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QUALITY OF RAW & TREATED DOMESTIC SEWAGE

The general characteristic of sewage is assumed as shown in the table


below.
Anticipated general characteristics before treatment:
Oil and Grease: upto 50mg/lt
PH

6 9.0

BOD5

250-350mg/lt

COD

600-800mg/lt

SS

400 mg/lt

E coli

10MPN

The anticipated final water quality:


PH

6.5 9.0

BOD5

< 10 mg/lt

COD

< 50 mg/lt

TSS

< 20 mg /lt

NH4-N

N-Total

< 5 mg/lt
< 10 mg/lt

Fecal Coliform (MPN/100ML): < 100


3.2 TREATMENT METHODOLOGY ADOPTED
The methodology adopted for treatment of sewage is based on
Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) followed by disinfection.

3.4 SBR TECHNOLOGY


The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) process is a sequential
suspended growth (activated sludge) process in which all major steps
occur in the same tank in sequential order. There are two major
classifications of SBRs: the intermittent flow (IF) or true batch
reactor, which employees all the steps and the continuous flow (CF)
system, which does not follow these steps. Both have been used
successfully worldwide installations. SBRs can be designed and
operated to enhance removal of nitrogen, phosphorus, and ammonia,
in addition to removing TSS and BOD5 .The intermittent flow SBR
accepts influent only at specified intervals and, in general, follows the
five-step sequence. There are usually two IF units in parallel. Because
this system is closed to influent flow during the treatment cycle, two
units may be operated in parallel, with one unit open for intake while
the other runs through the remainder of the cycles. In the continuous
inflow SBR, influent flows continuously during all phases of the
treatment cycle. To reduce short circuiting, a partition is normally
added to the tank to separate the turbulent aeration zone from the
quiescent area.

3.5 DESIGN DETAILS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT:


Total quantity of raw effluent

= 180 m3/day = 11.86 m3/hr

Standard conditions: BOD5 @ 270 C

= 250 mg / L

Expected BOD5 reduction:


1. Avg. Influent BOD5

= 200 mg/L

2. BOD5 reduction in SBR

= 95 %

Therefore BOD5 at the outlet of secondary


treatment

15 mg/L

3. BOD5 reduction with tertiary treatment like


Coagulation, filtration and disinfection

< 10 mg/L

3.5.3 SEQUENTIAL BATCH REACTOR


i) Basic design assumptions
BOD5 at 270 C, mg/L
TSS, mg/L
(NH3 Ammonia),
mg/L
Total Phosphorous,
mg/L
TKN, mg/L

Inlet
200
200
25

Outlet
20
30
1

10

40

ii) SBR design calculations


a) Reactor volume
Assumptions for SBR kinetics
* F/M ratio

= 0.15

* MLSS

= 4000 mg/l

* Net sludge yield

= 0.76 kg MLSS/kg BOD5

* Min. solids retention time = 8 days


* Reactor volume decanted each day = 60%
* Dissolved O2 liquor concentration

= 2 mg/L

* Oxygen co- efficients


kg of O2/kg of BOD5

= 1.28

kg of O2/kg of NH3N

= 4.6

* Oxygen transfer factors


(typical for coarse bubble diffusers)
(typical for domestic wastewater)

= 0.85
= 0.95

* Typical O2 transfer rate for coarse bubble diffusers = 1.25


O2/KWH
4

kg

* No. of cycles/day

=4

(a) Reactor Volume


* BOD5 removed (kg/day) = [(BOD influent - BOD effluent) (mg/L)] x
flow (L/day)]
BOD5 = 34.2 kg/day
* Required aerobic mass

= BOD5 removed
F/M Ratio
= 228 kg MLSS

* Reactor volume (low water volume) = MLSS mass (kg) / MLSS


Concentration
= 57.0 m3
* Since the decant volume represents 60% of the total volume
* Total reactor volume

= 13.2 m3

Provided 75 m3 x 2nos SBR tanks


* Size of the unit

= 16.0sq.mX4.8m Liquid depth

b) Decant volume
* Total decant volume

= Total reactor volume - reactor


Volume (Low water level)

Total decant volume

= 19.8 m3

Required reactor volume = 82.0 m3


Provided 65.0 m3
* Size of the unit

= 14.0sq.mtX4.5m Liquid depth

Aeration
* Nitrogenous O2 demand (kg of O2/day) = NH3 - N oxidized (kg/day) x
kg O2/kg of NH3N
* Carbonaceous O2 demand (kg of O2/day) = Synthesis N x kg
O2/BOD5
* NH3 - N oxidized (kg/day) = TKN removed (kg/day) - synthesis N
(kg/day)
* TKN removed
=
6.65 kg/day
* Synthesis N

5% waste activated sludge of total daily sludge

production
* Sludge production (kg/day) = net sludge yield (kg MLSS/kg BOD5) x
BOD5 removed (kg/day)
Therefore sludge production

0.76

kg/day

26.0 kg/day

* Synthesis N

0.0057 kg/day

* NH3 - N oxidized

9.655 kg/day

* Nitrogenous O2 demand

44.46 kg of O2/day

* Carbonaceous O2 demand

0.00725 kg/day

34.2(Kg

of

MLSS/Kg of BOD5)

* AOR (kg/day) = nitrogenous O2 demand + carbonaceous O2 demand


(kg/day)
Where AOR = Actual Oxygen Requirements (kg O2/day)
* AOR

= 44.46 kg/day

SAOR (kg O2/hr) = [AOR x Cs x teta (T-20)] / [ae x (beta x Csw - C0) x
blower usage (hr/day)
where SAOR = standard actual O2 requirement (kg O2/day)
teta = temperature correction factor = 1.024

Cs = O2 saturation concentration at standard temperature and


pressure
= 9.02 mg/L
Csw = concentration correction for elevation 1000 ft.
=

9.02 - 0.0003 x elevation = 8.72 mg/L

(NOTE: 0.0003 may be used as a rule of thumb describing a 0.0003


mg/L rise/drop in DO saturation concentration per every foot of
elevation increase /decrease.)
C0
=
2 mg/L
ae

0.85

Beta

0.95

30 0C

(67 0F)

Blower usage= 16 hrs/day


(Based on 4 cycles per day (6 hr/cycle), 1.0 hr fill time, 3.5 hr react
time, 0.75 hr settle time, 0.5 hr decant time, and 0.25 hr idle time)
SAOR

5.94 kg of O2/hr

* Sludge flow rate (L/day) = sludge mass flow (kg/day) / sludge


density (kg/L)
* Typical sludge density

1.02 kg/L

* Therefore sludge flow rate

43.57 L/day