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# Mechanical Design 1

(MCE 321)

Chapter 3
Dr. Lotfi Romdhane
lromdhane@aus.edu
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

Summer 2016

Chapter 3

Chapter
Outline

3-1

3-2

## Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams

3-3

Singularity Functions

3-4

Stress

3-5

3-6

3-7

3-8

Elastic Strain

3-9

3-10

3-11

## Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending

3-12

Torsion

3-13

Stress Concentration

3-14

3-15

3-16

## Press and Shrink Fits

3-17

Temperature Effects

3-18

3-19

Contact Stresses

3-20

Summary

Equilibrium

## A system with zero acceleration is said to be in equilibrium, if that

system is motionless or has a constant velocity.

Free-Body Diagram
Free-body diagrams help simplifying the analysis of a very complex
structure or machine by successively isolating each element.

## Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams

If a beam with supports is cut at some section located at = 1 and the lefthand portion is removed as a free body, an internal shear force and
bending moment must act on the cut surface to ensure equilibrium.
Shear force and bending moment are related by the equation

## Sign Conventions for Bending and Shear

Fig. 33
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 6--

Units of force per unit length
When the bending is caused by a distributed load (),
the load intensity with units of force per unit length, and
is positive direction. It can be shown that
differentiating above equation results in

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 7--

Shear-Moment Diagrams

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 8--

Moment Diagrams
Two Planes

two planes as
perpendicular vectors

Example 33

## Uniformly Distributed Stresses

The assumption of a uniform distribution of stress is frequently
made in design. The result is then often called pure tension, pure
compression, or pure shear.
The stress is said to be uniformly distributed with
This assumption of uniform stress distribution requires that :

## The bar be straight and of a homogeneous material

The line of action of the force contains the centroid of the section
The section be taken remote from the ends and from any discontinuity
or abrupt change in cross section

## Direct shear is usually assumed to be uniform across the cross

section, and is given by
The assumption of uniform stress is not accurate, particularly in the
vicinity where the force is applied, but the assumption generally
gives acceptable results.
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

## Normal Stress for Beams in Bending:

Assumptions
The equations for the normal bending stresses in straight beams are based on
the following assumptions
The beam is subjected to pure bending. This means that the shear force is
zero, and that no torsion or axial loads are present ( for most engineering
applications it is assumed that these loads affect the bending stresses
minimally ).
The material is isotropic and homogeneous.
The material obeys Hookes law. (linear)
The beam is initially straight with a cross section that is constant
throughout the beam length.
The beam has an axis of symmetry in the plane of bending.
The proportions of the beam are such that it would fail by bending rather
than by crushing, wrinkling, or sideway buckling.
Plane cross sections of the beam remain plane during bending.

Analysis

## Elements of the beam coincident with the neutral plane have

zero stress.
The bending stress varies linearly with
the distance from the neutral axis, ,
and is given by
where is the second-area moment about the
axis.

## Designating max as the maximum magnitude of the bending

stress, and as the maximum magnitude of
often
written as
where = / is called the section modulus

Torsion

## Any moment vector that is collinear with an

axis of a mechanical element is called a
torque vector, because the moment causes
the element to be twisted about that axis.

with

## The assumptions used in the analysis are

The bar is acted upon by a pure torque, and the sections under consideration are remote
from the point of application of the load and from a change in diameter.
Adjacent cross sections originally plane and parallel remain plane and parallel after twisting,
and any radial line remains straight.
The material obeys Hookes law.

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 16--

Axial force x-axis
Torsion x-axis

Mc
max
I

## Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

A
Tr

M
max
Z
I
Z
c

max

J

c

Trans. Shear
y & z-axes
VQ

It
L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 17--

## Example: Normal Stress

P Pey

A
I
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

## Example: Normal Stress

(Simple Design Problem)
An offset link subjected to a force of 25kN is shown in the figure. The
Ultimate Strength of the material is 300 MPa. Determine the dimensions
of the cross-section. The desired factor of safety is 3.

= =

## Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

2 2

10+

= (10 + ) =

3 10 +

= 2 +
=
= 100
2
2 3
3
0.2 3 100 750 = 0 = 25

3 10+
2 3

## Stress and its Cartesian Components

The force distribution acting at a point on the surface have components in the
normal and tangential directions called normal stress and tangential shear stress,
labeled by the Greek symbols and , respectively.
The units of stress in U.S Customary units are pounds per square inch (psi). For SI
units, stress is in Newtons per square meter (N/m2);1 N/m2 = 1 Pascal (Pa).
is labeled normal stress where indicates a normal stress and the subscript
indicates the direction of the surface normal.
and are the shear stress components in the and directions, where the
first subscript indicates the direction of the surface normal whereas the second
subscript is the direction of the shear stress.

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 21--

Principal Stresses
Imagine that the element is cut by an oblique plane with a
normal at an arbitrary angle counterclockwise from the axis as
the stresses and are found to be

tan 2 =

## Formulas for the two principal stresses can

be obtained by substituting the angle as
2

## In a similar manner the two extreme-value

shear stresses are found to be

## A graphical method for expressing the

relations developed in this section, called
Mohrs circle diagram, is a very effective
means of visualizing the stress state at a
point and keeping track of the various
components associated with plane stress.

## Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

http://www.ijee.ie/OnlinePapers/Interactive/Philpot/mo
hr_learning_tool.htm

(Plane Stress)

## Example: Plane Stress (MATLAB)

>> Stress_tensor=[80 -50;-50 0]
Stress_tensor =
80 -50
-50 0
>> [v,d]=eigs(Stress_tensor)
v=
-0.9013 -0.4332
0.4332 -0.9013
d=
104.0312
0
0 -24.0312

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 25--

(Simple Design Problem)
A single horizontal force P of 150 N is applied to the end D of lever ABD. Knowing that
portion AB of the lever has a diameter of 1.2 cm, determine (a) the normal and shear
stresses on the element located at point H and having sides parallel to x and y axes; (b) the
principal planes and principal stresses at point H.
N
27000 N.mm

15000 N.mm
cm
cm
cm
cm

88.4 MPa
163.2 MPa

79.6 MPa

-74.7 MPa
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 26--

(Simple Design Problem)
The Shaft of an overhanging crank is subjected to a force P of 1kN. The shaft is
made up of a material with a shear yield strength of 190 N/mm2. Determine the
diameter of the shaft. The desired factor of safety is 2.

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 27--

Stress Concentration
Any discontinuity in a machine part alters the stress distribution in
the neighborhood of the discontinuity so that the elementary stress
equations no longer describe the state of stress in the part at these
locations.
Stress concentrations can arise from some irregularity not inherent in
the member, such as tool marks, holes, notches, grooves, or threads.
A theoretical, or geometric, stress-concentration factor Kt or Kts

## An example is shown in the Figure,

that of a thin plate loaded in tension
where the plate contains a centrally
located hole.

## Example: Stress Concentration

Determine the maximum axial force P that can be applied so as not to
exceed an allowable tensile stress of 150 MPa

## Stress in Pressurized Cylinders

Cylindrical pressure vessels, hydraulic
cylinders, gun barrels, and pipes carrying
fluids at high pressures develop both radial
and tangential stresses
The tangential and radial stresses can be calculated by
Thick walled

The longitudinal stresses exist when the end reactions to the internal
pressure are taken by the pressure vessel itself.

ri2 pi ro2
t 2 2 1 2
ro ri r

pidi
t av

ri2 pi ro2
r 2 2 1 2
ro ri r
For closed ends
ri2 pi
l 2 2
ro ri

2t
pi di

t max

pidi
l

2t

t
0.05
ri

4t

Thin walled

p0=0

## Example: Pressurized Cylinders

An aluminium alloy pressure vessel is made of tubing having an outer
diameter of 200 mm and a wall thickness of 6 mm.
a) What pressure can the cylinder carry if the permissible tangential
stress is 82 MPa assuming thin walled theory?
b) On the basis of pressure found in a), compute the stress
components using the theory of thick walled cylinders

## The distribution of stress in a curved flexural member is determined by

assuming
The cross section has an axis of symmetry in a plane along the length of
the beam.
Plane cross sections remain plane after bending.
The modulus of elasticity is the same in tension as in compression.

## The location of the neutral axis with respect to the center

of curvature O is given by the equation

## The distribution is given by

where M is positive in the direction shown

## The critical stresses occur at the inner and

outer surfaces where = and =

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 35--

Approximation:
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

## Example: Curved beam

A utility hook was formed from a 25 diameter round rod into a geometry
shown in Figure. What are the stresses at the inner and outer surfaces at
section A-A if the load applied, = 4.
= 52.5
= 51.7

= 0.8
=

+
= 164.5

=
= 117.5

=
= 0.744
16
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

rc ri R
rn

R2

2 rc rc2 R 2

## Example 2: Curved beam

The hook is used to lift the force of 600 lb. Determine the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses at section aa. The cross section is circular and has a diameter of 1
in. Use the curved-beam formula to compute the bending stress.

N=600 lb
R= 1.97 in

M= 1180.95 lb.in

N=600 lb

## L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 38--

Learning Outcomes:
Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:
Identify types of stresses generated by external loads
Determine principal and maximum shear stresses