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1) When preference is given to the subject not to the action

2) When the doer of the action is more important than the action
Voice: Voice means sound but in English grammar it shows the form of
itself
a verb. It is also called the way of statement of something.
3) When the subject is necessary to be mentioned
4) When the subject is present on the place where he or she does
An idea can be expressed in two different ways. We can express it
the action
by using a verb to indicate whether the subject performs an
e.g.
Zaki cut the cake. Haniya is writing a letter.
Fatima
has posted the letter. Maryam should clean the
action (active voice) or receives the action (passive voice).
room.

Active and passive voice!

In other wordings,
Active voice: in a sentence when the doer of action is subject of
sentence, this sentence is called active voice.

EXAMPLE:

A cat ate the


fish.

Here, the doerSub


of the
V action
Obj is a cat and the verb "ate" is in the
active voice. The object comes after the verb.
Passive voice: when receiver of action is subject of the sentence that
sentence is called passive voice.

EXAMPLE:

The fish was eaten by


a cat.

Here, action Sub


is done toH.V
the subject
and the verb "was eaten" is in
M. V
the passive voice. The subject comes before the verb.
The previous object (fish) is now used as the subject.
Before starting passive voice you need to know some verbs.
There are many kinds of verbs and here you need to know only three
kinds of them before knowing passive voice.
Transitive verb: verb which is poor of object and without object
doesnt give complete sense. E.g. read, write, eat, drink, buy, sell, and
etc
Intransitive verb: verb which is not poor object and without object
gives complete meaning. E.g. Swim, die, cry, lie, and etc
Transitive and intransitive verb: Verb which is sometimes poor of
object and sometimes not poor of object. E.g. Fly, sit, stand, sleep and
etc
WE USE ACTIVE VOICE

WE USE PASSIVE VOICE


1) When the importance is given to the action, subject is not
important to be mentioned.
2) When the subject is very obvious and clear to every one
3) When the subject is unknown and not clear to anyone
4) When the subject of active voice is people or indefinite pronouns
5) When we want to beautify the sentence
E.g.
i. Karzays cousin was assassinated some days ago.
ii. We are created to worship God.
iii. That bank has been robbed several times.
iv. Mazarys body was carried on shoulders from Ghazni to Mazar-esharif.
v. My activities are all completed now.
Some basic rules of changing active voice into passive voice
1) Subject of active voice is changed into object in passive voice.
2) Object of active voice is changed into subject of passive voice.
3) The first and second form of verb is changed into third form.
4) Before third form of verb we use helping verb (am, is, are, was,
were, has been, have been, will be, etc.) according to the tense
of sentence.
5) After the third form of verb we use by to introduce the agent.
6) Only transitive verbs can be changed into passive.
(Example: He runs away. This sentence has no object, so it's not
possible to turn it into a passive sentence.)
7) If active voice contains certain verbs (be, have, lack, equal, etc)
cant be changed into passive voice.
8) I is changed into me.
9) He is changed into him.
10)
She is changed into her.
11)
They is changed into them.

Imperative sentence: when in sentence we find order, command, request,


12)
We is changed into us
13)
You and it are not changed.
advice or suggestion, that sentence is called imperative sentence. Subject
14)
We dont have to change some tenses into passive voice. It of imperative sentence is usually you.
doesnt mean that
Changes:
we cant make passive of these tenses, we can but in order to shrink1) Every sentence will start with let.
2) Object will come right after let in sentence.
the repetition
3) In every sentence present form of the verb will be changed into past
of being we dont make the passive of such tenses.
participle form and before this, in affirmative we bring be and in
These tenses are:
negative we bring not be.
1) Present perfect continuous tense
2) Past Perfect continuous
4) In negative you can bring dont before let.
tense
e.g. let him be beaten. Dont let him be beaten. Or let not him be beaten.
3) Future continuous tense.
4) Future perfect
continuous tense
Exercise on Active and passive voice
Choose the appropriate word in the parentheses.
Prepared by Mehdi Saba
In active voice, the performs the action expressed by the
verb.
Structure:
(subject, Object)
The passive voice of an active tense is formed by putting helping verb
In
passive
voice,
the
..
receives the action expressed by the
rd
+3 form of V
verb.
Tense/Verb
Active Voice
Passive Voice
(subject, Object)
Form
Forming tenses of passive verbs:
He dictates the answers
The answers are dictated to
Simple Present
Change the following active voice sentence into passive voice in
to his secretary.
his secretary.
various possible tenses.
Present
He is dictating the
The answers are being
Active voice: A student wrote a song.
Progressive
answers.
dictated.
Tense
Passive voice form
Simple Past
He dictated the answers. The answers were dictated.
Simple
present
Past
He was dictating
The answers were being
..........................................................................
progressive
secretary the answers.
dictated.
Present cont...
He has dictated the
The answers have been
Present Perfect
..........................................................................
answers.
dictated.
Present Perf
He had dictated the
The answers had been
Past Perfect
..........................................................................
answers.
dictated.
Simple Past
He will dictate the
The answers will be
Simple Future
..........................................................................
answers.
dictated.
Past cont..
He would have dictated
The answers would have
Future perfect
..........................................................................
the answers.
been dictated.
Past Perf
Model Aux
He can dictate the
The answers can be
..........................................................................
+Verb
answers.
dictated.
Simple Future
Present
He is to dictate the
The answers are to be
..........................................................................
Infinitive
answers
dictated by him.
Future Perfect
Perfect
To have dictated
To have been dictated
Infinitive
..........................................................................
Changing imperative sentence into passive voice
Change the following active voice sentences into passive voice
(leave out by phrase)
1) Somebody showed us the town.

2)
3)
4)
5)

The thieves tore the curtain down and stole all the jewels.
Did somebody wash the dishes yesterday?
Nobody would punish him if he we were quiet.
We will see the most beautiful places in our picnic after this
project.
6) They say that French eat frogs.
7) Most of the people believe that the election of Afghanistan has
been unfair.
8) You cant live in this building; the builders have not finished it yet.
9) Farzana is washing her car.
10)Zohra is going to prepare the meal.
Change the following Passive voice sentences into active voice.
1) All the papers were thrown on the floors by them.
2) 63% of Hazara nation was massacred by Abdul Rahman.
3) Were the thieves caught by the police?
4) Yes, they are being questioned by the police at this moment.
5) Kabul Bank was bankrupted by some treacherous government
officials.
6) The empty bottles must not be thrown away by you.
7) Let not the past be forgotten.

8) The dinner will have been made by Masooma.


9) The closing ceremony will be held in KACSO.
10) Before the semester was over, the new nursing program had been
approved by the Curriculum Committee and the Board of Trustees.
11) With five seconds left in the game, an illegal time-out was called by one
of the players.
12) Later in the day, the employees were informed of their loss of benefits
by the boss herself.
13) I was surprised by the teacher's lack of sympathy. The major points of
the lesson were quickly learned by the class, but they were also quickly
forgotten by them.
14) For several years, Chauncey was raised by his elderly grandmother.
15) An unexpected tornado smashed several homes and uprooted trees in a
suburb of Knoxville.
16) "The Yellow Wallpaper" was written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman.
17) Participants in the survey were asked about their changes in political
affiliation.
18) Tall buildings and mountain roads were avoided by Raoul because he
had such a fear of heights.
19) The major points of the lesson were quickly learned by the class, but
they were also quickly forgotten by them.
20) The injured were taken to the hospital by the firemen.
Prepared by Mehdi Saba