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1.

Construction

1.1.1

Stator

The stator frame shall be of cast iron fabricated steel construction. The frame shall be designed
to withstand bending stresses and deflections due to its self weight and weight of the complete
core to be supported by it. The stator core shall be built up of segmental punching of low loss,
non-oriented steel sheets and end plates. Each punching shall be carefully debarred and
insulated on both sides with high quality varnish to reduce losses in the core.
The stator winding of copper (99% purity) and of multi-turn type shall be insulated with class "F
insulation. The stator winding shall be star connected with both ends of conductors of each
phase brought out of the stator. The outlets shall be enclosed and the outlet box shall be
adequate for connection of specified power cables mentioned earlier.
For each generator a minimum of six (6) numbers (two resistor elements per phase) embedded
temperature detectors of resistance type (PT 100 RTDs) shall be provided for stator windings,
located symmetrically. The connections on the resister elements shall be well insulated and
extended to a connection box on the outside of stator frame.
1.1.2

Rotor

The rotor winding shall be of copper bar (99% purity) accommodated in semi-closed slots. It
should have optimum value of resistance to achieve maximum efficiency at rated output.
The design and construction of rotor shall be in accordance with the best modern practice. The
factor of safety at maximum runaway speed based on yield point of material shall not be less
than 1.5.
As far as possible, necessary flywheel effect shall be incorporated into the rotating parts of the
generator with out adding additional weights and the same shall be determined in consultation
with the turbine manufacturer. In case requisite moment of inertia is not available from the
rotor, a separate flywheel shall be provided, to furnish additional flywheel effect required. The
rotor bars shall be short-circuited with end rings by an appropriate method like induction brazing
method. The copper end rings of the rotor shall be well supported by steel retaining rings to
make the rotor sturdy to withstand runaway speeds and other operating conditions specified
under this specification.
1.1.3

Terminal box

The terminal box shall be located on either side of the generator-one for phase connection or
other for neutral connection. A separate terminal box for RTDs and space heater terminals shall
be provided. The terminal box shall be capable of withstanding 32 MVA fault level for one
second. The terminal box shall be suitable for taking power cables of adequate size and types.
1.1.4

Phase marking

Appropriate phase marking as per IS 325 or equivalent International Standard shall be provided
inside the terminal box. The markings shall be indelible.
1.1.5

Field winding

Field winding shall consist of fabricated field coils and any other type with adequate provision for
cooling purpose. The field coils are fabricated from straight lengths of copper strap dovetailed

and brazed at the corners. In order to facilitate better cooling, finned turns are formed by using
wider straps at regular intervals down the coil. The insulation between turns is of special epoxy
impregnated asbestos paper and insulation to ground is of epoxy glass laminates. Rectangular
insulation of epoxy glass laminates are placed at the top and bottom of the coil. The completed
coils are electrically heated and pressed while hot to a pressure greater than the maximum
centrifugal forces, which would be experienced in service ensuring that the insulation will not
shrink or compress during operation.
1.1.6

Damper winding

The filed poles shall be provided with adequate damper windings to ensure stability under fault
conditions and other design requirements if any.
1.1.7

Shaft

The generator shaft shall be made of the best quality carbon steel properly heat-treated. The
shaft shall be of adequate size to operate at all speed including maximum runaway speed and
shall be able to withstand short circuit stresses without excessive vibrations or distortion. The
generator shaft shall be accurately machined all above, over and polished where it passes
through the bearings and accessible points for alignment checks. Generator shaft shall have
suitable provision for direct coupling to the turbine. The monitoring platform and the anchoring
devices for the generator must be adaptable ones and all parts shall be included in scope of
supply of the Bidder. The Bidder should specify the limit of lowest critical rotation speed and the
highest dynamic runaway speed by to the satisfaction of the Employer.
Each generator shall be coupled to turbine directly by means of a flexible coupling of standard
design. The Bidder shall also propose the type of coupling being offered and its lubricating
arrangement to the satisfaction of the Employer.
1.1.8

Bearings

The generator bearings shall be preferably anti-friction ball / roller bearings, oil or grease
lubricated. The bearings can be also of pad type or sleeve type or Babbitt lined type with oil
lubrication. These bearings shall be guaranteed for minimum continuous working for 100,000
(One hundred thousand) miscellaneous operational hours and shall be of proven design and
performance and shall require minimum maintenance. The detailed drawings and dimensions
shall be supplied by the Bidder with the offer.
Bearing shall be adequately insulated to prevent any harmful circulating currents. The thrust
bearings shall be suitable to take axial thrusts in both the directions. The bearings shall be
designed to withstand operation of runaway speed for a period of 15 minutes. Thermometers,
grease-lubricating points, speed relays etc. as required shall be provided.
Each of the bearings shall be provided with direct reading thermometer of dial type gauge with
direct reading pointer and also, provided with signaling switches for temperature indication with
two (2) sets of contracts for annunciation and trip of the machine. The bearings may also be
provided with resistance elements. Wires shall be run from thermometer and resistor element
to the instruments and the junction box mounted on the outside of the stator frame. The
connection blocks shall be of detachable type.
1.1.9

Cooling & ventilation

The generator shall be provided with duct ventilated screen protected drip proof enclosures IP
54. Each generator shall be preferably of naturally cooled self-ventilated type. Two axial flow

centrifugal fans placed on either side of shaft. The air will be sucked in and discharged out of
the machine of these fans.
The generator shall be both natural air and water-cooled, self-ventilated type provided with a
cooling system based on closed circuit air circulation principle. The air passage in the stator,
rotor, fans and coolers shall be designed to give a smooth and quiet flow of air. The water for
the cooling system shall be available at temperature not exceeding 30 C. The cooling system if
applicable, for the generator shall be designed to get cooled air at 40 C maximum and shall be
complete with temperature and flow indicators, thermostat relays, alarms and annunciation
devices as may be necessary to make the system fail safe.
1.1.10 Vibration
All rotating parts shall be designed to operate without undue vibration. Special precaution shall
must be taken to run the machines smoothly. The vibration level of the machines shall be within
the limits specified in the relevant IS specifications (IS: 4729) or equivalent International
Standard.
The maximum vibration level is 0,80 mm/s (peak value). The balancing shall be done to a
maximum extent at the works. Trim balancing shall not be carried out at site to bring down
vibration level to acceptable limits.
1.1.11 Heaters
The generator shall be provided with anti-condensation heaters. Spare heaters of adequate
rating shall be provided for maintaining stator surrounding air temperature above the ambient
during prolonged shutdown period. A fan to be provided for initial start up after prolonged shut
down is included in the scope of supplies.
1.1.12 Oil & Grease
The Bid shall indicate the lubrication requirements and given his recommendations with detailed
specifications regarding type of grease to be used and frequency of refilling required for
lubrication of generator bearings.
The oil, if used for generator bearing lubrication etc., shall be as far as possible, identical with
that used for the turbine pressure oil system and other auxiliaries. The first filling of oil with 10
% (ten percent) extra quantity shall be supplied along with the generator. The generator
manufacturer shall co-ordinate with the turbine manufacturer to ensure that their
recommendations regarding oil are identical.
1.1.13 Speed relay, toothed wheel & permanent magnet generator
A speed relay to monitor the speed of the generator to measure the 10%, 15%, 30%, 100% and
115% of rated speed with adequate number of auxiliary (NO & NC) contacts at each speed shall
be provided. This speed relay shall be given supply from generator side potential transformer.
In addition, mechanical over speed switch shall be provided on generator shaft, which shall
initiate turbine trip. The mechanical speed switch shall initiate turbine trip. The mechanical
speed switch shall have NO/NC contacts for alarm / trip purposes.
A toothed wheel arrangement is to be mounted on the shaft of generator and a photo
interceptive pickup has to be mounted on a bracket and connected to speed relay mounted on
unit control desk through a special screened cable.

Further, a backup device, a small permanent magnet generator may be mounted on a bracket
frame and connected to the non-driving end of the generator for monitoring the speed of the
generator. A backup speed relay cum speed monitor for generator to measure the speed with
adequate number of auxiliary (NO & NC) contacts at steps of 10%, 15%, 30%, 100% & 115%
of rated speed shall be provided.
1.1.14 Excitation and automatic voltage regulator (AVR)
Each generator shall be provided with brushless excitation system consisting of a 3 phase AC
exciter and rotating diode rectifier bridge mounted on the generator shaft extension. The
system shall be complete along with surge suppressor, automatic voltage regulator of solid state
type with Thyristor Bridge and field suppression equipment etc.
The number of Rectifier Bridge shall be so chosen such that one bridge is always available as
spare. The protection against voltage spikes shall be provided. The AVR shall have fast
response and anti-hunting features. The AVR shall be provided with cross compensating
devices for parallel operation of generators.
The excitation shall be suitable for maintaining the voltage for a grid voltage variation of 10%
& for a frequency variation of 3%.
The AVR shall be sensitive to the change of + / - 0.5% of normal voltage (average of 3 phases)
of the Generator when operating under steady load conditions for any load or excitation within
operating range and shall initiate corrective action without hunting.
After the initial maximum voltage following any load rejection up to 110% of rated load, the AVR
shall restore the terminal voltage to a value not more than 5% above or below the voltage being
held before load rejection and shall maintain the voltage within these limits throughout the
period of generator over speed.
The AVR shall have the following features:
(a) Two auto channel with one manual mode for voltage control
(b) Voltage / frequency during accelerating and decelerating of machine
(c) Power factor / KVAR control mode
(d) Reactive power shedding
(e) KVR limit
(f) Quadrative drop characteristic for parallel operation with other machines of Nepal
Integrated Power System grid.
(g) Short circuit maintenance
(h) Diode failure indication
All the equipment for limiting and manual regulation of generator rotor current shall be included.
Voltage setting devices and necessary control switches shall be included. The equipment shall
be of a tropical design and shall work satisfactorily at a temperature of maximum 55 C.