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Midterm with answers

Midterm with answers

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You are on page 1of 9

Solution

CHEM 201 2014 Spring Semester

2nd Midterm

Important Note: Show your work clearly and explain your answer briefly. Answers

without explanation will not be credited.

1. (8 points) a) Propose a method to obtain a material with a yielding strength of

300 Mpa using a polycrystalline material with a yielding strength of 350 Mpa.

Grain size could be improved to decrease yielding strength.

Stragety for grain size increase is; - heat the material to recrystallization

temperature or above, then cool it at a rate to improve the grain size.

using a polycrystalline material with a yielding strength of 350 Mpa.

Cold-working will reduce the yielding strength.

2. (10 points) Consider the diffusion of water vapor through a polypropylene (PP)

sheet 2 mm thick. The pressures of H2O at the two faces are 1 kPa and 10 kPa, which

are maintained constant. Assuming conditions of steady state, determine the

diffusion flux (in 1/cm2.sec) at 298 K i) after 2 hours and ii) after 10 hours.

The diffusion coefficient of H2O through PP is 38 10-13 1/cm.sec.Pa.

iii) Circle the correct answer.

Water in PP is an interstitial/substitutional impurity.

It is a steady-state process and concentrations are kept constant. So diffusion flux

could be obtained with the following formula.

dC

J = -D

dx

where dC is (1 - 10)*103 Pa, and dx = 0.2 cm. Please note that dc/dx should have

units of Pa/cm since D has the units of 1/cm.sec.Pa.

J=1.71*10-7 1/cm2.sec

As seen from the formula, J does not depend on time. Therefore;

J2hours = J10hours

FK

3. (21 points)

a) Given the stress-strain curve for material A with

a Poissons ratio of 0.32 and a yielding strength of

280 MPa, compare the following at points A-E;

i) density

ii) dislocation density

iii) volume

The material has a Poissons ratio of 0.32 that is

less than 0.5, which indicates that when the

material is stretched with a tension stress the

volume will increase.

Point A: material as is

Point B: Stretched with a low tension stress

Point C: Stretched with a medium tension stress

Point D: Stretched with a tension stress higher

than yielding stress resulting in a plastic deformation (Shapes changes permanently,

however volume is conserved since stress is released)

Point E: Stretched with a high tension stress.

Volume increases as the amount of stress increases.

Thus;

i)

Density A=D>B>C>E

ii)

Dislocation density increases if a stress that corresponds to Plastic

deformation region is applied. Point B is in the leastic region (linear

relationship between stress and strain) Point C, D, and E are in the plastic

region. Therefore;

E>D>C>B=A

iii)

Volume (opposite of density): A=D<B<C<E.

b) Tension stress of 200 MPa, 300 Mpa, and 400 MPa is applied and released to A

resulting in materials X, Y, and Z, respectively. Compare the following;

200 MPa< yielding strength (280 MPa) so X is the same material as A.

300>280 so Y is a cold-worked material.

400>200 so Z is a cold-worked material. In terms of cold-working, Z>Y since

400>300.

i) Density

Density does not change with cold-working.

ii) Dislocation density

Dislocation density depends on the amount of cold-working. Z>Y>X=A

iii) Yielding strength

Yielding strength increases as the amount of cold-working increases. Z>Y>X=A

iv) Ductility

Opposite of yielding strength, A=X<Y<Z.

FK

4. (10 points) Assume that two materials A and B are given, both of which are made

of copper. A is 5% cold-worked while B is 15% cold-worked. Compare the following

parameters between A and B.

Characteristics of materials such as melting temperature, density, and atomic

arrangement (thus APF) des not depend on the amount of cold-working. However,

mechanical properties could be modified with cold-working process.

i)

Melting Temperature

A=B

ii)

Density

A=B

iii)

Dislocation density

A<B

iv)

Youngs Modulus

A=B

v)

Ductility

A>B

vi)

Resilience

A<B (since yielding strength increases as Youngs modulus is constant.)

vii)

Recrystallization Temperature

A>B --Inverse relationship between cold-working and recrystallization temperature.

viii) Atomic Packing Factor

A=B

ix)

Yielding Strength

A<B

x)

Tensile Strength

A<B

5. (15 points) Suppose you have

A) a cylindrical copper specimen

B) A with 0.2% Ni impurities

C) B with 35% cold-working

D) C when it is heated at the recrystallization temperature for one hour

Compare the following parameters for A, B, C, and D. (ACu= 63.54 g/mol, ANi= 63.54

g/mol, rCu= rNi =130 pm)

Critical point herein this question is that when a material is heated at

recrystallization temperature for one or more hours, the effects of cold-working are

nullified. So B is the same material as D.

i)

yielding strength

C>B=D>A

ii)

dislocation density

C>B, D, A since dislocation density increases as cold-working is applied.

iii)

density

Ni and Cu have identical atomic radii, however Ni is lighter than Cu. Then, materials

with Ni impurities have lower density than that of pure Cu material. A>B=C=D

iv)

ductility

Ductility has the opposite trend of yielding strength. C<B=D<A

v)

tensile strength

Tenile strength is just like yielding strength. C>B=D>A

FK

6. (10 points) Assign the crystal structure of the compounds formed by the given

atoms and determine APF values in %. Hint: Choose one of the crystal structures

given below.

Rock Salt (0.732 > r+/r- > 0.414)

CsCl Structure (1 > r+/r- > 0.732)

Zinc Blend (0.414 > r+/r- > 0.225)

Fluorite (1 > r+/r- > 0.732)

a) Lithium and Chlorine

b) Silver and Chlorine

Atom Radius

(pm)

Li

114

Cl

130

Ag

155

Cl167

+

Li

90

Ag+

129

For ceramic materials ionic radii for ions should be used (not the atoms!!).

a) rLi+/rCl- = 90/167 = 0.539 Rock-salt structure

a = 2r+ + 2r- = 514 pm

16

(903 +1673 )

3

*100= 66.4%

5143

3 = 2r+ + 2ra = 342 pm

=

FK

4

(1293 +1673 )

3

3423

* 100 = 71.2%

7. (12 points) Compare the following for amorphous rubber, Fe2O3, and Cu.

i)

Density

Rubber is composed of light atoms (C, H, N, and O)

Fe2O3 is a mixture of light(O) and heavy (Fe) atoms.

Cu is composed of a heavy atom.

Density; Cu> Fe2O3 > Rubber

ii)

Dislocation density

Since dislocation density is present when there are crystallographic planes,

dislocation density of AMORPHOUS rubber is equal to zero. Dislocation density of Cu

is higher than that of Fe2O3 since the formation of dislocations is more difficult in

ceramic material due to strong electrostatic interactions.

Dislocation density; Cu> Fe2O3 > Rubber=0

iii)

Yielding strength

Plastic deformation requires higher stress for Fe2O3 due to STRONG electrostatic

interactions.

Yielding Strength; Fe2O3 > Cu > Rubber

iv)

Ductility

The origin of ductility is plastic deformation which is present in crystalline

materials. Slip planes are more accesible in metal compared to ceramic materials.

v)

Elastic strain when 15 MPa is applied

Young Modulus; polymers < Metals < ceramic material since ionic bond is the

stronger than metallic bond and Van der Waals bond. So when 15 MPa is applied the

highest strain is observed for rubber.

Rubber > Cu > Fe2O3.

vi)

Youngs Modulus

Rubber<Cu< Fe2O3

FK

8. (10 points) When a stress is applied to fcc Cu along the [201] direction, possible

slip directions on the (111) plane are [1-10], [010], and [0-11] (-1 indicates 1 with

a bar).

a) Determine the slip direction.

b) Slipping begins when a stress of 20.4 MPa is applied. Determine the critical

resolved shear stress.

stress

[201]

(111)

Direction

cos

cos

[1-10]

3/5

2/5

[201]

(111)

[010]

3/5

[201]

(111)

[0-11]

3/5

1/10

crss = 20.4 * cos * cos

= 10 MPa

9. (7.5 points) When a tension stress is applied to a material along the [100]

vector, determine whether the given interplanar distances INCREASE,

DECREASE, stay CONSTANT, or INCONCLUSIVE with the data given:

The interplanary distance of planes that are parallel to the direction of the

applied stress decrease while those that are perpendicular increase. Others are

inconclusive. Thus;

i)

d100

INCREASE

ii)

d010

DECREASE

iii)

d001

DECREASE

iv)

d200

INCREASE

v)

d011

DECREASE

FK

10. (10 points) Congratulations! You are currently selected as one of the

candidates to be hired by Massive Dynamic, a multi-billion dollar research

corporation. The founder of the company, William Bell, puts you through one

final test with two problems. If you pass, you will be working with Walter

Bishop on fringe-science. If you fail Well, there are rumors but no one really

knows whereabouts of unsuccessful candidates.

i)

Prepare a pure iron cable with a diameter of 0.2 mm using an iron

cylindrical specimen with a diameter of 2 cm without changing the

ductility of the material.

The shape of the material could be changed via cold-working. The

material could be heated up to recrystallization temperature to nullify

the effect cold-working to ductility. So, cold-working followed by

heating (annealing) at or above recrystallizaton temperature is the

strategy.

ii)

Prepare a pure iron material with a volume of 20.32 cm3 using a pure

iron material with a volume of 20.00 cm3 at the same temperature and

at zero-stress.

Note: Explain your strategy briefly. Any rational answer will be credited.

Pores or vacancies should somehow- be introduced to the material.

Atomic vacancies depend on the temeprature so that is not a solution.

However vacancies could be introduced when the grain size of the

material is reduced. Remember diffusion through the grain

boundaries is faster than that through the crystal due to more space

present inside the grain boundaries. Grain boundaries could be

improved by decreasing grain size.

Therefore the strategy is as follows;

Anneal the material at or above the recrystallization temperature for

one hour at cool it back at a rate so that grain size decreases.

FK

x

Cs - Cx

= =

=

= erf

2 Dt

Cs - Co

=

= stress

E = modulus of elasticity

= Poissons ratio

= elastic strain

l = lateral strain

F= Force

A= Area

l= length

=

Cx: Concentration at position x

Co: Initial concentration, concentration inside

the material

x: Distance

1 3

=

rss = resolved shear stress

CW %

Ao A

100

Ao

A= final area

The angle between (hkl) and (uvw):

dC

J = -D

dx

J: Flux

D: Diffusion Coefficient

C: Concentration

x: distance

Q

D Do exp d

RT

Q

N d N exp v

kT

Nd: Number of defects

N: Number of potential defect sites

D: Diffusion Coefficient

Do: Pre-exponential factor

Qd: Energy required for vacancy migration

Qv: Energy required for vacancy formation

k= 8.6210-5 eV/atoms.K = 1.3810-23

J/atoms.K

R: Ideal gas constant (8.314 J/K)

T: Temperature

FK

FK

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