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STUDY PACKAGE

Subject : Mathematics Topic : Diffrential Equations

R

Index

1. Theory

2. Short Revision

3. Exercise (Ex. 1 to 5)

4. Assertion & Reason

5. Que. from Compt. Exams

6. 34 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE

7. 10 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE

Student’s Name :

 

Class :

Roll No. :

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Differential Equation

1.1.1.1. IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction ::::

An equation involving independent and dependent variables and the derivatives of the dependent variables is called a differential equation. There are two kinds of differential equation:

1.1 Ordinary Differential Equation : If the dependent variables depend on one independent variable x, then the differential equation is said to be ordinary.

for example

dy +

dx

dy

dx

+ xy = sin x ,

dz

dx

= y + z,

d

3

y

dy

dx

3

dx

+ 2

k

d

2

y

dx

2

=

dy  

2

1 +

dx

3 / 2

,

dy

y = x dx

+ y = e x ,  2    dy   1
+ y = e x ,
2
 dy  
1 + 
+ k
dx
 

1.2 Partial differential equation : If the dependent variables depend on two or more independent variables, then it is known as partial differential equation

for example

y 2

z

x

+ y

2

z

y

= ax,

2

z

x

2

+

2

z

y

2

= 0

2.2.2.2. OrderOrderOrderOrder andandandand DegreeDegreeDegreeDegree ofofofof aaaa DifferentialDifferentialDifferentialDifferential Equation:Equation:Equation:Equation:

2.1 Order : Order is the highest differential appearing in a differential equation.

2.22.22.22.2 DegreeDegreeDegreeDegree ::::

It is determined by the degree of the highest order derivative present in it after
It is determined by the degree of the highest order derivative present in it after the differential
equation is cleared of radicals and fractions so far as the derivatives are concerned.
n
n
1 1
2
m
n k
d
m y
d
y
f 1 (x, y)
+ f 2 (x, y)
 dy 
+
f k (x, y)
= 0
m
 
m
− 1
  dx
dx
 
dx  
 
 
The above differential equation has the order m and degree n 1 .
Example :
Find the order & degree of following differential equations.
1/ 4
6
dy
d
2 y
2
+
d
y
dx
dx
(i)
dx
y + 
=
(ii) y =
e
2
2
dy  
dx
 
2
dy
d y
 
+
 
(iii)
sin
= y
(iv)
ey′″ – xy″ + y = 0
2
dx
dx
 
 

Solution.

2

d

y

dx

y

2

d

2

4

=

dy

y

+

dy

dx

6

= ny

= sin 1 y

+ y = 0

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

order = 2, degree = 4

order = 2, degree = 1

order = 2, degree = 1

equation can not be expressed as a polynomial in differ-

+

dx

d

2

2

y

dx

dy

+

dx

2

dx

e

3

d y

dx

3

– x

d

2

y

dx

2

(iv)

ential coefficients, so degree is not applicable but order is 3.

Self Practice Problems :

1. Find order and degree of the following differential equations.

(i)

(ii)

dy

dx

+ y =

 

e

dy d y

dx dx

3

 

3  

1

dy

dx

= n

 

5

d t

dx

5

+1

 

Ans.

order = 1, degree = 2

Ans.

order = 5, degree = not applicable.

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(iii)

dy

dx

1/ 2

+

y

2

d

2 y

=

dx

2

Ans.

order = 2, degree = 2

3.3.3.3. FormationFormationFormationFormation ofofofof DifferentialDifferentialDifferentialDifferential Equation:Equation:Equation:Equation:

Differential equation corresponding to a family of curve will have :

(a)

Order exactly same as number of essential arbitrary constants in the equation of curve.

(b)

no arbitrary constant present in it.

The differential equation corresponding to a family of curve can be obtained by using the following

steps:

(a)

Identify the number of essential arbitrary constants in equation of curve.

NOTE : If arbitrary constants appear in addition, subtraction, multiplication or division, then we can club them to reduce into one new arbitrary constant.

(b)

Differentiate the equation of curve till the required order.

(c)

Eliminate the arbitrary constant from the equation of curve and additional equation obtained in step (b) above.

Example :

Sol.

Form a differential equation of family of straight lines passing through origin. Family of straight lines passing through origin is y = mx where’m’ is parameter. Differentiating w.r.t. x

dy

dx

= m

Eliminating ‘m’ from both equations

dy

y

dx

=

x

which is the required differential equation.

Example :

Sol.

Form a differential equation of family of circles touching x-axis at the origin ?

Equation of family of circles touching x-axis at the origin is

x 2 + y 2 + λy = 0

(i) where λ is parameter

dy dy 2x + 2y dx + λ = 0 dx Eliminating ‘λ’ from (i)
dy
dy
2x + 2y dx
+ λ
= 0
dx
Eliminating ‘λ’ from (i) and (ii)
2xy
dy
=
2
2
dx x
− y
d 2
y
Ans.
+ b 2 y = 0
2
dx
2
d
2 y
dy
y
= 0
2 +
dx
 
dx
 

Self Practice Problems :

1.

2.

3.

(ii)
(ii)

which is required differential equation.

Obtain a differential equation of the family of curves y = a sin (bx + c) where a and c being arbitrary constant.

Show the differential equation of the system of parabolas y 2 = 4a(x – b) is given by

Form a differential equation of family of parabolas with focus origin and axis of symmetry along the x-axis.

Ans.

y 2 = y 2

 

dy

dx

 

2 dy

+ 2xy

dx

4.4.4.4. SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution ofofofof aaaa DifferentialDifferentialDifferentialDifferential Equation:Equation:Equation:Equation:

Finding the dependent variable from the differential equation is called solving or integrating it. The solution or the integral of a differential equation is, therefore, a relation between dependent and independent variables (free from derivatives) such that it satisfies the given differential equation NOTE : The solution of the differential equation is also called its primitive, because the differential equation can be regarded as a relation derived from it. There can be three types of solution of a differential equation:

(i) General solution (or complete integral or complete primitive) : A relation in x and y satisfying a given differential equation and involving exactly same number of arbitrary constants as order of differential equation. (ii) Particular Solution : A solution obtained by assigning values to one or more than one arbitrary con- stant of general solution. (iii) Singular Solution : It is not obtainable from general solution. Geomatrically, General solution acts as an envelope to singular solution.

5.5.5.5. DifferentialDifferentialDifferentialDifferential EquationEquationEquationEquation ofofofof FirstFirstFirstFirst OrderOrderOrderOrder andandandand FirstFirstFirstFirst DegrDegrDeDegrgreeeeeeee ::::

A differential equation of first order and first degree is of the type

dy + f(x, y) = 0, which can also be written as :

dx

Mdx + Ndy = 0, where M and N are functions of x and y.

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6.6.6.6.

ElementaryElementaryElementaryElementary

TypesTypesTypesTypes

ofofofof

FirstFirstFirstFirst

OrderOrderOrderOrder

andandandand

FirstFirstFirstFirst

DegreeDegreeDegreeDegree

DiDiDifferentialDifferentialfferentialfferential

EquationsEquationsEquationsEquations ::::

6.1 Variables separable : If the differential equation can be put in the form, f(x) dx = φ (y) dy w say that variables are separable and solution can be obtained by integrating each side separately.

e

Example :

Solution.

Example :

Solution.

Example :

A general solution of this will be f(x) dx = φ(y) dy + c, where c is an arbitrary constant Solve the differential equation (1 + x) y dx = (y – 1) x dy The equation can be written as -

1

+

x

dx =

y

1

y

dx =

1

x

1

x

+1

dy

1

y

n x + x = y – ny + c ny + nx = y – x + c xy = ce yx

dy

dy

Solve : dx

The equation can be written as-

= (e x + 1) (1 + y 2 )

dy

2 =

1

+

y

(e

x

+

1)dx

Integrating both sides, tan 1 y = e x + x + c.

Solve : y – x

dy

dx

= a

y 2

dy

+ dx

Solution. The equation can be written as - dy y – ay 2 = (x
Solution.
The equation can be written as -
dy
y – ay 2 = (x + a)
dx
dx dy
=
2
x
+ a
y
− ay
dx
1
=
dy
x +
a
y(1
− ay)
dx
1
a
=
 
+
 
dy
x
+ a
y 1
− ay
 
 
Integrating both sides,
n (x + a) = n y – n (1 – ay) + n c
cy
 
 
n (x + a) = n
1− ay
 
 

cy = (x + a) (1 – ay) where 'c' is an arbitrary constant.

6.1.1 Sometimes transformation to the polar co-ordinates facilitates separation of variables. In this connection it is convenient to remember the following differentials:

If x = r cos θ ; y = r sin θ then,

(i) x dx + y dy = r dr

(ii) dx 2 + dy 2 = dr 2 + r 2 dθ 2

(iii) x dy – y dx = r 2 dθ

If x = r sec θ & y = r tan θ then

(i) x dx – y dy = r dr

(ii) x dy – y dx = r 2 secθ dθ.

Example :

Solution.

Solve the differential equation xdx + ydy = x (xdy – ydx)

Taking

x = r cosθ, y = r sinθ

x 2 + y 2 = r 2 2x dx + 2ydy = 2rdr xdx + ydy = rdr

 

(i)

y

= tanθ

 

x

d

dy

y

dθ

dx

x

2

= sec 2 θ .

dx

xdy – y dx = x 2 sec 2 θ . dθ

xdy – ydx = r 2 dθ

 

(ii)

Using (i) & (ii) in the given differential equation then it becomes

r dr = r cosθ. r 2 dθ

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dr = cosθ dθ

r

2

– 1 = sinθ + λ r 1 y – = + λ 2 2
1 = sinθ + λ
r
1
y
– =
+ λ
2
2
2
2
x
+
y
x
+
y
y
+ 1
= c
where – λ′ = c
(y + 1) 2 = c(x 2 + y 2 )

6.1.2 Equations Reducible to the Variables Separable form : If a differential equation can be re- duced into a variables separable form by a proper substitution, then it is said to be

dy

“Reducible to the variables separable type”. Its general form is dx

solve this, put ax + by + c = t.

= f(ax + by + c)

a, b 0. Too

dy Example : Solve = (4x + y + 1) 2 dx Solution. Putting 4x
dy
Example :
Solve
= (4x + y + 1) 2
dx
Solution.
Putting
4x + y + 1 = t
dy
dt
4 +
=
dx
dx
dy dt
4
dx
= dx
Given equation becomes
dt
– 4 = t 2
dx
dt
= dx
(Variables are separated)
2 +
Integrating both sides,
dt
t
x
=
∫ dx
2
4
+
t
1
t
1
  4x
+
y
+
1
tan –1 2
=
x + c
tan –1
= x + c
2
2
 
2
dy
Example :
Solve
sin –1
=
x + y
dx
dy
Solution.
= sin (x + y)
dx
putting
x + y = t
dy
dt
=
1
dx
dx
dt
dt
dt
1 = sin t
=
1 + sin t
= dx
dx
dx
1
+
sin t
Integrating both sides,
dt
∫ 1+ sin t
=
∫ dx
− sint
∫ 1
dt = x + c
2
cos
t
2
∫ (sec
t − sec t tan t)
dt = x + c
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tan t – sec t = x + c

1sin

t

cos t

= x + c

cos

t

2

sin

t

2

cos

– tan

t

2

+ sin

π

4

t

2

t

2

= x + c

= x + c

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tan

π

x

+

y

4

2

+ x + c = 0

Self Practice Problems :

1. Solve the differential equation

x 2 y

dy

dx

= (x + 1) (y + 1)

2. Solve the differential equation

Ans.

 

1

y n (y + 1) = nx –

x

+ c

xdx + ydy ydx − xdy y 2 Ans. x 2 + y + =
xdx
+ ydy
ydx −
xdy
y
2
Ans.
x 2
+ y
+
= c
2
2
= 2
x
+ y
x
x
dy
1 x 3
3. = e x + y + x 2 e y
Solve : dx
Ans.
= e x +
+ c
y
e
3
dy
4. Solve : xy dx
= 1 + x + y + xy
Ans.
y = x + n |x (1 + y)| + c
dy
5. Solve
= 1 + e x – y
Ans.
e y – x = x + c
dx
x
+
y
tan
+ 1
6. dy = sin(x + y) + cos (x + y)
Ans.
log
= x + c
dx
2
dy
7. = x tan (y – x) + 1
Ans.
sin (y – x) = e x + c
dx
6.2
Homogeneous Differential Equations :
dy
f(x,y)
A differential equation of the from dx
where f and g are homogeneous function of
= g(x,y)
x and y, and of the same degree, is called homogeneous differential equaiton and can be solved
easily by putting y = vx.
2
y
 y 
  dy
− 1
Example :
Solve 2 x
+
x
dx
Solution.
Putting
y = vx
dy
dv
= v + x
dx
dx
dv 
 v
+
x
2v + (v 2 – 1)
= 0
dx
dv
2v
v + x
= –
dx
v
2 −
1
2
dv
v(1
+
v
)
x
=
dx
v
2 − 1
2
v
1
dx
dv = –
2
v(1
+
v
)
x
2v
1 
dv = – n x + c
2
 1
+
v
v
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Example :

Solution.

n (1 + v 2 ) – n v = – n x + c
n (1 + v 2 ) – n v = – n x + c
1
+ v 2
. x
n
= c
v
2
2
x
+
y
n
= c
y
x 2 + y 2 = yc'
where
c′ = e c

Solve : (x 2 – y 2 ) dx + 2xydy = 0

dy

dx

x

2

y

2

=

2xy

given that y = 1 when x = 1

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y = vx

 

dy

dv

dx

= v +

dx

2v

 

1

+

v

2

dv

=

at

x = 1, y = 1 n 2 = c

n

1 +

y

x

2

2

. x

dx

x

n (1 + v 2 ) = – nx + c

= n 2

x 2 + y 2 = 2x

dv

v + x dx

v = 1

=

1

v 2

2v

6.2.1 Equations Reducible to the Homogeneous form

dy

=

ax

+

by

+

c

Equations of the form

can be made homogeneous (in new variables X and Y) by substituting x = X + h and y = Y + k,

dY where h and k are constants, we get dX

Now, h and k are chosen such that ah + bk + c = 0, and Ah + Bk + C = 0; the differential equation can now be solved by putting Y = vX.

dx

Ax

+

By

+

C

(1)

 

aX

+ bY

+

(ah

+

bk

+

c)

=

AX

+ BY

+

(Ah

+

Bk

+

C)

.

(2)

dy x + 2y − 5 Example : Solve the differential equation dx = 2x
dy
x
+
2y
5
Example :
Solve the differential equation dx
= 2x
+
xy
4
Solution.
Let
x = Y + h,
y = Y + k
dy
dy
dY
dX
=
dx
dY .
dX .
dx
dY
=
1.
dX . 1.
dY
dY
X
+
h
+
2(Y
+
k)
5
=
=
dX
dX
2X
+
2h
+
Y
+
k
4
X
+
2Y
+
(h
+
2k
5)
=
2X
+
Y
+
(2h
+
k
4)
h
& k are such that
h + 2k – 5 = 0 & 2h + k – 4 = 0
h = 1, k = 2
dY
X
+
2Y
=
which is homogeneous differential equation.
dX
2x
+
Y
Now, substituting Y = vX
dY
dv
= v + X
dX
dX
dv
1
+
2v
=
– v
X dX
2
+ v
2
+
v
dx
dv
= ∫
2
1
v
X
1
3
+
dv = n X + c
2(v
+
1)
2(1
v)
1
3
n (v + 1) –
n (1 – v) = n X + c
2
2
v
+
1
n
=
nX 2 + 2c
3
(1
v)
(Y
+ Y)
2
X
= e 2c
(X
− Y)
2
3 X
X
+ Y = c′(X – Y) 3
where e 2c = c 1
x
– 1 + y – 2 = c′ ( – 1– y + 2) 3
x
+ y – 3 = c′ (x – y + 1) 3

Special case :

(A) In equation (1) if aB = Ab, then the substitution ax + by = v will reduce it to the form in which variables are separable.

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Example :

Solution.

Solve

dy

2x

+

3y

1

dx

= 4x

+

6y

5

Putting u = 2x + 3y

du

dx

1

= 2 + 3 .

du

dx

2

3

3

du

3u

dy

dx

u

1

=

+

2u

4u

5

10

dx

=

2u

5

7u

13

2u

dx

=

5

dx

2

1.du

7

7 2 u –

9

7

.

1

7

9

7u 13

1

7

. du = x + c

n (7u – 13) = x + c

4x + 6y –

9

7 n (14x + 21y – 13) = 7x + 7c

– 3x + 6y –

9

7

n (14x + 21y – 13) = c

(B) In equation (1), if b + A = 0, then by a simple cross multiplication equation (1) becomes an exact differential equation.

dy x − 2y + 5 Example : Solve dx = 2x + y −
dy x
2y
+
5
Example :
Solve
dx
= 2x
+
y
1
Solution.
Cross multiplying,
2xdy + y dy – dy = xdx – 2ydx + 5dx
2
(xdy + y dx) + ydy – dy = xdx + 5 dx
d(xy) + y dy – dy = xdx + 5dx
On integrating,
2
y 2
x 2
2xy +
– y =
+ 5x + c
2
2
x 2 – 4xy – y 2 + 10x + 2y = c′
where
c′ = – 2c
(C)
If the homogeneous equation is of the form :
yf(xy) dx + xg(xy)dy = 0, the variables can be separated by the substitution xy = v.
Self Practice Problems :
Solve the following differential equations
dy
y
y
y
− 1
  x
− y 
2
2
tan
1.
tan –1 x
= x given that y = 0 at x = 1
Ans.
x
+ y
=
e x
x
dx
dy
y
2.
x
= y – x tan
Ans.
x sin
y x = C
dx
x
dy
x
+
2y
3
3.
=
Ans.
x + y = c (x – y + 6) 3
dx
2x
+
y
+
3

4.

5.

dy

x

+

y

+

1

=

dx

dy

2x

3x

+

+

2y

2y

+

3

5

dx

6.3

=

3y

2x

+

5

Exact Differential Equation :

dy

The differential equation M + N dx

= 0

Ans.

Ans.

3(2y – x) + log (3x + 7y + 4) = C

3x 2 + 4xy – 3y 2 – 10x – 10y = C

(1)

Where M and N are functions of x and y is said to be exact if it can be derived by direct differentiation (without any subsequent multiplication, elimination etc.) of an equation of the form f(x, y) = c

e.g.

y 2 dy + x dx +

dx

x

= 0 is an exact differential equation.

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NOTE : (i)

The necessary condition for (1) to be exact is

M

y

=

N

x

.

(ii) For finding the solution of Exact differential equation, following exact differentials must be remem- bered :

(a) xdy + y dx = d(xy)

(d)

(g)

xdy ydx xy

xdy + ydx

x

2

y

2

= d

= d

ln

y

x

1

xy

(b)

(e)

xdy ydx

xdy

x

2

ydx

x

2

+

y

2

Example :

Solution.

Example :

Solution.

Solve : y dx + x dy =

xdy

ydx

x

2

+

y

2

xdy

ydx

ydx + xdy =

d (xy) = d (tan 1 y/x)

Integrating both sides - xy = tan 1 y/x + c

Solve : (2x ny) dx +

The given equation can be written as -

=

x

2

+

y

2

x 2

y

+

3y

2

 

dy

= d   y  

x

= d

tan

0

1

y

x

(c) 2(x

dx + y dy) = d (x 2 + y 2 )

(f)

xdy +

xy

ydx = d(ln xy)

 dy   ny (2x) dx + x 2 + 3y 2 dy =
dy
 
ny (2x) dx + x 2
+ 3y 2 dy = 0
y
  
 
ny d (x 2 ) + x 2 d ( ny) + d (y 3 ) = 0
d (x 2 ny) + d (y 3 ) = 0
Now integrating each term, we get
x 2 ny + y 3 = c
Self Practice Problems :
1. Solve :
xdy + ydx + xy e y dy = 0
Ans.
n (xy ) + e y = c
2. Solve :
ye –x/y dx – (xe –x/y + y 3 ) dy = 0
Ans.
2e –x/y + y 2 = c
6.4
LinearLinearLinearLinear DifferentialDifferentialDifferentialDifferential EquationEquationEquationEquation ::::
When the dependent variable and its derivative occur in the first degree only and are not multiplied together,
the differential equation is called linear
The m th order linear differential equation is of the form.
m
− 1
d
m y
d
y
dy
P 0 (x)
+ P 1 (x)
+
+ P m–1 (x) dx
+ P m (x) y = φ(x),
m
− 1
dx
dx m

where P 0 (x), P 1 (x)

P m (x) are called the coefficients of the differential equation.

dy + y 2 sinx = lnx is not a Linear differential equation.

NOTE : dx

Linear differential equations of first order :

dy + Py = Q , is linear in y

e Pdx

The differential equation dx

where P and Q are functions of x. Integrating Factor (I.F.) : - It is an expression which when multiplied to a differential equation converts it into an exact form.

I.F for linear differential equation =

(constant of integration will not be considered)

after multiplying above equation by Ι.F it becomes;

e

dy .

dx

d

dx

y.e

e

Pdx

(y.e

Pdx

+ Py .

Pdx

=

)

=

Q e

.

Pdx

= Q.

e

Pdx

Q.e

Pdx

Pdx

+

C

.

NOTE : Some times differential equation becomes linear if x is taken as the dependent variable and y as independent variable. The differential equation has then the following form :

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dx

dy

+ P 1 x = Q 1 .

where P 1 and Q 1 are functions of y.

Example :

Solution.

The Ι.F. now is Solve

e

P dy

1

dy 3x

dx +

2 sin

y =

2 x

1

+ x

dy

3

dx

1

+

x

3

+ Py = Q

P =

3x

2

1

+ x

3

ΙF =

P.dx
e

=

e

3x

2

1

+

x

3

dx = e

n(1

+

x

3 )

General solution is

y(ΙF) = Q(IF).dx + c

= 1 + x 3

sin 2 x y (1 + x 3 ) = ∫ (1 + x 3
sin 2
x
y (1 + x 3 ) =
(1 + x 3 ) dx + c
3
1
+
x
1
− cos 2x
y(1 + x 3 ) =
dx + c
2
1 sin2x
y(1 + x 3 ) =
x –
+ c
2
4
dy
Example :
Solve : x nx
+ y = 2 n x
dx
dy
1 2
Solution.
+
y =
dx
x nx
x
2
P =
1
, Q =
x nx
x
1
dx
IF =
∫ P.dx
e
=
=
e
n( nx)
=
n x
e
x nx
General solution is
2
y. ( n x) = ∫
. nx.dx + c
x
y
( n x) = ( n x) 2 + c
Example :
Solve the differential equation
t (1 + t 2 ) dx = (x + xt 2 – t 2 ) dt and it given that x = – π/4 at t = 1
Solution.
t (1 + t 2 ) dx = [x
(1 + t 2 ) – t 2 ] dt
dx x
t
=
dt
t (1
+
t
2 )
dx
x t
− = −
2
dt
t 1
+
t

dx

which is linear in dt

Here, P = –

1

t

,

Q = –

t

1

+

t

2

e

1

t

dt

= e nt =

1

t

IF =

General solution is -

x

-

1 =

t

1 .  

t

t

1

+

t

2

x

t

=

– tan 1 t + c

 

dt + c

putting x = – π/4, t = 1

π/4 = – π/4 + c

c = 0

x = – t tan 1 t

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Equations reducible to linear form

6.4.1 By change of variable.

dy Example : Solve : y sinx dx = cos x (sinx – y 2
dy
Example :
Solve : y sinx dx
= cos x (sinx – y 2 )
Solution.
The given differential equation can be reduced to linear form by change of variable by a suitable
subtitution.
Substituting y 2 = z
dy
dz
=
2y dx
dx
differential equation becomes
sin x dz
+ cos x.z = sin x cos x
2
dx
dz
dz
+ 2 cot x
. z = 2 cos x
which is linear in dx
dx
∫ 2cot x dx
2
n sin x
IF =
e
=
e
= sin 2 x
General solution is -
2
z.
sin 2 x = ∫ 2cos x.sin x.dx + c
2
y 2 sin 2 x = 3
sin 3 x + c
6.4.2
Bernoulli’s equation :
dy
Equations of the form dx
+ Py = Q.y n ,
n ≠ 0 and n ≠ 1
where P and Q are functions of x, is called Bernoulli’s equation and can be made linear in v by
dividing by y n and putting y –n+1 = v. Now its solution can be obtained as in (v).
dy
e.g. : 2 sin x dx
– y cos x = xy 3 e x .
2
dy −
y
y
Example :
Solve :
=
(Bernoulli's equation)
2
dx
x
x
Solution.
Dividing both sides by y 2
1
dy
1
1
=
(1)
2
2
y
dx
xy
x
1
Putting y
= t
1
dy
dt
=
2
y
dx
dx
differential equation (1) becomes,
dt −
t
1
=
2
dx
x
x
dt +
t
1
dt
= −
which is linear differential equation in dx
2
dx
x
x
1
dx
IF =
e
x
=
e nx = x
General solution is -
1
t. x =
∫ −
. x dx + c
2
x
tx = – nx + c
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x

y

= –

nx + c

Self Practice Problems :

1.

Solve : x (x 2 + 1)

dy

dx

= y (1 – x 2 ) + x 2 nx

2. Solve : (x + 2y 3 )

dy

dx

= y

dy

dx

3.

4. Solve the differential equation

Solve : x

+ y = y 2 log x

xy 2

dy

dx

– 2y 3 = 2x 3 given y = 1 at x = 1

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

x

2

+

1

x

y = x n x – x + c

x = y (c + y 2 )

y (1 + cx + log x) = 1

Ans.

y 3 + 2x 3 = 3x 6

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7. Clairaut’s Equation :

The differential equation

y = px + f(p),

dy

(10), where p = dx

is known as Clairout’s Equation. To solve (10), differentiate it w.r.t. x, which giv es

dp

dx

either

x + f (p) = 0

If p is eliminated between (10) and (11), the solution obtained is a general solution of (10)

If p is eliminated between (10) and (12), then solution obtained does not contain any arbitrary

constant and is not particular solution of (10). This solution is called singular solution of (10).

= 0 p = c

(11)

(12)

or NOTE : (i)

(ii)

Example :

Solve : y = mx + m – m 3

Solution.

y = mx + m – m 3

(i)

dy

where, m = dx

The given equation is in clairaut's form.

Now, differentiating wrt. x -

dy dm dm 2 dm = m + x + − 3m dx dx dx
dy
dm dm
2 dm
=
m
+
x
+
− 3m
dx
dx
dx
dx
dm
dm
2 dm
m = m + x
+
− 3m
dx
dx dx
dm
(x + 1 – 3m 2 ) = 0
dx
dm
= 0
m = c
(ii)
dx
x +1
or
x + 1 – 3m 2 = 0
m 2 =
(iii)
3
Eliminating 'm' between (i) & (ii) is called the general solution of the given equation.
y
= cx + c – c 3 where, 'c' is an arbitrary constant.
Again, eliminating 'm' between (i) & (iii) is called singular solution of the given equation.
y = m (x + 1 – m 2 )
1/ 2
x
+
x
+
1
y =
 
1  
x
+
1
3
3
1/ 2
x
+
2
y =
 
3
1  
(x + 1)
3
3/ 2
x
+ 1
y = 2
 
3
 
4
y 2 =
(x + 1) 3
27

27y 2 = 4 (x + 1) 3 Self Practice Problems :

1. Solve the differential equation

Ans.

dy

where, m = dx

Y = mx + 2/m

General solution : y = cx + 2/c Singular solution : y 2 = 8x

where c is an arbitrary constant

2. Solve : sin px cos y = cos px sin y + p

dy

where p = dx

Ans.

General solution : y = cx – sin 1 (c) where c is an arbitrary constant.

Singular solution :

y =

2 x − 1
2
x
1

sin

1

2 x − 1 2 x
2
x
1
2
x

8 Orthogonal Trajectory :

An orthogonal trajectory of a given system of curves is defined to be a curve which cuts every member of a given family of curve at right angle.

Steps to find orthogonal trajectory :

(i) Let f (x, y, c) = 0 be the equation of the given family of curves, where 'c' is an arbitrary constant.

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(iii)

(iv)

dy

dx

by – dy

Replace dx

Solve the differential equation obtained in (iii). Hence solution obtained in (iv) is the required orthogonal trajectory.

in the equation obtained in (ii).

Example :

Solution.

Example :

Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of straight lines passing through the origin. Family of straight lines passing through the origin is -

y = mx

(i)

where 'm' is an arbitrary constant.

Differentiating wrt

x

dy =

dx

m (ii)

Eliminate 'm' from (i) & (ii)

y

=

dy

dx

dy

Replacing dx

x

dx

by – dy

dx

=

x dy + y dy = 0 Integrating each term,

y

dy

x

x 2

2

+

y

2

2

= c

,

we get

x 2 + y 2 = 2c

which is the required orthogonal trajectory.

Find the orthogonal trajectory of y 2 = 4ax (a being the parameter).

Solution. y 2 = 4ax (i) dy = 4a (ii) 2y dx Eliminating 'a' from
Solution.
y 2 = 4ax
(i)
dy
= 4a
(ii)
2y dx
Eliminating 'a' from (i) & (ii)
dy
y 2 = 2y
x
dx
dy
dx
Replacing dx
by
, we get
dy
dx
y
= 2
x
− dy
2 x dx + y dy = 0
Integrating each term,
y 2
x 2 +
= c
2
2x 2 + y 2 = 2c
which is the required orthogonal trajectories.
Self Practice Problems :
1. Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of circles concentric at (a, 0)
Ans.
y = c (x – a)
where c is an arbitrary constant.
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2. Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of circles touching x – axis at the origin.

Ans.

x 2 + y 2 = cx

where c is an arbitrary constant.

3. Find the orthogonal trajectory of the family of rectangular hyperbola xy = c 2

Ans.

x 2 – y 2 = k

where k is an arbitrary constant.

Geometrical application of differential equation :

Example :

Find the curves for which the portion of the tangent included between the co-ordinate axes is bisected at the point of contact.

Solution.

Let P (x, y)

be any point on the curve.

Equation of tangent at P (x, y) is -

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Example :

B P (x, y) A
B
P (x, y)
A

Y – y = m (X – x) where m =

dy is slope of the tangent at P (x, y).

dx

A   mx

y

m

,0

Co-ordinates of

P is the middle point of A & B

& B (0, y–mx)

mx y

m

= 2x

mx – y = 2mx

mx = – y

dy

dx

dx dy

x = – y

= 0

nx + ny = nc

+

x y

xy = c

Show that (4x + 3y + 1) dx + (3x + 2y + 1) dy = 0 represents a hyperbola having as asymptotes

the lines x + y = 0 and 2x + y + 1 = 0

Solution. (4x + 3y + 1) dx + (3x + 2y + 1) dy =
Solution.
(4x + 3y + 1) dx + (3x + 2y + 1) dy = 0
4xdx + 3 (y dx + x dy) + dx + 2y dy + dy = 0
Integrating each term,
2x
2 + 3 xy + x + y 2 + y + c = 0
2x
2 + 3xy + y 2 + x + y + c = 0
which is the equation of hyperbola when x 2 > ab & ∆ ≠ 0.
Now, combined equation of its asymptotes is -
2x
2 + 3xy + y 2 + x + y + λ = 0
which is pair of straight lines
∴ ∆ = 0
1
1 3
1
1
9
⇒ 2.1 λ + 2 .
.
2 – 2 .
.
– 1
.
– λ
= 0
2
2
4
4
4
⇒ λ = 0
∴ 2 + 3xy + y 2 + x + y = 0
2x
(x
+ y) (2x + y) + (x + y) = 0
(x
+ y) (2x
+ y + 1) = 0
x
+ y = 0
or
2x + y + 1 = 0
Example :
of
which
Solution.
The perpendicular from the origin to the tangent at any point on a curve is equal to the abscissa
the point of contact. Find the equation of the cu rve satisfying the above condition and
passes through (1, 1)
Let P (x, y) be any point on the curve
Equation of tangent at 'P' is -
Y
– y = m (X – x)
mX
– Y + y – mx = 0
Now,
y
− mx
 
 
= x
2
1
+
m
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y 2 + m 2 x 2 – 2mxy = x 2 (1 + m 2 )

y

2

x

2

dy

=

2xy

dx

Putting y = vx

which is homogeneous equation

dy

dx

= v + x

dv

dx

v + x

dv

v

2

1

=

dx

2v

x

dv

v

2

1

2v

2

=

dx

2v

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2v

v

2

+

1

dv

= –

dx

x

n (v 2 + 1) = – n x + n c

x

y

2

x

2

+1

= c

Curve is passing through (1, 1)

c = 2

x 2 + y 2 – 2x = 0

Example :

Find the nature of the curve for which the length of the normal at a point 'P' is equal to the radius

Solution.

vector of the point 'P'. Let the equation of the curve be y = f(x). P(x, y) be any point on the curve.

dy

Slope of the tanget at P(x, y) is dx

Slope of the normal at P is

m= –

1

m

= m

Equation of the normal at 'P'

P(x,y) O G(x+my,0)
P(x,y)
O
G(x+my,0)

Y

– y = –

1

m

(X – x)

Co-ordinates of G (x + my, 0)

m 2 y 2 + y 2

Now, OP 2 = PG 2 x 2 + y 2 = x m =
Now,
OP 2 = PG 2
x 2 +
y 2 =
x
m = ±
y
dy
dx = ±
Taking as the sign
dy
x
=
dx
y
y
y 2
x 2
=
2 2

. dy = x . dx

the sign dy x = dx y y y 2 x 2 = 2 2 .
x y
x
y

+ λ

x 2 – y 2 = – 2λ x 2 – y 2 = c Again taking as –ve sign

(Rectangular hyperbola)

dy = –

x

dx y

y dy = – x dx

y

2

x 2

= –

x 2 + y 2 = 2λ′

x 2 + y 2 = c

2

2

+ λ′

(circle)