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05.11.

01
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2014

................................................................................................................ 5
1.
.............................................................. 18
1.1. ............................. 18
2. ......... 32
2.1. ,
............................................................................. 34
2.2. ................................................... 42
2.3.
..................................................................................... 46
2.4. ..................... 58
2.4.1. ......... 59
2.4.2.
................................................................................ 73
2.4.3.
................................................................................... 77
2.5. .............................. 84
2.5.1.
........................................................................................................... 88
2.5.2. ......... 92
...................................................................................................................... 97
3. ..................................... 98
3.1.
......................................................................... 103
3.2. ....... 117

3.2.1. RC- ...................................................... 119


3.2.1.1
......... 119
3.2.1.2. c
............................................................... 139
3.2.1.3.
............................................................................................................ 150
.................................................................................................................... 154

4.

............................................................... 156
4.1. ,
......................................................................................................... 157
4.2. .................................. 167
4.3.
............................................................................................................ 172
4.4.
.......................................................................................................... 182
4.5. . 197
4.5.1.
.................................................................................................................................. 197
4.6. . 206
.................................................................................................................... 212
5. ........................ 213
5.1.
.......................................................................................................... 214
5.1.1. RC-220
5.1.2. RC- 228
5.2. ........... 234
5.3.

............................................................................................. 245
5.4. ............................... 255
5.4.1. 266
5.4.2.
................................................................................ 275
5.4.3.
................................................................................. 286
.................................................................................................................... 289
290
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N
a0 N
y (t ) =
A0 + An sin(n0 t + n ) .
+ an cos(n0 t ) + bn sin(n0 t ) =
n 1
=
=
2 n 1=n 1

, N -

,
. ,

-1, . .
, , , . . , , .
i (t ) , Ai Ti , . ,
N , .
.
, .
i (t ) ,

60

Ai Ti ,
N

x(t ) y(t ) , .
[32].
,
. y(t ) , , t . y(t )

y* (t ) , ( ) { i (t )} a n .

a n . [32, 33]. y(t )


y* (t ) , y(t )

x(t ) .
.
.
.
,

i (t ) [ H (t i ) H (t i 1 )] ,

x(t ) , -


- . , . . ,
.

61

y(t ) .
, , Y 0 . x* (t ) ,
, x* (t )
y(t ) .
X
,

X = Y ,

0x = 0y . , -

0x ,
0x =

2
2 ,
= I
T
Ti
i =0

: Ti , N ,

X cp
=

1
T

i +1

Ai
i =1

i (t i )dt .

Ti i (t ) .

I
2
1
Ai ,
=
=
=
, X cp

I T
T
i =1
x
0

i +1

i dt .

X x(t ) : x=
(t )
=

i =

Ai i (t )[ H (t i ) H (t i 1 )], Ti=
I T,

Ai
=

i =

X cp
.

62

, Ti 0 , Ai 0 .

q y = {a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 ,...., an , b1 , b2 , b3 , ...., bn } , ai , bi -

.
y(t ) x(t ) x(t ) ( ), . ,
, i (t ) , ,

I

i =1

i =1

x(t ) = ci +

cij cos( j 0 t ) +
j =1

d ij sin( j 0 t )

i =1 j =1


i (t ) .

ci = 0 ,
i =1

cij = k ,
i =1

k =1

k =1

d ij = d k , i =1

x(t ) = 0 + ck cos(k 0 t ) + d k sin( k 0 t ) .

x(t ) ,

q x = {c0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ,...., n , d1 , d 2 , d 3 ,..., d n } . , ,



2
i =
T

i +1

2
ij =
T
2
d ij =
T

A j (

t i
)dt ,
Ti

Ai (

t i
) cos( j 0 t )dt ,
Ti

i +1

i +1

Ai (

t i
) sin( j 0 t )dt ,
Ti

0 =

2
I

Ti
i =1

63

i , cij , d ij
i +1

ij = i Ai cos( j 0 t )dt = i Ai [sin( j 0 i +1 ) sin( j 0 i )],


i

i +1

d ij = i Ai sin ( j 0 t )dt = i Ai [cos( j 0 i ) cos( j 0 i +1 )],


i

: i , m i M , m, M , , i (t ) , .. 0 1.
, ,

0 = 1 A1 + 2 A2 + 3 A3 + .... + i Ai + .... + I AI

1 = 1 A1c11 + 2 A2 c21 + 3 A3c31 + .... + i Ai ci1 + .... + I AI c I 1


2 = 1 A1c12 + 2 A2 c22 + 3 A3c32 + .... + i Ai ci 2 + .... + I AI c I 2
----------------------

(2.6)

n = 1 A1c1n + 2 A2 c2 n + 3 A3c32 + .... + i Ai ci 2 + .... + I AI c In


d1 = 1 A1d11 + 2 A2 d 21 + 3 A3 d 31 + .... + i Ai d i1 + .... + I AI d I 1
d 2 = 1 A1d12 + 2 A2 d 22 + 3 A3 d 32 + .... + i Ai d i 2 + .... + I AI d I 2
--------------------

d n = 1 A1d1n + 2 A2 d 2 n + 3 A3 d 32 + .... + i Ai d i 2 + .... + I AI d In


: ij = [sin( j 0 i +1 ) sin( j 0 i )],
d ij = [cos( j 0 i ) cos( j 0 i +1 )].

(2.6)

c = Q E C A , d = Q E D A ;
: c = {c0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ,...., n }T , d = { d1 , d 2 , d 3 ,...., d n }T ,

A = { A1 , A2 , A3 ,...., An }T , = { 1 , 2 , 3 ,...., n }T ,

(2.7)

64

C = {cij }, D = {dij },

E .
(2.7) C D

0,
cij [sin( j 0 i +1 ) sin( j 0 =
=

i + I )]
i =1
I

=
dij [cos( j 0 i+1 ) cos( j 0 =
0, .. i + I = i + T .

i + I )]
i =1

, . (2.7) . ,
2 N + 1 ,
3I , I i (t ) , I
Ti I Ai .
, I 2 .
2 N + 1 6 N . ,

(2.7) 4 N . ,
, . :
1. ;
2. ;
3. , , , , .
. ,

65

, , . , . .
. , ,
, . .
C = {cij } D = {dij } . , I , , ,
. , ,
.
, ,
. T , (2.7)

c = Q E C A , d = Q E D A ,
: cij = cos [ j

(2.8)

t
t

(2 j 1 2 0 I )], d ij = sin [ j (2 j 1 2 0 I )],


I
T
I
T

q = {2 i cos( j )}T .
I

cij d ij , , , ,
cij = c j ( 2 k 1) I , d ij = d k I j , cij = c j ( 2 k 1) I , d ij = d ( k I i ) j .
2

C D .
.2.8 .
, .

66

C=

C=

i=0

i=N

D=

D=

j=0

0
0
0

j=N
-

I-

I-

. 2.4. C D () ()
I

2 , . (2.8) C D
. ,
r = I 2

I r = ( I 1) 2 I .

I
. 2 N + 1 -

67

, , N < I ,
2
.
, , I T
, N .
, N
I
2 N . N .
(2.6), I = 2 N :
qx= G A ;

(2.9)

: qx {=
c0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ,...., n , d1 , d 2 , d3 ,..., d n } 1T2 n , G {qij } ,
qij= cij j= 1, n gij= dij j= n + 1, 2n,

A = { A1 , A2 , A3 ,...., An }T ,
(2.9) .
. q = q x q y . ,
q x = q y . q = q min = 0


qy = G A ,

(2.10)

.
(2.10) G ,
A ( )
, ,
..

68

(2.10) G 1 1 .

A = G 1 1 q y ,
A.

N .
.
,
. 5

y (t ) = sin(n0t ) 0 .
n =1

( ), (). (2.4)
, ,
, . . ,
. , . .
,
, y(t).
. .
,
, ci,j
. di,j

69

=
di , j

=
j [1,2...5]

t
sin
)dt i [1,2...5],

sin( j0t=
ti1 ti ti1
2

ti

ti =
t0 0,=
t1 1,047,=
t2 1,2567,=
t3 2,0944,=
t4 2,5133,=
t4 .

0,207 0,077 0,332 0,126 0,078


0,331 0,063 0,066 0,166 0,144

D = 0,333 0,026 0,277 0,096 0,189 .

0,236

0,083
0,105
0,033

0,208

0,103 0,041 0,189 0,132 0,2


1
1

q y = 1 ,

1
1

(2.10) , ,
3, 69
2.26

A = 1,341 .

0, 786
0,837

. 2.5, y(t), ,
x(t) , , . , .
. 2.5, . ,

70

, . . . , , . 2%.
, , , , ,
, , ,
. , .
, ,
5
d2
s (t ) = 2 y (t ) =
n 2 (0 ) 2 sin(n 0 t ) .
dt
n =1

.
2.6, .

. 2.5. ( )
( ) )

71

,
, , . , ,
.
, , , , , . 2.6, .
.
,
.

. 2.6. ) ),

, ,

72

2 Ai
i
i
sin
cos
(2 j 1) ,
I
I
i =0 i
I 1

ci =

2 Ai
i
i
sin
sin
(2 j 1) ,
I
I
i =0 i
I 1

di =

i = 1, I ,

j = 1, N .

(I-1)/2 ,
, N . 3
,
.

N/2. , (2.11),
. D
ckI j = c j

g kI j

d=
dj
kI j

g kI j

gj
gj

(2.12)
, j (0, N 1).

(2.12)
N, ..

(c

j = N +1

2
j

+d

) = (c

2
j

k =1 j =1

2
j

+d

2
j

2
g kM
j

g 2j

73

(c

j = N +1

2
j

+d

j
c + d
kI

) = (

2
j

k =1 j =1

2
j

2
j

j
+
j kI +

,
, I N.
, , y(t)=a1cost,
I,
1
=
2

a1 2 a1 2 1,8
a1.
+

I
k =1
kI 1 kI + 1

, .

. , ,
, .
2.4.2.
K a =

A
, A

, X .
(Ka)
.
, 14014-91 , , , -

74

. .
Ka.
Ka ,
, , .
,
, . ,

.
.
, , .
, 14014-91

, .
. ,
.
: , ,
. , -

75

, , ,
=
y (t )

a
n =1

cos(n t + n ),

1 , N ,
dy
dt

V max,
max

, ,

Vmax-

i
.
, . , .
N, . ,
.
y(t), Ka N.
. ,

N
sin
t
N
N +1
2
cos(nt ) cos
yopt (t )
t
=
=
.
2 sin t
n =1

2

(2.13)

. 2.7 -

76

K a = 2,45 , 3 . . 2.7,
( )
( ) , 2.3 . 2.7, . , 5%, .
2.4 (2.13),
, .

6
3
x( t )
y ( t)

0
3
6

10

10

0.5
0.25
x( t ) y ( t )

0
0.25
0.5

4
t

.2.7.
) )

:
- (2.13) , ;
- Ka >> 1
4 , (. 2.4);

77

- () ;
- , 98 %
.
,

.
2.4.3.
(K)
( ) [50 54], , , .
14014-91 ,
, , .
, ,
. , , ,
, " " [8], "
" [8] .. , , , . , ,

78


, , . ,
, , ,
.

, . , "" . , ,
, .. , . ,
, [50] , [53] 50 .
,
, . , . ,
, . [52] ,
.

79

NN
/
1

2.4 K

3
4
5

y (t ) = cos n 0 t

1.5

K a = 10
5

K = 3,162,
V max 12,5 0
max 5 0

aj , n

y ( t)

n =1

2
0

()
11
t i 1
[H (t i 1 ) H (t i )]
x(t ) = Ai sin
Ti
i =1

Ti = i i 1 i , i i ,

11000

Ti = i i 1 i- , i I ,

K = 3,162,
V max 12,5 0
max 5 0

xj

x( t )

10

1.5


3
t i 1
[H (t i 1 ) H (t i )]
x(t ) = Ai sin
T
i =1
i

11000

10

K = 3,162,
V max 12,5 0
max 5 0

xj

x( t )

2
0

11000

10

80

2.4 ()
1

1.5

K = 3,162,
V max
max 55 0

x(t ) = Ai [H (t i 1 ) H (t i )]
i =1

Ai i ,
i i

x( t )

xj

2
0

11000

10

1.5

K = 3,162,
V max 8,75 0
max 5 0

x(t ) = K i (t i 1 )[H (t i 1 ) H (t i )]
i =1

K i i , i i

x( t )

xj

2
0

11000

10

5 sin t , 0 < t T 11, (10 11) T < t


x(t ) =
0, (1 11)T < t (10 11)T .
= 2/T.

1.5

K = 3,162,
V max 50 0
max 20 0

xj , 0

x( t )

6
0

11000

15

81

, [52] , ,
. [8]
,
.
,
, . [54] , . ,

.


)
x(t=

t i
[ H (t i ) H (t i +1 )] ,
T
i

a sin

i =

(2.17)

: Ti = i +1 i , ai = a (1)i .
(2.4) , . . 2.8
. Ti ..... = T1 = T0 = T1 = T2 = ...... = Ti = T / 2 (2.17)
, K = 0 .

1
0.5
x1( t )
x2( t )

1.57

3.14

0.5
1
t

4.71

6.28

82

1
0.5
x1( t )
x2( t )

1.57

6.28

4.71

3.14

0.5
1
t

. 2.8.

, K .
, , .
, .
, [30].

=
K

2
j =2

a 2j

=
a1 / 2

1 a12
a1

K
100%=

a 2j

2
j =2

=
a1 / 2

1 a12 a02 / 2
a1

100%

83

K =

a 2j

j =2 2
=
a2
j

j =1 2

1 a12 100% K =

a 2j

j =2 2
=
a2
j

j =1 2

1 a12 100%

, .2.14, , .2.14,

K
=

a
j =2

2
j

=
a1

1 a

2
1

a1

100% K =

a
j =2

a
j =1

2
j

1 a12 100% ,

2
j

, , a j .
. 2.9 K , , , ( . 2.9, )
( . 2.9, ) . , , . 0 . , , ,
, .
, K = 0%
, .

84

60

120

50

100

K1 j 40

K1 j 80

K2 j

30

K2 j

60

20

40

10

20

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.04

0.08

0.12

0.16

0.2

.2.9. K %
) )

, , , , , .
6 . , . 3 , , .
2.5.
, [30, 31, 33, 38, 39, 41]. . , [33] ,

=
x(t )

V
k =1

f k (t ),

85

f k (t ) - , Vk - .
, V , f (t ) . , [68], :

;
, .
. ;

Vk;
.
, . ,
. , . ,
,
.

-
.
, . . . ,
x(t ) = (t , 1 , 2 ,...n ),

86

1 , 2 ,... n -

(t , 1 , 2 ,... n ) -

.
. ,
[42]
y (t=
) A(t , ) cos[ B(t , ), ],

A(t , ), B(t , ) , , .
,
. . . , .
,
. ,
, ,
. .
[37]

=
(t ) Ai h(t ti , i ), < t < ,
i =

{ A } , {t } , { } , : , i

, h(t ti , i ) . .
.
, ,

87

.
,

. (2.4).
,

(2.4), x(t ) = {x(t ) : x(t ) = ai i (t , bi , i , i , Ti )[ H (t i ) H (t i 1 )], i = 1, }


i =0

: (z) ; Ai ,
PA(x), Ai = const ( i 1 , i ), ; i i

i , i = Tk ), Ti i-
k =1

PT (x) , Ti = i i 1 , i, H(z)- .
[3, 4, 55, 56]
(2.4) Ai (z) H(z) Ti i. [37]. , , ,
. (2.4)
. , ,
Ai Ti.

(z), Ai, Ti, , (z), PA(x), PT(x), RA(), RT() -

88

M [ x(t )] , D[ x(t )] , PX ( y ) , S ( ) , R X ( ) , M [ x(t )]


, D[ x(t )] , PX ( y ) ,
S ( ) , RX ( ) x(t).

, ,
,
, . ,
. 1 . . . .
[45], , ,
, , ..
PX (1 , 2 ,.... n , t1 , t2 ,..., tn=
) PX (1 , 2 ,.... n , t1 + , t2 + ,...., tn + ) .


,
, PX ( , t ) = PX ( ) , PX (1 , 2 , t1 , t 2 ) = PX (1 , 2 , t 2 t1 ) , ,
PX ( , t ) = PX ( , t + T ) , PX (1 , 2 , t1 , t 2 ) = PX (1 , 2 , t 2 t1 T ) ,

: T .
2.5.1.

.., [45]

89


Py (z ) . . . X = {x(t ) : PA ( z ), M [ x(t )], M [ x 2 (t )] = 2 } .
F [36 38 ]. x(t)
, , A
1
z du
, PX ( z ) = P (u ) PA ,
0
u u

P { (t ) u} = P {0 (t ) 1 (u )} + P {[1 1 (u )] (t ) 1} = 2 1 (u ),

1

z du
PX ( z ) = 2 1 (u ) PA ( ) .
u u
0

(2.18)

F, x(t) (t)
Px(z) ,
-1(u). ,
, , PA(z).
, PA(z), (2.18) . , ,
1/ 2, x 1,
PA ( x) =
0, x > 1.

(2.18)
y

( y) =
z Px (t ) ( z )dz .
1

(2.19)

90

(t),
v = z/u 1
PA(y)
1

=
Px ( t ) ( ) 2 1 PA ( z )dz , 0 .
0 z
z

(2.20)

Py(t)(z) Px(t)(z).
, : , .
""

Px ( t ) ( z ) Py ( t ) ( z ) dz.

=0 , Py(t)(z) = Px(t)(z) ,

1

Py (t ) ( ) 2 1 PA ( z )dz , 0 .
=

z
0

(2.21)

(2.21) , ,
, . , , , , .
, (t ) = sin t , 0 t < 1 . (2.21)
PA(z) [36]

91

PA ( z )
2
(
)
P=
v
dz , v 0,
y (t )
v v 2 z 2

(2.22)

[47]

Py (t ) (v)
z
PA ( z ) =
dv, z > 0.
2
2
v z
v

(2.23)

(2.23) [19].
v2

Py (t ) (v) =

e 2 .
2

. . , ,

PA ( z )
=

z2

z
2

e 2 , z .
2

, x(t)
(t )= sin(t ), 0 t < 1, -

PA ( z ) =

1
PR ( z ). PR ( z ) 2

92

t i 1
1
sin
( z)

A
PR ( z ).

[ H (t i 1 ) H (t i )], PA=

i
2
T
i =0
i

=
x(t )

Ti 0
. , .
, , Px ( t ) ( y ) = PA ( z ), .. , , ,
.
2.5.2.
,
[44],

2 M 2 [ A] 2
=
S x (t ) ()
x g (x ) PT ( x)dx
M 1[T ] 0
1

: g (x ) = (t ) e

j t

(2.27)

dt (t ) , M [ A2 ] ,

M [T ] .

(2.27)
[57] , , , .

S y (t ) () , PT ( x) = x 2 PT ( x), K ( y ) = g ( y ) 2
, , ,
(2.27) p 1 0

93

2 M 2 [ A]
=
S ( p)
PT ( x) p 1 K (x) d dx.

M 1[T ] 0
0

p 1

K (x) dx =

(x)

p 1

K (x) / x p d (x) = K ( p ) x p .

2 M [ A2 ]
2 M [ A2 ]
p
S ( p)
K ( p )=
P
x
x
dx
K
p
P
(
)
(
)
(1 p ),
=
T
0
M [T ]
M [T ]
, (2.28)

S (1 p ) M [T ]
P( p)
=

K (1 p ) 2 M [ A2 ]

: P( p ) , S(p), K(p) PT (x), Sy(t)(), K(y).

(2.28)

[31] , PT (x) , K ( y ). ,
. ,
.
.
Sy(t)() PT (x)=1, x (0,1). , 2 M [ A2 ]
,
=
M [T ]

S y (t ) () = x 2 g (x) PT ( x)dx = 3 y 2 g ( y ) dy,


0
0

(2.29)

, ,

94
2
3S y (t ) () + S y (t ) () = g () .

(2.30)

(2.30) , , .
Sy(t)()

PT(x)

3S y (t ) ( ) + S y (t ) ( ) 0, . , , ,
,

=
g ()

3S y (t ) () + S y (t ) ().

(2.31)

(2.30), , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, . ,
,

)
. c (t=

2
g () cos(t )d ,


, -

)
s (t=

2
g ()sin(t )d , .

, , , , , -

95

, , .


p
2
S X (t ) (=
) 2T g () M [ A ] 1 + 2 (1) RA ( p) cos pT , (2.32)
p =0

: T , RA(p) {Ai}; [19] (-1)p. T, g(), M[A2] , RA(p) . .


S y ( t )=
() S x (t ) (), 0,

(2.33)

: .
(2.33) (2.32),

G ()
=

R
p =1

G ()
=

( p )cos pT , 0, ,

S y (t ) ()

1
.
4T g () M [ A2 ] 2
2

RA(p)

2
R=
p
(
)
A

G()cos pT d .

(2.34)

Sx(t)() Sy(t)() 0, , ..
(2.34). , ,

96

{Ai} . RA(p)=[RA(1)]p,
.
"" RA(p),
. . , .
, p (p={-100, +100})
.
5 6
.
.
x(t)
.
x(t) . .
, , .
, Py(t)(y), (2.21),
,
(-1, 1). ,
(2.23)
.
, (2.29), -

97

. Py(x), , (2.24).

, (2.34),
, , ,
.
Ry() PT(x)
(2.26).
, ( )
, .

1. (
)
-
.
2. (
) , .
3. , , .
4.
, , ,
, ,
.

98

3

. 2 ,
.
() , .

, ,
.
, ,
,
,

,
. ,
,

.


. ,
.

, , . 2.

, , . .
.

99

Q X.

,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
, . .
X
, .
, ,

, .
,
.
. ,
,
. ,



[58]. , ,
.

, .


[59].

100

.
, , ,
, ,
, .
,
. .

, .
n qi m x(t),
, l k
, .

(),

- (),
(), . . ,
(. 3.1).

. 3.1.

, Q (q1, , qn)
(

, X(x1(t), , xm(t))
.
Z (z1, , ql) ( ,

101

, . .)
, V(v1, , vk)
(,
). ,
, .
, ,
,
, :
.
,
5 35 , 2098 %,
.
, ,
.
,
V
, Z

. , , Q
,
,
X. Q
, ,
, . . X
,

. ,
F,
Q
X.
.

102

, ,
, ,

, ,
.
F.

. ,

, . .
. ,


()

).


. ,

[60], [61],
[62] . . , ,
[63],
[61], ,
.

, , ,

.
,
,
.

103

.

,
.
, .
, ,
,
: ,
-. ,
,
, . ,
,
, , ,
, , . .

.
3.1.

(.3.2)

[6]. ()
X
Y A, (),
, Y X.
{A, X, Y} .
( )

Y = AX;

X = A 1Y.

(3.1)

104

X Y , ,
A , .
(3.1) . ,
, Y , X ,

(. 3.2).
x1

y = Ax1 ;

1
x1 = A y;

x2

x2 = By;

1
y = B x2 .

. 3.2.

x1 x2
. B = A 1,
()
(), ,
, .
X1 X2
. AA 1 = E A 1A = E, . . -
A A 1 x1 = x2, . . X
X .
,
.

.
1.

A () A 1, B () B 1,
:

105

{ A : x1 X ,
{B :

y Y , y =
Ax1} ;

y Y , x2 X , x2 =
By} .

(3.2)

2. x1 x2 :
, .
3. y , ,
X .
4. A A 1 , . .
(A 1)1 = A; (A)1 = A 1.


(2) .
- . 3.2
() ,
. . x2 x1

.
, . .3.3,

(1) ,
() (). -
.
. 3.3, ,
. . 3.3, .
3.3,
.
,
x(t), .

.

106

x1

x2

x, y

x1, y1

x2, y2

. 3.3.

, [33],
. x1(t)

=
x1 (t )

mn

sin(n0t + xn ).

n =1

, , x1(t)
.

y (t=
)

ymn sin(n0t + yn=)

(n ) x
0

mn

sin(n0t + xn + arg( (n0 ))).

=
n 1=
n 1

x1(t)
, . .

107

ymn = (n0 ) xmn yn = xn + arg( (n0 )),

.
y(t) ,
, x2(t). y(t)
x2(t).
y(t) x2(t) =
xmn K (n0 ) ymn

xn = yn + arg( K (n0 ).
.
.

=
x2 (t )

K (n ) y
0

n =1

mn

sin n0t + yn + arg( K (n0 )) ,

(3.3)

x=
2 (t )

K (n ) y

n=1

mn

cos yn + arg( K (n0 )) sin ( n0t )

K (n0 ) ymn sin yn + arg( K (n0 )) cos ( n0t ) .


n=1

.
, ,
. ,
, , arg( K (n0 )) =
0

x(t ) =
K (n0 ) ymn sin ( n0t ).

n=1

.
, ,
. /2,
arg( K (n0 )) =
/ 2

108

x(t ) =
K (n0 ) ymn cos ( n0t ).
n =1

.

.
(3.3) y(t),
x=
2 (t )

K (n )
0

n =1

(n0 ) xmn sin n0t + arg( K (n0 )) + arg( (n0 )) .

(3.4)

x2(t) = x1(t),
K (n0 ) (n0 ) =
1, arg( K (n0 )) + arg( (n0 )) = 0, 2 .
,
.
y(t)
x2(t). ,
x2(t).
. ,
, x2(t) = x1(t)
= x(t).

y(t) x(t) ()
:
x2 (t=
) K (0 ) (0 ) xm1 sin 0 t + arg( K (0 )) + arg( (0 )) ,

x2(t) = x1(t)

K (0 ) (0 ) =1, arg ( K (0 ) + arg( (0 )=
) 0, 2 .

109

,

.
:

. [65, 66],
, ,

, , .
1. [65 67]
,
,

.
1.
.
2.
0 360 .
1 2 (3.4).
, . .

, 2.
2.
,
(
).
2
, . .
.

110


, ,
?
:
1) y(t) x(t)

2 . =
y (t )

mn

sin(nt + xn )

n=1

=
x(t )

mn

sin(nt + xn )

n =1

, x(t) y(t)

;
2) y(t) x(t)
/2 .
y (t )
=

mn

cos(nt + xn )

n=1

x(t )
=

mn

sin(nt + xn )

n =1

,
, sin(nt ) =
1 cos 2 (nt );
3)

.
3. ,
, .
4. ,

, . . .
, ,
, . ,
, , ,

111

,

. , ,
.
,
. , x1(t)
y(t) . ()
( x1 ) = y .

. .
,
,
(x, y) .

.
K ( y ) = x2 . , ,

K 1 ( x2 ) = y .

x=
x=
x,
1
2


K 1 ( x) = ( x) .

(3.5)

(3.5) ,

. (3.5) x(t) y(t)
,
().
,

112

, K i1 ( x) = i ( x) (), Z 1 ( x) = g ( x) ()
G 1 ( y ) = z ( y ) ().

) = ( )e j1
. , (
RC LC- (),

1 ( ) = K ( )e j2 ( )
. ,

0 :

0 ) K (0 ) = 1 (0 ) K (0 ) = 1 , (0 ) + k (0 ) =
(
0 . (3.6)

(
) . , ( )

0 ) = 1/ 3 ,
(

K (0 ) = 3 .
RC- .
, . . 3
1/3. . 3.4, [68]

0 . .
.

. ,

.

113

.
, ().

x2(t), y(t)

xm

x2(t), y(t)
xm K

xm

xm

y(t),

y(t), x1(t)

. 3.4. :
();
()


, . .

1, . . .

. .
3.4, 1
. (

.

, .
.
,
. ,
1,

114

,
, -
, (
).

1.
,
.
. . 3.4,
xm.

. ,
1
.

1,
() . . 3.4,
1 .

RC- .

.

, ,
, , [65]. . 3.5,
,
(. 3.5, ) (. 3.5, 3.5, ).
,
. 3.5, . RC.

115


.
,

. . 3.5, .

RC-.

a
2
1.5
1
0.5

x(t)

x(t)
0

y(t)

y(t)

-1
-2
0

2
t

z(t)=x(t)

y(t)

x(t)

-1

-1

-2

-2
-2

-1

-2

-1

y(t)

x(t)
. 3.5. ,

116

,
.3.5, ,
. 3.5,
.
, ,
() ,
,
, . .
.

. 3.6. . 3.6,
, . 3.4, , . 3.5,
, . 3.5, 3.5, .
[44 45].
x(t) y(t) ,
. 3.5, .

R1/10k
1/ 0.02

1/ 0.02

DA / LF411A
3
7 +18V

y(t)

x(t)

y(t)

6
2/ 0.02

2
4

R2/10k

-18V
R4/15k

DA / LF411A
3
7 +18V
6 R4/1k
2
2
4 -18V

R1/22.7k
R3/3k

x(t)

R3/3k
R2/3k
VD1
BZX 55/C10

R4/10k VD1
BZX55/C10

. 3.6.
: RC- ,
RC-

117

3.2.

), .

.
[22
26].
. ,
, .

. , .

,
,
.
,
. ,
, (
) .
- .

,
.
.
.

, :
, , , ,

118

. , , ,
. ,
, . , ,

. ,
[].
:
;
- ,

;
.
,
, . .

,
. ,

. , ,


.

, ,
. :
.
. 3.3
,
.

119

3.2.1. RC-

. 3.3 -
. -
- RC-
, RC-,
LC- ,

. -
, ,
. , ,

. -
, .
3.2.1.1

. 3.3, . x y
: (
)1. x
, , y
. ,

(),
. y = V. = V. ,
x = V. = V. .
, . 3.7, . ,
,
.
1

120

(V. ) . ,
(V. ), , ,
(V. )

. 3.7.

(. 3.7, ).
. 3.7, , ,

(). . 3.7, (
, )
() , , . 3.7,
(),
.
,
.

, . . . 3.7, .
- (. 3.8) RC-,
.

121

RC- -
, .
. 3.9 RC-
(3), (1) (2)
, . 3.9
. ,
,
. .

, , . , ,
,
24 , [69].

. 3.8. : RC-; ;

,
,
.
,
.

, . ,
.

122

. 3.9. RC-

R-, L- C-,
, ,
.
. 3.10, .

Y12 = Y21 = G2.

Y11 = G1 + G2,

Y22 = G2 + G3,

123

G1, G2 G3
[70]
.

. 3.10. (); (); ()

: G1, G2 G3 (. 3.10, ),
LC- ,
, G1 (. 3.10, ), RC-
. ,
G2 G3 ,
. 3.10, .
. 3.10, : G1 G3.
.
.
, . 3.10,

G1 + G 2

Y =
G2
G1

G 2

G 2 + G 3
G 3

G1

G 3 .
G1 + G 3

124


, :
G 2 + G 3
Y1 =

G3

G 3 G1 + G 2
; Y2 =

G1 + G 3
G1

G1 G1 + G 2
; Y3 =

G1 + G 3
G2

G 2
,
G 2 + G 3

Y1 , Y2 Y3 ,
, 0.

[70].
. ,
3
:

11
12
K u =0;

Ku
Ku
11
aa
12
ab
=0;

22 12
K i =0;

Ki
Ki
22 bb
12
ab
=0;

K g =0;

12

11,22
12
K z =0,

Kg
Kg

aa
,bb 12 ab = 0;

Kz
11,22
K z 12
ab
=0,

, 12
, 22 , 12
, , 12
, 11,22
, 12

11

, ,

Ku
, , , ; aa
,

Ku
ab
,

Kg
Kg
Ki
Ki
, Kz ,
ab
bb
, ab
, aa
,bb ,

Kz

ab


( a b
).
.
, Y3,

125

3 ,
G1, G2 G3.
. 3.9.
,
.
,
.

. , 24 .
. 3.9,
,
, . ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, . 3.9,
. . 3.9,
3,
. . 3.9,
( 1) . 3.9, ( 2).

.
. 3.9
? . 3.1

.
. 3.9, .
RC-
=
v G2 (G2 + G3 )
. RC-

126

. 3.9, .
. ,
G2 (
).
. ,
, . .
,
.

RC-

, , G2
, . 3.5,

. ,
,
.
G2 ,
.
. 3.8
2. ,
. 3.9. . 3.5 ,
.
. 3.9,
G2 + G3 = KvG2. , , -,
G2. G2(0) > 0
, G2(0) < 0
. -,
G1.

G2 .

127

3.1. RC- .


RC

RC- 3

v = (1) k +l

kl
kk

RC-

. 3.9,

. 3.9,

v
v =

V23
V13

v =

V21
V31

G3
G2 + G3

G2
G2 + G3

. 3.9,

. 3.9,

v =

V13
V23

v =

G2
G2 + G1

v + v =
1

V12
V32

G1
G2 + G1

. 3.9,

. 3.9,

K v

v =

V31
V21

v =

G1
G1 + G3

G3
G1 + G3

v + v =
1

V32
V12

v + v =
1

1 K v v =
0 1 K v v =
0 1 K v v =
0 1 K v v =
0 1 K v v =
0
1 K v v =
0

(1 K v )G2 +

(1 K v )G3 +

(1 K v )G12 +

(1 K v )G1 +

(1 K v )G3 +

(1 K v )G1 +

0
+G3 =

+G2 =
0

0
+G13 =

+G2 =
0

+G1 =
0

+G3 =
0

K v
K =
1 K v

K v
K =
1 K v

K v
K =
1 K v

k l , , .

128

3.2. RC- .



i = (1) k +l

kl
ll

. 3.9,

i =

I2
I1

i =

. 3.9,

i
I3
I1

G13
G12 + G13

G12
G13 + G12

. 3.9,

. 3.9,

i =

i =

G12
G12 + G23

I3
I2

G23
G12 + G23

K i

i =

I2
I3

i =

G23
G13 + G23

i + i =
1

i + i =
1

. 3.9,

i
I1
I2

. 3.9,

I1
I3

G13
G13 + G23

i + i =
1

1 K i i =
0 1 K i i =
0 1 K i i =
0 1 K i i =
0 1 K i i =
0 1 K i i =
0
(1 K i ) G12

(1 K i ) G13 (1 K i ) G12

0
+G13 =

+G12 =
0

K i
K =
1 K i

0
+G23 =

(1 K i ) G23

(1 K i ) G23

(1 K i ) G13

+G12 =
0

+G13 =
0

+G23 =
0

K i
K =
1 K i

K i
K =
1 K i

129

3.3. RC- .



V kl
=
=
z

. 3.9,

z =

z
V23
I1

z =

V13
I2

. 3.9,

. 3.9,

z
z =

V21
I3

z
z =

V31
I2

. 3.9,

. 3.9,

K g

z =

V12
I3

z =

V32
I1

G2
G2
G3
G3
G1
G1
G2G1 + G1G3 + G2G3 G2G1 + G1G3 + G2G3 G2 G1 + G1G3 + G2 G3 G2 G1 + G1G3 + G2 G3 G2 G1 + G1G3 + G2 G3 G2 G1 + G1G3 + G2 G3

. 3.9,

z = z

z = z

z = z

0 1 K g z =
0
0 1 K g z =
1 K g z =
0 1 K g z =
1 K g z =
0 1 K g z =
0
(G1 + G3 K g )G2 + (G1 + G3 K g )G2 + (G1 + G2 K g )G3 + (G1 + G2 K g )G3 + (G2 + G3 K g )G1 + (G2 + G3 K g )G1 +
0
+G1 G3 =

+G1 G3 =
0

K g = K g

+G1 G2 =
0

+G1 G2 =
0

K g = K g

+G2 G3 =
0

+G2 G3 =
0

K g = K g

130

3.4. RC- .

. 3.9,

kl
I
= =
V kk , ll

V13
I2

K z =

g =

. 3.9,

V23
I1

K z =

I2
V13

g =

G2

I1
V23

G2

g = g

. 3.9,

V31
I2

K z =

V21
I3

K z =

g =

. 3.9,

I2
V31

g =

G3

I3
V21

G3

g = g

. 3.9,

V32
I1

K z =

V12
I3

K z =

g =

. 3.9,

I1
V32

g =

G1

I3
V12

G1

g = g

1 K z g =
0
1 K z g =
0 1 K z g =
0 1 K z g =
0 1 K z g =
0
0 1 K z g =

1 K z G2 =
0 1 K z G2 =
0 1 K z G3 =
0 1 K z G3 =
0 1 K z G1 =
0 1 K z G1 =
0

K z = K z
K z = K z
K z = K z

131

3.5
,

3.9,

3.9,

3.9,

3.9,

3.9,

3.9,

G2

G2

G3

G3

G1

G1

-,

: G3 = (Kv 1)G2.
, G2 G3 , Kv
,
, (Kv 1) .
, Kv = G2/(G2 + G3) = 1.
,
G2 = G3 Kv = 2. 0
, . . .
, ()
RC-, , ,
G2 G3, () ,

G1

G3.

RC-
. , ,
. ,
,
,
- .
RC- .


: v = V23 V13 ; v = V13 V23 ; v = V21 V31 . . (

132


,
). , , V12a + V23a =
V13a . 3.9,
, , V21 = V12a ; V31 = V13 ; V32 = V23 , ,
V13a ,

v + v =1

v + v =1 ,

v + v =1

i
v

=3

(3.7)

i=1


(3.7).
. 3.9
(3.7).
(3.1)
RC-
,

[69]

, , .
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
. , (3.7),
. 3.9, ,
2. . 3.9,
1,

133

. . 3.9, 3,
.
. ,
.
. ,
a
V=
V12a + V23a
13

V=
V21 + V13 .
23

4, , . .
V13a = V23 V23 = V13

V12a = V21 , -
, . - ,
, V12a V21 .
, ,
-,
.
- .
, -
, , 3.9, ,
, - : . 3.9, -.

(3.7)

V23 = v (V13a ) ,

V13 = v (V23 ) ,

V21 = v (V31 ) ,

V31 = l (V21 ) ,

V12 = v (V32 ) , V12 = v (V32 ) ,


V13 ;
v (V13a ) + v (V31 ) =

v (V23 ) + v (V32 ) =
V23 ;
V12 .
v (V12 ) + v (V21 ) =

- .. [22].

(3.8)

134

x
vx (VAB
) (3.7) ,

(3.8)
, ,
.
,
, .
,


. K V23 = V13 , . 3.9, .
V31 , K u =
1.
. 3.9, K V21 = V31 .
V31 ,

K=
K (1 =
v ) 1.
v

K =

K
.
1 K

K ,
.
.
,
. K v ,
()
K .

K v

, . . 3.6

.

135

3.6

RC-
RC-

RC-

(. 3.9, )

(. 3.9, )

K =

K
1 + K

K =

180

K =

K
1 + K

K =

K
1 K (1 )

K
1 + K (1 + )


K = K/(1 + K). K,
K = K/[1 K (1 )] .
< 1
.
K = K/(1 + K).
K = K/[1 K (1 )].

(3.7), . RC : v = v e j ,
, ,
(. . 3.6),

RC- v < 1 ,
v > 1 , v = 1 v = 1 Re ( v ) j Im ( v )


.
.

136

. 3.1

:
K v =
K v /(1 K v ),


K v /(1 K v ),
Kv =

K v /(1 K v );
K v =

K v /(1 K v ),
K v =


K v /(1 K v ),
Kv =

K v /(1 K v );
K v =

(3.9)

[69]
, , .
, , ,
RC-
(. . 3.1). ,
, . 3.9, ,
,
(. 3.9, )
,
. . 3.9,
; . 3.9, .




V13 ;
v (V13a ) + v (V31 ) =

v (V23 ) + v (V32 ) =
V23 ;
v (V12 ) + v (V21 ) =
V12 .

V=
V13 (t ) V23 (t );
21 (t )

V12 (t ) + V13 (t ) =
V23 (t );

V31 (t ) + V32 (t ) =
V12 (t ).

(3.10)

,
.
RC-
i =i2 i1 , i =i1 i2 , i = i2 i3

137

. . i1a= i2a + i3a , . 3.5, , ,


i1 = i1a , i3 = i3 , i2 = i2 , i1a , ,
, (3.11)
:
.
RC-
,

i + i =1

i + i =1 ,

i + i =1

j
i

=3 ,

j=1

i2 + i3 =
i1

i1 + i3 =
i2 .

i2 + i1 =
i3

(3.11)


. (3.11) ,
. 3.9 i1 ,
i2 i3 .
. 3.1 3.2
:
v =i , v =i ;

v =i , v =i ;

v =i , v =i .

(3.12)

. 3.7
:
z = z ; g =g ;


z = z ; g = g ;

z = z g =g .

(3.13)

138

, u, i, z g
: u, i , z g ,
.
, . 3.13.4,
LC- RC-
. , . 3.9,

. 3.9, ,
. 3.9,
. .

. , (3.7) ,

G1 . ,
.
G 3 , .

. G1 = 0
G 3 = 0.

( G

K g G 2 =
0. , G 2
0, G1 K g G 2 =

(
). G 3 K g =
0
G1 K g =
0.

. , ,
G1 G 3 ,
. ,

.

139

=
K v K=
K i ;
i , Kv


=
K v K=
Ki ;
i , Kv

=
K v K=
K
K
,
.
i
v
i


:
G 2
;
G 2
;
-
;
-
, ( : G1 , G 2 G 3 ).
3.2.1.2. c

:
(), . .
,
.
, [71, 72],
, .

, . .
, .
.

140

.
, ,
.

(. 3.11). , .
DA1 , DA2
.
. (3)
: - RLC- (1 2). 3
.
() ,

.
1
2, 3. ,
.

.
3 .

. ,
. 3.8, a ,
. 3.11, .
, .


Z1 ( )GDA1Z 2 ( )GDA 2 = 1 ,

(3.14)

141

GDA1 , GDA 2 DA1 DA2,


Z1 ( ) , Z 2 ( )

1 2.
DA2

DA2

DA1

x1 y1

x2
DA1

x
1

. 3.11.


,
.

1 DA2,
, , x2,
GDA 2 ( x2 ) = y1 , GDA1 ( x1 ) = y2
(3.15).
(3.15).
Z1 (GDA 2 ( x2 )) = x1 , Z 2 (GDA1 ( x1 )) = x2 ,

(3.15)

GDA1 ( x1 ) , GDA 2 ( x2 )
DA1 DA2, 3;
Z1 ( y1 ) , Z 2 ( y2 ) 1

2 .
,

142

Z1 (GDA 2 ( Z 2 (GDA1 ( x1 )))) = x1 Z 2 (GDA1 ( Z1 (GDA 2 ( x2 )))) = x1

(3.16)

.
, . 3.11,
,
: .
, DA2 1,
DA1 2.
,
(4),
Z LFDC1 (GDA 2 ( x2 )) = x1 ,

GDA 2 1 ( Z LFDC11 ( x1 )) = x2 ,

Z LFDC 2 (GDA1 ( x1 )) = x2 ,

GDA11 ( Z LFDC 2 1 ( x2 )) = x1 .




GDA1 ( x1 ) = Z 2 1 ( x2 ) GDA 2 ( x2 ) = Z 11 ( x1 ) .

(3.17)

(3.17)

2

DA1.
(3.17)
DA2
1.
3 ,
, .
x1(t), y1(t), x2(t) y2(t)
, ,

143

DA1 DA2.
(3.17) .
, , ,
x1(t) x2(t),

.
,
x(t)
y(t) . ,
2 1,
DA1.
1
2 DA2.
. 3.12
.

DA1 / AD844AN
+7.8V 7

R4/10 k

x
(t)

DA2 / AD844AN
3
+10V

(t)

7.8V 4
5
2

y2

x1

-10V

x2
R1/20 k
R2/20 k

R3/10 k

C/0.1

y1

. 3.12. () () x1 x2

3
AD844AN, 1
= 0.1F, 2

144

R1 R2 20 k.
x1(t)

x2 (t)

.

. (3.17) 3.
3. [68]

,
,


,
.
, .
. 3.12, .

.
,
(. 3.12, )
(. 3.12, ) [44] ,
: .
(. 3.12, )
, , ,
.
,
. 3.12,

V= K (V V )= K V
V ;
Z + R2

145

=
U

K
(U U )
=
U ; I
,
Z
R
1
1 K
Z + R2

I
=

V ( K + 1) R2 + 2Z
V R2
.

R1 (1 K ) Z + R2
R1 Z

. 3.12. ();
(, ) ()

I
R 1
R
=
2
=
2 G .
G =
V
R1 Z
R1

.
R1 R2
G .

146

. (. 3.12, ).
,
R2 C2 (
), G3 ( p ) =

1 + pR2 C2
,
R2


G ( p ) =

R3 1 + pR2 C2
. G1
R4
R2

, ,

G ( p ) = G ( p ) + G13 ( p ) =

pC1
R 1 + pR2 C2
3
.
1 + pR1C1 R4
R2


G(p) = 0,

G ( p)

pC1 R2 R4 R3 pR2C2 R3 pR1C1 R3 p 2 R1C1 R2C2 R3


= 0.
1 + pR1C1

, . .

Q=
( p ) pC1 R2 R4 R3 pR2 C2 R3 pR1C1 R3 p 2 R1C1 R2 C=
0.
2 R3

R3


R4

=
Q( p ) p 2 R1C1 R2 C2 + p R1C1 + R2 C2 R2 C=
+ 1 0.
1
R3

147

R1 C1 + R2 C2 R2 C1

R4

=
0;

R3

02 R1 C1 R2 C2 =
1.

(
) R4 = 2R3,
, .
,
,
G2 .
, .
, ,
G2.
, , ,
.
. , 3.12,
, .
-,
(. 3.9).
, ,
,
.

Z1

Z2

R C R
C R1 R2 ,
(DA).


= =

Z2
R3
=
.
Z1 + Z 2 R3 + R4

V1 = V1,

148

. 3.13. :
; ; ,

:
Z 2 R4 = Z1 R3 ,

(3.18)

,
.
(3.18)
, (a, b) (c, d)
(b, ) (d, c) .

(. 3.13,, ).

149

. 3.13,
.
-
, (. 3.14, ). ,

.

. 3.14. -

(. .
) , ( )
Mathcad Electronic Workbench
, .

150

3.2.1.3.

. 3.4, ,

. :
- RLC-
(2) (, ,
).
,

,
, . .
.
RLC-.
RLC-.
. ,

. ,
. ,
.
,
.
. ,
,
.

[68].

151

, ,
:
.

(x,y).


,
. ,
,
, .
,

( ), (
).
. ,
, ( )

.


RC , . 3.5, .
x(t) y(t), . 3.5, .
. 3.16, a

.
G ( x) = G ( x)

(3.19)

152

y(t)

y(t)

-1

-1

-2

-2

-2

-1

-2

-1

x(t)

x(t)

. 3.15. ()
()


,
. . 3.15,
,
, . 3.15, a.
. 3.5,

, y(t)
, x(t). ,


.
. x(t)
.
,

3.

153

4. [68]
OS,
,
()

().

. 3.16, a.
[73]. , .

R .
x(t) R- R
C =

= 10 k

0.1 uF.


. 3.16, .
AD844AN
R2 R3 .

x(t) .

x(t)

DA / AD844AN
7 +10V

2
y(t)

y(t)

x(t)

3
5

-10V

R
R3/20k
R2/ 20k

. 3.16. ()
DA CFOA (Current feedback operational amplifier) ()

154

. 3.16, a
. 3.16, . 3.15, a,
4.


.
,
, .
,
. , .
, ,
, :

, ;
;

.
,

, , .

.
,

, ,

155

: .

.

,
()
().
,


.
(3.5), (3.17) (3.19),

,
,
.


.
- -
. ,

,
.

156

4



. ,


.

, . 2.

() , ,
. ,

, ,
[7484].
,
.
, ,
, . ,

. ,

,

, .

157

.
.
4.1. ,

x + x =x (1 x 2 ),

(4.1)

, x, x ,
x .
-- [75]
.
.
:
[75], [76], [77] . .
(4.1)
( x). = 0

x (1 x 2 ) =
xf
x+x=
u ( x, x ) u ( x, x ) =

x+x=
0,
x(t) = xm cos (0t + 0), xm ; = 1 0

. ,

, . . x(t0) x (t0 ).
, x(t0) = xm

x (t0 ) = 0,

x(t) = xm cos (0t). ,


(4.1), ,

158

. ,
, , .

,
,
x + x + x = 0,
> 0, < 0.

(4.1). ,
, ,
. f(x)
, x
. f(x)

, f(x) = 1 x2.
f(x) x2
.
--, ,
(4.1) .
, ,
.
. --

.
, ,
(4.1), . .
.
. ,


(. 4.1). . 4.1, (4.1)

159

: x(t) y (t ) = x (t )
.
,

, 2, , 1,
.

3
2
x1( t )
x2( t )

1
0
1
2
3

15.71

31.42

47.12

62.83

2.5

2.5

1.25

1.25

y1( t )
y2( t )

y1( t )

y2( t )

1.25

2.5

2.5

1.25

1.25

1.25

2.5

2.5
2.5

1.25

x1( t ) , x2( t )

1.25

2.5

x1( t ) , x2( t )

. 4.1. --: ;
( = 0,1
= 0,5 )

160

(. 4.1, )
. x(t),
( . 4.1, ).
,
(. 4.1, ). ,
. ,
( = 0,1)
. :
, ,
,

.
.
.
,

.

, ,

[76]:
x = xm cos() + u1(xm, ) + 2u2(xm, ) + ,
x = xm cos() ,
; u1(xm, ), u2(xm, ) ,
; xm ; = t +
.
xm
,

161

(4.1). 0. , ,
u1(xm, ) 2u2(xm, ), ,
, ,
, . .

xm = F1 ( xm ) + 2 F2 ( xm ) + ...;
= + G1 ( xm ) + 2 G2 ( xm ) + ...

Fi(xm)

Gi(xm)

x f ( x) =

xm sin() f (xm cos ()) (4.1) .

F ( x) = f ( x)dx :
*

=
F ( x)
*

*
n

( xm ) cos(n ).

(4.2)

n =0

,
x f ( x) ,
(4.2)
xm sin( ) f ( xm cos() ) =

nF

*
n

( xm )sin(n ).

n =0

( )
(4.1).
f (x) = 1 x2
x

F (=
x)
*

dx
f ( x)=

1
x 1 x 2 .
3

(4.3)

162

f (x)
. :
1

F1* (=
xm ) xm 1 xm 2 ;
4

(4.4)

F3* ( xm ) = xm xm 2 .
12

(4.2)
xm 2
F (
=
) xm 1
4

xm 3

cos( ) 12 cos(3 ).

. 4.2 F1* ( x) F3* ( x) .

0.5

1.5

2.5

0.25

0.5

0.5
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

F1( x) 0.5

F3( x) 0.75

1.5

1.25

1.5
x

. 4.2. (3.4): F1 ( x); F3 ( x)


*

F1* ( xm ) (4.4)
(. 4.2, ).
(4.1) ,
,
, F1* ( xm ) = 0.
xm = 2 (

163

. 4.1, ). . 4.2,
(2, 0).
F3* ( xm ), ,
(. 4.2, ).

[62]
dxm *
d
= F1 ( xm );
= = 0 .
dt
dt
2

, ,
,
F1* ( xm ) = 0, .

, , .

.

dxm *
d
= F1 ( xm ) + 2 F2* ( xm );
= + G1* ( xm ) + 2G2* ( xm ),
dt
2
dt

G1* ( xm ) G2* ( xm ) .
xm = 2, = 1
2/16. , 2
,
.

=
x xm cos( ) +
0

nFn* ( xm )
cos(n ),

2
n=2 n 1

(4.5)

164

0 = 1 , xm ; n

Fn* ( xm )

n- .

,
(4.5) . --

,

n
1
3 1 xm3
*
K =
2
F3 ( xm )
=

=
.
n 1
xm
8 12 xm 8

(4.6)

(4.5) , n, ,
, ,
,
() (4.1).
.
[77]
d
xm2 7 xm4
2 1
= 1
+
.
dt
8 8 256

= 1 2/16.
-- ,

[75],

2
n

2 =02

n =1

n
n =1

,
2

2
n

(4.7)

165

xn n- ,
.

dF1* ( xm ) 3 2
= 1 xm = .
dxm
2 4

(4.8)

.
xm 2
[66]
=
xm
xm 1
. ,
2
4

t
=

1
( xm ) 2
( xm ) 2
ln
ln

.
4 ( xm ) 2
4 ( xm ) 2

,
, , xm = 0,1 xm = 1,9 ,
t = 8,2/. = 0,1 13
( 2).
, ,
, :
xm = 2 ;
= 1 2/16 ;
K = /8 ;
U 1/ ;
t 8,2/ .

166

. .

,
.
,
.

. ,

, (4.1) , ,
, .

, ,
. ,
, (4.1),
,
.
K
V

t
f

. 4.3. : K ; t
; f ; V


,
.

167

,
(. 4.3), [2].

.
4.2.
, ,
.
RC-,
- - .

1. ,


.

,

[2, 25 26],
, [2,
25] .
RC-
(. 4.4),

RC-

[2, 25].
. 4.4,

, .

168

k
Xm

kx
X
x
1

>
;
m

K
K

X
X
=
f ( x) Kx m x m ;
K
K

kx X m 1 x < X m ,
K

(4.9)

k K , Xm
x.

. 4.4,

,
k = 0,
, k > 0.

. , , . 4.4,
,
,
, - ,

.

. 4.4. :
;

169

,
,

d2x 2
dx
dy

+
3

+
=
x
, y ( x=
) f ( x).
dt 2
dt
dt

,
d ( f ( x(t )) )
d2x 2
dx
dx

+
3

+
x
=

K ( x),
dt 2
dt
dt
dt

K() . 4.4,
Xm

k x > K ;

X
X
=
K ( x) df (=
x) / dx K m x m ;
K
K

Xm
k x <
.

(4.10)

= 1 ,

+ x x ( K ( x) 3) .
x=

(4.11)

..

[2].

, x(t),
.

(k = 0).


. ,
, (4.4):

170

2
2K
X
X
X
X

m
m
m

arcsin
x m ;
+
1

K
xK xK
xK
F1* ( xm ) =

Xm
K

4 X
m

F3* ( xm ) = 3x K

2
2

Xm 2 Xm
Xm

2
x

K
K
K

Xm
x
.
K


(. 4.5, ) x Xm/K F1 K
( ). x > Xm/K
,
.

( )
(4.11) , .
K = 3,16
Xm = 10 xm 3,607,
.
. 4.5,
. ,
f(x) . 4.4, ,
.
, ,
. , xm = 3,607 (. 4.5, )
5,2 %. ,
, .
,
,

171

. ,
0,005 %
[2],
. ,

,
( 10 ).

0.2

3.6

3.2

3.6

0.16

0.12

2.4
F3( x)

F1( x)
1.6

0.08

0.8

0.04

0.052

10

10

. 4.5. () ()

,
[85 153].

.
( 0,005 %)
.
,
,

. .

172

.
.


.
4.3.

x + x =x f1 ( x);

(4.12)

x + x =x f 2 ( x ).


,
.

. f1(x) f 2 ( x )
,

,
.
(4.1) (4.12) , (4.1)
(4.12)

f1 ( x) = 1 x 2 . (4.12)

[151]. , -- (4.1)

173


. [2]
f (x) -
. (4.12)


[2]. :
110 %, 12 %. -,
[2]
,

. :
f (x),
(4.12) .
.
,
N

f ( x) = an x n , N
n =0

, .

f (x) = a0 + a1x2 + a2x4 + + aNx2N.

N = 1,

f (x) a0 = 1, a1 = 1 ai = 0 ( i 2)
f (x) = 1 x2 (4.12)
(4.1). ,
-- , f (x)
[75].

.
[77]
x

F ( x=
)
*

a
a
aN

f ( x)dx
= x a0 + 1 x 2 + 2 x 4 + ... +
x2 N
3
5
2N + 1

(4.13)

174

Fn* ( xm ):
3a1 2 10a2 4 35a3 6
d nm xmN

F ( x=
xm x0 +
xm +
xm +
xm + ... +
;
m)
12
80
448
bn 2 N + 1

d m xm N
5a
21a3 6
1a
=
F3* ( xm ) xm 1 xm 2 + 2 xm 4 +
xm + ... + n
;
+
b
N
12
80
448
2
1
n

m
N
a
a
d
x
1
7

m
=
F5* ( xm ) xm 2 xm 4 + 3 xm 6 + ... + n
;
(4.14)
+
b
N
80
448
2
1
n

..............................................................................................
1 aN
*
F2 N +1 ( xm ) = xm
,
bn 2 N + 1
*
1

an, bn, dn, xn


.
F1* ( xm ) (4.14)
,
Fn* ( xm )
2

nFn* ( xm )
K =
=
2
n =3 xm ( n 1)
2 N +1

2N + 1

3 *
5

*
*
=
8 F3 ( xm ) + 24 F5 ( xm ) + ... + (2 N + 1) 2 1 F2 N +1 ( xm ) .

:
a3 6
aN
a2 4
xm = z3 , ,
xm = z2 ;
xm4 = z N ;
80
2N + 1
448
12
2
2
2
2
2N + 1

7
3
5
k3 , ,
k1 ; =
k2 ; =
=
kN ;
=
2
(2
N
+
1)

1
48
8
24

m 1
L1 ( z ) = z1 + 5 z2 + 21z3 + ... + d n z N ;
L2 ( z ) = z2 + 7 z3 + ... + d nm 2 z N ;
.......................................................
LN ( z ) = z N .
a1

xm2 = z1 ;

175

K = =
( z )

k1 L12 ( z ) + k2 L22 ( z ) + k3 L23 ( z ) + ... + k N L2N ( z ).

(4.15)

,
z1, z2, z3, , zN, (z), . .
.
2(z) min.

3a1 2 10a2 4 35a3 6
d nm xmN

F ( x=
xm a0 +
xm +
xm +
xm + ... +
= 0,
m)
12
80
448
bn 2 N + 1

*
1

xm 0, a0 = 1
1 + 3z1 + 10 z2 + 35 z3 + ... + d nm z N =
0.

(4.16)
Lk
zh

= 0

(3.16). 2(z)
G( z)
=

N
2 ( z )
dz j 0.
=

z
j
j =1

(4.15)
2 ( z )
L ( z )
L ( z )
L ( z )

=
dz1 2k1 L1 ( z ) 1
+ 2k2 L2 ( z ) 2
+ ... + 2k N LN ( z ) N
dz1 ;
z1
z1
z1
z1

2 ( z )
L ( z )
L ( z )
L ( z )

=
dz2 2k1 L1 ( z ) 1
+ 2k2 L2 ( z ) 2
+ ... + 2k N LN ( z ) N
dz2 ;
z2

2
2
2

......................................................................................................................
2 ( z )
L ( z )
L ( z )
L ( z )

=
dz N 2k1 L1 ( z ) 1
+ 2k2 L2 ( z ) 2
+ ... + 2k N LN ( z ) N
dz N .
z N
z N
z N
z N

176

Lk
= 0 k > h, z,
zh


2 ( z )
=
dz1 [ 2k1 L1 ( z ) 1] dz1 ;
z1
2 ( z )
=
dz2 [ 2k1 L1 ( z ) 5 + 2k2 L2 ( z ) 1] dz2 ;
z2
2 ( z )
=
dz3 [ 2k1 L1 ( z ) 21 + 2k2 L2 ( z ) 7 + 2k3 L3 ( z ) 1] dz3 ;
z3
...................................................................................................................................
2 ( z )
=
dz N 2k1 L1 ( z )d 22NN11 + 2k2 L2 ( z )d 22NN+11 + 2k3 L3 ( z )d 22NN+31 + ... + 2k N LN ( z ) 1 dz N .
z N

(4.16),
G( z) =
[ k1 L1 ( z ) 0, 6k2 L2 ( z )] dz1 + [7k1 L1 ( z ) 7k2 L2 ( z ) + 2k3 L3 ( z )] dz3 +
0.
+ 2(d nm 1 d nm )k1 L1 ( z ) + 2(d nm 3 d nm 1 )k2 L2 ( z ) + ... + 2k N LN ( z ) dz N =

dz G(z) = 0
, .
,
, ai. ,

f (x) = a0 + a1x2 + a2x4 + a3x6,

, a0 = 1

f 6( x) 1 21, 2 x 2 + 65,7 x 4 50,1x 6 .

(4.12)

x + 02 x = 0 x (1 21, 2 x 2 + 65, 7 x 4 50,1x 6 )

(4.17)

K = 1,8 102

f 6( x)

177

,
, ,
. , ,
f(x),
,
. (4.14)

F3* ( xm )

F5* ( xm ),


L1 ( z ) = 0;

L2 ( z ) = 0;

1 + 3 z1 + 10 z2 + 35 z3 =
0.

(4.18)

(4.18)

z, f(x):
f 6( x) 1 24 x 2 + 80 x 4 64 x 6 = u6 ( x),

u6(x) .
. 4.6, (4.12)
= 0,1.

. 4.6, (t). , , ,
.

(2 N + 1) FN* ( xm )
4
= F3* ( xm ) = 2,1 102 .
K =
2
(2 N + 1) 1
48

,
.
-- (K = 12,5 102,

178

, ,
, .

1.5

0.015
y1( t )

0 ( t )

x( t )

y2( t )
y3( t )

1.5

0.015
0

1.57

3.14
t

4.71

x1( t ) , x2( t ) , x3( t )

6.28
2

. 4.6. (4.12)
: ;

= 0,1
: f 6( x) K = 0,184 %; f 6( x) K = 0,213 %.

.
.
, .
, K = 0,001 % = 1 2N

(2 N + 1) FN* ( xm )
K

(2 N + 1) 2 1

1 100.
K

179

,
,
.
,

(4.12)
,
, , -. K =

= 4,16 102.
24

, ,
,
f ( x ) = b0 + b1 ( x ) 2 + b2 ( x ) 4 + ... + bN ( x ) 2 N ,


. ,

f 6 ( x ) =
1 7,5 x 2 + 14,5 x 4 8,1x 6 .


K = 2,8 103, . . ,
.
,
. ,
,
64
f 6 ( x ) =
1 8 x 2 + 16 x 4 x 6 .
7

180

f ( x )

bi =

f ( x)

ai
2i + 1

1
2,98 103 , . . ,
2
2 N + 1 (2 N + 1) 1

f(x) = 1
x2. f ( x ) ,
2 N

1.
K

101
, K = 0,001 % = 0,1 2 N
1 =21.
105
3


.

, , --,
, , 10 % xm = 1, 8 xm = 1,998 . t=
4,7

f 6 ( x )

:
x 3x 2 5 x 4 5 x6
m 1 m + m m .
xm =
2
2
8
64

,
t = 5 .
.

.
, ,
(4.12),

181

df
< 0. ,
dxm

df
=
48 x + 320 x3 384 x5
dx

xm =1

f 6" ( x) ,

=
112,

.
, 0,8, ,
0,3 . . 4.6,
, .

dF1* ( xm ) 9 2 25 4 35 6
= 1 xm +
xm xm = .
dxm
2 2
8
64

, ,
.
N

, f ( x) = an x 2 n ,
n =0

f(x) = 1 x2

.
. , ,
20 , 10 ,
. . ,


.
,

(N > 2)

182

. . 4.6, ,
,
.
,

.

.
4.4.
[79, 151, 152] ,

x + x =x ( f1 ( x) + f 2 ( x ) ) ,

(4.19)

x + x =x (1 x 2 x 2 ) .

(4.20)

, .. [79] ,
t x(t) = 2sin (0t + ).
.
(4.20)

.
, ,
,
, x x
.

183

x + 02 x = 0 ( x + x ) (1 ax 2 ( x + x) 2 ) .

a x x ,
90.
= 0,1 a
(. 4.7). 1 = 0, . .
, 2 a = 1
90.
K < 0,001 % = 0,1 ,
(a 1) a 0,2 % = 0
90 0,1 a = 1
, .

. 4.7.

. [103]

x + x =x (1 x 2 n Pn ( x 2 ) ) ;
x + x =x (1 Pn ( x 2 ) x 2 n ) ,

184

Pn ( x 2 ) Pn(x2) n
.
t .
,
x = sin(t) x (t=
) cos(t=
)

1 sin 2 (t ) , x x ,

f1 ( x 2 ) = f 2 ( x 2 ) .

f1 ( x 2 ) = x 2 n , f 2 ( x 2 )= (1 x 2 ) n .

,
2n, .
(4.20) n = 1.
( n > 1)
, ,
,
.
,

x + x =x ai x + b j x j .
=
i 0=j 0

(4.21)

,

. ,
( ),
.

,
( ). x(t) = x(t)
.

185

(4.21)
x(t) x (t ), ,
,

2k

x a2 k x + b2l x 2l ,
x+x=
=
k 0=l 0

(4.22)

,
f (4.22), x x (
a0 b0), .

(4.23)
0.
f ( x (t ), x (t ) ) =
a0 + a2 k ( x sin t ) + b2l ( x cos t ) 2l =
2k

=
k 1 =l 1

(4.22) ,
.
x=
x=
1, (4.22)
m

:
=
f1 ( x, x )

bk T2k ( x) + bl T2l ( x ),

=
k 1 =l 1

T2 k ( x), T2l ( x ) .
, f1 , bk = bl,
k = l. f1
k l,

x + x =x b2 n 1T2(2 n 1) ( x) + b2 m 1T2(2 m 1) ( x ) .
=
n 1 =m 1

(4.24)

186

f ( x, x ),

,
b2n + 1 < 0 b2m + 1 < 0.
, (4.24)
.
,
n = 1 b1 = 0,5 (4.20),
n = 3 T6(x)
f 6( x) =
1 24 x 2 + 80 x 4 64 x 6 .
, (4.24) , ,
n m

x + x =x b2(2 k 1)T2(2 k 1) ( x) + b2(2 k 1)T2(2 k 1) ( x ) .


=
k 1 =k 1

b2(2 k 1) =

.
sin[2(2k 1)]
2k 1

, 0 /4,

sin[2(2k 1)]
sin[2(2k 1)]

x + x =x
T2(2 k 1) ( x) +
T2(2 k 1) ( x ) . (4.25)
2k 1
2k 1
=
k 0
k 1=

(2, 6, 10, 14
. .).
. , x = x = 1

2 .


, (4.25)
.

187

1, , ,
(2n 1)/4.
, x < 1
( > 0), x > 1

2 f(x)

2 ,

1
x ;
f ( x, x ) > 0 xm <
2

1
x ;
f ( x, x ) = 0 xm =
2

1
x ,
f ( x, x ) < 0 xm >
2

(4.26)

.
. 4.8
f ( x, x ), .

. 4.8. f ( x, x )

. 4.8 ,
. ,

x < 1

x = 1

f ( x),

2 , x > 1 2

2 .

f ( x, x )

(. 4.9)

188

, (4.25),
.
[93, 105].

. 4.9.

.
.
,

RC-


.
.
, , (4.19)


,
, ,

.
f1(x) f 2 ( x ),
,
.

189

[152, 153]

c0
f1 ( x (t ) ) ==
f1 ( sin(t ) )
+ ( cn cos(nt ) + d n sin(nt ) );
2 n =1
a0
f 2 ( x (t ) ) =
f 2 ( cos(t ) ) =
+ ( an cos(nt ) + bn sin(nt ) ),
2 n =1

(4.27)

a, b, c, d .
(4.19)

: a0 = c0, an = cn, bn = dn.


.
[154], x (t ) = cos(t )
(4.27)
,
, . .

f 2 ( x (t ) ) + f 2 ( x (t ) ) a0
=
+ an cos(nt ) =
f 2+ ( x (t ) ) =
nTn ( x (t ) ),
2
2 n 1 =n 1
=

n ; Tn ( x (t ))
.

A0
f 2 ( x (t ) ) =
f 2 ( cos(t ) ) sign(sin(t )) =
+ ( An cos(nt ) + Bn sin(nt ) ).
2 n =1

f 2 ( x (t ) ) f 2 ( x (t ) ) A0
f 2 ( x (t ) ) =
=
+ An cos(nt ) =
k Tk ( x (t )),

2
2
=
n 1=
k 1

190

m = 2k
k ;
4 b2 k 1
4 2m
A0 =
=
b
2k 1, Ak
2
2 m
k 1=
=
k 1 m k
= 2k 1 k .
m


, ,
f 2 ( x (t ) ) =
f 2+ ( x (t ) ) + f 2 ( x (t ) ) ; f 2 ( x (t ) ) =
f 2+ ( x (t ) ) f 2 ( x (t ) ) .

f1(x),


(4.27), Tn Un
:

a0
+ nTn ( x )) n 1 ( x ) 2 U n ( x );
2 n 1 =n 1
=

f 2 ( x ) =

(4.28)

f1 ( x) =
(1) k c2 k 1 1 ( x) 2 U 2 k ( x).
k =1

, +,
, - .
(4.28) , , , (4.27)
:
a0
f 2 ( x ) =
+ nTn ( x );
2 n =1

c0
n
f1 ( x) = + (1) c2 nT2 n ( x) (1) n c2 n 1 1 ( x) 2 U 2 n ( x)
2 n 1 =n 1
=


f 2 ( x=
)

k =1

2 k 1 2 k 1

( x );

191

f1 ( x) =
(1) k c2 k 1 1 ( x) 2 U 2 k ( x).
k =1

.
f 2 ( x ) f1(x)
, + ,
f1(x) ,
x. ,
[152] (4.28). , ,

f 2 ( x )q ( x)

. ,

F ( x, x )= x 2 k T2 k ( x ) + (1) k +1 k T2 k ( x) ,
=
k 1 =k 1

2n + 2n2
a2 n 1 =
c2 n 1 =
f1(x)
2
f 2 ( x ) [152].

, . 4.10,
f 2 ( x=
xm cos(t ); f 2 ( x=
(t ) ) x=
(t ) )
(t )

T ( x
1

(t ));

n =1

f1 ( x (t ) ) =
xm 1 ( x (t )) 2 U 0 ( x (t )) =
xm 1 x 2 ;

. 4.10,
4
4
T ( x )
n +1 cos(2n 1)t
f 2 ( x (t ) ) =
( 1)
, f 2 ( x ) =
( 1) n +1 2 n 1
=
sign( x );

n 1=
2n 1
n1
2n 1
4
U ( x) 1 x > 1;
f1 ( x (t ) ) =
1 x2 2n
=
0;
0 x =
n =1
2n 1 1 x < 1.

192

. 4.10.

,
, , , .
, f1(x) f 2 ( x )
x [1,1] x [1,1]
. , +
, . . .

(4.21) . ()
,

.
[154]

) (

s 2 + 1 = s g 2 ( x ) + sg 2 ( x ) + g1 ( x ) + sg1 ( x )
s

) ,

193

g 2 ( x ), g 2 ( x ), g1 ( x ) g1 ( x )

.
,

s 3 1 g 2 ( x ) + s 2 g 2 ( x ) + g1 ( x ) + s g1 ( x ).

(4.29)

,
. ,

(4.27): g 2 ( x ) = a1 ; g 2 ( x ) = b1 ; g1 ( x ) = d1 g1 ( x ) = c1 .

,

)
(
(1 g ( x ) ) + 1 g ( x
g 2 ( x ) + g1 ( x ) = 0;
2

) = 0.

,
:
g 2 ( x ) = g1 ( x );
1 g1 ( x )
=
.
1 g 2 ( x )

, , . . ,
,
:
) g1 ( x ) 0;
g=
2 (x
g 2 ( x ) = g1 ( x ).

(4.30)

194

,
,
, f 2 ( x ) f1(x)
: .
(4.28) f 2 ( x )
, f1(x) , .
, ,
,
.

,
,
f 2 ( x ) = sign( x );
1 x > 1;

0 x 0;
f1 ( x) =
=
1 x < 1.


f 2 ( x ) f1(x)
(. 4.11). ,
x = 1 x = 1 .
.
,

195

[78],
(. 4.12).

. 4.11.

, ,

f ( x, x ) = g1 ( x) g 2 ( x ).


g1(x) g 2 ( x )
,
f ( x, x ) , . . .

,
h
g1 ( x) =
0

, , x (t=
)

) g2
g=
2 (x

x 0;
x > 0.

1 [ x (t ) ] ,
2

1 x 2 . (4.30)

, . 4.11.

, . [80],
,
.

196

. 4.12.

,
,
, , .

,

2. , (4.19) ()

. ,

.
[98,
109].
[156].

( h( x, x ) f ( x, x ) ) ,
x+x=
xF

(4.31)

, h( x, x )
f ( x, x ),
2

. 6.

197

h( x, x ) = ( x ) f(x) = sign (x) x x > 0, ( x ) ,


.
[99, 110],

(0,002 %)
.
4.5.

.
( )

[152],

.
.

( ,
).
() , .
4.5.1.

x + F ( x) =
g ( x , x),

(4.32)

198

x ; F(x) ;
g ( x , x) ,

F g
.

x + F ( x ) =
0;

(4.33)

g ( x , x ) = 0,

x(t) .

().

.. )

(. 4.13),

(4.32), (
) (4.33),
( ) .
u(t),
(4.32).
.
,
u(t),
. ,
x(t),
u(t) .

,
.

199

: [159]
[62].

. 4.13. -

(4.32),

. [160]:
x(t) xF(x) > 0
x 0,
x = x(t). F(x),

F ( x) = c2 k 1 x 2 k 1.
k =1

x(t) .
x(t) ,
T/2.
x(t),

,
. . x* (t )
=

2 k 1

k =1

sin (2k 1)t .


T

F N ,
2

2 j 1
(2k 1) sin (2k 1)t + c2 k 1 x (t ).
T

2
N
N
*
*

2 k 1
=
k 1 =j 1

b
x (t ) + F [ x (t )] =

200
2 j 1
, x=
x2 j 1=
(t ) + r (t ), r (t )
(t )

2 k 1

k= N +1

sin (2k 1)t


T

.
2

2

2

(t )] sin (2k 1) t c2 j 1b2 k 1,2 j 1 (2k 1) b2 k 1 +


x (t ) + F [ x =
T

T

(4.34)
2

+ c2 j 1 b2 k 1, 2 j 1 sin (2k 1) t .
T

k= N +1
=j 1

N
N
*
*

k 1 =j 1
=
N

c2j 1
,

x + F ( x ) =
R (t ),

R(t )
=

2 j 1

(4.35)

2 j 1
[ x
(t ) x2 j 1 (t )] , N*,

j =1

(4.34)

N*

2
N*
2

(2
=

1)
b
k
2 k 1

b2 k 1 sin (2k 1)t .


T
k1
T

k 1=
=

0,
x=
(0)

x=
(0)

N*

N*

F ( x) = c2 k 1 x 2 k 1.
k =1

(4.33) ,
,
. ,
, . .
2

x = ak cos kt .
T
k =1
N

(4.27).

201

N ak
2
2
a
cos
kt

F
cos
0.
k

kt =
k 2
T
T
=
k 1=
k 1
N

,
, ,
F,
N ak

a
T
x
F
w( x) F [v( x)] =
(
)
0,
k k

k 2 Tk ( x) =
=
k 1=
k 1

(4.36)

2
x = cos kt , Tn(x) n- .
T

(4.32) (4.33)
.
(4.33),
:
y = F ( x);
x = y.

, ,
[84]
2G ( x) + y 2 =
C,
x

G ( x) = F ( s )ds; .
0


,
. G(x)
[84].

202

. ,

.

, ,
u(t),
,
.
. ,
,

[134]

C ( x ) 2 2G ( x) .
x + F ( x)= xg

(4.37)

F(x)

, (t).

, ,
.
,

x=
(t ) z=
(t )

cos(kt ),

k =1

, a1T1(x) = a1 cos(kt),
a2T2(x) = a2 cos(2kt), a3T3(x) = a3 cos(3kt)
4 x3 3x
2 x2 1
w(x) = a3(4x 3x) + a2(2x 1) + a1x v( x) = a3
+ a2
+ a1 x.
9
4
3

203

F[x(t)] = w(cos(t)),
a1 = a2 = a3 = 1,
w(x) = F(v(x)) (. 4.14), w(x),
(
. 4.14, ). F(v(x))
,
(4.37), .
(. 4.15, ) z (t ) =
x* (t )
.

x(t )=
x* (t )
x (t )

. 4.14. () F(x) ()

,
.
,
. , ,
F(x)

,
. . 4.15, .

204

,
, , .

.

. 4.15. z(t) (t) ()


()

(. 4.16) ,
G(x) , ,
, .

. 4.16. () ()

(. 4.16, )
. ,
(4.37) F(x), . 4.14, ,

205

.
, .
F(x),
F(x) = 16x2 20x3 + 5x = T5(x), . . ,

x4
x2
x6
2

x + 16 x 20 x + 5 x = x 1 ( x ) 2 16 20 + 5 .
4
2
6

,
x(0) = 0,

x=
(0) y=
(0) 1

(. 4.17).

. 4.17. (), x(t),


y(t), ()

( ,
, . . x(t) = sin t) F(x) = x, (4.32)

x 1 ( x ) 2 x 2 .
x+x=

(4.38)

,
, .

206

. ,
,
,
(,
).
,

,
.
.
4.6.

,
,
(2.4) [161 166]:

.

.
, ,
,
xn + 1 = F(xn).

(4.39)

(4.39)
n- (n + 1)- ,
. xn + 1 = xn = xm, . .
. F(xn),
, , , . .

207

. ,
(4.53), ,
,

.
(4.39) ( )
[78]:
dF ( xn )
dxn

> 0.

(4.40)

- F,

(i = 1, 2, , m),

X [1,1]
Xi X j = 0

i j

Xi = X

Xi

Xi {A : Xi X}
[69], . . (Ax, Ay) (x, y), ((Ax, Ay) = Ax Ay, (x, y) = x y, (x, y)
) > 1 (x, y) Xi .
F, X
m :
k 1 xn + b1 xn X 1 ;
k x + b x X ;
2 n 2
n
2
=
xn+1 F=
( xn )
.....................................
k m xn + bm xn X m .

(4.41)

, (4.40) ,
, | ki | > 1. ,
P0(x)
x0,
P1(x) x1 . . ,
P(x) n , P0(x)
F.

208

F,
k b,
, . .
1/ 2 x [ 1,1] ;

Pn+1 ( x) Pn ( x) P( x) =

0 x [ 1,1].

(4.42)

x n- (n + 1)- :
m

dF
Pn+1 ( x) = Pn ( xi )
dx
i =1

(4.43)

(4.42) (4.43)

m
dF
1
=
=
1.
ki

dx
=i 1 =
i 1

xn + 1 i-
xn + 1 = kixn + bi 1.
, i-
Xi = Fi X. ,
xn + 1
1,
Xi (. . 4.20, ). xn + 1

[1, 1].

.

ki,
bi ki.
bi ki ,

209

. ,
:
0;
2xn p =
Rx n ( p) =
0 p 0.

(4.44)


Rx n ( p ) =

1 Np
xn xn+ p .
N p n=1

(4.55)
1 N = p n n+1
=
Rx n ( p )
[k1 k1 k1n+ p1 xn2 + k1n+1k1n+2 k1n+ p1 xnb2n + +

N p n=1
+ k1n+ p1 xnb2n+1 + + k1n+ p1 xnb2n+ p2 + + xnb2n+ p1 ],

k1n , k1n+1 , ..., k1n+ p1 , b1n , b1n+1 , ..., b1n+ p1 k1i , b1i , n-,
(n + 1)-, , (n + p)- A.
Rx(p) = 0 p 0 ,
.
,
. ,
N xn, ,
.
b2, ,
xi xj.
k b , (n + p 1)- (n + p 2)-
. , , , k
, x,
.

210

, p 0
ki = kj; bi = bj,

X,

(4.45)

x.
- ,
xn+1 (. 4.20, ).

. 4.20. - : ;
(4.58)

, (4.39)

,

[44].
.
,
ki = m, (4.41)

211

mxn + m 1 xn X 1 ;
mxn + m 3 xn X 2 ;

=
xn +1 F=
( xn ) ........................................
mxn + m 2i + 1 xn X i ;
.........................................
mx + 1 m x X .
n
m
n

(4.46)

(4.46) :
zn + 1 = mzn (i 1),

(4.47)

zn + 1 = (xn + 1 + 1)/2, zn = (xn + 1)/2, i = 1, 2, , m.


, (4.47)
mzn.

: zn + 1 = {mzn},
{mzn} mzn.

, , . .

.
[168 178],
, .

. 4.21. . 4.20,

212

. 4.21
-
.
, .

.
.

, 11,5
.
.

.

10 0,00020,001 % [95].
.

3-125 3-130,
. .
,
.

213

5


: ,


.
. - (1934), .. (1936), H.H. Scott (1938), . (1939),
..

(1948),

.. [20].

0,01 % [87, 115
117,

125],

(0,010,03) % [122]

,
- .
R, , ,
.
0,001 %.

, . .,
.
()
. RC , RC-

214

, -R-, R-, 2T-R .


R- [179189]
0,002 % 1
VP-7220B Mutsushita [180], 3-102, 3-107 3112 .
R- ,
[179, 181] , , Krohn-Hite r.
() [184] -113.
( 0,010,001 %).

: , . .
.

. .

,
.
C.
, C R-
,

.
5.1.

,

R-.

215

RC-
, [2],
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
,
:
,
,

. , ,


.
, ,
, .
, . ,
.
510 %.


. , 3-33 3-36,
6070- . ,
12 %.
. , 70 .
. ,

216

.. ,

.. ,

.. , .. , ..
.
. 3, ,
,

x + 02 x = 0 x f ( x, x )

(5.1)

x=
xm sin(0 t + 0 ),
(t )
xm , 0 0
() .

.
.

.
,

0, .
.
,
,
xm,
f, 0.
,
.
,
R- C-,
, .

217

R-
.
, f(x) .
,

( ).
,
.

. ,
,
. ,


.
R-,
.
, (5.1),
R-
( , -
).
, ,
. -
(. 5.1) - . 4.1
A,
, u,
( , ).
-
, ,

218

A ,
.

:
RC- ,

;
RC-,
;
RC-
,

;
() .

. 5.1.

,
v, A.

. 2
.
, (. 5.1)
RC- .
,

219

. ,
,
.

=
v2 K (v, , A=
)v1 K (v, , A) (, )v2 ,

=
1 K (v, , A) ( , )

K (v, , A) ,

( , ) RC-.
.

=
1

K (v, , A) ( , ) ,

arg K (v, , A) + arg [ ( , ) ] =


0, 2 .

(5.2)

, ,

T (v, =
, A, ) K (v, , A) ( , ) 1,

n2. (6.2) ,

: ,


. ,
,
. ., , , , RC-

,
.
, (5.2)
0.

220

,
, 20, 30, , n0: . .
, .

.
5.1.1.
RC-
, , (5.2)
. RC-
?
, -
n-

vn ,

)

=
vn K (n0 , A) (n0 , ) vn + vn

K (n0 , A) n-
; (n0 , )
.

, ,
.

vn = vn

1
1 K (n0 , A) (n0 , )

,
n- . ,
,

221

. , . n = 1
,
, n > 1 1. ,
(
), , .
( )
( ).

1,
.
. C RC ,
,
( , ,
).
()
.
, , , .
, C 3.
()
( . 6.1 , ).

vn = vn

1
1 K (n0 ) [ ( ) (n0 , )]

(5.3)

(5.3) ,
RC-
,
. ,

222


n- K (n0 ) ,
. ,
RC- (. . 3):
vn = vn

1
1 + K (n0 ) [ ( ) (n0 , ) ]

vn = vn

1
1 K (n0 ) ( ) (n0 , )

, ( , ) = 1 ( , ) , ( A) = 1 ( A)
vn = vn

1
1 K (n0 ) [1 ( ) 1 + (n0 , )]


, , .
, RC-
1.
.

( n = 1)
.

. ()
, .

(6.3): ,
,
. , .

, , ,
, . .
1

223

, T 1, = (0 ),
n-

(n)
(n)
=
( n)

,
F
K (n0 ) (0 ) (n0 )

(5.4)

vn
v
, (n) n -
=
( n) =

v1
v1

.
,
, ,
F . ,
RC-, F
. (6.4)
RC-, , ,
R- C-,
F . , RC-
: , .

, RC-.
C ,

(.

. 5.2,

),

j 1 l
k1 l 2 + j l (1 l 2 )
=
1 ( ) =
1 ,
(1 l 2 ) + j k1 l
(1 l 2 ) 2 + k12 l 2

(5.5)

=
k1

a 2 + a 2b2 + b2

1
=
, l =
, 1 ab
=
, 0
.
ab
0
RC

224

. 5.2. : ;
s2(a, b) s3(a, b)

= 0

1 (0=
)

a 2 b2
= 2
= 1 .
k1 a + a 2 b 2 + b 2


(. . 2)
(5.5) a b.
,
.
,

( ) ,

=

K

( n) =
0 (n).

1 ( ) ,
l = n F (n0 ) K (n0 )

(1 n 2 )
1 .
2

k1 (1 n ) + jk1 n

K (n0 )
, ,
,
RC-, .

225


, .
, , .

S 2(a, b)
=

F (20 )
3
, S 3(a, b)
=
=

K (20 ) k1 9 + 4k12

F (30 )
8
(5.6)
=

K (30 ) k1 64 + 9k12


,
. (5.6)
S2 S3 (s2(a, b) = lg [S2(a, b)] s3(a, b) = lg [S3(a, b)])
(. 5.2, ).

-,

0 ,

. .

S2 S3 . -,
, a
b,

-,

S2 S3
a b. ,

.

()

, a = b = 1,5,
2.
2

a b Minerr Mathcad.

226


K.


1/ K (20 ) S 2(1,5;1,5) =
5,68 / K (20 )

1/ K (30 ) S 3(1,5;1,5) =
3,56 / K (30 )

2
K
=

3 104
K
=

K 2 / 5,68 1760 K 3 / 3, 56 2809 .


(5.6)
S2 S3 (. 5.3)
a b . , a b
S2 = 0,15 S3 = 0,22 .
S2 = 0,176 a = 1,5 b = 1,5, S3 = 0,284
a = b = 1,63.
i = j = 50 i = j = 63 . a b

. a b (
),
.
S2 S3.

, ,
.
, a b
S
, .

227

. 5.3. S2 () S3 ()

,
,

. ,

K (20 ) K (30 )

, ,
.

20 % ,
() . ,
, ,
, . ,
. 6.3
,

(. . 2). ,
RC- .

228

5.1.2. RC-

RC-

(ARC-)

.
,
(. 5.4, ) ARC, . ,

u .
A ARC-.
(. 5.4, ) - .

Vf

Vf

RC1

RC2

Vf

ARC1

Vamp

RCN

RC4

RC2

RCN-1

RC3

RC1

RC

RC

. 5.4. RC-

229

ARC-
RC- (. 5.4, ),
(. 5.4, ). . 5.5
ARC-.
, ,
, r- ARC-
(. 5.4, ) :
r 1

=
Sr

=
1 Vi
i =1
N

Wi r 1
,
F

i =1

Vi i- ARC-.
, ARC-
,
. ,

. ,
ARC-,
i 1 j , ( . 5.5, )
V=

,
N

j i

1
i =1
=
s1
=
1.
N
N
1 1
1 j i
j i
i 1
=i 1 =

(5.7)


,
. ,
( RC-)
. , n-
, ARC-,

230
N

v (n)S
r

K ( n) =

r =1

V1

(5.8)

100.

K(n) n- ; vr(n)
n- r- ARC-; V1
.
RC-
s. , RC-,
[25] (.
. 5.5, a) s = 1 s
RC- a , : s2 = 0,11 s3 = 0,12.

. (. 5.5, )
s2 = 0,35 s3 = 0,42.
, s
RC-,
.
(. 5.5, ) s2 = 0,5.
a
DA1
R1

DA2
R2

C1

DA3
R3

C2

C3

R3

R6

R1

R4
DA1

DA2

V
R2

C2
C1

R5

231

R3
R1

C2
R4
V

R2
C1

R2

C1

DA1

C2
DA2

R1

DA3

R2

R3

R3
R1

DA1

R2
R4

R5

C1
R6

R7

DA2
C2

C3

Z1

DA1 CFOA
Z5

DA2 CFOA
V

Z6
Z3
Z7
Z2

Z4

Z8

Z9

232

R1

DA1 CFOA

DA2 CFOA
V
R

C9
R4

C8

R8

R9

Z1

DA1 CFOA

DA2 CFOA
V

Z4

Z8

Z9

. 5.5. RC-,
() ()

[2, 181]
RC- (. 5.4, ).

ARC- [2, 186] (. 5.4, ).
. 5.5, , ,
RCD-9 Optimation Inc.
(. 5.5, ) SG-505,
Tektronix Inc., , 0,001 %.
RC-,
, ,
(s2 = 0,66 s3 = 0,75),

233

, 0,0002 %.
-118
3R-3C- [87, 116]. s
DA2 (. 5.5, ) . DA2
, .

DA1
[87, 116].

(current
feedback operational amplifier CFOA). CFOA [190, 191]
. 5.5, 5.5, . , [192] ,
.
,

() . , ,

: , , ,
. . 4

.
,
, .
, ,

,
.


.

234


, ,

,
. ,
.
, , .
.

,
, , ,
,

.


G=
( n)

1
Sn

(1 )

(5.9)

.
, ,
. (5.9) ,

Sn. , ,
,

,
. Sn
, .
5.2.

.

235

, , ,
- ,

,
. .

,
. ,
RC-
1015 . ,
,

RC-,
. ,
.
RC-
LC-, . ,

. ,
RC- :
( )
.

. ,
. 5.2. , ,
-

K =

K0

1+ j

(5.12)

236

K0
.

() . ,

.
.
,
.
.
,
, ,
, .

() - -.
. 5.2 R1 R2.
.
. 5.6 1 , 2
, -
(. . 5.2). , . .
T (),
3. . 5.6 ; 0 ,
RC-; ;
. , ,

(5.12), , : = (1 + K0),
= K0.

237

20log|K(j)|
20log(Koy)

2
20log(K)
20log(K' )

T 3

()
/2

(0)

-/4
-/2

. 5.6. () () (1),
(2) RC- (3)

0, ( )
, -
( 3 5.6, ) (0),
,
.
, .
K'
(- 20 lg K' . 5.6,
). 0 (
- ) ,

238

.
, .
,
.
, .
, :

RC-,
. .


. .
,
,
a = b = 1.
K =
1

k
k
;

+ k
1

1
1
.
1 = =
=
2

1
+

+ k
k

(5.13)

(. 5.1)

.
. ,
K0 = 10 000,
T .

239

5.1
0 = 1 K0 = 104

0,3

0,03

0,003

0,0003

0,00003

= 1/k

3,3

33,3

333,3

3,3 103

3,3 104

(0) =

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

0,001

0,01

0,1

10

T = K

10

100

1000

10000

100000

, %

28

4,2

0,45

0,045

0,0045

K = K/(1 + K )

3,15

3,0025

3,00003

3,0

3,0

= /(1 + K )

, T
, 10 0 = 1,
, , 28 %. ,
, 100 ,
3 fT 1000 ,
100 72 ,
. ,
, 3,15.
( 0,5 %)
, 1000
0 (. ). , RC , 1
0,45 %, 1 .
,
.
, ,
,
3

, UA741.

240

.
fT,


fT (100300) f max.

(5.14)

, 100
30100 .
1,50,5 %.

( 10 ) RC-,
3 . , , .
: ,
RC- ,
.
(5.13)
, (5.5),
=
( a, b )

1
=
1
2 + k1
T 1

1
(a 2 + a 2 b 2 + b 2 )2
2 +
a 3b3
T

(5.15)


a b
T/0 = 100 (. 5.7)
.

. ,
= 0,958.
. 5.1, 4,2 %.

241

. 5.12, , 0,962, . .
: 3,8 %.
= 0,96225,
a =

2 b = 2 .

. 5.7. RC-
: a b;
, 100


a = b = 1, a = 1,4 b = 1,4.
10 %, 20 % 4.
.
,
,
. ,
,

.

, a = b = 1,5
.
4

242

T-RC-, ,
.
K =
=
2

k ( K )
+
;

1 K
1
1
=
.
2
(1 K ) k 1 k / (1 K )

(5.16)

a b (5.7)
=
( a, b )

1 K
=
1
2 (1 K ) + k2
T 2

1
.
(1 + a + a 2b 2 ) 2
2
+
T
a 3b3
2

(5.17)

(. 5.8)
T = 100. ,
, .
(. 5.8, )
, .
, a b
. , , a = 0,02 b = 88,2
= 0,985 , ,
1,5 %.
, 3,8 1,5 %.
, T-RC- . 5.4
.
, a = 1/ 10
b = 10 . a b
10
2,2 %, .

243

. 5.8. a
b: RC- ;
, 100

,
,
RC-.

.
((0) . 5.6).
, . .

. ,
(5.12)
K =

K 0 (1 + j k )
1+ j

(5.18)

k .
k = 1/
-.

244

.
,

.
R2
(. . 5.2).

K =

K 0 (1 + j1 )
.
(1 + j ) (1 + j2 )

(5.19)

1 = 1/
, . 2 1

. ,
. ,
,
.

RC-. . 5.2

- T-R-.
, RC-
.

245

5.2
RC- K = 104
0 = 1
RC-
-

T-RC

a = 1;

a = 1,5;

a = 1;

a = 1;

a = 1;

a = 1;

b=1

b = 1,5

b=1

b = 10

b=1

b = 10

T / 0

100

100

100

100

100

100

K, T =

1,8889

1,2

1,5

K, T

3,0025

1,8895

3,0025

1,2002

1,49916

5,996

0,0025

0,0006

0,0025

0,00017

0,00084

0,004

, %

4,2

3,8

4,2

2,2

4,2

2,2

, %

0,113

0,026

0,056

0,07

0,052

0,113

5.3.


- , . .
.


,

. .

246

, ,
.

,
, .
,
.
[20, 24,
193]. ,
. ,
[20],
-
. [24],

.

,

,
[24].


- .

n- ,

. ,

247



(. 5.14). DA , (, )
-

1 K (, ) =0;

(5.20)

(, ) = 2 n, n = 0, 1, 2, ,

; K
; (, ) .

Q( s, )= a0 () s n + a1 () s n 1 + a2 () s n 2 + ... + an 1 () s1 + an (),

(5.21)

ai() i = 1, n ;
.
,
.
- RC- ,

,

. ,
. ,

248

,
.

(.

5.9,


- .
(. 5.9,
),
(. 5.15, ).
, ,
, .

.

Y. Y k k
- r ,

5:
r 1

( s ) (1) j + k j jk + (1) r + k rk

( s , ) =

j =1

rr

(5.22)

j, k, r ; jk,
rk ; j j- ; rr

(s)

(5.20).

, - . 6.15, ,

(
1) j r ( s ) j r , j 1, r 1.

249

A( p ) =
(1) r + k rk ;
Aj ( p ) =
(1) j + k jk ;

(5.23)

B( p ) = rr ,


r 1
r 1

Q ( s=
s ) B ( s ) K A( s ) + j A j (=
s ) 0,
, ) B( p ) K A( s ) + ( s ) j Aj (=
=
j 1=
j 1

(6.24)


r 1

ai ()= bi K cij + j cij , i= 0, n ,


j =1

ai(), bi, cij Q(s, ), B(s), Aj(s) i-


.

. 5.9. :
; R- ; RC-

a

250

. 5.10.
: a - ;

,
, (5.24)
:
2
Q=
( s, ) D( s )[ s 2 + =
()] 0,

(5.25)

D(s) = d0sm + d1sm 1 + d2sm 2 + d3sm 3 + + dm 1s1 + dm


m = n 2, ; 2()
.
(6.25)
Q(s, ) = d0sm + 2 + d1sm + 1 + [d2 + d02()]sm + + dm-12()s1 + dm2() = 0.
(5.26)
(5.21) (5.26)
:

251

q0 () =d 0 ;
q1 () =d1 ;
q2 ()= d 2 + d 0 2 ();
q3 () = d3 + d12 ();

(5.27)
........................................
qn 2 ()= d m + d m 2 2 ();
qn 1 (=
) d m 12 ();
qn () = d m 2 ().

2 () = 02 + ,
D(s) (5.27)
[2 ()]=0 =02 ;
[q ( s, )]=0 =
Q( s ),

(5.28)

Q(s) (5.21).
, Q(s, )
m = n 2
(s, ) = Q(s, ) Q(s),

(5.29)

i =si ; i =0, m.
(5.24) (5.29), ,
(s, ) Q(s, ),
r 1

( s, )= K ( s ) j Aj ( s ).
j =1

(5.30)

252

(5.29)
(p) r 1
i
i (=
) fi ( K , , i , cij );
=
i 0, m; =
j 1, r 1.

(5.31)

, - (s, )
,
(s)
(5.31).
RC-,
,
(. 5.3).

R- -
, . 2. .
, -
( 2 . 5.3)
.
(5.23)
=
T ( s)

A( s )
A1 ( s )
=
; T1 ( s )
,
B( s)
B( s)

A(s) = s22 + 2s + 1; A1(s) = s; B(s) = s22 + 3s + 1; = RC.


(5.21)
Q(s) = s22 (1 + K K) + s (3 + 2K 3K) + 1 + K K = 0.

253

3 + 2K
3K

Q(s) = s22 + 1 =0.

(5.24)
Q(s, ) = s22 + 1 + v = 0.
2 (=
)

1
+ . Q(s, ) (s, ) = .
2

(5.29) = K(s)s
, (s) = 1/s, . . .

() = 0 1 + ,

0 = 1/.

254

5.3.
RC-
RC-
T-RC-

RC-

1-

=0 / 1 3 , 0 =1 / RC

= 0

1 + K (1 ) K
, 0 = 1/ RC
K + (1 K )

= 0 1 3 , 0 = 1 / RC

= 0

1 + K (1 ) K
, 0 = 1/ RC
K + (1 K )

= 0

1 + 3
1 3

, 0 = 1 / RC

255

5.4.
,
,

. (. . 3.4)
. ,
( )
,

.


.

- ,

(0,010,1 %)
(12 ). ,
.

[2].

.
[105, 194] .. ,
..
.

x = y

y = x + g ( y, x),

(5.32)

256

g ( x , x) .


x = y ,
(5.33)

(
,
)
0,
x
x
g
y
x
=

x = x(t) = xm sin (t + t0) .


(5.32),
,
g(y, x),
(5.33),
.
. (5.32)
(y, x) (5.33)
. [195],
g(y, x)
g0, . . .
(5.32)
, ,
(0, +g0), (0, g0) (0, 0). ,

.

.
, (5.33)

257


.

g(t), ,
.
,
, [195]
+g0, g0 .
.
, ,

.

g0

xm:
g0 =

xm
;
2n

xm
x
g0 < m ;
2(n + 1)
2n
g0

xm
,
2n

n (1, 2, 3, ).
. (5.32)
x = y;

y = x + g (t ),

g(t) .
H [195] H = 1y + 2[g(t) x],
1, 2 .

(5.34)

258

g(t) , H
.

g(t) = g0 sign [2(t)].



1 = 2 ;

2 = 1 ,

2 (t ) = 02 cos(t + ), 02 > 0, 0 < < 2,

=
g (t ) g 0 sign[ 02 cos(t=
+ )] g 0 sign[cos(t + )].
t = tk
,
2 (t ) = 02 sin (t t + ); t0 t t ;
=
g (t ) g 0 sign[sin (t t + )],

(5.35)

t0, tk .
(5.35) ,

g (t )

+g0, 0, g0,
sin (t tk + )].

, [195].
. 5.11, B3B2B1O
OA1A2A3 , g0.

, : .

259

+g0, 0, g0 O1, 0,
O2.
,

.
. 5.11,

, R = 1 2g0n ( ).

/2. ,
.


(k 1)T / 2 t kT / 2 ,

(5.36)

k ( ),
.

1.5
1
y ( t)
y1( t )

0.5
0

g( t )
0.5
1
1.5
1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

x( t ) , x1( t ) , x( t )

. 5.11. :
=
g 0 1 (2 6) g0 = 0.5

260

(5.32)

x = y; y = g 02

({x}

mod 2 g 0

2 1/ 2

g 0 sign x

{x}mod 2g0 = x 2kg0 sign (x);

sign (1 x 2 y 2 )sign x,

(5.37)

, , .
(5.37)
x = y;

2 1/ 2
2

2
2

y
x
g
y
g
x
g
x
sign
sign
0
sign (1 x y )sign x (5.38)

0 { }mod 2 g0 0

sign (1 x 2 y 2 ).

,
.
. 5.11,
, g0 = 0.5
x = y;

2
2
0
.
1 if y 0,5sin(x) 0 if 1 x y =

y
=

x
+
g

0
1 otherwise

sign (1 x 2 y 2 ) otherwise

261

, . .

1
1
g0 < .
2(n + 1)
2n

[195], ,
, ,
. , g(t),
(x0, y0)
, ,
R = 1 2g0n.
:

R
R .

1
, g 0 .
2


, R (
. 5.12 ),
O1, O2
(. 5.12).

. 5.12. 1/4 < g0 <

262

.
.
, 1 2,
-

n m2 m1, .

.
B1 A1.

(. 5.12), nO1m1 nO2m2
(5.37).
g(x, y) = g0
x =C1 sin t + C2 cos t g 0 ;

(5.39)

=
y C1 cos t C2 sin t.

t = 0, x(0) = x0,
y(0) = y0, , t = tk, xk, yk
xk2 + yk2 =
R 2 , ,

( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 =( x 2 + y 2 ) R 2 4 y 2 g 02 ,

1/ 2

2
2 g0

r=
R 1
sin
R


R
(5.34).

263

1/4 < g0 < 1/2


(. 5.12)
(k 1)T / 2 t (k 1)T / 2 +

T
arccos(1 R 2 / 2 g 02 ), k
2

, (5.35).
.5.11 5.12 ,
.
. ,
, .

. , ,
x.
y = 0.
(5.37)
x = y;

y = x + g 0 sign ( y ) sign (1 x 2 y 2 ).

(5.40)

(5.40)
(. 5.13, ) ,

O1, 0, O2. .
. , (5.40)
(5.38) ,
t0 < t < tk , . . .

, .
.

(5.40). ,

264

. 5.13.
: ;
Multisim


(. 5.14).
K
. ,
,
2 v +

2
v + 1 v =
v ,
1
K
R2

= RC, 1 = R3C.
,
, ,
,
(.
. 5.14).
. ,
.

265

. 5.14.
: DA ;
; ; (y)2


(6.39) ;
, ;
; , ,
.

.
.
,
. 6.19, .
(. 5.13, )
Multisim 10
, V1 = 1,5;
V2 = 0 .
,

2,3 , 0,2 %
[93].

266

,
-
. 0,2 %
.
, ,
, ,
.
( ).
.
0,01 %.
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
, . -,

,
.
,
.
5.4.1.

,
, ,
[152],

267

x = y;

y = x + [ f1 ( x) + f 2 ( y ) ] y,

(5.41)

f1(x), f2(x) ; .
,

f1 ( x) = iT2i ( x);

f 2 ( y ) = (1)i +1 iT2i ( y ),

=i 0=i 0

T2i(z) , .
,
(, )
, ,
. ,
, ,
f1 = f2 = f.
x = r cos ,
y = r sin (5.41)
r = g (r , )r sin 2 ;

= 1 + g (r , )sin 2,
2

g(r, ) = f(r cos ) + f(r sin ).


,
,
g(r, ) = 1. (6.40)
(x, y) r = 1,
. ,
g(r, ) (r 1) 0.

268

[157].
(6.40) [r(t), (t)]
r(0) = r0, (t) = 0, r0 (1 + r ), 0 (0, 2).
, t T > 0,

r (t ) 1 . T = Tmin,

,
. , Tmin , ,
g, . .
Tmin = T(r0, 0, , , g).
Tmin ,

. , f(x) = x2 1/2 (. 5.15, )
g(r, ) = r2 1.
= 0, 0 < < 2
2 . < 0.
= 1, , : t ,
( )
. t +, r 0,1,
, r 0,9 .
( , )
.

269

. 5.15. : ; ;


(. 5.16, ). ,
(6.40) r0 = 0,707, 0 = /2, = 0,01,
= 1, 2,7,
, 6,28.

. 5.16. :
; ;

(. 5.15, ),
2 T2(2 n1) ( x)
=
f ( x) 1 2sign ( x =
1 2)
.

i =0 2n 1
2

(5.42)

-
.

{ x, y : x <

f1(x) + f2(x) = F(x, y).

2 / 2, y < 2 / 2

(. . 6.20,) F(x, y) = 1, (640)

270

x = y;

y = x y.

(5.43)

0 > > 2 1 ,
< 2 .
2

{ x, y : x >

2 / 2, y > 2 / 2 , F(x, y) = +1 (5.23)


x = y;

y = x + y.

(5.44)

{ x, y : x <

2 / 2 y < 2 / 2 , F(x, y) = 0

, 3

. ,
r = 1 ,
.
y = + 2 2 y = 2 2 ,
,
[157].
,
. . 5.16,
. rs 2 2.

( x = y = +

2 2

s T = 1,

.
[93, 158].

(. . 5.15, ). , 0 < , 1, h = c = const,

271

. ,
r = 1 ,
= 1 1 2 .
F(x, y)
(. . 5.16, ). ,
, F = h F = 2h,
F = +h F = + 2h.
F = 0.

. Bk (k = 1 4), . . ,
F = h, , ,
x = y;

y = x hy.

(5.45)

Bk
B1 B2 B3 B4. (5.45)
, h = c,
1/c
x = y = , . 1/c < < 0,
B1 B3 , ,
.
- B2 B4.
y, (5.45):
+

x hy
dy.
y

y =

(5.46)

, x , , x / y,

272

y =2h =2c.

, , .
, . 1/2c
,
B2 .
B1 B3 f1(x) f2(x)
, . 5.17. F

, F = h.
, ,
, , , ,
(. 5.17, ).

. 5.17. ( )
()

[194]
. (. 5.18,
)
, x 1
.
(. 5.18, ) ,
.
, .

273

. 5.18. : ;

, . 5.15, 5.16 5.18,


, .
, ,
.
,
,
,
,

.

5213-5.

, ,
. 5.19.

274

. 5.19.
: DA1DA3
; 1, 2 ; .1, .2 ; 1 ; &
; 12


,
1 2 1 2,
.1 .2.
, .

10 1
.1 .2 (
).
(
,

275

=
V (0) V=
V0 ) ,
0 , V (0)

, 95 %
(Vk = 0,95Vm).

( ).
.
Vm = 5 0 5 ,

(1 ). 0,1 %.

0,01 200 .

. ,

.
5.4.2.


,
[165, 196 201].
[74]

276

,
, .
,


.
. 5
,
.
.

x = y;

y = x + h1 ( y, x) f1 ( y, x);

(5.47)

x = y;

y = x + h2 ( y, x) f 2 ( y, x)dt ;
t

(5.48)

x = y;

y = x + y h3 ( y, x) f3 ( y, x)dt ,
t

(5.49)

h(x, y) .
(5.47) (5.49)
h(x, y)
0;
v( y, x) =
( y , x ) =

0 v( y, x) 0,

v(y, x) , , y x.

277

-
( ,
. .).
.
:
(5.47) (5.49) f
f,

.

(. 5.20, ). (5.47)
(y, x)
,
x(t) y(t). x y
. -
v(y, x) = 0 ( L),
, (5.47)
-

.
tn L -.
x , y
f1(yn, xn).
L . .
(5.47)
, .

rn +1

rn


rn2+1 =
rn2 + f12 ( xn , yn ) 2rn f1 ( xn , yn )cos n .

(5.50)

278

rn + 1 rn,
,
.
, . .
,
[78]. , {Ak : R R}
, < 1,
r1 r2, {A : R R},
(Ar1, Ar2) (r1, r2). k,
{Ak} ,
.

. 5.20. (6.47) f1,


() ()

, ,
(5.50) rn + 1 = rn = rm Ak r = r:
f1 ( xm , ym ) [ f1 ( xm , ym ) 2rm cos ] =0,

(5.51)

f1(ym, xm) = 0 [f1(ym, xm) 2rm cos ] = 0.


279

6.
(5.47) xm
f1(ym, xm) = 0.

(5.52)


. [78],

(6.50)

drn+1
< 1.
drn r = r
n m

(5.52)

drn+1
df
=
< 1
1 1 cos
dr
dr
n r
n
=
=
rn rm
n rm
0<

df1
drn

cos < 2.

(5.53)

, = /2,
, , ,
. =
,

xn = yn

(5.53) :

2 <

df1
cos < 0.
dyn

, f1 ,
. y.

x x
(t t0 ) f1 (t0 ).

0, ,
( - f).
, , , .
6

280

f1(y) :
,
.
:
r0 = x0 f1(y0),
r .
(5.50), ,
xn+1 =
xn + f1 ( xn ) ==
xm 1.
f1 opt ( xn ) = 1 xn .

xn


f1 opt ( x )= 1 x.

(5.54)

,
x = y;

1
y = x + ( x) (1 + sign y )(1 y ),

(5.55)

(x) 1/2 (1 + sign y) -,

x(t) = sin t
. . 5.20, ,

. ,
, , , --,
.
.
, f1(y)
. , (5.53)
ymin < y < ymax ,

281

f1(y) f1(y) = (1 y),


0 < < 2.
, - ,

(5.55)

. [97, 99,
197 198].
(5.48). ,
- f2 f2 , -
(5.48) .
(. 5.26, ),
f2(yn, xn). L

-,

f2

.
, . 5.20,,
, .
.
, .
- . ,
-
L .
. 5.21, ,

xn + 1 = xn 2 f2(xn, yn).

(5.56)

282

. 5.21. (6.48)

xn + 1 = xn = xm = 1, f2(xm, ym) = 0.
1 <

df 2
< 0 xn + 1 = xm.
dx

, f2 x.
f2
(5.56):
xn + 1 = 1 = xn 2 f2(xn) xn > 0;
xn + 1 = +1 = xn 2 f2(xn) xn 0.

=
f 2 opt ( x)

1
(sign x x).
2

(5.57)

, (5.48)
(5.57)
x = y;

1
y = x + ( y )(sign x x) dt
2t

(5.58)

283


. . 5.26,
(5.58) ,
. [196].
, (5.49). n- (n 1) - ( )
(5.49) ,
f3 n- .
(6.49)
x = y;

y = x + yf3 ( xn , yn ) = x + yan

(5.59)

tn t < tn + 1.
[78],
an, . an = 0
, 0 < an < 2 an > 2 .
, an .
, an > 2 , ,
L,
. an < 2
. ,


0 < an < 2 .

(5.60)

(5.59) (6.60)

284

x(t ) xne
=

an ( t t0 )2

an

sin 1 t + n tn t < tn + 1.

(5.61)

L, , ,
,
. , L
. ,
. , -
.
, - y.
y(t) (5.61),
x n- (n + 1)-

anTn / 2
=
xn +1 x=
xn e f3 ( xn , yn )Tn / 2 ,
ne

T
=
n

(5.62)

=
tn+1 tn .
2
f3 ( xn , yn )

L
. .
xn + 1 = xn = xm = 1, , f3(xm, ym) = 0.

<

df3
dx

<0

xn = xm. , f3 .

f3 opt ( x) = 2

ln 2 1/ x
42 + ln 2 1/ x

(5.63)

285

x 0.
0,001 > x 1000 1,5
.
(5.63) , x = 1
d f3 / dx . (5.63)
(. 5.22).

. 5.22.

(5.49)
[156 ]
x = y;

ln 2 1/ x

dt.
y = x y ( y )(1 + sign x)
42 + ln 2 1/ x

(5.64)

x > 1, + 0 < x 1.
(1 + sign x) -,
x.
,
f3 (=
x)

(1 x) , 0 < 2. (5.49)

x = y;

1
(1 + sign x)(1 x)dt.
y = x + y ( y )

2
t

(5.65)

286

, , (5.55), (5.58), (5.64)



xmin < x xmax.
xmin xmax
.
5.4.3.

(5.55), (5.58), (5.65)

. ,
,
- sign-. ,
. ,
,
.
(5.55) x ,
(
) ,

x ,


. , . -
t
h, f1 ( x )
f1 h t
. ,
, f1 ( x ) h.

h 1.

287

(5.58)

f (t )(t t ) dt =f (t )
0

, ,
.
(5.55) (5.58)
. ,
(5.55)
x =y , :
x = y;

1
y = y x + y ( y ) (1 + sign x)(1 x)dt.
2
t

(5.66)


xm = 1 /.
(5.66) .
, (5.55, 5.58, 5.65),
[156]. .
. 5.23 ,
(5.65). -
sign-,
, , .

. 1 2
. 1
.1, 4
V1V DA4.

288

. 5.23. ,
(6.65): DA1DA4 ; ; .1, .2 ;
1 2

.1
4
. .2
3.
,

7.
.
V, 3

V.

741
( ),
MultiSim (. 5.24), ,
7

1, 2, .1, .2, 3 4 -.

289


0,0002 % 100 10 0,001 %
10100 10100 6 .

. 5.24. 3-125 :
v1 = x(0) = +5 B, v2 = y(0) = 0 B; v1 = x(0) = +5 B, v2 = y(0) = 5 B




R- -.
-
R-,
.

.

,
R- .

290

-.
,

.
,

11,5
.

10 0,00020,001 %.
.

3-125 3-130. .
, . 5.28.
,

.

1.

, .
()
, , .

,
.

291

2.



.
3.


.
-

,
-

.
4.

,

(),

, ,
.
5.


,
-50
0,0001%.
6.

3-124.

292

7.

, , ,
, .

3 (3-109, 3-118, 3-121, 3-123, 3-125 .).
150
.
,


, , .

293

1. 15094-86. .
. .: - , 1987. 20 .
2. , .. -
/ .. . :
, 1977. 104.
3. , ..
. / .. //
III-
: , ,
. . 1988. . 76 77.
4. , ..
/ . . . //
II
, , 1989. . 250.
5. Rybin Yu.K. Measuring Signal Generators / Yu. K. Rybin. Springer.: Dordrecht,
Heidelberg, London, New York, 2014. 488 p.
6. , ..
/ ..

. . . .-. .

(-89), 1921 . 1989 .,


. , 1989. . 239.
7. , .. / . . , .
.. .: , 2008. 192 .
8. , ..
. / .. , .. , .. , ..
, .. , .. , .. .//
. 1974. 5. . 9 11.
9. 8.33199. .
. .
. .: - , 2001. 18 c.

294

10. 8.11885. .
. .
.: - , 1986. 16 c.
11. 2385479. .
. .: - .
2002. 15 c.
12.

4.31285.

. .: - , 1986. 20 c.
13.

23849-87.


. .: - , 1990. 50 c.
14. 45.1642001. ,
. .: - ,
2001. 34 c.
15., . : : ,
/ . , . . .: , 2009. 512 .
16. 14014-91.
, , .
. .: - , 1993. 14 c.
17. 1968789.
. . .: -
, 1989. 19 15 c.
18. 51317.3.22006 ( 61000-3-2:2005).
.
16 (
). . .: , 2007. 14 .
19. , .. RC- / .. . .:
, 1954. 238 .
20. ,

..

/ .. . : , 1958. 206 .

295

21. , .. / .. .
.; .: , 1961. 623 .
22. / .. . .;
.: , 1964. 226 .
23. , .. / ..
. .: , 1968. 240 .
24. , .. / ..
. .: , 1973. 190 .
25. , .. RC- / . .
. .: , 1976. 208 .
26. ,

..

/ .. . .: - , 1980.
17 .
27. , ..
/ .. . .: - , 1983. 142 .
28. , .. / .. .
.: , 1983. 184
29. , .. / .. ,
.. , .. . .: . . , 1985. 104 .
30., .. /
.. . .: . , 1972. 352 .
31., . / . . .: , 1974. 344 .
32., .. / ..
. . .: , 1971. 528 .
33., .. / ..
. .: , 1971. 349 .
34., .. / . .
.: , 1978. 168 .

296

35., .. / ..
, ... .: , 1988. 480 .
36., .. / . ,
... .: -
, 1959. 470 .
37. , .. / ..
. .: , 1965. 261 .
38. , .. . .
/ .. , .. , ... .: . ,
1980. 274 .
39. , .. / .. . .:
, 1966. 404
40. , .. ( ) / .
. . .: . , 1984. 119 .
41. , .. / .. . .:
, 1975. 304 .
42., .. / .. .
.: , 1985. 384
43., ..
/ .. , .. .
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44., .. / ..
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45., .. / .. .
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46. , .. / ..
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297

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Tektronix AFG3000 ArbExpress / .. //


- . 2007. 2. . 3638.
48.Arbitrary Waveforms for the Agilent 33210, 33220A and 33250A. URL:
http://www.home.agilent.com/agilent/software.jspx?ckey=1356223&lc=rus&cc=
RU&nid=-536902257.0.00&id=1356223: ( 05.05.2013).
49.NI Analog Waveform Editor, SW Tool for Creating/Editing Waveforms. URL:
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05.05.2013).
50. 8.11097. .

. .: - , 2001. 9 c.
51. 8.33199. .
.
. .: - , 2001. 11 c.
52.

().URL:

http://www.rpis.ru. ( 14.10.2012).
53.. . 584259 , 3 G 01 R 23/20. ,
/ .. ,
.. , .. (CCC). 2393943/1821; . 01.08.76;
. 07.12.77, . 46. 3 .
54.. . 1114970 , 3 G 01 R 23/20. ,
/ ..
(CCC). 3558386/1821; . 28.02.83; . 23.09.84, . 35. 3
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, , 1983. .
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58. , . / . . .: , 1979. 302 .
59. .. / ..
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60. , ..
/ . . . .: ,1977. 240 .
61. .. / .. .
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62. , .. / ..
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63. , ..
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70. , .. / .. , .
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71. , .. / . .. .: ,
2005. 280 .
72. , .. : . / . , . .
. 6-. .: , 2003. 704 .
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55.
74., .. / .. , .. , .. .
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75.. . /.
. .: ,
1935. 42 .
76., ..
/ .. , .. . .: , 1963. 504 .
77., .. /
.. .: . . .. -, 1975. 72 c.
78., .. / .. ,
.. , . .. .: , 1987. 384 .
79., .. / .. . .:
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300

80., .. / . .
. .2. .: , 1973. 566 .
81., .. / .. , .. , ..
. .: , 1988. 392 .
82., . / . .: , 1969. 400 .
83., .. / .. ,
.. , .. . . .: , 1987. 384 .
84., .. / .. . .:
, 2001. 395 .
85., ..

..

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. . 307, 3. 2004. . 113118.


86., .. / .. //
IC O-IX, , 1981. .
285.
87.. . 664273 , 3 H 03 B 5/00. / ..,
..; . -.
2107282/1809; . 25.02.79; . 28.05.79. . 19. 2 .
88.. . 691873 , 3 H 03 B 3/02, H 03 B 5/26.
/ .., .., ..,
.., ..;
. -. 2603282/1824; . 11.04.78; . 20.10.79. .
38. 3 .
89.. . 744904 , 3 H 03 B 3/02, H 03 B 5/26.
/. ., ..;
. -. 2607069/1809; .
21.04.78; . 30.06.80. . 24. 3 .
90.. . 754380 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ .., .., .., ..;

301

. -. 2603239/2407;
. 11.04.78; . 07.08.80. . 29. 3 .
91.. . 913348 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ .., ..;
. -. 2967350/2407; . 30.07.80; .
15.03.82. . 10. 2 .
92.. . 926635 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ ..;
. -. 2949758/ 2407; . 30.06.80; . 17.05.82. .
17. 2 .
93.. 934497 , 3 G 06 G 7/12.
/

..;

. -. 2989291/1824; .
08.10.80; . 07.06.82. . 21. 3 .
94.. 966675 , 3 G 05 F 1/44. /
.., ..;
. -. 3269249/2407; . 03.04.81; . 15.10.82. .
38. 3 .
95.. . 978312 , 3 H 03 L 5/00, H 03 B 5/26.
/ .., .., ..;
. - /
3559. 2849350/1809; . 10.12.79; . 30.11.82. . 44. 3 .
96.. . 1001041 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ .., ..;
. -.
3355131/2407; . 23.11.81; . 28.02.83. . 8. 2 .
97.. . 1003042 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ ..;
. -. 3352316/2407; . 05.11.81; . 07.03.83. .
9. 3 ..

302

98.. . 1003106 , 3 H 03 L 5/00, H 03 B 5/26.


/ ..;
. -. 3369771/1824; . 25.12.81; .
07.03.83. . 9. 2 .
99.. . 1032434 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/. ..;
. -. 3332780/2407; . 03.09.81; . 30.07.83. .
28. 2 .
100. . . 1056152 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ ..;
. -. 3482816/2407; .
23.08.82; . 23.11.83. . 43. 3 .
101. . 1072020 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ ..;
. -. 3491368/2407; . 20.09.82; . 07.02.84. .
5. 4 .
102. . . 1088020 , 3 G 06 G 3/00.
/ ..; .
-. 3550318/1824; . 09.02.83; . 24.04.84. . 15. 3 .
103. . . 1096621 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ .., ..;
. -. 3378570/2407; . 07.01.82; .
07.06.84. . 21. 3 .
104. . . 1152000 , 3 G 06 G 7/26
/ ..; .
-. 3667891/2424; . 27.10.83; . 23.04.85. . 15. 3 .
105. . . 1166260 , 3

H 03

B 5/20, 27/00.

/ .. , .. (CCC).
3596609/2409; . 24.05.83; . 07.07.85, . 25. 3 .

303

106. . . 1176312 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.


/ .., . ., .., ..;
. -
3559. 3710507/2407; . 11.03.84; . 30.08.85. . 32. 2 .
107. . . 1179386 , 3 G 06 G 7/26.
/ .., ..;
. -. 3733588/2424;
. 14.03.84; . 15.09.85, . 34. 3 .
108. . . 1257670 , 3 G 06 G 7/26. /
..; . -.
3690981/2424; . 13.01.84; . 15.09.86, . 34. 2 .
109. . . 1287134 , 3 G 06 F 1/02.
/ .., ..;
. -. 3914557/2424; . 24.06.85; .
30.01.87, . 4. 2 .
110. . . 1291944 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ ..;
. -.. 3612974/2407; . 01.07.83; . 23.02.87, .
7. 3 .
111. . . 1354214 , 3 G 06 F 7/22.
/ .., ..;
. -. 4091092/2424; . 14.07.86; .
23.11.87, . 43. 3 .
112. . . 1423998 , 3 G 06 F 1/02.
/ .., ..;
. -.. 4227245/2424; . 28.01.87; .
15.09.88, . 34. 4 .
113. . . 1467540 , 3 G 05 F 1/44.
/ .., .., ..;

304

. - 3559.
4087962/2407; . 29.05.86; . 23.03.89, . 11. 3 .
114. . . 1564652 , 3 G 06 F 7/22.
/ .., ..;
. -. 4470268/2424; . 05.08.88; .
15.05.90, . 18. 5 .
115. ,

..

/ .. , .. , .. // : -
. -. 1973. . 270. . 214216.
116. ,

..

/ .. , .. , .. //
.
, , 1975. . 16.
117. ,

..

RC-

/ ..
,

..

..

//

: -. . / .
., 1985. . 2(54). . 2537.
118. , ..
/ ..
// . . . 89. . 1989. . 2, . 239. 240.
119. , ..
/ .. , .. , .. , ..
, .. // .
, , 1978. . 13 14.
120. ,

..

/ .. , .. //
- .

305

. , . .
. . . 1985. . 80 88.
121. ,

..

/ ..
, .. , .. // III-
: ,
, . . . 1988. .
110 111.
122.

, .. .


. 6.57.8.10. / .. 780.378.22. 1978. 75 .
123. , ..
/ .. , . , .. .. ,
// , 4, 1979. . . 282.
124. , ..
/ .. , .. , .. , . ., // .
,
. 1979. . . 28 31.
125. ,

..

RC-

/ .. , .. //
, , 11, 1980. . 5- 60.
126. , .. ,
/
..

..

//

,
, , 1980. . . 73
74.
127. , .. / .. , ..
// . 1. 1980. . 284.

306

128. , .. /
.. , .. , .. //
,
, . 1981. .
126 -127.
129. , .. / .. , ..
, .. // . 6,.
1981. . 222.
130. ,

..

RC-

/ ..
,

..

..

//

: -. . / .
., 1985. . 2(54). . 2537.
131. ,

..

/ . ., .. , .. , ..
// . 6. 1988. 302 .
132. , ..
. /
.. //

, , 1990. . 25
133. , ..
/ .. , .. , ..
// . , 10 2000. . 5 10
134. , ..
RC / .. // . , ,
. .306. 3. 2003.
. .78 83.
135. ,

..

/ .. // . , ,

307

. .307. 3. 2004. .113118.


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3 / .. , .. // 11-
- 21
/ , . T.1. . 156 159. 2006.
138. , ..
/ .. //. , ,
. .316. 4. 2010. .136
140.
139. , ..
/ .. // . , ,
. .317. 4. 2010. ..134
139.
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/ .. // . ,
, . .318 4
2011. .80 85.
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/ .. // . , ,
.320 4 2012.
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144. P,

..

RC-

/ .. P, ..
// . . . . 1980. 11. . 5760.
145. , .. RC- / ..
, .. , .. // . . 1984. 4.
. 3941.
146. Function Generator/RC Oscillator. URL: http://www.krohn-hite.com/ (
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147. ,

..

7090 / .. , .. , .. . //
. . .
, , , . .
1984. . 32, 33.
148. ,

.. -

. / .. // . .
. . . - 83.
. 1983. . 146.
149. , ..

-3

.. ,

.. ,

.. ,

.. // . 1983. 2. . 240,
241.
150. , .. // ..
, .. , .. // .
1983. 1. . 211.
151. , .. / .. : -
, 2003. 264 .
152. , . / . , . . .
.. . .: 1968. 504 .

309

153. , .. / ..
// . 1982. . XXVII, 9. . 1793
1797.
154. , ..
/ .. //

.
, . . . . . 1985. . 70 80.
155. , ..
/ .. . .: ,
1975. 96 .
156.
// . .. . .:
, 1970. 567 .
157. ,

..

/ .. //
. 1984. . XXIX, 9. . 17641771.
158. ,

..

/ .. , .. //
. 1983. . XXVIII. 12. . 24092413.
159. . . 1166260 , 3

H 03

B 5/20, 27/00.

/ .., ..;
. -. 3596609/2409; .
24.05.83; . 07.07.85. . 25. 6 .
160. , ..

/ .. . .: , 1971. 112 .
161. ,

/ . , . , .. .: , 1974. 320 .

310

162. ,

..

/ .. // .
-. 2004. . 307, 3. . 113118.
163. ,

..

/ .. , .. , ..
, //. II-
. 4.
. 1984. . 45 46.
164. , ..
/ .. , .. //.
10- .
1. . 1986. . 239 240.
165. , .. ,

: . . . . : 05.13.01 /
. . 1989. 19 .
166. , ..
/ .. // . 1986.
. XXXI 9. . 18011807.
167. , ..
.
. . .
. . 1989. . 105 112.
168. , .. / ..
//
, ,
.. . , 1983. . 45.
169. . . 1149374 , 3 H 03 B 29/00. /
..; . -.
3586382/2409; . 24.04.83; . 07.04.85. . 13. 4 .

311

170. . . 1149375 , 3 H 03 B 29/00. /


..; . -.
3586383/2409; . 24.04.83; . 07.04.85. . 13. 4 .
171. . . 1177810 , 3 G 06 G 7/58.
/ .., ..;
. -. 3712798/2424; . 07.03.84; .
07.09.85. . 33. 4 .
172. . . 1309271 , 3 H 03 K 3/84.
/ .., ..;
. -. 3953617/2421; . 16.09.85; .
07.05.87, . 17. 2 .
173. . . 1327098 , 3 G 06 F 7/58.
/ ..; . -.
3871159/2424; . 11.01.85; . 23.11.87, . 43. 2 .
174. . . 1354188 , 3 G 06 F 7/58.
/ .. . -.
3833062/2424; . 30.12.84; . 30.07.87, . 28. 3 .
175. . . 1238131 , 3 G 06 F 7/58. /
.., ..; .
-. 3789343/2424; . 28.05.84; . 15.06.86, . 22. 4 .
176. . . 1524164 2 , 3 H 03 K 3/84.
/ .., ..;
. -. 4283102/2421; . 13.07.87; .
23.11.89, . 43. 4 .
177. . . 1529218 , 3 G 06 F 7/58.
/ .., ..;
. -. 4346651/2424; . 22.12.87; . 15.12.89, .
46. 3 .
178. . . 1621148 2 , 3 H 03 K 3/84.
/ .., ..;

312

. -. 4644710/21;
. 02.01.89; . 15.01.91, . 2. 4 .
179. . . 1670776 , 3 H 03 K 3/84.
/ .., ..;
. -. 4721931/21; . 19.07.89; . 15.08.91,
. 30. 3 .
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Components.

Volume

2012,

Article

ID

908716,

pages

doi:10.1155/2012/908716.
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2. 1979. . 321 327
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..

/ .. ,
.. // . 1987. . XXXII. 5. .
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817-826.

,
30

4.2
50

3.4

261.1*103.8
*303.2

DC ~ 20 kHz)

0.04 (1Vpp,

50, High Z

0.1 dB
< 100 kHz

20 Vpp
High Z
10Vpp 50
Ohm

20 10-6f

1 Hz
20 2Hz

33220
Aqilent

20

370*120
*300

0,2

19

241*89*
316

0,001

20

241*89*
316

0,0001
(100 ~ 10

5, 600

10;
5/600

10
100

50

18

2.3

230*89*
216

0,0002
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600

2 dB

7 ;
High Z
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(0,5

1
110

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Krohn-Hite

: , . : f.

60

488*93*
475

0,02

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50

5, 600

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1
200

3125

10;
5/600

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10
1

3121

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5/600

10 ; 5
50

5 10-7f

0,001 3

:
:

50

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DC ~ 20 kHz)

229*105
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0.2 (1Vpp,

DC ~ 20 kHz)

50, High Z

0.1 dB
< 100 kHz

0.2 (1 Vpp,

50, High Z

0.1 dB
< 100 kHz

20 Vpp
High Z
10Vpp 50
Ohm

, %


, %

10 Vpp
High Z
5Vpp 50
Ohm

100 10-6f

1 Hz
5 MHz

1 Hz
20 MHz


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AWG4105

DG2021
Rigol

315

.
1. ()
NN
/

,
1

Py (t ) ( z ) =


0.5

2 2

0.5

PA ( z ) =

Py ( z )

z2

1/ 2, z 1;
Py (t ) ( z ) =
0, z > 1.

Py (t ) ( z ) = 1 + z , 1 < z 0;
1 z , 0 < z 1.

2 2

2 2

PA ( z ) =

Py ( z )

z
1 z2

, 0 z < 1.

Py (t ) ( z ) =

1
1
a cosh .
2
z

Pa( z )
0

0
z

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Py ( z )

Pa( z )
0

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10

0.75

Pa( z )
0

0
5

0.75

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=
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Py ( z )
0

Pa( z )
0

2.
NN
/
1


() Ra(p)
3

100

2
S1=
() 2T ( g () ) M ( A2 ) 1 + 2 (1) p Ra( p) cos( pT ) ,
p = 100


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p ) 1, M (=
A) 1,=
T 1.

50

1
S1( )

10
0

10

10

1.5

2
S2( )

Ra( p )

10

0
0

10

100

Ra (=
p ) 1 p = 0, M (=
A) 1,=
T 1.
0 p 0;

S3( )

0
0

10

100

2. ()
1

exp ( 2,3 p ) M ( A) =
1, T =
1.
Ra ( p ) =

S4( )

0
0

10
10

1.5

5
S5( )

Ra( p )

0
0

10

100

100

100

10

1.5

6
S6( )

Ra( p )

10

0
0

10

100

,
60

488*93*
475
9

0,02

5, 600

0,1 /10
(1+1/U)
%

10;
5/600

0,5*10f
+0,05

1*10f

(0,5+50
/f)

10
1

3121

50

312*133*
322
8

0,002

, %

5, 600



, %

10;
5/600

1*10*f

3*10f

, %

(1+50
/f)

10
200


, %

3118

150

488*134*
570
19

0,5

50

5;
2,5/50

140

488*134*
475
15,5

0,1

50

(1+1/U)

195/ 10

1*10*f

3*10f

3*108f
5*109*f
+0,05

1
299,9

3123

0,5*107f

0,001
2

3122

19

241*89*
316
5

0,001

5, 600

10;
5/600

1*10f

3*10f

1
200

3125

20

241*89*
316
5

0,0001

5, 600

10;
5/600

1*10f

3*10f

10
100

50

480*158*
508
15

0,050,2

10 -1

0,03-0,2

10 600

20
100

7090

100

475*210*
480
25

0,00170

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3*10f

(2+30
/f)

20
200

.
, . .

20

0,5

50

(4 10)
%

10 ; 5
50 .

5.10-9fH

3.10-8fH

5.10-7fH

0,001
3

319

320


,
. .

321

322

323

324

325

326

327