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TUTORIAL 3

[UNIT 4 PHYSICS ON THE MOVE


4.3 PARTICLE PHYSICS] 1

1. The simplified diagram shows the dees of a cyclotron


connected to a high frequency alternating supply. The dashed
line shows the path of an accelerated proton. In the shaded
region a uniform magnetic field B of flux density 0.80 T acts
upwards out of the paper.

(a) Explain why the magnetic field must be upwards out of the
paper when accelerating protons. [2]
(b)By considering a proton of mass m and charge e moving in
a cirlce of radius r in the cyclotron, show that the time
taken to complete one semicircle is given by
[3]
m
t=
Be
(c) * Describe how the energy of the proton is increased in a
cyclotron. Give one reason why the energy cannot be
increased indefinitely. [4]
(d) Show that the gain in energy of a proton accelerated
through a potential difference of 12 kV is about 2 x 10-15 J.
[2]
(e) The kinetic energy of a proton circling at a radius r can be
expressed as
B2 e2 r 2
E K=
2m
Calculate the radius of the circle in which a proton will be
moving after being accelerated 850 times across a
potential difference of 12 kV
[3]
2. Neutrons, like electrons, are often used to study crystal
structure. A suitable wavelength for the neutrons would be
about 1 nm.
1. Explain why the neutrons must have a de Broglie wavelength
of this order of magnitude. [2]

TUTORIAL 3

[UNIT 4 PHYSICS ON THE MOVE


4.3 PARTICLE PHYSICS] 2

2. Given the mass of a neutron as 1.67 x 10-27 kg, calculate the


kinetic energy of a neutron which has the de Broglie
wavelength of 1.20 nm. [3]
3. In 2002 the Jefferson Laboratory released the results of an
experiment involving high speed electrons with protons. The
results suggested that protons are not spherical but have a
bulging shape. In a subsequent paper some of these results
were explained by modeling a nucleon as a relativistic
system of three bound quarks surrounded by a cloud of
pions.
Protons and neutrons are the two types of nucleon and both
consists of up and down quarks.
Nucleon
Quark composition
proton
uud
neutron
udd
Quark
up
down

Quark composition
+2/3 e
-1/3 e

(a) Use the information in the tables to show how the charge of
the proton and the charge of the neutron are arrived at.
(b)Protons, neutrons and pions are all hadrons. There are two
types of hadron, with different quark combinations.
i. Complete the table below to the name of hadron type.
Particles
Hadron type
proton, neutron
pion
ii.

State the differences in quark composition between


these two types of hadron.
(c) Explain why high speed particles are used to examine the
internal structure of other particles.
(d)The model mentions a relativistic system. State the
condition needed for relativistic effects to be significant.

4. The equation for decay can be written as:

+ v
n p+
(a) For each particle, either give its quark composition or state
that fundamental particle.
+
(b)Write a similar equation for decay

TUTORIAL 3

[UNIT 4 PHYSICS ON THE MOVE


4.3 PARTICLE PHYSICS] 3

5. Bubble chambers can be used to observe the tracks of charged


particles through magnetic fields. As charged particles pass through
the liquid they cause ionisation which triggers the formation of
bubbles, recording the tracks of the particles. The photograph below
shows the spiral track of an electron in a bubble chamber.

a. State whether the electron is travelling clockwise or


anticlockwise.
b. Explain why the track is curved, and why it has a spiral shape.
c. Take measurements from the photograph to estimate the
maximum momentum of the electron in kg m s-1. Given that
the magnetic flux density = 4.0 T
d. The diagram below shows a second set of tracks, produced by
an event which occurs at point X.

TUTORIAL 3

[UNIT 4 PHYSICS ON THE MOVE


4.3 PARTICLE PHYSICS] 4

It is thought that the event which occurs at X is:


photon => electron + positron
Give two ways in which the tracks are consistent with this
interpretation.
e. Explain how this event obeys two conservation laws.

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