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WorksCited

PrimarySources
AgenciaRBS.SceneofBrazilianNightclubFire.27Jan.2013.TheTorontoSun.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.torontosun.com/2013/02/05/brazilnightclubfireclaimsnewvictimdeathtollat
238>.ThisisapictureofthehecticsceneoftheBrazilianNightclubFirethatoccurredon
January27,2013.Weusedthispictureinourintroductiontoshowthattheworldstillneedsto
makeprogressregardingfireprevention.
Basementlivingconditionsinatenement.1900.archives.gov.OldNewYork.Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://oldnewyork.tumblr.com/post/4003967476/basementlivingconditionsinatenementc
1900>.ThisisapictureofthelivingconditionsinNewYorkbeforetheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
WeusedthisimagetoshowthepoorconditionsoffactoriesworkersinNewYork.
TheBodiesofSeamstresses,WhoJumpedfromtheFactoryFloorsattheTriangleShirtwaistCompany
toAvoidBeingBurnedAlive,LieoutsidetheBuilding.N.d.SchoolofLaw.Web.20Jan.
2013.ThisisaphotooffactoryworkerswhojumpedtotheirdeathsduringtheTriangle
ShirtwaistFactoryfire.Thispicturecanbeusedwhentalkingaboutthedevastatingdetailsof
theactualfire.
BodiesonSidewalk.N.d.SchoolofLaw.Web.20Jan.2013.Thisisapictureofvictimsfromthe
TriangleShirtwaistFactoryFirelayingonthepavementwheretheyjumpedtotheirdeaths.This
photoisveryhelpfultodescribethetragicconsequencesofthefire.
BodiesThatLayontheSideWalkaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFire.1911.FranklinD.Roosevelt.
MarkeplaceBusiness.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.marketplace.org/topics/business/100yearsaftertrianglefire>.Thisisaphotoof
fallenbodiesonthesidewalkaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFire.Weusedthisphotoinour
introductiontobrieflyexplainwhathappenedduringtheTriangleFire.
BrazilianNightClubFire.27Jan.2013.Heavy.com.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.heavy.com/news/2013/01/deadlybrazilianclubfiretop10factsyouneedtokn
ow/>.ThisisaphotooftheBrazilianNightClubFirewhichoccurredonJanuary27,2013.We
usedthisphototocompareitwiththeTriangleFireof1911toshowthesimilaritiesbetweenthe

twofires.
BrownBrothers.FireEscapethatCollapsedduringtheTriangleFire.1911.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5780pb39f20af.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=776
&sec_id=4#screen>.ThisisapictureofthefireescapeoftheAschBuildingwhichcollapsed
duringtheTriangleShirtwaistFire.Weusedthispicturetoshowtheinadequateexitsofthe
Aschbuilding.
.FireFightersfromFireCompany20PuttingoutTriangleShirtwaistFire.25Mar.1911.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780pb39f20aa.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5
Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=898
&sec_id=3#screen>.ThisisapictureofFireCompany20attemptedtoputoutthefireatthe
TriangleShirtwaistCompany.Weusedthispicturetoshowwhatoccurredduringthefireand
howtheNewYorkFireDepartmentresponded.
.PhotoofSewingStationontheNinthFlooroftheAschBuildingAftertheFire.1911.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780Pb39f15g.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5
Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=898
&sec_id=3#screen>.Thisisapictureofthesewingmachinestationontheninthfloorofthe
AschBuildingaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFire.Weusedthisimagetoshowthebrutalityofthe
damageofthefire.
.SceneoftheNinthFlooroftheAschBuildingWhenFireFightersEnteredat7:00p.m.1911.
KheelCenter.CornellU.5780087pb1f5j.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.
Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=898
&sec_id=3#screen>.Thisisapictureoftheinteriorofthe9thflooroftheAschBuildingafter
theTriangleFire.WeusedthispicturetoshowthedamagedcausedbytheTriangleShirtwaist
Fire.

.SpectatorsWatchingDesperateWorkersJumpoutoftheAschBuildingtothePavement.25
Mar.1911.KheelCenter.CornellU.5780087pb1f5ap.Rememberingthe1911Triangle
FactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=898
&sec_id=3#screen>.Thisisapictureofthedeadbodiesofpeoplewhojumpedoutofthe
AschbuildingtryingtoescapethefireoftheTriangleShirtwaistBuilding.Weusedthispicture
toshowthehorrorsofthefireandtoshowhowinadequatethefireapparatuseswereatthe
time.
TheCharredTenthFlooroftheAschBuildingAftertheTriangleFire.1911.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5780Pb39f15b.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=898
&sec_id=3#screen>.ThisisanimageofthetenthflooroftheAschBuildingwhichhoused
executiveofficesaftertheTriangleFire.Weusedthisimagetoshowthedamagecausedbythe
fire.
ChroniclingAmerica.NewYorkTribune[NewYork]25Mar.1912:n.pag.Web.23Jan.2013.
ThisprimarysourceisanewspaperarticlewrittenfortheNewYorkTribunein1912.Itwas
extremelyhelpfulbecauseitexplainshowtheTriangleShirtwaistFactoryFiredirectlyaffected
thecreationofcommitteesliketheFactoryInvestigatingCommission,TheCommitteeof
Safety,andtheHoeyact,whichgavethefiredepartmentpowertoinspectbuildingsand
enforcelaws.ThisarticlealsogivesquotesfromheadsoftheseCommittees,makingita
valuablesourcetouseintheproject.Finally,itgavemoredetailsonthefireitselfandthe
changesthatcouldhavemitigatedthedamage.
Cohen,Rose.MyFirstJob.Memo.N.d.TheKheelCenter.Rememberingthe1911Triangle
FactoryFire.Web.9Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/testimonials/ootss_RoseCohen.html>.This
primarysourceistestimonialwrittenbyRoseCohenandpublishedinLeonSteinsbook,Out
oftheSweatshop:TheStruggleforIndustrialDemocracy.Thistestimonialconsistsofthe
accountofRoseCohenslifeinNewYorkFactoriesbefore1911.Shetellsofthelackof

concernforworkers,harshconditions,andbrutalityoftheworkplace.Thissourceofferedusa
fewquotesaboutworkingconditonsbeforetheTriangleshirtwaistfirebutwasmainlyused
towardscollectivebackgroundinformation.
CrowdedNewYorkFactoryin1913.1910.KheelCenter.CornellU.FactoryShift1.Remembering
the1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.ThisisapictureofacrowdedNewYorkfactoryin1910.Weusedthis
phototoshowtheworkingconditionsintheearly1900s.
DomskyAbrams,Mary.MYREMINISCENCESOFTHETRIANGLEFIRE.InterviewbyLeon
Stein.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.CornellUniversity,2011.Web.15Jan.
2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/survivorInterviews/MaryDomskyAbrams.html>.
ThissourcewasaninterviewwithasurvivornamedMaryDomskAdamsaboutheraccountof
theTriangleShirtwaistfireandtheeventsleadinguptoit.MaryDomskAdamswas
interviewedbyLeonSteinandthisinterviewispublishedinhisbookTheTriangleFire.Mary
tellsofwhathappenedduringthefireandhowshesurvived.Shetellsofthelackof
communicatedandtheineffectivewaystoexitthebuildings.Shealsotellsoftheconditions
beforethefire,andthetrialsofBlanckandHarris.Thissourceofferedusfirsthandinformation
onwhathappenedduringthefirealongwiththeconditionsbeforethefire.Thiswasan
extremelyhelpfulsourceandweusedquotesfromMaryDomskAdamsinallthreesectionsof
ourdocumentary.
Dorga,ThomasAloysius.ArticlePublishedintheNewYorkEveningJournal.28Mar.1911.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780pb39f18o.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5
Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=762
&sec_id=4#screen>.ThisisapictureofthecoverofanarticlepublishedintheNewYork
EveningJournalaboutthesurvivorsandwitnessesoftheTriangleFire.Weusedthissourceto
showthepublicsinterestinthefire.

FactoryFireinBangladeshkills100People.24Nov.2012.BayNews.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.baynews9.com/content/news/baynews9/news/article.html/content/news/articles/ap/
2012/11/25/AP_PHOTOS_Scenes_from_Bangladesh_factory_fire.html>.Thisisapictureof
theBangladeshFactoryFirewhichoccurredonNovember24,2012.Weusedthispictureto
showthatalthoughtheTriangleFirebroughtreformtolaborlawstherearestillproblemswith
internationallaborlawstoday.
FactoryWorkers.N.d.UPI:Over100YearsofJournalisticExcellence.Web.28Jan.2013.Thisis
apictureoffactoryemployeesworkingincrowdedrows.Thisprimarysourcewasextremely
helpfulfordescribingtheconditionsoffactoriesintheearly1900s.
FallenWorkersoftheTriangleFireonthePavement.1911.DraftPartyBlog.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.draftpartyblog.com/?p=924>.Thisisaphotoofanofficerlookingoverapileof
fallenworkersonthepavementaroundtheperimeteroftheAschBuilding.Weusedthisphoto
toshowtheeffectsoftheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
FamilyandFriendsVisitingthe26thStreetMorgueTryingtoIdentifyLovedOnes.1911.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780pb39f16eImage4of49.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactory
Fire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=789
&sec_id=6#screen>.ThisisaphotoofpeopletryingtoidentifyvictimsoftheTriangleFirewho
hadbeenplacedinwoodencoffinsinthe26thStreetMorgue.Weusedthispicturetoshowthe
effectsofthefire.
FamilyMembersIdentifyThoseWhoDiedintheTriangleShirtwaistFactoryFire.N.d.NYDaily
News.Web.4Feb.2013.Thisisapictureofmultiplebodiesincoffinsbeingidentifiedbytheir
familymembers.ThisprimarysourcecanbeusedwhendescribingtheaftermathoftheTriangle
ShirtwaistFactoryFire.
FireChiefEdwardCrokerWhoHelpedExtinguishtheTriangleFire.N.d.Leatherhead109.
Web.6Feb.2013.<http://leatherhead109.wordpress.com/>.ThisisaphotoofFireChief
Croker,whowasinvolvedintheTriangleFireandthemovementsthataroseafterward.We
usedthisphototocorrelatewithourdescriptionofhiminourtestimonial.

FirefightersAttempttoPutoutTriangleShirtwaistFactoryFire.N.d.FASNYMuseumofFirefighting.
Web.4Feb.2013.ThisisaphotographoffirefighterstryingtoquenchtheTriangleShirtwaist
FactoryFire.Thisprimarysourcecanbeusedwhentalkingaboutthedetailsofthefireandthe
problemsthefirefightersfaced.
FireFightersTryingtoControltheFireattheTriangleShirtwaistCompany.25Mar.1911.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780087pb1f5c.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5
Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=898
&sec_id=3#screen>.ThisisapictureoftheNYPDtryingtoextinguishtheflamesontheeighth,
ninth,andtenthfloorsoftheAschBuilding.Weusedthisimagetoexplainwhatoccurredduring
theTriangleShirtwaistFire.
FireFighterTryingtoPutOutTriangleShirtwaistFire.25Mar.1911.USAToday.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/workplace/20110322trianglefireremembered.htm
>.ThisisapictureoftheNewYorkFireDepartmenttryingtoputouttheflamesoftheTriangle
ShirtwaistFire.WeusedthisphototoshowhowthefirefightersrespondedtotheTriangleFire.
FiremenLookingOverBodiesonthePavement.N.d.AuroraHistoryBoutique.Web.4Feb.2013.
ThisisapictureoffiremensurroundingbodiesofgirlswhojumpedoutoftheAschBuilding
duringtheTriangleShirtwaistFactoryFire.Thisprimarysourcecanbeusedwhendescribing
thedetailsofthefire.
TheFlimsyFireEscapeoftheAschBuildingWhichwasResortedtobyManyDesperateWorkers.
1911.KheelCenter.CornellU.5780pb39f15a.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactory
Fire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=898
&sec_id=3#screen>.ThisisapictureofthefireescapeoftheAschBuildingwhichcollapsed
andbuckledawayduringtheTriangleFire.Weusedthissourcetoshowtheinadequateexitsof
theTriangleShirtwaistCompany.
FourWomenPicketersCarryingSignsSaying,Picket,LadiesTailorsStrikers.2Feb.1910.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780pn45b8n1193a.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.

Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=841
&sec_id=12#screen>.Thisisapictureofwomenpicketerstryingtoimprovethesanitary
conditionsofNewYorkfactories.WeusedthispicturetoshowtheimpacttheTriangleFire
hadontheNewYorkLaborMovement.
Freedman,Rose.ThreeMiracles.Youtube.N.p.,n.d.Web.29Jan.2013.Thisprimarysourcewas
aninterviewwith107yearoldRoseFreedman,thelastsurvivoroftheTriangleShirtwaist
FactoryFire.Theinterviewprovidedfirsthanddetailsaboutthefireaswegottohearthe
perspectiveofonewhoactuallylivedthroughit.Freedmangavealotofsensorydetailsand
quotesthatcouldbeusedinthedocumentary,aswellasherownopinionabouttheoriginal
workingconditionsofthefactory.
GarmentFamiliesWorkingTogethertoFinishtheGarmentMakingProcess.1900Extendedfamilies
worktogethertofinishafewstepsinthegarmentmakingprocess.KheelCenter.CornellU.
6153pb2f616.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=816
&sec_id=8#screen>.ThisphotographisanimageofafamilyworkinginapoorfactoryinNew
York.Thisphotoillustrateschildlaborandweusedthissourcetoshowtheconditionsbefore
theTriangleFactoryFire.
GarmentWorkersinFactory.N.d.TheTriangleFactoryFire.Web.28Jan.2013.Thisphoto
depictsmenandwomensewinginafactory,withstrainingbacks,hands,andeyesand
sunlightordimlylitgaslightsastheonlysourceoflight.Thisprimarysourceisreallyeffective
whendescribingtheworkingconditionsoffactoryworkersintheearly1900s.
GarmentWorkersTakingCareofChildrenandWorkingSimultaneously.N.d.TheTriangleFactory
Fire.Web.4Feb.2013.Thisisapictureofafamilyofgarmentworkers.Theolderchildren
andadultsareworkingwhilesimultaneouslytakingcareofchildrenintheirsmallhome.
GarmentWorkersWorkinginClutteredConditions.N.d.DNAInfo.Web.28Jan.2013.Thisphoto
depictsmanymenandwomenworkinginrows.Therowsbarelyhaveenoughspacein
betweenthemfortheworkerstogetoutandthereisalotofclutteronthetablesandonthe

flooraroundthetables.Thisprimarysourceisveryusefulwhendescribingtheconditionsof
factoriesintheearly1900s,especiallywhendelineatingthefirehazardsthatwereapparent.
GreeneStreetStaircaseofTriangleFactoryFire.1911.KheelCenter.CornellU.5780pb39f18k.
Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=781
&sec_id=4#screen>.ThisisapicturesoftheGreeneStreetStaircaseoftheTriangleShirtwaist
CompanyintheAschBuilding.Thepictureshowsthedepthofthestaircaseandweusedthis
pictureasproofofinadequateexits.
GuardsStandingoverDeadBodies.N.d.Umkc.edu.Web.13Dec.2012.
<http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/triangle/trianglecov1.jpg>.Thisimageshows
guardsinfrontofthefactorystandingoverdeadbodies.Becauseofthisimage,itiseasytosee
thatmanypeoplediedinthefire.Thispicturecanbeusedwhenwearetalkingaboutthe
immediateeffectofthefireinourvideo.Thissourceisnotbiasedbecauseitisareal
photographfromwhathappenedthedayofthefire.
Hine,Lewis.CrampedWorkingConditionsinaNewYorkHandSewingFactory.1910.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5783pb1f3c.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5
Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.ThisisapictureofahandsewingfactoryinNewYorkin1910.Weused
thisimageinthesectioninourdocumentaryabouttheconditionsbeforetheTriangleFire.
.MenandWomenHandSewinginNewYorkFactory.1913.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5783pb1f3h.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFIre.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.ThisisaphotographoftheworkingconditionsofNewYorkfactoriesin
the1900s.WeusedthisimagetoshowtheclutteredconditionsinNewYorkfactories.
.WorkersWorkinginLowLightandClutteredConditions.1900.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5783pb1f3f.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817

&sec_id=8#screen>.Thisisaphotoofworkersinanunsanitaryfactoryintheearly1900s.We
usedthisphototoshowtheconditionsofNewYorkfactoriesbeforetheTriangleFire.
.YoungChildrenWorkingthroughtheNightThreadingandTrimmingGarmentMaterial.1900.
KheelCenter.CornellU.5780pb13f7j.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.
Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.Thisisaphotographofyounggirlswhoareworkingonstitchingand
threadingfabric.WeusedthisimagetoshowthebadfactoryconditionsbeforetheTriangleFire
andtoreiteratethefactthatchildlaborwascarriedoutinNewYorkstate.
HistoricFireSpurredStruggleforWorkerSafety.N.d.IPPDigital.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/article/2012/03/201203262748.html#axzz2K4yI44xj
>.Thisimaginewasusedtoemphasizethefactthatthehosesdidnotreachthe8th,9th,and
10thfloorsoftheAschBuildingthedayofthedramaticfire.Weusedthispicturetoshowwhat
occurredduringtheTriangleFire.
ImageofTriangleShirtwaistFactoryFire.N.d.NYCFire.Web.20Jan.2013.Thisisapictureofthe
TriangleShirtwaistFactoryFireburningwithfirehosesattemptingtoputouttheflames.This
pictureisextremelyhelpfulwhendescribingthedetailsoftheactualfire.
Inspection.N.d.W.W.NortonandCompany.Web.4Feb.2013.Thisisaphotographofan
inspectorinspectingadirtyandclutteredtenementandworkspacetheprimarysourcecanbe
usedwhentalkingaboutbuildinginspectors.
InterioroftheAschBuildingoftheTriangleFire.25Mar.1911.PublicHistoryBlog.Web.6Feb.
2013.<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/supplemental/timeline.html?e=asch_building>.This
isapictureoftheinteriortheAschBuildingaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFire.Weusedthis
picturetoshowthedamagecausedbytheTriangleFire.
TheInternationalLadiesGarmentWorkersUnionwasFinallyAllowedtoFormWithoutAdditional
Harassment.N.d.GrandRapidsInstituteforImformationDemocracy.Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://griid.org/2011/03/25/thisdayinresistancehistorythetriangleshirtwaistfactoryfirean
dunionprotections/>.ThisisapictureofpicketersoftheInternationalLadiesGarment

WorkersUnionandweusedthispicturetoshowthethirstforchangebeforeandafterthe
TriangleShirtwaistFire.
Lemlich,Cara.LifeintheShop.NewYorkEveningJournal(1909):n.pag.Rememberingthe
1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.9Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/testimonials/ootss_ClaraLemlich.html?sto_sec=s
weatshops>.ThisisaninsightfulprimarysourcecollectedinLeonSteinsbook,TheTriangle
Fire.ThistestimonialiswrittenbyClaraLimlichandwasfirstpublishedintheNewYork
EveningJournalin1909.Withinthistestimonial,LimlichexplainstheconditionsofNewYork
Factoriesinthe1900s.Sheexplainsabouttheworkingday,managers,andtheconditionsgirls
workedin.Thissourcegaveusveryspecificdetailsabouttheworkingconditionsofthe1900s
whichwasveryvaluableinshowingacontrastintheworkingconditionsbeforeandafterthe
trianglefire.Specifically,weusedthissourceforitsinformationaboutwagesandworking
conditionsandwefoundmanyquotesveryhelpful.
LinenCollarFactoryWorkers.N.d.RootsWeb.Web.20Jan.2013.Thisisapictureofworking
factorywomenmakingcollars,thatcanbeusedwhendescribingthetypeofworkdonein
factoriesintheearly1900s.
LockedDoorFoundintheDebrisoftheNinthFloor.1911.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5780087pb1f7l.Rememberingthethe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=776
&sec_id=4#screen>.ThisisapictureofoneofthelockeddoorsfoundintheruinsoftheAsch
BuildingaftertheTriangleFire.Weusedthispicturetoshowthelaborcodeviolationswhich
preventedworkersfromescapingthebuilding.
Morethan140DieasFlamesSweepthroughThreeStoriesofFactoryBuildinginWashington
Square[NewYork]26Mar.1911.Web.23Jan.2013.Thiswasanarticlewrittenforthe
NewYorkTribunein1911,rightafterthefireoccurred.Itgaveanoverviewoftheevent,
providingimportantdetailsliketheexacttime,thesequenceofevents,andimagerythatcould
bequotedinourscript.ItwasextremelyhelpfulbecauseitgaveFireChiefCrokersopinion
aboutwhatwentwrongduringthefireandhisviewsonwhat,intheNewYorkbuildingcodes,

couldbefixedtopreventanothertragedylikethis.Multiplequotesfromafigurewithpowerin
thegovernmentmadethisprimarysourceamazingtouseinourproject.
NetdrapedHorsesEscortedtheVictimsoftheTriangleFireDowntheStreetsforaMourningParade.
5Apr.1911.KheelCenter.CornellU.5736pb1f19a.Rememberingthe1911Triangle
ShirtwaistFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=789
&sec_id=6#screen>.ThisisapictureofthefuneralprocessionthatoccurredonApril5,1911
forthevictimsoftheTriangleFire.Weusedthissourcetoshowthefiresimpactonthepublic.
Newman,PaulineM.LettertoMichaelandHugh.LettertoMichaelOwensandHughOwens.May
1951.InternationalLadiesGarmentWorkersunion.KheelCenterforLaborMangement
DocumentationandArchives,Ithica.6036/008.Rememberthe1911TriangleFactoryFIre.
Web.9Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/letters/PaulineNewman.html?sto_sec=sweatshop
s>.ThisisaprimarysourcewrittenbyaTriangleFactoryworkernamedPaulineM.Newman
tohersonsMichaelandHugh.Shewritestoherchildrentellingthemaboutherexperience
workingattheTriangleShirtwaistCompanyasalittlegirl.Shetellsherchildrenaboutchild
labor,theconditionsofNewYorkfactories,andtheexpectationsoffactoryworkers.This
sourceshowsthatotherfactoriesbesidetheTrianglewereharshandviolatingandthatillegal
workwasdoneoffthebooksasexpectationsoffactoryowners.Weusedthissourceinour
documentaryinthesectiontitledBeforetheFire.Weusedquotesaboutchildlabor,brutal
workingconditions,andaboutherinvolvementinlaterlabororganizations.Thiswasavery
prominentsourceinourdocumentary.
NewYork.Leg.Assembly.FactoryInvestigatingCommission.SecondReportoftheFactory
InvestigatingCommission.1913Leg.Print.Thisprimarysourcewasoneofthemostvaluable
inourproject.WrittenbytheFactoryInvestigatingCommission,thereportoutlinedtheexact
lawstheCommissionrecommendedtoimproveworkingconditions.Itwasalsoreallyhelpfulin
provinghowthefirewasaturningpointasitgavemultiplereasonstowhythefiredirectlyfueled
theworkerreformmovementinNewYork.

..Assembly.FactoryInvestigatingCommission.PreliminaryReportoftheFactory
InvestigatingCommission.1912Leg.UniversityofMissouriKansasSchoolofLaw.Web.
23Jan.2013.Thisreportwasaveryhelpfulprimarysource.Itgavespecificsectionsand
chaptersofNewYorkLawsthatthenewbuildingandworkingcodeswerewrittenin.
Additionally,itgavemultiplewaystheTriangleFactoryFireinfluencedpeopletoattemptto
changethecurrentlaws.Manyquotesfromthereportwereusedintheproject.
.NewYork(State)FactoryInvestigatingCommission.MinutesoftheHearingoftheNewYork
StateFireInvestigationCommission,HeldintheCityHallat10:30A.M.Rept.
2:242249.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.9Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/reports/GIHarmonTestimony.html>.Thisisa
reportfromtheNewYorkStateFactoryInvestigationCommisionwithNewYorkFire
InspectorG.I.Harmon.TheNewYorkStateInvestigationCommissionwasacommission
createdaftertheTriangleShirtwaistfiretoinquireintotheworkingconditionsoffactoriesall
overNewYorkState.ThisreportistheminutesofthecommissionwithG.I.Harmoninwhich
heexplainshisdutiesasaninspectorandhowhecarriedouthisinvestigationattheTriangle
ShirtwaistCompany.ThisreportshowshowG.IHarmoncarriedouttheinvestigationofthe
TriangleShirtwaistCompany,thelackoflaborstandardsinactedinNewYorkState,andthe
CarelessnessofNewYorkInvestigators.Thiswasanincrediblyaboundingsourcebecauseit
offeredusdetailsonhowbuildingswereinspectedbeforethefireanditgaveusthereasons
whylaborcodeviolationswereexistantintheTriangleShirtwaistCompany.
..PreliminaryReportoftheFactoryInvestigatingCommission.Chapter561,Lawsof
1911Print.Thisprimarysourcewasthemostprominentandhelpfulsourceinourdocumentary.
ThissourceispreliminaryreporttotheLegislatureofNewYorkbytheNewYorkState
FactoryInvestigationcommission.Thispreliminaryreportiscontainedwithinthreevolumesand
includesavastvarietyofinformationconcerningtheTriangleFire.Withinthereportare
testimoniesoffirechiefs,firefighters,inspectors,witnesses,survivors,doctors,andfactory
owners.ThisreportgivesstatsicsaboutNewYorkfactoriesbeforeandafterthefire,detailed
accountsofwhatoccurredduringthefire,fireviolationsattheTriangleShirtwaistCompany,

andbillsrecommendedtobeenactedbytheNewYorkLegislature.Weusedexcerptsfrom
thissourcethroughoutourentiredocumentaryandmostofourinformationabouttheturning
pointoftheTriangleShirtwaistFirecanbetraceddirectlytothissource.
ANewYorkFactoryNotFollowingBuildingCodesbyLeavingFlammableScrapsontheFloor.
1900.KheelCenter.CornellU.5783pb1f3a.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.
Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.ThisisapictureoftheunsanitaryworkingconditionsinNewYorkin
1900.WeusedthisimagetoshowtheunsanitaryworkingconditionsinNewYorkfactories
beforetheTriangleFire.
NewYorkFireDepartment.N.d.TopDesign.Web.4Feb.2013.ThisisaphotographoftheNew
YorkFireDepartmentintheearly1900s.
NewYorkGovernorWilliamSulzer.13Aug.1913.Congress.N.IT.Gallery.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://luirig.altervista.org/naturaitaliana/viewpics.php?title=Sultan+Mulai+Hafid+at+Marseilles>
.ThisisapictureofNewYorkgovernorWilliamSulzer.Weusedthispicturetoshowthathe
helpedwiththeFactoryInvestigationCommission.
NewYorkStateAssemblyDepartmentofAdministration.N.d.insatsu.us.Jacobs/WyperArchitects.
Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://www.jacobswyper.com/work/historicrestoration/NewYorkStateAssembly/>.Thisis
animageoftheinterioroftheNewYorkLegislaturebuilding.Weusedthisimageasa
representationwhilewetalkedabouttheNewYorkLegislature.
NewYorkStateDepartmentofLabor.N.d.AdvancedEnergyResearchandTechnologyCenter.
Web.4Feb.2013.<http://www.aertc.org/conference/Exhibitors.asp>.Thisisanimageofthe
logooftheNewYorkLaborDepartment.WeusedthisimagetorepresenttheNewYork
LaborDepartmentcreatedaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFire
NewYorkStateGovernorWilliamSulzerWhoParticipatedintheFactoryInvestigationCommission.
N.d.AlaskaMiningHallofFameFoundation.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.123people.com/ext/frm?ti=person%20finder&search_term=william%20sulzer&se

arch_country=US&st=person%20finder&target_url=aHR0cDovL2FsYXNrYW1pbmluZ2hhb
GxvZmZhbWUub3JnL2luZHVjdGVlcy9zdWx6ZXIucGhw>.ThisisapictureofNewYork
StateGovernorWilliamSulzerthegovernorofNewYorkduringtheTriangleFactoryFire.We
usedthispicturetocorelatewithourinformationaboutSulzerandhowhehelpedformtheNew
YorkStateFactoryInvestigationCommission.
141MenandGirlsDieinWaistFactoryFireTrappedHighupinWashingtonPlaceBuildingStreet
StrewnwithBodiesPilesofDeadinside.NewYorkTimes[NewYork]26Mar.1911:1.
Web.21Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/newspapersMagazines/nyt_032611.html?sto_se
c=fire>.ThisisasourcewrittenonMarch26,1911intheNewYorkTimesaboutthe
overviewoftheTriangleShirtwaistFire.Thiswasanincrediblyinsightfularticleaboutthe
desperationoftheworkers,bodiesjumpingoutofwindows,andgenerallywhathappenedin
thefire.Thissourcehadagreatamountofdetailandexploredpossiblecausesofthefire.Italso
showedtheinadequateexitmethodstothebuildingsuchasaweakfireescape,andcharred
elevator.Weusedthissourceforitsrichquotesaboutgirlsjumpingtotheirdeaths,summary
sentences,andforitsdetailsonunsafebuildingstructure.Thiswasaveryreliablesource
becauseitcamefromNewYorkTimesandwaspublishedintheonlinearchivesofCornell
University.
142DieWhenShirtwaistFactoryBurns.WashingtonHerald[Washington,D.C.]26Mar.1911:n.
pag.Web.23Jan.2013.ThissourcewasanarticlewrittenfortheWashingtonHeraldin1911.
Thehelpfulprimarysourcegaveanoverviewoftheevent,anddescribedmultiplegraphic
imagesthathighlightedhowdisastroustheeventreallywas.Thenewspaperalsotalkedabout
theproblemswiththestructureandorganizationoftheAschbuildingitself,aswellasthe
problemswiththeworkingconditions.Thearticlewasespeciallyhelpfulbecauseitshowedhow
thefirewasanationaleventanditsimpactspreadnationwide.
TheOnlyFireEscapeontheAschBuilding.N.d.NewYorkPublicLibrary.Web.20Jan.2013.This
photodepictsthedestroyedfireescapeattheAschBuilding.Thesourcewasextremelyhelpful
whentalkingabouttheproblemswiththebuildingthatcouldhavebeenfixedtomitigatethe

damage,anditgavedetailslikehowlongitwouldhavetakentoclimbthefireescape.
PeopleinTownonHorsesandWalkingaround.Ifrcmedia.N.p.,n.d.Web.13Dec.2012.
<http://www.ifrcmedia.org/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2012/03/TriangleFireengine_crop150x15
0.jpg>.Thisimageshowspeoplewalkingaroundandonhorses.Manypeoplewereoutsideat
thetimebecausetheydidnotknowwhatwasgoingon.Thispicturecanbeusedinthevideo
whenwearetalkingaboutthecaos.
PhotooftheAschBuildinginWhichtheTriangleFireTookPlace.N.d.NYC.Rememberingthe
1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/supplemental/timeline.html?e=asch_building>.Thisisa
photooftheAschBuildinginNewYorkLocatedontheCornerofWashingtonPlaceand
GreeneStreet.WeusedthispicturebecauseitisthebuildinginwhichtheTriangleFiretook
placeonMarch25,1911
PoliceOfficersandFireFightersMovingFallenWorkerstoaTemporaryMorgues.25Mar.1911.
KheelCenter.CornellU.5780pb39f15c.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFIre.
Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=898
&sec_id=3#screen>.Thisisapictureofofficerstransportingfallendeadbodiestoatemporary
morgueatthe26thStreetPier.WeusedthissourcesoshowwhatoccurredduringtheTriangle
FactoryFire.
ProtestorsLinedtheStreetoftheTriangleFuneralProcessionDemandingChange.1911.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780pb39f17h.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5
Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=789
&sec_id=6#screen>.ThispictureshowsprotestersangeredbytheTriangleShirtwaistFire.We
usedthispicturetoshowthattheTriangleFirefueledchanges.
PyrotechnicDisplayCatchesFireandKillsover97inRhodeIslandNightClub.N.d.CNN.Rhode
IslandWebBlog.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://quahogs.blogspot.com/2003_02_01_archive.html>.ThisisapictureoftheRhodeIsland

NightclubFirewhichkilledabout100people.Weusedthisphotoinourintroductionto
compareittotheTriangleShirtwaistFireof1911.
ReformsaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFire.N.d.OpenLibrary.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://openlibrary.org/books/OL7093683M/Preliminary_report_of_the_Factory_Investigating
_Commission_1912_...>.Thispicturewasusedafterthefiretoshowwhattypesofreforms
werecreatedaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
SecondReportoftheFactoryInvestigatingCommission,1913,Volume1byPrice,GeorgeMoses/
Whiskeman,JamesP./NewYorkStat.N.d.Sears.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.sears.com/nabupresssecondreportofthefactoryinvestigating/pSPM646525
6503?prdNo=5&blockNo=5&blockType=G5>.Thisphotographwasusedintheafterthefire
sectionofthedocumentary.WeusedthispicturetorepresenttheFactoryInvestigation
CommissionthatwascreatedaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFactoryFire.
SecretaryofLaborFrancisPerkins.N.d.Bio.TrueStory.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.biography.com/people/francesperkins9437840>.ThisisapictureofSecretary
ofLaborFrancisPerkinswhowasanoriginalFactoryInvestigationMember.Weusedthis
picturebecauseshequotedthattheTriangleFirewasdirectlyrelatedtotheNewDeal.
SenatorRogerR.Wagner.N.d.TheLastNewDealReforms.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.lpusd.k12.ca.us/rm1/online/hotpotatoestav/TAV103b.htm>.Thisisapictureof
SenatorRobertR.Wagner,anoriginalmemberoftheFactoryInvestigationCommissionwho
broughtlaborreformstoanationallevelaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
SewingMachineOperatorsatDoubleTablesOverlookedbyFactoryManagers.1900.KheelCenter.
CornellU.5780pb31f15a.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.
2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.ThisisaphotoofwomenworkingatasewingfactoryinNewYork.We
usedthisphototoshowtheworkingconditionsbeforetheTriangleFire.
ShopsWereCrampedandDarkintheEarly1900WhichMadetheWorkplaceVeryDangerous.
1900.KheelCenter.CornellU.5743pb50f6a.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactory

Fire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.Thisisapictureofacrowdedgarmentshopin1900.Weusedthisphoto
toshowtheharshworkingconditionsandneglectoflaborlawsbeforetheTriangleFire.
Sikes,Wirt.AmongthePoorGirls.CornellUniversity.Ed.CornellUniversity.N.p.,2011.Web.
23Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/testimonials/ootss_WirtSikes.html?sto_sec=swea
tshops>.ThissourceisaprimarysourceofatestimonialbyasupporteroftheWorking
WomensProtectiveUnion.ThissourcedescribesthelifeworkingasaTriangleShirtwaist
Factoryworker.Thissourcecanbeusedtodescribethetoughandbrutaldaystheywent
throughbutdescribeshowtalentedtheywereattheirjob.Thisinformationwillbeusedto
introducethefactorywomenworkedin.Wecantalkedabouthowmuchmoneytheymadeand
thehealthstrugglestheyexperienced.Quotesfromthisprimarysourcewereusedandmatchup
withpicturestoprovethehardships.
StoriesofSurvivors.AndWitnessesandRescuersOutsideTellWhatTheySaw.NewYorkTimes
[NewYorkCity]26Mar.1911:n.pag.Web.16Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/newspapersMagazines/nyt_032611_2.html?sto_
sec=fire>.ThissourceisanewspaperarticlepublishedintheNewYorkTimesaboutthe
TriangleShirtwaistFire.Thearticleincludestheaccountsofwitnesses,rescuers,andsurvivors
ofthefireanddifferentperspectivesonwhathappened.Althoughitwaspublishedonedayafter
thefire,thissourcecontainsanabundanceofdetailabouttheoccurrenceoftheTrianglefireat
4:40intheafternoon.ThisprimarysourceincludesaccountsofMaxRotheratailor,Cecilia
Walkeraneyewitness,BenjaminLevyawitness,SamuelLevinetheelevatoroperator,
FrederickNewmanarescuer,andPaulineGrossmanasurvivor.Thissourcewashelpful
becauseitofferedusinsightintowhathappenedduringthefireanditallowedustoportray
differentperspectivesofwhatwentonduringthefire.Specifically,weusedaquotefrom
BenjaminLevyaboutthelackofappropriatefireapparatusesfortheNewYorkFire
department.SincethisarticlewaspublishedintheNewYorktimesitcanbedeemedpretty

reliableandinresponseweheavilyreliedonthissourceforinformationonwhatoccurredduring
theTriangleShirtwaistFactoryFire.
SweatshopConditionsintheEarly1900s.N.d.ILRSchool.Web.20Jan.2013.Thisisaphotoof
peopleworkinginasweatshopthatcanbeusedwhiledescribingworkconditionsintheearly
1900s.
TableofMenHandSewingataNewYorkFactory.1900.KheelCenter.CornellU.5780pb31f14e.
Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.ThisisapictureofmenhandsewinginaNewYorkfactory.Weusedthis
imagetoshowfactoryconditionsbeforetheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
TheTenthFlooraftertheTriangleFire.N.d.TheNewYorkTimes.Web.20Jan.2013.Thisisa
pictureofthetenthflooroftheAschBuildingcompletelyruinedbytheflames.Thephotois
extremelyhelpfulwhendescribingthedestructioncausedbytheTriangleShirtwaistFactory
Fire.
ThrillingIncidentsinGothamHolocaustThatWipedoutOneHundredandFiftyLives.Chicago
SundayTribune[Chicago]28Mar.1911:2.Web.21Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/newspapersMagazines/cst_032811.html?sto_sec
=fire>.ThisprimarysourcepublishedintheChicagoSundayTribuneonMarch28,1911
includedinformationonwhathappenedduringtheTriangleShirtwaistFire.Thearticleincluded
accountsbyJimmyLehanatrafficpoliceman,Dr.RalphA.Froelichaphysician,andother
anonymousaccounts.Itofferedextremelyvividfactsandquotesaboutwhatoccurredduring
thefirewhichaddedtothegruesomenessofthefireandhelpedusemphasizehowdeadlyand
importantthisfirewastothecreationonNewYorklaborlaws.Weusedthissourceforboth
backgroundinformationanddirectquotesforourdocumentary.Particularlyweincluded
informationsuchashowgirslleaptfromthebuildings,whatFireChiefCrokernoticedwhenhe
enteredthebuildings,andsummarizationsaboutthedeathtoleofthefire.Thissourcewas
reliablebecauseitofferedstoriesofwitnessesofthefireanditcamefromaprestigious
newspapercompany.Thissourcewasnotonlyfactuallyhelpfulbutreiteratedthefactthatthe

TriangleFirewasnotonlyinstrumentalinNewYorkbutothercitiesaswell.
TriangleFactoryFire.N.d.NYCFire.Web.20Jan.2013.Thisisaphotooftheactualfireatthe
TriangleShirtwaistFactoryin1911thatcanbeusedwhendescribingthefireandtheattempts
tostopit.
TwoOfficialsoftheNewYorkCityTenementHouseDepartmentInspectaClutteredBasement
LivingRoom.1900.NationalArchivesandRecordsAdministration.WikimediaCommons.
Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://investorvillage.com/smbd.asp?mb=2234&mn=463227&pt=msg&mid=12101843>.
ThisisapictureofaNewYorkStateInspector.Weusedthispicturewhenwetalkedabout
NewYorkInspectorsandthecarelessjobstheyperformed.
UnionsCarryBannersduringtheTriangleFuneralProcession.5Apr.1911.KheelCenter.
CornellU.5780pb39f17d.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.
2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=789
&sec_id=6#screen>.ThisisapictureofunionssuchasHebrewTradesofNewYorkandthe
LadiesWaistandDressmakersUnionLocal25carryflagsdemandingchange.Weusedthis
picturetoshowthechangescausedbytheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
ViewofAschBuildingduringTriangleFirein1911.25Mar.1911.KheelCenter.InvestorVillage.
Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://investorvillage.com/smbd.asp?mb=2234&mn=463227&pt=msg&mid=12101843>.
ThisisapictureoftheAschBuildingablaze.Weusethispictureseveraltimesinour
documentarytoshowwhathappenedduringtheTriangleFire.
WilliamSulzer,theDemocraticgovernorofNewYorkfromJanuarytoOctoberof1913,wasbornon
thisdayin1863inElizabeth,NewJersey.N.d.RonSchulersParlourTricks.Web.4Feb.
2013.<http://rsparlourtricks.blogspot.com/2007_03_01_archive.html>.Thisisanimageof
GovernorWilliamSulzer.WeusedthisimagetorepresentSulzerwhenweexplainabouthis
significancewiththeFactoryInvestigationCommission.
AWomenandHerChildrenSewingFabric.1900.KheelCenter.CornellU.5780pn45b9f1593.

Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.Thisisapictureofchildrenworkingwiththeirmotheronagarment
relatedproject.Weusedthisphototoshowthatchildlaborwasexistentdespitelegallaws
beforetheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
WomenGoonStrikeaftertheFire.N.d.Timeinc.Web.13Dec.2012.
<http://img.timeinc.net/time/photoessays/2011/triangle_fire/triangle_fire_01.jpg>.Somewomen,
asshowninthepicture,wentonstrikebecausetheywerefightingforbetterworkingconditions
whichwaspartoftheInternationalLadiesGarmentWorkersUnion.Thissourcecanbeused
totalkabouthowthewomenworkersfeltabouttheirjobsbeforethefire.
WomenPecanShellersatWork.N.d.PalgraveMacmillan.Web.20Jan.2013.Thisisapictureof
crowdedwomenshellingpecansforlowwagesandthispicturecanbeusedwhendiscussing
theconditionsfactorywomenhadtoworkin.
WomenWorkinginaFactory.N.d.DepartmentofWorkforceDevelopment.Web.20Jan.2013.
Thisisapictureofwomenworkingmachineryinafactoryandthisimagecanbeusedto
describetheconditionsoffactoriesintheearly1900s.
WomenWorkingintheFactory.N.d.Media.npr.org.Web.13Dec.2012.
<http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2011/03/22/factory_wide4bddab782ddec7a572a7ef78d098
746171102171s4.jpg>.Thispictureshowshowmanypeopleworkedinthecrowded
manufacturingroomsinthefactory,andshowsthattheworkersaremostlyyoungwomen,
around16yearsold.Thisprimarysourcealsoverifiesthecrampedworkingenvironmentthe
workersworkedin.Thispicturecanbeusedinthevideowhenwearetalkingaboutbeforethe
fire.
WorkersataGarmentFinishingFactoryWorkasManagersLookOn.1900.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5780pb31f12i.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=817
&sec_id=8#screen>.ThisisanimageoftheworkingconditionsbeforetheTriangleFire.We
usedthispicturetoreflectontheneglectoffactoryworkersinthe1900s

WorkerUnionsStrikingaftertheDeadlyTriangleFire.1911.OccasionalLinksandCommentary.
Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://anticap.wordpress.com/2011/03/25/triangleshirtwaistcompanyfire/>.Thisisaphoto
ofworkersstrikingaftertheTriangleFiredemandingchangeandmourningforthevictimsofthe
fire.Weusedthispicturetoshowthatthefirecausedunionstotakeaction.

SecondarySources
AnActCreatingTheNewYorkStateFactoryInvestigatingCommissionandphotographfromthe
FactoryCommissionReport.1912.BobstLib,NewYorkCity.LaborArts.Web.4Feb.
2013.<http://www.laborarts.org/exhibits/thetrianglefire/8stateresponse.cfm>.Thisisaphoto
ofthecoveroftheNewYorkStateFactoryInvestigationCommissionpreliminaryreport.We
usedthispicturewhenwetalkedaboutthecreationandformationofthecommission.
AftertheTriangleFire:StateandNationalWorkplaceSafetyReforms.MediaMattersActionBlog.
N.p.,2010.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://politicalcorrection.org/mobile/factcheck/201103250003>.Thisisawebsiteaboutthe
effectstheTriangleFirehadonNewYorklaborlawsandFederalfactorycodes.Thiswebsite
includedtopicssuchasthecreationoftheNewYorkStateFactoryInvestigationCommission,
theWagnerAct,FrancisPerkins,Bureauoffireprevention,andthe36actualbillsmadeinto
lawsbytheFactoryCommission.Weusedthissourcetotalkaboutthenationaleffectsofthe
TriangleFire.Thiswebsitealsogaveustheactuallawspassedinresponsetothefirewhichwas
extremelyhelpful.Thissourceofferedusgreatinsightintothechangesbroughtaboutbythe
TriangleFactoryFire.
BrazilNightclubFire:Nearly200PeopleKilled.YouTube.N.p.,n.d.Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEUeoGh_uXk>.ThisisavideocliporiginallyfromABC
newsandrepublishedonYouTube.WeusedthissourcetoexplainabouttheBrazilianfireof
2013toshowthatfatalfiresarestillinexistencetoday.
Carter,Robert.CartoonofNewYorkFactoryInvestigators.N.d.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5780pb39f18d.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5Feb.2013.

<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=762
&sec_id=4#screen>.ThisisacartoonofNewYorkFactoryInspectorsanditistryingtoshow
thattheyareevilanddonotcareforthesafetyofworkers.Weusedthisimagewhenwetalked
aboutineffectiveinspectors.
CompleteearlycastironfirealarmcallboxfromNewYorkCitywithinteriorclockworkmechanism.
ObnoxiousAntiques.N.p.,n.d.Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://www.obnoxiousantiques.com/inventory/earlynyccornergamewellfirealarmbox/>.
ThisisaphotoofanantiqueNewYorkfirealarm.Weusedthispicturetotalkaboutnewstate
mandatedlawssuchasfirealarmsaftertheTriangleShirtwaistCompanyFire.
TheCrimeofCarelessness1912NationalAssociationofManufacturersNAM.YouTube.N.p.,22
Sept.2012.Web.4Feb.2013.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMsU1HNceY>.Thisis
avideoofthesafetycodesandviolationsinNewYork.Weusedthisvideotoshowhowthe
TriangleFirecreatedlawsbanningsmoking.
Dorgan,ThomasAloysius.WhoShouldBePunishedFortheTriangleShirtwaistFire.1911.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780pb39f18b.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5
Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=762
&sec_id=4#screen>.ThisisanillustrationaskingwhoisresponsiblefortheTriangleFire.We
usedthispicturetoshowtheeffectsoftheTriangleFire.
EditorialCartoonofSkeletonofSmokeComingfromAschBuilding.1911.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5780pb39f18i.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=770
&sec_id=10#screen>.Thisisacartooneditorialofaskeletonofsmokecomingfromthe
TriangleShirtwaistCompany.Thephotoshowsthatdeathloomedinthecompanyandweused
thispicturetoshowthedeadlyeffectsoftheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
EXCLUSIVEFootage!!BrazilNightClubFireKillsmorethan200Warning!!YouTube.N.p.,27
Jan.2013.Web.4Feb.2013.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U82BQnjTie4>.Thisisa
videooftheBrazilianfirethattookplacein2013.Weusedthisfireforourintroduction

comparingittotheTriangleShirtwaistFire
FindingsoftheNewYorkFactoryInvestigationCommission.N.d.NYSED.org.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.archives.nysed.gov/education/showcase/200910labor/activities_dbq2.shtml>.We
usedthispicturebecauseithadaquotetalkingabouttheneglectoffactoriesinNewYork
State.
FrontPageofEveningPostaboutTriangleShirtwaistFire.27Mar.1911.NewspaperArchive.
Newspaperarchive.com.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://photos.nola.com/tpphotos/2011/03/triangle_shirtwaist_factory_fi_1.html>.Thisisa
pictureofthefrontpageofTheEveningPostabouttheTriangleShirtwaistFire.Weusedthis
pictureinoursectionaboutwhatoccurredduringtheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
FrontPageofNewYorkTribuneDescribingtheTriangleFire.26Mar.1911.NewYorkTribune.
NewYork.History.com.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.history.com/news/100yearsagothetriangleshirtwaistfire>.Thisisapictureof
thefrontpageoftheNewYorkTribuneTalkingaboutthedeathtolloftheTriangleFire.We
usedthisphototoreiteratethatthefirewassoimportantthatitmadefrontpagenews.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLNrBgKWiLw.YouTube.N.p.,8Mar.2012.Web.4Feb.
2013.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLNrBgKWiLw>.Thisisavideoof1933s
SecretaryofLabor,FrancisPerkins.WeusedtheclipasabackgroundtoaquotePerkinssaid
abouttheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
ILRSchool,KheelCenter.TimelineofEvents.CornellUniversity.N.p.,n.d.Web.23Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/supplemental/timeline.html>.Thissecondarysource
showstheeventsleadinguptothefire,duringthefire,andafterthefire.Thissourcecanbe
usedtoreferenceimportantdatesaswellasimportantfactsabouthowthefirestartedandhow
peopletriedtoescapethebuilding.Thisinformationwillmostlybeusedwhenwearetalking
abouteventsduringthefire.
InspectorofBuildingsCartoon.N.d.TheTriangleFactoryFire.Web.4Feb.2013.Thisisan
editorialcartoondepictingaNewYorkbuildinginspectorasalmostamonster,commentingon
thesuperficialjobsinspectorsdidwhileinspectingworkandbuildingconditions.Thispicture

canbeusedwhentalkingaboutthenegligenceofbuildinginspectors.
LargofromXerxes.ComposedbyGeorgeFridericHandel.1738.CD.ThisisasongbyGeorge
FridericHandelcalledLargofromXerxes.Weusedthissongforoursectioncalled,Before
theFireinourdocumentary.
Linder,Douglas.TheTriangleShirtwaist.FamousTrials.UofMissouriKansasCityLawSchool,
2002.Web.9Jan.2013.
<http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/triangle/trianglefire.html>.Thissourceisawebsite
createdabouttheconditionsoftheTriangleCompanyandtheaftermathoftheTriangle
ShirtwaistFire.ThiswebsiteincludedinformationonBlanckandHarrisTrial,newspaper
exerpts,victims,testimoniesoftheNewYorkStateFactoryInvestigationCommision,fire
reports,andNewYorkBuildingCodesandandSafetyLawsbefore1911.Thiswebsite
containedbothprimaryandsecondarysourcesabouttheTriangleFactoryFire.Wemainlyused
thissourceforitsbackgroundinformationbutwedidfinditssectionaboutBuildingCodesand
SafetyLawshelpful.Wefoundthissitetobereliablebecauseithadthesamefactsasother
siteswefoundandmostofthesourcesweretakenofftheCornellUniversitywebsitewherewe
foundmostofoursources.
LogoforNewYorkFirePreventionandControl.N.d.WGXC.org.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://newsroom.wgxc.org/archives/tag/officeoffirepreventionandcontrol>.Thisisthelogo
fortheNewYorkFirePreventionBureau.Weusedthispicturethebureauwascreatedin
responsetotheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
LogooftheNationalFireProtectionAssociation.N.d.PhoenixEngineeringGroup.Web.6Feb.
2013.<http://phoenixeng.us/about_us.htm>.ThisisapictureofthelogooftheNationalFire
ProtectionAssociation.WeusedthisphotobecausetheNFPAwascreatedinresponsetothe
TriangleShirtwaistFire.
Marrin,Albert.FleshandBloodsoCheap.NewYork:Random,2011.Print.Thissourceisabook
abouttheconditionsbeforeandaftertheTriangleShirtwaistFireandhowtheTriangleFire
effectedthoseconditions.Thissourceincludedprimarysourcedocuments,photographs,
cartooneditorials,andpagesofinformation.Wespecificallyusedthisbookforitsphotographs

anditsquotesabouthowtheTriangleFirebroughtchangestoanationallevel.
NewspaperEditorialofaTriangleBodyBeingLoweredfromtheAschBuilding.1911.Kheel
Center.CornellU.5780pb39f18g.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.5
Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=762
&sec_id=4#screen>.ACartoonofabodybeingloweredfromtheAschbuildingafterthe
TriangleFire.Weusedthisimagetoshowhowworkersdiedduringthefire.
NewYorkStateSenate1914.N.d.Amazon.com.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.amazon.com/DocumentsSenateStateYorkebook/dp/B007SB5DZG>.Thisis
apictureofthecoverofabookwithorginaltextdocumentsfromthe1914NewYorkSenate.
WeusedthissourcewhenwetalkedaboutwhentheFactoryInvestigationCommissionbrought
36billsinfrontoftheNewYorkSenate.
TheOklahomaStateCapitalNewspaperArticleoftheTriangleShirtwaistFire.26Mar.1911.Jewish
WomensArchive.Congress.JewishWomensArchive.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/triangleshirtwaistfire>.Thisisapictureofafrontpage
articlepublishedinTheOklahomaStateCapitalnewspaperabouttheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
WeusedthisphototoshowthatthisfirewaspopularinotherstatesbesideNewYork.
Person,Ricky.StoryofACity(NewYorkStateofMind).YouTube.N.p.,17Aug.2008.Web.4
Feb.2013.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxs3xS8rNdI&playnext=1&list=PL076285C769279977
&feature=results_video>.ThisisavideoofthebirdseyeviewofNewYorkintheearly1900s.
WeusedthisvideoasabackgroundtothechangespresentedinNewYorkaftertheTriangle
ShirtwaistFire.
PineappleRag.ComposedbyScottJoplin.Prod.TonyWilkinson.1908.CD.Thisisarecordingof
ScottJoplinssongPineappleRag.Weusedthismusicforoursectionaboutthechangesthat
occurredaftertheTriangleFire.
PreliminaryReportoftheFireInvestigatingCommission.LaborArts.N.p.,n.d.Web.20Jan.2013.
ThisisaphotoofthecoverpageofthePreliminaryReportoftheFireInvestigating

Commission,giventotheNewYorkLegislatureonMarch1,1912.
RachmaninovPreludeinCSharpMinor.ComposedbySergeyRachmaninoff.1892.CD.Thisisa
songbySergeyRachmaninoffcalledPreludeinCSharpMinor.Weusedthissongforourfire
sectioninourdocumentary.
RAREVINTAGEGRINNELLAUTOMATICSPRINKLERFIREALARMearly1900s.Ebay.
Ebay,10Nov.2012.Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://www.ebay.com/itm/RAREVINTAGEGRINNELLAUTOMATICSPRINKLERFI
REALARMearly1900s/121012412995>.Thisisanimageofanoldfirealarmfromthe
early1900sandweusedthisimagetoshowthatfirealarmsweremandatedinNewYorkState
lawsafterthe1911TriangleFire.
RememberingtheTriangleShirtwaistfire.YouTube.N.p.,20Mar.2011.Web.4Feb.2013.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ulaG9x4GpE>.ThisisareliablevideofromCNNabout
whatoccuredandwhathappenedinresponsetotheTriangleFire.Weusedthissourceforits
interviewwithTriangleFireexpertMichaelHirsh.
Rosenberg,Jennifer.TriangleShirtwaistFactoryFire.About.com.20thCenturyHistory,n.d.Web.
23Jan.2013.<http://history1900s.about.com/od/1910s/p/trianglefire.htm>.Thissourceisa
secondarysourcethatdescribesanoverviewofwhathappenedthedayoftheTriangle
ShirtwaistFire.Thissourcewillbeusedtosaywherethefactoryoriginatedfromsuchashow
theownersstartedit.Thissourceexplainsthehistoryofthefactoryandhowthefirestarted.
Thissourceisusefulthereferenceexactdatesandhowmanypeoplewerekilled.Wewilluse
thissourcewhenwearedescribingowthefactoryoriginatedandhowthefirestarted.
Stein,Leon.ChapterOne.TheTriangleFire.NewYork:Carroll&Graf/QuicksilverBook,1962.
18.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.16Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/testimonials/tf_ladder.html?sto_sec=fire>.Thisis
asourcefromLeonSteinsbook,TheTriangleFireanditisatestimonycalledLadderabout
thefireequiptmentofFireCompany20,thefirstresponderstotheTriangleShirtwaistFire.It
encooperatesinformationaboutthelackoffireequiptmentandapperatusesin1911andhow
victimscouldnotberescuedbecauseofineffecientequiptment.Therearesomefantaticquotes

fromFireChiefCrokeraboutfireequiptment.Weusedquotesfromthissourceabouthowfire
laddersreachedonlytothe6thfloorandabouttheineffectivefireequiptment.Thissource
helpedusshowhowimportantnewlaborlawsaboutfireequiptmentwereafterthefireandhow
uselesstheywerebeforethefire.
.Eighth.TheTriangleFire.NewYork:Carroll&Graf/QuicksilverBook,1962.3754.
Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.21Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/testimonials/tf_eighthFloor.html?sto_sec=fire>.
ThisisarichsourcefromLeonSteinsbook,TheTriangleFire.Thisparticulartestimonyis
calledEighthanditisatestimonyofmultipleworkersontheeighthflooroftheAschBuilding
whowerefirstnotifiedofthefire.Thistestimonyexplainstheaccountofthefirstfewminutesof
thefire,howworkerstriedtowarntheninthandtenthfloors,howsomewereabletoescape,
andhowthelockeddoorsproveddeadly.WithinthistestimonywereaccountsofDinah
Lifschitzaworkerwhonotifiedthetenthfloor,IreneSeivosasurvivorwhopushedherway
intotheelevator,JosephineNicolosiandIdaWillinsky,andmanagerMr.Brown.Weusedthis
sourceforinformationonthefirstfewminutesofthefireandforsurvivorsaccountsofwhat
wentonintheinterioroftheAschbuilding.
.Trap.TriangleShirtwaistFire.NewYork:Carroll&Graf/QuicksilverBook,1962.2326.
Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.21Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/testimonials/tf_trap.html?sto_sec=fire>.In
particular,wehadahardtimefindinglegalrequirementandthelegalinfractionsoftheTriangle
ShirtwaistCompanybeforethefire,butthissourceprovedtobeveryuseful.Thissourceisa
testimonyfromLeonSteinsbook,TheTriangleFirewhichincludesaccountsofsurvivors,
witnesses,andexpertsontheevent.Thissourcenotonlyincludedinformationonthelaws
requiredforthetime,butalsohadtheviolationsimpendingintheTriangleFactoryandreasons
whythewasabletogetawaywithlegalinfractions.Weheavilyreliedonthissourcetoshowthe
fewlawsenactedbefore1911andtoshowthesafetyviolationswhichintensifiedthefireand
deathrateoftheTriangleShirtwaistFactory.
.TheTriangleFire.NewYork:CornellUniversity,1962.Print.Thisisabookcontainingthe

collaborationandcorrelationofsurvivor,witness,andrescuertestimonies,accounts,and
interviews.ItofferedanabundanceofinformationonallsubjectregardingtheTriangle
ShirtwaistFire.Thisbookincludedphotos,primarysources,andtestimonies.Weusedthis
sourceforallaspectsofourdocumentaryandforitsphotos.Wealsouseditforitsquotes
whichmakethemessageweweretryingtoportraywithinourdocumentary.
.Warnings.TheTriangleFire.NewYork:Carroll&Graf/QuicksilverBook,1962.26.
Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFire.Web.21Jan.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/testimonials/tf_warnings.html?sto_sec=fire>.This
sourceispublishedinLeonSteinsbook,TheTriangleFirewhichincludesinterviewsand
testimonieswithpeoplerelatedtotheTriangleShirtwaistfire.LeonSteinisanexpertonthe
TriangleShirtwaistfireandhisconclusionsarebackupwithfactsandsupportingdetail.This
particulartestimonyreferstotheconditionsoftheTrianglefactorybeforethefireandthelackof
actiontakentobettertheworkingconditions.Itintroducesfactsaboutsafetyprecautionsbefore
the1911fire,requestsforsafetyequipmentthatweredenied,andinformationaboutthe
NewarkfirethathadoccurredonlyfourmonthbeforetheTriangleShirtwaistfire.Weusedthis
informationtoshowthelackofconcernforfactoriesinNewYorkbeforetheTriangleFireand
aboutthepoorfactoryconditionsinthe1900s.Thissourceofferedusgreatquotessuchas
fromFireChiefCrokerandstatisticsbeforethefire.
SweatshopsandHomeWorkintheDressIndustry1938TheWomensBureau.YouTUbe.N.p.,6
Mar.2011.Web.4Feb.2013.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ozRXax8wTo>.Thisisa
videoofNewYorkfactoryworkersinthe1900s.Weusedthisvideotoshowtheworking
conditionsbeforetheTriangleFactoryFire.
TriangleFactoryFire22(NewYork:ADocumentaryFilm,Ep4).avi.YouTube.N.p.,21Feb.
2011.Web.4Feb.2013.<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jL_U4pGdTV0>.Thisvideo
cliphadlivefootageofworkersinthe1900s,videosofSenatorRobertWagner,and
interviewswithTriangleShirtwaistFireexperts.Weusedmultipleexcerptsfromthisclipinour
documentary.
TheTriangleShirtwaistFactoryFireof1911.YouTube.N.p.,23Mar.2011.Web.4Feb.2013.

<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oHAsLSi_5Ac>.Thisisavideowithasurvivorsaccount
ofwhatoccuredduringtheTriangleFire.WeusedthisvideowithRoseFreedmantoshowthe
gruesomedetailsoftheTriangleShirtwaistFire.
UnitedStatesDepartmentofLabor.N.p.,n.d.Web.6Feb.2013.
<http://www.dol.gov/shirtwaist/aftermath.htm>.Thiswasanamazinglyreliableandinsightful
source.ThisisawebpagefromtheUnitedStatesDepartmentofLaborwhichisanextremely
affluentdepartmentintheUnitedStates.Thiswebpageofferedusquotesabouthowlaws
createdbytheFactoryInvestigationCommissionspreadtoanationallevel.Thissourcehelped
usproveourturningpointofhowtheTriangleShirtwaistFirecreatedlaborcodesthatwenttoa
nationallevel.
Weinstein,Allen,andDavidRubel.TheProgressiveEra.FreedomandCrisisfromSettlementto
Superpower.NewYrokCity:DK,2002.43154.Print.Withinthisbookwasasectioncalled
theProgressiveEraanditprovedtobeveryusefulinourproject.Itsuppliedquotes,
summaries,primarysourcedocumentsandpicturesoftheTriangleShirtwaistFire.Thissource
includedrareinformationabouttheProgressiveError,theNewDeal,howtheTriangleFires
reformsamountedtoanationallevel,andlabormovementsbeforethefire.Weusedthissource
forallofoursectionsinourdocumentaryincludingbeforethefire,thefire,andtheeffectsofthe
fire.Thiswasareliablesourceandgavedeep,indepthinformation.
WomenStrikersinNewYorkfortheFirstTriangleStrike.1909.KheelCenter.CornellU.
5780pb32f27g.Rememberingthe1911TriangleFactoryFIre.Web.5Feb.2013.
<http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/primary/photosIllustrations/slideshow.html?image_id=841
&sec_id=12#screen>.Thisisapictureofwomenstrikersin1909.Weusedthisphototoshow
thattheTriangleFireinitiationastrongpublicreactionandputactiontotheideasofstrikers
beforetheTriangleFactoryFire.

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