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# Name:

## Max. Points: 113.5

Solution
CHEM 201 2014 Spring Semester
2nd Midterm

Important Note: Show your work clearly and explain your answer briefly. Answers
without explanation will not be credited.
1. (8 points) a) Propose a method to obtain a material with a yielding strength of
300 Mpa using a polycrystalline material with a yielding strength of 350 Mpa.
Grain size could be improved to decrease yielding strength.
Stragety for grain size increase is; - heat the material to recrystallization
temperature or above, then cool it at a rate to improve the grain size.

## b) Propose a method to obtain a material with a yielding strength of 400 Mpa

using a polycrystalline material with a yielding strength of 350 Mpa.
Cold-working will reduce the yielding strength.

2. (10 points) Consider the diffusion of water vapor through a polypropylene (PP)
sheet 2 mm thick. The pressures of H2O at the two faces are 1 kPa and 10 kPa, which
are maintained constant. Assuming conditions of steady state, determine the
diffusion flux (in 1/cm2.sec) at 298 K i) after 2 hours and ii) after 10 hours.
The diffusion coefficient of H2O through PP is 38 10-13 1/cm.sec.Pa.
iii) Circle the correct answer.
Water in PP is an interstitial/substitutional impurity.
It is a steady-state process and concentrations are kept constant. So diffusion flux
could be obtained with the following formula.

dC
J = -D
dx
where dC is (1 - 10)*103 Pa, and dx = 0.2 cm. Please note that dc/dx should have
units of Pa/cm since D has the units of 1/cm.sec.Pa.
J=1.71*10-7 1/cm2.sec
As seen from the formula, J does not depend on time. Therefore;
J2hours = J10hours

FK

3. (21 points)
a) Given the stress-strain curve for material A with
a Poissons ratio of 0.32 and a yielding strength of
280 MPa, compare the following at points A-E;
i) density
ii) dislocation density
iii) volume
The material has a Poissons ratio of 0.32 that is
less than 0.5, which indicates that when the
material is stretched with a tension stress the
volume will increase.
Point A: material as is
Point B: Stretched with a low tension stress
Point C: Stretched with a medium tension stress
Point D: Stretched with a tension stress higher
than yielding stress resulting in a plastic deformation (Shapes changes permanently,
however volume is conserved since stress is released)
Point E: Stretched with a high tension stress.
Volume increases as the amount of stress increases.
Thus;
i)
Density A=D>B>C>E
ii)
Dislocation density increases if a stress that corresponds to Plastic
deformation region is applied. Point B is in the leastic region (linear
relationship between stress and strain) Point C, D, and E are in the plastic
region. Therefore;
E>D>C>B=A
iii)
Volume (opposite of density): A=D<B<C<E.
b) Tension stress of 200 MPa, 300 Mpa, and 400 MPa is applied and released to A
resulting in materials X, Y, and Z, respectively. Compare the following;
200 MPa< yielding strength (280 MPa) so X is the same material as A.
300>280 so Y is a cold-worked material.
400>200 so Z is a cold-worked material. In terms of cold-working, Z>Y since
400>300.
i) Density
Density does not change with cold-working.
ii) Dislocation density
Dislocation density depends on the amount of cold-working. Z>Y>X=A
iii) Yielding strength
Yielding strength increases as the amount of cold-working increases. Z>Y>X=A
iv) Ductility
Opposite of yielding strength, A=X<Y<Z.

FK

4. (10 points) Assume that two materials A and B are given, both of which are made
of copper. A is 5% cold-worked while B is 15% cold-worked. Compare the following
parameters between A and B.
Characteristics of materials such as melting temperature, density, and atomic
arrangement (thus APF) des not depend on the amount of cold-working. However,
mechanical properties could be modified with cold-working process.
i)
Melting Temperature
A=B
ii)
Density
A=B
iii)
Dislocation density
A<B
iv)
Youngs Modulus
A=B
v)
Ductility
A>B
vi)
Resilience
A<B (since yielding strength increases as Youngs modulus is constant.)
vii)
Recrystallization Temperature
A>B --Inverse relationship between cold-working and recrystallization temperature.
viii) Atomic Packing Factor
A=B
ix)
Yielding Strength
A<B
x)
Tensile Strength
A<B
5. (15 points) Suppose you have
A) a cylindrical copper specimen
B) A with 0.2% Ni impurities
C) B with 35% cold-working
D) C when it is heated at the recrystallization temperature for one hour
Compare the following parameters for A, B, C, and D. (ACu= 63.54 g/mol, ANi= 63.54
g/mol, rCu= rNi =130 pm)
Critical point herein this question is that when a material is heated at
recrystallization temperature for one or more hours, the effects of cold-working are
nullified. So B is the same material as D.
i)
yielding strength
C>B=D>A
ii)
dislocation density
C>B, D, A since dislocation density increases as cold-working is applied.
iii)
density
Ni and Cu have identical atomic radii, however Ni is lighter than Cu. Then, materials
with Ni impurities have lower density than that of pure Cu material. A>B=C=D
iv)
ductility
Ductility has the opposite trend of yielding strength. C<B=D<A
v)
tensile strength
Tenile strength is just like yielding strength. C>B=D>A

FK

6. (10 points) Assign the crystal structure of the compounds formed by the given
atoms and determine APF values in %. Hint: Choose one of the crystal structures
given below.
Rock Salt (0.732 > r+/r- > 0.414)
CsCl Structure (1 > r+/r- > 0.732)
Zinc Blend (0.414 > r+/r- > 0.225)
Fluorite (1 > r+/r- > 0.732)
a) Lithium and Chlorine
b) Silver and Chlorine
Atom Radius
(pm)
Li
114
Cl
130
Ag
155
Cl167
+
Li
90
Ag+
129
For ceramic materials ionic radii for ions should be used (not the atoms!!).
a) rLi+/rCl- = 90/167 = 0.539 Rock-salt structure
a = 2r+ + 2r- = 514 pm

16
(903 +1673 )
3
*100= 66.4%
5143

## b) rAg+ / rCl- = 129/167 = 0.772 CsCl-structure

3 = 2r+ + 2ra = 342 pm
=

FK

4
(1293 +1673 )
3
3423

* 100 = 71.2%

7. (12 points) Compare the following for amorphous rubber, Fe2O3, and Cu.
i)
Density
Rubber is composed of light atoms (C, H, N, and O)
Fe2O3 is a mixture of light(O) and heavy (Fe) atoms.
Cu is composed of a heavy atom.
Density; Cu> Fe2O3 > Rubber
ii)
Dislocation density
Since dislocation density is present when there are crystallographic planes,
dislocation density of AMORPHOUS rubber is equal to zero. Dislocation density of Cu
is higher than that of Fe2O3 since the formation of dislocations is more difficult in
ceramic material due to strong electrostatic interactions.
Dislocation density; Cu> Fe2O3 > Rubber=0
iii)
Yielding strength
Plastic deformation requires higher stress for Fe2O3 due to STRONG electrostatic
interactions.
Yielding Strength; Fe2O3 > Cu > Rubber
iv)
Ductility
The origin of ductility is plastic deformation which is present in crystalline
materials. Slip planes are more accesible in metal compared to ceramic materials.
v)
Elastic strain when 15 MPa is applied
Young Modulus; polymers < Metals < ceramic material since ionic bond is the
stronger than metallic bond and Van der Waals bond. So when 15 MPa is applied the
highest strain is observed for rubber.
Rubber > Cu > Fe2O3.
vi)
Youngs Modulus
Rubber<Cu< Fe2O3

FK

8. (10 points) When a stress is applied to fcc Cu along the  direction, possible
slip directions on the (111) plane are [1-10], , and [0-11] (-1 indicates 1 with
a bar).
a) Determine the slip direction.
b) Slipping begins when a stress of 20.4 MPa is applied. Determine the critical
resolved shear stress.

stress

(111)

Direction

cos

cos

[1-10]

3/5

2/5



(111)



3/5



(111)

[0-11]

3/5

1/10

## Therefore; (111)[1-10] is the slip system.

crss = 20.4 * cos * cos
= 10 MPa
9. (7.5 points) When a tension stress is applied to a material along the 
vector, determine whether the given interplanar distances INCREASE,
DECREASE, stay CONSTANT, or INCONCLUSIVE with the data given:
The interplanary distance of planes that are parallel to the direction of the
applied stress decrease while those that are perpendicular increase. Others are
inconclusive. Thus;
i)
d100
INCREASE
ii)
d010
DECREASE
iii)
d001
DECREASE
iv)
d200
INCREASE
v)
d011
DECREASE

FK

10. (10 points) Congratulations! You are currently selected as one of the
candidates to be hired by Massive Dynamic, a multi-billion dollar research
corporation. The founder of the company, William Bell, puts you through one
final test with two problems. If you pass, you will be working with Walter
Bishop on fringe-science. If you fail Well, there are rumors but no one really
knows whereabouts of unsuccessful candidates.
i)
Prepare a pure iron cable with a diameter of 0.2 mm using an iron
cylindrical specimen with a diameter of 2 cm without changing the
ductility of the material.
The shape of the material could be changed via cold-working. The
material could be heated up to recrystallization temperature to nullify
the effect cold-working to ductility. So, cold-working followed by
heating (annealing) at or above recrystallizaton temperature is the
strategy.
ii)
Prepare a pure iron material with a volume of 20.32 cm3 using a pure
iron material with a volume of 20.00 cm3 at the same temperature and
at zero-stress.
Note: Explain your strategy briefly. Any rational answer will be credited.
Pores or vacancies should somehow- be introduced to the material.
Atomic vacancies depend on the temeprature so that is not a solution.
However vacancies could be introduced when the grain size of the
material is reduced. Remember diffusion through the grain
boundaries is faster than that through the crystal due to more space
present inside the grain boundaries. Grain boundaries could be
improved by decreasing grain size.
Therefore the strategy is as follows;
Anneal the material at or above the recrystallization temperature for
one hour at cool it back at a rate so that grain size decreases.

FK

## Unit Conversion and Formula Sheet

x
Cs - Cx
= =
=

= erf

2 Dt
Cs - Co
=
= stress
E = modulus of elasticity
= Poissons ratio
= elastic strain
l = lateral strain
F= Force
A= Area
l= length
=

## Cs: Concentration at surface

Cx: Concentration at position x
Co: Initial concentration, concentration inside
the material
x: Distance

1 3

=
rss = resolved shear stress

CW %

Ao A
100
Ao

## Ao= initial area

A= final area
The angle between (hkl) and (uvw):

dC
J = -D
dx
J: Flux
D: Diffusion Coefficient
C: Concentration
x: distance

Q
D Do exp d
RT
Q
N d N exp v
kT
Nd: Number of defects
N: Number of potential defect sites
D: Diffusion Coefficient
Do: Pre-exponential factor
Qd: Energy required for vacancy migration
Qv: Energy required for vacancy formation
k= 8.6210-5 eV/atoms.K = 1.3810-23
J/atoms.K
R: Ideal gas constant (8.314 J/K)
T: Temperature

FK

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