erythrocytes have burst, therefore no erythrocyte
can be seen in that solution
2. a) What is the concentration of NaCl for crenation to occur?
b) Explain your answer
must refer to your result (more or equal to 0.6%, different student showed different result)
because the solution is cloudy, erythrocytes have crenated or shrink.

Exp. 11 : Diversity of Bacteria


Protocols

Questions
1. Why is it necessary tp rinse the smear excessively with water?
To avoid the formation of crystallization of the stain on the slide.
2. Why Gram-positif bacteria purple in colour while Gram -negatif are red?
3. List some examples of bacteria and harmful Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria.

Experiment 3 : Plant Histology


Objective
1. to prepare and identify the onion epidermal cells
2. to identify different types of plant tissues
3. to compare the structure and distribution of tissues in monocots and dicots
Exercise 3.1 : Identification of epidermal cells in onion

Exercise 3.2 : Structures of plant tissues in plants

Collenchyma

Parenchyma

Dicot

Monocot

Questions
1. You are given two slides of cross section of Angiosperms stems and roots. How would you
differentiate between the following?
a) the stems of monocot and dicot plants
b) the roots of monocot and dicot plant

2. Describe the structures and functions of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclenchyma cells

3. Compare the structure and functions of plant epidermal and animal epitheliail tissues

Experiment 8 : Introduction to Nucleic Acids


Objectives
1. To describe the structure of a nucleotide
2. To construct the structure of a polynucleotide chain
3. to differentiate the structures between RNA and DNA molecules

Puzzel DNA

Puzzel RNA

Question
1. What is nucleotide?
Consist phosphate, pentose and base
2. Name the bases found in DNA and RNA
DNA - Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine
RNA - Adenine, Guanine, Uracil and Cytosine
3. How many hydrogen bonds are found adenine and thymine?
two hydrogen bond
4. Compare the structure and functions between RNA and DNA molecule.

Experiment 2 : Animal Histology


Objective
1. To examine the animal tissues under the light compound microscope
2. To identify the structure and organization of animal tissues
(I) Epithelial Tissues

100x Squamous Epithelium

100x Cuboidal Epithelium

100x Stratified Epithelium

100x Columnar Epithelium

(II) Nerve Tissue

100x Nerve

(III) Muscle Tissues

100x Smooth Muscle

100x Skeletal Muscle

100x Cardiac Muscle

(IV) Connective Tissues

100x Bone

100x Hyaline

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