Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

Mechanical Design 1

(MCE 321)

Chapter 3
Load and Stress Analysis
Dr. Lotfi Romdhane
lromdhane@aus.edu
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

Summer 2016

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 1--

Chapter 3
Load and Stress Analysis

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 2--

3 Load and Stress Analysis


Chapter
Outline

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

3-1

Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams

3-2

Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams

3-3

Singularity Functions

3-4

Stress

3-5

Cartesian Stress Components

3-6

Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress

3-7

General Three-Dimensional Stress

3-8

Elastic Strain

3-9

Uniformly Distributed Stresses

3-10

Normal Stresses for Beams in Bending

3-11

Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending

3-12

Torsion

3-13

Stress Concentration

3-14

Stresses in Pressurized Cylinders

3-15

Stresses in Rotating Rings

3-16

Press and Shrink Fits

3-17

Temperature Effects

3-18

Curved Beams in Bending

3-19

Contact Stresses

3-20

Summary

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 3--

Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams


Equilibrium

A system with zero acceleration is said to be in equilibrium, if that


system is motionless or has a constant velocity.

Free-Body Diagram
Free-body diagrams help simplifying the analysis of a very complex
structure or machine by successively isolating each element.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 4--

Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams

If a beam with supports is cut at some section located at = 1 and the lefthand portion is removed as a free body, an internal shear force and
bending moment must act on the cut surface to ensure equilibrium.
Shear force and bending moment are related by the equation

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 5--

Sign Conventions for Bending and Shear

Fig. 33
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 6--

Distributed Load on Beam


Distributed load q(x) called load intensity
Units of force per unit length
When the bending is caused by a distributed load (),
the load intensity with units of force per unit length, and
is positive direction. It can be shown that
differentiating above equation results in

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 7--

Shear-Moment Diagrams

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 8--

Moment Diagrams
Two Planes

Add moments from


two planes as
perpendicular vectors

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 9--

Example 33

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 10--

Logic in Solid Mechanics

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 11--

Uniformly Distributed Stresses


The assumption of a uniform distribution of stress is frequently
made in design. The result is then often called pure tension, pure
compression, or pure shear.
The stress is said to be uniformly distributed with
This assumption of uniform stress distribution requires that :

The bar be straight and of a homogeneous material


The line of action of the force contains the centroid of the section
The section be taken remote from the ends and from any discontinuity
or abrupt change in cross section

Direct shear is usually assumed to be uniform across the cross


section, and is given by
The assumption of uniform stress is not accurate, particularly in the
vicinity where the force is applied, but the assumption generally
gives acceptable results.
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 12--

Shear Stress for Beams

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 13--

Normal Stress for Beams in Bending:


Assumptions
The equations for the normal bending stresses in straight beams are based on
the following assumptions
The beam is subjected to pure bending. This means that the shear force is
zero, and that no torsion or axial loads are present ( for most engineering
applications it is assumed that these loads affect the bending stresses
minimally ).
The material is isotropic and homogeneous.
The material obeys Hookes law. (linear)
The beam is initially straight with a cross section that is constant
throughout the beam length.
The beam has an axis of symmetry in the plane of bending.
The proportions of the beam are such that it would fail by bending rather
than by crushing, wrinkling, or sideway buckling.
Plane cross sections of the beam remain plane during bending.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 14--

Normal Stress for Beams in Bending:


Analysis

Elements of the beam coincident with the neutral plane have


zero stress.
The bending stress varies linearly with
the distance from the neutral axis, ,
and is given by
where is the second-area moment about the
axis.

Designating max as the maximum magnitude of the bending


stress, and as the maximum magnitude of
often
written as
where = / is called the section modulus

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 15--

Torsion

Any moment vector that is collinear with an


axis of a mechanical element is called a
torque vector, because the moment causes
the element to be twisted about that axis.

Shear stresses develop throughout the cross section are given by


with

The assumptions used in the analysis are


The bar is acted upon by a pure torque, and the sections under consideration are remote
from the point of application of the load and from a change in diameter.
Adjacent cross sections originally plane and parallel remain plane and parallel after twisting,
and any radial line remains straight.
The material obeys Hookes law.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 16--

Types of loading (recap)


Axial force x-axis
Torsion x-axis

Bending y & z-axes


Mc
max
I

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

A
Tr

M
max
Z
I
Z
c

max

J

c

Trans. Shear
y & z-axes
VQ

It
L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 17--

Combined Loading (recap)

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 18--

Example: Normal Stress

P Pey

A
I
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 19--

Example: Normal Stress


(Simple Design Problem)
An offset link subjected to a force of 25kN is shown in the figure. The
Ultimate Strength of the material is 300 MPa. Determine the dimensions
of the cross-section. The desired factor of safety is 3.

= =

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

2 2

10+

= (10 + ) =

3 10 +

= 2 +
=
= 100
2
2 3
3
0.2 3 100 750 = 0 = 25

3 10+
2 3

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 20--

Stress and its Cartesian Components

The force distribution acting at a point on the surface have components in the
normal and tangential directions called normal stress and tangential shear stress,
labeled by the Greek symbols and , respectively.
The units of stress in U.S Customary units are pounds per square inch (psi). For SI
units, stress is in Newtons per square meter (N/m2);1 N/m2 = 1 Pascal (Pa).
is labeled normal stress where indicates a normal stress and the subscript
indicates the direction of the surface normal.
and are the shear stress components in the and directions, where the
first subscript indicates the direction of the surface normal whereas the second
subscript is the direction of the shear stress.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 21--

Principal Stresses
Imagine that the element is cut by an oblique plane with a
normal at an arbitrary angle counterclockwise from the axis as
the stresses and are found to be

The angle of maximum (=0)

tan 2 =

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 22--

Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress

Formulas for the two principal stresses can


be obtained by substituting the angle as
2

In a similar manner the two extreme-value


shear stresses are found to be

A graphical method for expressing the


relations developed in this section, called
Mohrs circle diagram, is a very effective
means of visualizing the stress state at a
point and keeping track of the various
components associated with plane stress.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

http://www.ijee.ie/OnlinePapers/Interactive/Philpot/mo
hr_learning_tool.htm

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 23--

Example: Mohrs Circle


(Plane Stress)

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 24--

Example: Plane Stress (MATLAB)


>> Stress_tensor=[80 -50;-50 0]
Stress_tensor =
80 -50
-50 0
>> [v,d]=eigs(Stress_tensor)
v=
-0.9013 -0.4332
0.4332 -0.9013
d=
104.0312
0
0 -24.0312

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 25--

Example 1: Combined Loading


(Simple Design Problem)
A single horizontal force P of 150 N is applied to the end D of lever ABD. Knowing that
portion AB of the lever has a diameter of 1.2 cm, determine (a) the normal and shear
stresses on the element located at point H and having sides parallel to x and y axes; (b) the
principal planes and principal stresses at point H.
N
27000 N.mm

15000 N.mm
cm
cm
cm
cm

88.4 MPa
163.2 MPa

79.6 MPa

-74.7 MPa
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 26--

Example: Combined Loading


(Simple Design Problem)
The Shaft of an overhanging crank is subjected to a force P of 1kN. The shaft is
made up of a material with a shear yield strength of 190 N/mm2. Determine the
diameter of the shaft. The desired factor of safety is 2.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 27--

Stress Concentration
Any discontinuity in a machine part alters the stress distribution in
the neighborhood of the discontinuity so that the elementary stress
equations no longer describe the state of stress in the part at these
locations.
Stress concentrations can arise from some irregularity not inherent in
the member, such as tool marks, holes, notches, grooves, or threads.
A theoretical, or geometric, stress-concentration factor Kt or Kts

An example is shown in the Figure,


that of a thin plate loaded in tension
where the plate contains a centrally
located hole.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 28--

Example: Stress Concentration


Determine the maximum axial force P that can be applied so as not to
exceed an allowable tensile stress of 150 MPa

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 29--

Example: Stress Concentration

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 30--

Example: Stress Concentration

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 31--

Stress in Pressurized Cylinders


Cylindrical pressure vessels, hydraulic
cylinders, gun barrels, and pipes carrying
fluids at high pressures develop both radial
and tangential stresses
The tangential and radial stresses can be calculated by
Thick walled

The longitudinal stresses exist when the end reactions to the internal
pressure are taken by the pressure vessel itself.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 32--

Stress in Pressurized Cylinders


ri2 pi ro2
t 2 2 1 2
ro ri r

pidi
t av

ri2 pi ro2
r 2 2 1 2
ro ri r
For closed ends
ri2 pi
l 2 2
ro ri

2t
pi di

t max

pidi
l

2t

t
0.05
ri

4t

Thin walled

p0=0

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 33--

Example: Pressurized Cylinders


An aluminium alloy pressure vessel is made of tubing having an outer
diameter of 200 mm and a wall thickness of 6 mm.
a) What pressure can the cylinder carry if the permissible tangential
stress is 82 MPa assuming thin walled theory?
b) On the basis of pressure found in a), compute the stress
components using the theory of thick walled cylinders

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 34--

Curved Beams in Bending

The distribution of stress in a curved flexural member is determined by


assuming
The cross section has an axis of symmetry in a plane along the length of
the beam.
Plane cross sections remain plane after bending.
The modulus of elasticity is the same in tension as in compression.

The location of the neutral axis with respect to the center


of curvature O is given by the equation

The distribution is given by


where M is positive in the direction shown

The critical stresses occur at the inner and


outer surfaces where = and =

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 35--

Approximation:
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 36--

Example: Curved beam


A utility hook was formed from a 25 diameter round rod into a geometry
shown in Figure. What are the stresses at the inner and outer surfaces at
section A-A if the load applied, = 4.
= 52.5
= 51.7

= 0.8
=


+
= 164.5


=
= 117.5

=
= 0.744
16
Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

rc ri R
rn

R2

2 rc rc2 R 2

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 37--

Example 2: Curved beam


The hook is used to lift the force of 600 lb. Determine the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses at section aa. The cross section is circular and has a diameter of 1
in. Use the curved-beam formula to compute the bending stress.

N=600 lb
R= 1.97 in

M= 1180.95 lb.in

N=600 lb

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 38--

Learning Outcomes:
Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:
Identify types of stresses generated by external loads
Determine principal and maximum shear stresses
Define problems based on type of loading whether static or dynamic
Determine stress amplitudes and means
Select appropriate failure criteria
Identify figures, tables, charts to calculate factors of safety and load limits
on parts or structures
Develop solutions for critical loads on compression members, pressure
vessels and press fits based on their type
Select materials and size fasteners, welds, based on safety calculations
Design mechanical springs (material and size) to perform certain task for
safe applications.

Mechanical Design I (MCE 321)

L. Romdhane, SS 2016, 7:39 AM -- 39--