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Engine Control System Failure Tests using

Hardware-In-the-Loop Technology
AUTO 503 Project Report
Submitted to:
Jeffrey A. Cook
Adjunct Professor
Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Michigan

Prepared by:
Aisar Romas
Software Engineering Specialist
Engine Management System & Control IX
DENSO International America Inc.

Date Submitted
December 14, 2015

Contents
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 2
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3
Overview of the Project .................................................................................................. 3
Review the State-of-the-Art ............................................................................................ 3
Project Deliverables ........................................................................................................ 5
Project Scope .................................................................................................................. 5
Assumptions and Methodology .......................................................................................... 6
Results and Discussion ....................................................................................................... 7
Project Plan ..................................................................................................................... 7
Test Plan ......................................................................................................................... 7
HILS System Implementation ........................................................................................ 9
Test Implementation and Results .................................................................................. 12
Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 15
Impact/Financial Benefits ................................................................................................. 15
Summary/Conclusions ...................................................................................................... 15
Appendix A: HILS Interface Model ................................................................................. 16
Appendix B: HILS Hardware Connection ........................................................................ 17
References ......................................................................................................................... 18

Executive Summary
DENSO, a prominent Engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) supplier based in Kariya,
Japan, have started the integration of HIL-based test into the ECU development process
since 2000s. As part of its global business strategy, DENSO in North America is looking
to expand its capability in ECU development, including HIL testing technology for
Failure Tests.
The goal of the project is to develop and establish the capability of performing failure
tests on an Engine ECU through utilization of HIL technology. This will create a base for
DENSO to further develop varieties of tests and finally enable DENSO to perform
comprehensive testing during the ECU development stage prior to engine and vehicle
build. The ultimate goal is to reduce the overall development time significantly and
improve the quality and reliability of the final product.
To meet the requirement for a versatile HIL platform, DENSO decided to utilize the
dSPACE HIL Simulator system. It is a highly customized modular system that delivers
modeling capabilities and processing power to accurately reproduce actual hardware
behavior. Also, its Failure Insertion Unit (FIU) capability allows any of the ECU outputs
and inputs to be shorted to battery or ground and also open circuited. These softwarecontrollable FIUs allow for any ECU diagnostics to be tested by simulating different
failure modes. They also allow for testing of such failures in extreme or unanticipated
conditions, which can be virtually impossible to duplicate in actual test vehicles.
The project started by understanding failure modes associated with DENSO DC1V
Engine ECU, particularly those related to the electrical failure (i.e. Over voltage, short
circuit, and open circuit). Also, DENSO has a design standard to comply with ISO
16750-2 for testing. After establishing a good understanding of failure modes, test cases
and test procedures were established, as well as the understanding of expected outcome
of each test case. Finally, the test environment was developed and built by integrating the
ECU with dSPACE HILS system. This includes modeling inputs and outputs that are
interfaced with the ECU. All tests were successfully performed and verified that the
result is aligned with the expected outcome as defined in DC1V Hardware Specification
and ISO 16750-2 standard.
This particular project was part of a long term mission to develop HILS testing for
DENSO Engine ECUs, and was intended to establish some of the basic capabilities.
Therefore, no immediate cost impact can be established. In the future, when HILS testing
is fully developed and utilized, the cost saving for performing failure tests on the HILS
instead of on actual engines and vehicles is estimated to be $91,000 per vehicle program,
which represents a cost reduction of 2 to 4 percent of a DENSO ECU.

Introduction
Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation is gaining more popularity in the automotive
industry, where rapidly growing demand for performance and safety have driven the
development of more complex and powerful control systems. HIL simulation involves
modeling the plant hardware (engine, transmission, vehicle dynamics, etc.) being
controlled, and interfacing this model with the intended controller, such as the Engine
Control Unit (ECU). It takes advantage of the fact that ECUs are usually available much
sooner than vehicle hardware or engine prototypes, thus enabling a large amount of
testing to be completed prior to a vehicle build. These HIL simulations give the test
engineer the ability to simulate a variety of scenarios that may be too difficult, time
consuming or expensive to do on a vehicle prototype. It has also proven to reduce the
overall development time significantly and improve the quality and reliability of the final
product.

Overview of the Project


DENSO in North America is looking to expand its capability in ECU development,
including HIL testing technology for Failure Tests. These tests are typically prohibitive to
be performed solely on actual engines or vehicles for several reasons [2]:
1. Validating control behaviors during failure on a vehicle would be extremely
difficult or damaging to system hardware.
2. Validation of ECU functions is required to proceed in parallel or prior to engine
availability.
3. Development vehicle availability is typically extremely limited due to cost and
other development needs.
These challenges presented an ideal opportunity to apply HIL testing technology. The
goal of the project is to develop and establish the capability of performing failure tests of
the ECU through utilization of HIL technology. Furthermore, this project will create a
base for DENSO to further develop varieties of tests and finally enable DENSO to
perform comprehensive testing during the development stage of the ECU prior to engine
and vehicle build.
The total cost saving for performing failure tests on the HIL system instead of on actual
engines and vehicles is estimated to be $91,000 per program, which represents a
reduction of 2 to 4.

Review the State-of-the-Art


ECU failure tests may consist of several different scenarios. ISO 16750-2 defines test
procedures commonly adopted by the industry, such as overvoltage test, short to ground
or battery, and broken wire (open circuit, crossing between wires) [3]. The overvoltage
test, for example, simulates the condition when the generator regulator fails, or when the
car is jumpstarted with a higher voltage source. During the test that simulates generator
3

regulator failure, an ECU is exposed to a voltage source 50% above its rating (18 V for
12 V rated ECU, and 36 V for 24 V rated ECU) for a duration of 60 minutes. In addition
to test procedures, ISO standard also defines the expected outcome and behavior of the
ECU when such failure condition exists.
For each test condition, the ECU is expected to have a certain immunity, ranked by one
of the following classifications: class A (failure condition does not affect ECU
functionality), class B (failure condition may result in ECU function to go beyond
specification limit), class C (failure condition may result in one or more ECU functions to
fail, but return to normal when failure ends), or class D (failure condition may result in
one or more ECU functions to fail, and hardware reset is needed before it can return to
normal). These results shall be observed when the ECU is under typical component load,
i.e. when crank sensor, cam sensor, mass air flow sensor and fuel injectors are loaded.
Each input and output signal shall be monitored for any deviation from normal operating
range.
The ability to simulate input and output of various engine components has demonstrated
HIL technology to be an ideal solution for such early validation of a development
program. To meet the requirement for a versatile HIL platform, DENSO decided to
utilize the dSPACE HIL system. In the past 30 years, there have been many projects that
have achieved success in validation using HIL technology. dSPACE HIL systems have
been involved in many of those programs. It is a highly customizable modular system
that delivers modeling capabilities and processing power to accurately reproduce actual
hardware behavior. Originally, due to lack of availability of standard hardware, many
HIL systems were built and customized from the actual hardware. dSPACE HIL systems
have gained more accurate modeling capabilities since then, thus eliminating the need of
actual sensors and actuators being present in the system.
The dSPACE HIL systems use modular boards with real-time capability to supply
necessary I/O to ECU [1]. This system allows for scalability with many configurable I/O
boards, and even allows for parallel I/O subsystems, to guarantee faster throughput, if
needed. In addition, advanced signal conditioning on the input and output pins is
provided. This allows standard boards to interface to automotive voltage levels and
provide component modeling capabilities, such as support for up to 8-cylinder engine
simulation, multiple crank and cam waveform simulation, and many additional I/O
channels for various switch, sensor, and actuator simulation.
One of the components in the dSPACE HIL system that allows for ECU failure test is the
Failure Insertion Unit (FIU). The FIU system is a configurable network of relays, which
allows any of the ECU inputs and outputs to be shorted to battery or ground, or opencircuited. This will verify if the ECU can correctly measure the failure, by monitoring the
expected diagnostic signal when a specific I/O has failed. They also allow testing of such
failures in complex and unexpected conditions, which can be virtually impossible to
duplicate in actual vehicle test.

Project Deliverables
The goal of the project is to develop and establish the capability of performing failure
tests of the ECU through utilization of HIL technology. This will create a base for
DENSO to further develop varieties of tests and finally enable DENSO to perform
comprehensive testing during the ECU development stage prior to engine and vehicle
build. The ultimate goal is to reduce the overall development time significantly and
improve the quality and reliability of the final product.
The project will start by understanding failure modes associated with the ECU. This is
usually conducted during DFMEA phase of the development and addresses potential
design failure, effects and likelihood of the event. After establishing a good
understanding of failure modes, test cases and test procedures need to be understood as
well as the expected outcome of each case. DENSO has a design standard to comply with
ISO 16750-2 for testing. Finally, we will build the test environment by integrating the
ECU with the dSPACE HIL system and the models for the actual engine and vehicle.
This includes modeling sensors and actuators that would be interfaced with ECU. All
tests are to be performed to verify if the result is aligned with the expected outcome.

Project Scope
Current application of failure testing will be specific to DENSO ABILCORE Gen.1
Engine Control Unit (ECU), which is applicable for passenger and commercial vehicles.
The ECU has support for both gasoline and diesel engines up to 6-cylinder, including fuel
injector control, PCV/PRV control, H-Bridge/Motor control, and High-side/Low-side
drivers. It is also capable of driving switch inputs, analog inputs, and pulse / PWM inputs.
The engine model to be interfaced with the ECU in the HIL system will consist of, at
least, one sensor and one actuator (e.g. Cam/crank sensor and injector). This will create a
good foundation for future application where more sensors and actuators are involved.
Failure tests to be performed are limited to electrical hazard, such as overvoltage, short to
ground or battery, and open circuit. Failures due to mechanical or chemical hazard, such
as vibration, over temperature, exposure to salt water or corrosive gas will not be
observed.

Assumptions and Methodology


There are several key assumptions that will be used throughout the project:
The ECU has been designed and built to pass the failure tests based on ISO
16750-2. No damage to the ECU is expected during the test.
Electrical behavior (voltage and/or current) of at least one actuator output and one
switch input can be monitored and can be used as a representation of the whole
ECU functionality during the failure test.
Software that is running on the ECU during the failure test represents the actual
input-output logic and behavior of the ECU when in normal driving condition.
Impacts to the vehicle and/or mechanical parts controlled by the ECU can be
either simulated by the HIL simulator, or manually estimated given the
information of voltage/current being applied and characteristics of the part (e.g.
fuel injector reaction to drop in current)
Total cost impact of the project is determined by comparing the cost of
performing the failure test on an actual engine/vehicle to the cost of performing a
HIL simulation, according to the industry common practice.
This project involves two stages: system development/integration and testing. The test
system will consist of HIL Simulator, Vehicle/Engine Plant Model, an ECU, as well as
physical connection and communication links between those components. Some
components, such as ECU and Plant Model, are sourced internally from DENSO. While
integration with HIL Simulator will be supported by 3rd party vendors and/or engineers
from dSPACE, it is important to clearly define the outcome. Thus, system engineering
approach will be used as follows:
1. Define concepts
2. Define requirements
3. Define specification
4. Design and Development *)
5. Verification *)
6. Validation *)
7. Commissioning *)
*) Indicates activities that are sourced and/or not considered as part of this project.
Finally, testing methodology will be in compliance with ISO 16750-1 and 16750-2. A
test plan will need to be defined thoroughly, including but not limited to:
1. Test coverage: defines requirements to be verified, such as test items and test
scopes. It is usually derived from product specification, safety standards, or
regulatory codes.
2. Test method: defines how test will be implemented, including approaches, testing
equipment, and test/fail criteria.
3. Test responsibilities: defines test deliverables and organization that will perform
and/or be responsible for the test and the results.

Results and Discussion


Project Plan
Table 1: Project Plan
Week
ISD 503 Report Deadlines

Sept - Oct. 2015


40 41 42 43
#2

44

Nov. 2015
45 46 47
#3

48

Dec.15
49 50
Dr Fin

1. System Development
1.1. Define concepts

1.2. Define requirements

O
O

1.3. Define specification


1.4. Development/Sourcing activity
1.5. System Commissioning

O
O

2. Testing
2.1. Review of ECU test specs
2.2. Create test plan

O
O

2.3. Test set up

O
O

2.4. Perform test


2.5. Result and analysis

O
O

Test Plan
Test plan is constructed according to the ECU specification, and in compliance with ISO
16750-1 and 16750-2.
1. Overvoltage Test
This test simulates the condition when performing a jump start (ISO6750-2
/4.3.1.2).
a. Test condition
Table 2: Condition for Overvoltage Test

Parameter
Condition
Test temperature
Room temperature
Applied voltage
36 V
Duration
60 min.
b. Test procedure
i. Record temperature and ensure the ECU has stabilized at room
temperature.
ii. Configure HIL Simulator according to the test condition
iii. Start the simulation and start voltage / current measurement on
designated input and output pins.
iv. Connect battery input (BATT+) pin to the 36 V supply.

v. Turn on the ignition switch to enable the main relay. 36 V shall


now be applied to main power input (+B) pin. Start the timer.
vi. Disconnect the 36 V supply when timer at 60 minutes.
vii. End the simulation and monitoring. Save recorded data.
c. Pass/fail criteria
Class D - Failure condition may result in one or more ECU functions to
fail, but return to normal after hardware reset is performed.
d. Deliverable
Voltage and/or current data of monitored I/O pins, and simulated or
estimated effect to engine speed and/or operation.
2. Short Circuit Test
This test simulates short circuits to the inputs and outputs of a device (ISO 67502/4.10.2).
a. Test condition
Table 3: Condition for Short Circuit Test

Parameter
Test 1
Test 2
Condition 1

Condition
Short to Us-max = 32 V
Short to ground
ECU connected to supply voltage
and ground
ECU disconnected from supply
ECU disconnected from ground
60 s

Condition 2
Condition 3
Duration for each test & parameter
b. Test procedure
i. Configure HIL Simulator according to the test condition
ii. Start the simulation and start voltage / current monitoring on
designated input and output pins.
iii. Connect battery input (BATT+) pin to the Us-max (32 V) supply.
Turn on the ignition switch.
iv. Connect all relevant inputs and outputs to Us-max (32 V). Start the
timer.
v. Disconnect the Us-max supply when timer at 60 s.
vi. End the simulation and monitoring. Save recorded data.
vii. Repeat the test with shorting to ground in Step iv.
viii. Repeat all the tests using 3 different conditions.
c. Pass/fail criteria
Class C - Failure condition may result in one or more ECU functions to
fail, but return to normal when failure condition ends.
d. Deliverable
Voltage and/or current data of monitored I/O pins, and simulated or
estimated effect to engine speed and/or operation.

3. Open Circuit Test


This test simulates an open contact condition (ISO 6750-2/4.9.1).
a. Test condition
Table 4: Condition for Open Circuit Test

Parameter
Condition
Interruption time
10 s
Open circuit resistance
> 10M-ohm
b. Test method
i. Configure HIL Simulator according to the test condition
ii. Start the simulation and start voltage / current monitoring on
designated input and output pins.
iii. Connect battery input (BATT+) pin to the Us-max (32 V) supply.
Turn on the ignition switch.
iv. Open one circuit of the ECU/system interface. Start the timer.
v. Restore the connection when timer at 10 s.
vi. End the simulation and monitoring. Save recorded data.
c. Pass/fail criteria
Class C - Failure condition may result in one or more ECU functions to
fail, but return to normal when failure condition ends.
d. Deliverable
Voltage and current data of monitored I/O pins, and simulated or
estimated effect to engine speed and/or operation.

HILS System Implementation


Development of the hardware and software is necessary to support the failure test. Block
diagram of the HILS system is shown in Figure 1.
Implementing the failure testing system around dSPACE SCALEXIO platform presented
some advantages. The platform includes the Failure Insertion Unit on each available I/O
channel, thus eliminating the need of complicated hardware connections between the
HILS and ECU. Also, the option to connect an external load allows specialty components,
such as a fuel injector, to be embedded directly in the system. The rest of the external
components can be simulated either by the signal generator (for ECU inputs) or dummy
internal loads (for ECU outputs).
A Controller Area Network (CAN) is required to control and monitor the behavior of the
DC1V ECU. Generally, SCALEXIO may support CAN communication through a
specific library in Simulink. However, in this case, to maintain simplicity of the Simulink
model and compatibility with DENSO internal test software, 3rd party CAN hardware and
software is used (Vector CANoe).
In the current implementation, the key switch input and a current-controlled fuel injector
output have been selected to evaluate ECU behavior during failure test. Key switch input
requires the battery voltage signal to be applied continuously to keep the main circuit
9

powered and running. A failure to provide such signal would result in the interruption of
voltage supply to the main circuit, thus effectively disabling all of the ECU inputs and
outputs.
Fuel injector output is a precisely controlled current pulse. The pulses determine how
much and how fast fuel is delivered to the engines combustion chamber. DC1V supports
up to 23 A of peak current and 85 V of peak voltage on a fuel injector pin. However, to
comply with SCALEXIOs voltage limitation, an injector load with max. voltage of 50 V
will be used in the test.

Figure 1 Failure Test System Block Diagram

One important step in HILS system implementation is establishing the model of the
external system that interacts with the ECU. The model is constructed in Simulink, and
it needs to be interfaced with the ECU by mapping the models abstract inputs and
outputs to the pins on the SCALEXIO that are physically connected to ECU. While pin
mapping by hand is a somewhat challenging task, dSPACE have provided a tool, called
Configuration Desk that can automate most of the process.
Using the Configuration Desk, pin functionality and requirements were defined in the
early stage before any mapping was performed, since a pin may be configured to serve
multiple purposes. For example, SCALEXIO may either handle the fuel injection pulses
as plain current/voltage input, or pass the signal to a more sophisticated function such as
Ignition/Injector Current Input. This function takes user-specified pulse characteristic
10

information into account, and uses it to recognize and process the incoming injection
pulse. Important information, such as pulse start/end signal, pulse count and average
current, are then transferred to the model in real time.
Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the implemented interface model for the fuel injection and
resulting hardware pin mapping. For the purpose of enabling the Extended Signal
Analysis, i.e. measuring pulse minimum, maximum, and average current, SCALEXIO
requires 2 (two) input channels to be used. For the complete model see Appendix A.

Figure 2: Fuel Injection Interface Model in dSPACE Configuration Desk

Figure 3: Fuel Injection physical connection diagram

11

Test Implementation and Results


Failure tests were performed at the top level HIL system without any external
interference to the system. All failure modes, i.e. overvoltage, short to ground, short to
battery, and open circuit, were supplied by the SCALEXIOs Failure Insertion Unit (FIU)
module. dSPACE Control Desk allows a complete control and monitoring of the HILS
system, as well as creating specific computer tasks for the data measurement.
By simulating a 1-cylinder engine at 1200 rpm, the fuel injection signals were produced
at the rate of 600 pulses per minute. Each failure test was performed according to the
defined test plan. Signal behavior before, during, and after each of the failure modes were
captured every 0.1 ms.
Two signals that are most important to the actual injection functionality, (1) pulse
duration, and (2) pulse average current, were further analyzed. Signal average value was
calculated from a sample size of 30 pulses during each condition, and the accuracy was
defined as 3 (three) times the sample standard deviation. They are then compared to the
specification limit of DENSO DC1V ECU. As a result, ECU functionality during specific
failure mode may fall into any of the following:
Class A: ECU functions within specification limit
Class B: ECU may function, but outside specification limit
Class C: ECU fails to function, but returns to normal when failure ends.
Class D: ECU fails to function, but returns to normal when failure ends and ECU reset.
Class E: ECU fails to function and cannot return to normal.
Table 5 shows the result of the Over Voltage test. When the voltage supply jumped to 36
V, a slight increase was monitored on the pulse average current (5). However, the
changes were small enough and stayed inside hardware specification limit of 4%. The
average value and accuracy of the output current were also maintained during and after
over voltage failure were in place. Thus, Class A functionality was observed, and already
surpassed the ISO 16750 requirement of Class D.
When the injection pin of the ECU was tested for Short to Battery (STB) and Short to
Ground (STG), the safety mechanism detected such condition and completely stopped the
output pulses. After the failure ends, measurement result in Table 6 shows that the
injection function immediately went back to normal for all of the 3 conditions. Hence,
Class C functionality was observed.
Also similarly, the result of Open Circuit (OC) test in Table 7 shows normal behavior
after the failure ends.

12

Figure 4: Typical fuel injectors current pulse waveform

Figure 5: Typical start of Over Voltage test

Figure 6: Typical end of Over Voltage test

Figure 7: Typical start of STB/STG/OC test

Figure 8: Typical end of STB/STG/OC test

Figure 9: Output shut off during STB/STG/OC

13

Table 5: Result of Test 1 (Over Voltage)


Parameters
DENSO Spec. Normal OV
Post OV Judge
Pulse Avg. Current A 5.483
5.672
5.498 Accuracy (3)
A 0.115
0.072 Current
% < 4%
3.456% 0.283% OK
Accuracy (3)
% < 4%
2.021% 1.305% OK
Pulse Avg. Duration
Accuracy (3)
Duration
Accuracy (3)

ms
ms
%
%

< 0.01
< 1%
-

1.999
-

1.999
0.001
0.014%
0.068%

1.999 0.001 OK
0.004% OK
0.063% -

Table 6: Result of Test 2 (Short to Battery / Ground)


Parameters
Pulse Avg. Current
Accuracy (3)
Current
Accuracy (3)

DENSO Spec.
A A % < 4%
% < 4%

Condition 1
Normal Post STB Post STG Judge
5.617
5.603
5.580 0.210
0.164 0.246% 0.657% OK
3.749% 2.945% OK

Pulse Avg. Duration


Accuracy (3)
Duration
Accuracy (3)

ms
ms
%
%

< 0.01
< 1%
-

1.999

1.999
0.002
0.002%
0.085%

1.999 0.002 OK
0.003% OK
0.078% -

Condition 2
Normal Post STB Post STG Judge
5.511
5.502
5.499 0.030
0.030 0.160% 0.223% OK
0.552% 0.546% OK
1.999
-

Table 7: Result of Test 3 (Open Circuit)


Parameters
DENSO Spec. Normal Post OC Judge
Pulse Avg. Current A 5.617
5.608 Accuracy (3)
A 0.161 Current
% < 4%
0.152% OK
Accuracy (3)
% < 4%
2.875% OK
Pulse Avg. Duration
Accuracy (3)
Duration
Accuracy (3)

ms
ms
%
%

< 0.01
< 1%
-

1.999
-

1.999 0.002 OK
0.005% OK
0.077% -

14

1.999
0.001
0.019%
0.053%

1.999 0.001 OK
0.017% OK
0.049% -

Condition 3
Normal Post STB Post STG Judge
5.511
5.496
5.500 0.041
0.028 0.275% 0.208% OK
0.741% 0.506% OK
1.999
-

1.999
0.001
0.017%
0.064%

1.999 0.001 OK
0.019% OK
0.059% -

Recommendations
This project has successfully established the basic capabilities in our group in DENSO to
perform failure tests of an Engine ECU on a HILS platform. The HILS system was
developed from scratch, and SCALEXIO as a relatively new platform in DENSO HILS
environment presented additional challenges to the team. However, countless supports
from dSPACE engineers have significantly accelerated the learning process. Injection
current input function is a good example of how SCALEXIO could simplify the model
required to process the data and provide meaningful information. There are still
numerous functions in SCALEXIO that could potentially save the development time even
more.
Future works need to target failure tests on a more comprehensively developed engine
and/or plant model. Additionally, integrating the driver and environment model would
enable a closed loop test platform that can provide better understanding on how failures
would impact the vehicle in the real world.

Impact/Financial Benefits
This particular project was part of a long term mission to develop HILS testing for
DENSO Engine ECUs, and was intended to establish some of the basic capabilities.
Therefore, no immediate cost impact can be established. In the future, when the HILS is
fully developed and utilized, the cost saving for performing failure tests on the HILS
instead of on actual engines and vehicles is estimated to be $91,000 per vehicle program,
or a cost reduction of 2 to 4 percent of a DENSO ECU.

Summary/Conclusions
The project started by understanding failure modes associated with an Engine ECU. This
was conducted during DFMEA phase of the development and addresses potential design
failure, effects and likelihood of the event. Also, DENSO has a design standard to
comply with ISO 16750-2 for testing. After establishing a good understanding of failure
modes, test cases and test procedures were established, as well as the understanding of
expected outcome of each test case.
Finally, the test environment was developed and built by integrating the ECU with
dSPACE HILS system. This includes modeling inputs and outputs that are interfaced
with the ECU. All tests were successfully performed and verified that the result is aligned
with the expected outcome as defined in DC1V Hardware Specification and ISO 16750-2
standard.

15

Appendix A: HILS Interface Model

Figure 10: HILS Interface Model

16

Appendix B: HILS Hardware Connection

Figure 11: HILS wiring diagram

17

References
1. Himmler, A. 2013.Hardware-in-the-Loop Technology Enabling Flexible Testing
Processes. AIAA Technical Paper [online database]. URL: http://arc.aiaa.org
[cited July 29, 2015]. DOI: 10.2514/6.2013-816
2. Ramaswamy, D., McGee, R., et al. 2004. A Case Study in Hardware-In-TheLoop Testing: Development of an ECU for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle. SAE
Technical Paper [online database]. URL: http://papers.sae.org/2004-01-0303/
[cited July 29, 2015]
3. ISO/IEC. 2012. ISO 16750-2:2012 Road vehicles Environmental conditions
and testing for electrical and electronic equipment. Geneva, Switzerland

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