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* PG Scholar, MMMUT, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

** Assistant Professor, MMMUT, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Laser Beam Machining (LBM) is one of the most advanced machining processes that is used for shaping, cutting and
machining the virtually whole varieties of engineering materials. In LBM, the surface roughness and kerf taper significant
factors affects the product characteristics and quality of the product. During this analysis work, the impact of process
parameters like cutting speed, frequency and Gas pressure surface roughness (Ra) of steel (AISI 321 stainless steel)
material in laser cutting machining. L9 orthogonal array was generated for fractional factorial design (Taguchi analysis)
for better understanding of the interaction among the process parameters. The values of surface roughness for steel
were calculated by Regression model equations, Taguchi Analysis and Genetic Algorithm were employed to the
parametric analysis of the experimental data. Taguchi analysis gives the optimum values of surface roughness and kerf
taper, which are 2.2981 m and 0.1637 respectively. Genetic algorithm was used for providing a set of optimum values
for both outputs simultaneously.
Keywords: Laser Beam Machining (LBM), Surface Roughness, Kerf Taper, Taguchi Analysis, Genetic Algorithm.

[1,6]. The values of process parameters are determined to

Laser (An acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated

yield the specified product quality and conjointly to

Emission of Radiation) has become a necessary tool in

maximize the method performances. In LBM, there are

modern technology. There are only a few fields

several factors like beam parameters, material

untouched by the laser in today's world. As a result of its

parameters and machining parameters that affect the

distinctive properties-specifically, high power density,

assorted quality characteristics, e.g. surface roughness,

mono-chromaticity, coherency, and directivity - lasers

Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), recast layer, etc. The Design

have a range of applications that embrace materials

experimental approach is used as a superior approach

process, medicine, analysis and development,

from other approaches, as a result of its systematic and

communications and measurements to call a few. LBM is

scientific manner of coming up with the experiments,

one among the advanced machining processes that are

assortment, and analysis and the information with a

used for shaping a whole variety of engineering materials.

restricted use of accessible resources [3]. Nd: YAG and

There are many applications of LASER which include

CO2 were most generally used for LBM applications. The

cutting of metals and non- metals, soft and Difficult To

high power laser, Nd: YAG laser were solely accessible in a

Machine (DTM) materials. The laser is directed at the

periodical mode, whereas a CO2 laser was accessible

specified surface and wrapped around to cut the

both in periodical and continuous (CW) modes. Now-a-

materials within the desired form. LBM is a non-

days, energy laser varieties are accessible periodically

conventional machining method, so it needs high

and clockwise [2, 3].

investment and offers a poor efficiency; therefore, great

There are many advantages of laser cutting over

attention is required for higher utilization of the resources

mechanical cutting, since the laser beam performs the


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cut. There is no exact contact with the material of the tool,

In 2008, Avanish Kumar Dubey worked on Laser Beam

thus contaminants cannot enter or implant into the

Cutting (LBC) process. It has been found that, the kerf

material. Laser cutting will produce high-quality cutting

width during LBC is not uniform along the length of cut,

edges, complex cutting edges, cutting many parts at the

and, therefore, the unevenness is more in the case of the

same time, and provides a clean cutting edge, that

pulsed mode of LBC [8, 14]. In this paper, two kerf qualities

needs negligible finishing, similarly as low edge load

such as, kerf deviation and kerf width have been

throughout cutting, which can scale back distortion

optimized at the same time using Taguchi quality loss


function throughout the pulsed Nd: YAG laser-assisted

The primary focus of the research in Laser assisted cutting

cutting of aluminium alloy sheet (0.9 mm thickness), which

nowadays is:-

is very difficult to cut the material. A suitable improvement

To develop high power output LASER.

Reducing Heat Affected Zone (HAZ).

Reducing kerf width.

Increase surface smoothness / decrease surface

roughness [20].

in kerf quality has also been achieved during the

experiment [8,14,15].
In 2011, Koji Hirano and Remy Fabbro worked on striation
generation mechanism on inert gas laser cutting of steel
using experiments on hydrodynamics of the melt layer on
the kerf front [12, 16-18]. Melt flows in the area of kerf side,

1. Literature Review

and kerf front displays the instability in various velocity

Sivarao et al. [4] have gone through an experiment that

ranges. They used 8 kW disk laser beam which was

investigated the impact of surface roughness on steel

focused on to a 3-millimeter thick low carbon steel with

having a thickness 6 millimeters with numerous

beam diameter 1.7 mm. The pressure of element was set

parameters like cutting speed, frequency and duty cycle

to 2.5 bars and the cutting speed was varied from one to 6

and an RSM-based model equation has been found for

m/min. They determined the melt dynamics, which

this experiment. They found that surface roughness was

exhibited their instability and that depends upon the

extremely tormented by cutting speed and duty cycle;

cutting velocity too. In lowest velocity ranges (v < 2

thus, these two are the foremost affecting parameters

m/min), the melt flow in the peach, the central (mid) and

and concluded that, at high cutting speed and low duty

the end region of the kerf front are unstable. In

cycle, best roughness are very often achieved. Once

intermediate region, the velocity varies (2.1 m/min < v < 6

when a comparison of information between the

m/min), in central flow becomes stable, while the side

calculated and the determined values for surface

region remains unstable. The unstable region becomes

roughness were done, the deviation error between the

an additionally restricted to the side with the increase of v,

expected and the determined values is not over than

until the whole region becomes stable at v = 6 m/min. The

15%. It implies that a mathematical model obtained for

determined instability may be explained by a mixture of

surface roughness is reliable. During this analysis work, the

thermal instability of melting method and

impact of method parameters like cutting speed,

hydrodynamical instabilities due to surface tension.

frequency and duty cycle surface roughness (Ra) of the

In 2012, Ruben Phipon & B.B. Pradhan have worked on

steel material in optical laser cutting is mentioned. L-27

control Parameters optimization of laser beam Machining

orthogonal array was selected for full factorial design to

using Genetic algorithm. Their work was with a Heuristic

the higher understanding of the interaction between the

analyzer using the GA (Genetic Algorithm) for optimizing

method parameters. The values of surface roughness for

the cut quality, specifically kerf taper and surface

steel were calculated as mistreatment model equations

roughness throughout the pulsed Nd: YAG laser cutting of

and Central Composite style of the response surface

thin Al-alloy sheet for straight profile is performed. The

methodology is employed to the parametric analysis [19].

process input parameters considered are oxygen

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pressure P, pulse width, pulse frequency F and cutting

achieve in any other way except laser assisted packaging

speed v. The experimental procedure is designed/


fabricated. The mathematical models giving the desired

It is evident from the review of literature that:

relationship between the desired responses and the

control parameters are established using the Response
Surface Methodology. Finally, the Genetic algorithm is
applied to search the optimum parametric values for the
optimum responses. Using Genetic algorithm, minimum
Kerf taper angle obtained is 0.14695 that is 0.313 less in
magnitude than the experimentally measured value.
Also, the minimum surface roughness predicted using
Genetic algorithm is 1.2625 m which is 0.3375 m better
in value compared to the experimentally measured value

Very less experimental works have been done on

Laser assisted cutting process. With very high power
laser-assisted cutting operation at the microscale
level, the work is very less.

Experimental work on laser assisted cutting is very less

in case of stainless steel.

Logical-mathematical solution to address the initial

faults is to develop a laser beam machining

Optimization of the laser beam assisted cutting

in the past experiments [11].

In 2013, M. Lakshmi Chaitanya & A. Gopal Krishna have

process is required to develop.

worked on Multi-objective optimization of laser beam

The rest of this study describes an investigation on the

Cutting method [9,10]. The material used for the

performance characteristics of laser cutting during

experiment was Silicon Carbide (SiC) reinforced

stainless steel cutting operations, via experimental

aluminum metal matrix composite. It is the most

and mathematical optimization approach.

advantageous engineering material due to their

3. Objectives of the Study

properties such as, low weight, heat-resistant, wear-

On the basis of literature survey, the objectives of the thesis

resistant and low cost. Their work was conducted about

are listed below:-

the machining conditions involving the minimization of

The optimize process parameters such as, laser

HAZ and Ra. The mathematical models for the HAZ and Ra

cutting speed, laser power and pulse frequency by

are developed through the response Sur face

response Taguchi analysis and Genetic algorithm.

Methodology (RSM). A very widespread evolutionary

algorithm, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II
(NSGA-II), was used to retrieve the multiple optimum sets

To minimize response i.e. taper angle by taking the

optimized values of the input laser parameters.

To maximize surface smoothness by taking optimized

of the input variables.

In 2014, K. Venkatesan & R. Ramanujam worked on an
experimental investigation of Cutting Forces and
Temperature in laser beam cutting of Inconel 718 using
Taguchi technique [9]. This paper was discussed
regarding the L9 orthogonal array, S/N ratio, and ANOVA

values of input laser parameters.

To determine the percentage contribution of factor

in response.

To provide a set of optimum value of output

parameters using genetic algorithm.

that were adopted for locating the optimum process

4. Taguchi Analysis

parameter for the performance measures of feed force

Based on the screening experimental results, the Taguchi

(Fx), thrust force (Fy) and cutting force (Fz) [13].

method was selected for the DOE. Within the Taguchi

2. Need of the Study

method, the experiments are performed as per standard

Within the last decade, the most rapidly growing use of

orthogonal arrays, while the optimum level of process

laser cutting was under Cutting and biomedical purposes.

input parameters (control factors) is decided by a

The unique qualities of laser cut surfaces add elegance to

statistical analysis of the experimental results. The tool

food and cosmetic packaging that would be tough to

used in the Taguchi method is the Orthogonal Array (OA).


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The OA defines the value of the parameters for each

Sl. No






Gas Pressure


mean of a process compared to its variation. These S/N

Pulse Frequency

ratios measure the effect of noise factors on performance

Cutting speed

experiment. The Taguchi method employs a generic

Signal-to-Noise Ratio representing the magnitude of the

characteristics. S/N ratios take into account both the

amounts of variability in the response data and the
closeness of the average response to the target. S/N ratios
are calculated for each level value. Therefore, the
optimal level of the process parameters is the level with
the greatest S/N ratio, since this indicates the situation
where the performance of the process is maximized, and
the noise is minimized [7].
5. Genetic Algorithm
Genetic Algorithms (GA) were initially introduced by John
Holland within the Seventies (Holland, 1975) as a result of
investigations into the possibility of computer programs
undergoing evolution within the genetic sense. GAs are a
part of a broader soft computing paradigm called
organic process computation. They attempt to make
better solutions through a method almost like biological

higher solutions from a pool of existing solutions [17].



Table 1. Level of variables

frequencies are 8, 9, 10 Hz respectively. The level of

cutting speed are 6, 7, 8 mm/min respectively. After
selecting the L9 orthogonal array with appropriate
settings, the Table 2 is obtained with blank spaces for taper
angle value and surface roughness value.
After the experimental work, these values are filled in the
blank space and the optimization work has been done
accordingly. Main effect plots for SN ratio and main effect
plot for the means are obtained by the optimization,
which shows that A1B1C2 are the most optimized value for
Ra, and A3B1C2 are the most optimized values for Taper
angle as shown in Figure1.
Figure 1 shows the value of mean for the means of input
Sl. No



evolution. This involves following the principles of survival

of the fittest, and cross-breeding and mutation generate
















the search for solutions for an excellent variety of issues




that no acceptable algorithmic solutions exist. The GA








Genetic algorithms have been found to be capable of

methodology is especially suited for an improvement,

and a problem-solving technique within which one or
more excellent answers are a probe for in a solution space

Table 2. L9 Orthogonal Array

consisting of a large variety of options. The genetic

algorithm reduces or tries to reduce the research space
by regularly evaluating the current generation of
candidate solutions, discarding the ones stratified as
poor, and manufacturing a new generation through
crossbreeding and mutating those stratified as good. The
ranking of candidate solutions is finished using some predetermined measures of goodness or fitness.
6. Experimental Setup & Cutting Conditions
Table 1 shows the level of variables like gas pressure, pulse
frequency and cutting speed. The levels of gas pressure
are 4, 5 and 6 kg/cm2 respectively. The level of pulse

Figure 1. Main Effects Plot for Means for Surface Roughness

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parameters. The maximum values of mean of the means
are for Gas pressure at A2 i.e. 5 Kg/cm2, for pulse
frequency at B3 i.e. 10 Hz and for cutting speed at C3 i.e. 8
Figure 2 shows the S/N ratio for the optimization of surface
roughness. Gas pressure A1 i.e. 4 Kg/cm2 has a maximum
value of S/N ratio. Pulse frequency B1 i.e. 8 hertz has
maximum value. Cutting speed, the maximum value of
S/N ratio is at C2 i.e. at 7 mm/min. These values shows that
the surface roughness will be at its minima with the set of
values of A1B1C2. Maximum value of S/N ratio is for the
cutting speed which is -4.287, so cutting speed is the most

Figure 3. S/N Ratio for Kerf Taper

significant factor in case of surface roughness.

Table 3 shows the values of the parameters at the different
points which are shown in the Figure 2. It shows the


















Table 3. Response Table for S/N Ratios for Ra

Figure 4. Main Effects plot for Means for Taper Angle

response value of S/N ratio for the value of surface

roughness. These are the tabulation form of the values
shown in the curves of Figure 2.
Figure 3 shows the S/N ratio for the optimization of Taper
angle in degree. Gas pressure A3 i.e. 6 Kg/cm2 has
maximum value of S/N ratio. Pulse frequency B1 i.e. 8 hertz
has maximum value. For cutting speed, the maximum
value of S/N ratio is at C2 i.e. at 7 mm/min. These values
shows that the surface roughness will be at its minima with
the set of values of A3B1C2. Maximum value of S/N ratio is

Figure 2. S/N Ratio for Surface Roughness

for gas pressure which is 15.44, so gas pressure is the most








Table 4 shows the value of S/N ratio at different points for




the cutting parameters while minimizing the value of taper








angle. These are the tabulation form of the values shown


Table 4. Response Table for S/N Ratios for Ta


significant factor in case of taper angle.

in the curves of Figure 3.

Figure 4 shows the main effects plot for the means for

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February - April 2016

objective functions were obtained. On this curve, the set
of optimum values can easily be taken.
Optimistic plot in Figure 6 shows the exact values of the
parameters after optimization. So optimum results are
given below:
The minimum value of surface roughness is 2.2981

The minimum value of taper angle is 0.1637.

Optimized input parameter values are 5.4212 kg/cm2

Figure 5. Pareto Chart obtained from genetic algorithm

gas pressure, 8 Hertz pulse frequency and 6

mm/min cutting speed.

From the genetic algorithm, the optimum value of

surface roughness is 2.895 m at the value of taper
angle 0.17.
[1]. Teixidor Ezpeleta, Daniel, Ferrer Real, Ins, Ciurana,
Quim de and zel, Turul, (2013). Optimization of
process parameters for pulsed laser milling of
microchannel on AISI H13 tool steel. Elsevier. Retrieved
from www.elsevier.com/locate/rcim.

Figure 6. Optimistic Regression Analysis

[2]. J. R. Duflou, E. Fallahi Sichani, J. De Keuster, and J.P.

Kruth, (2009). Development of a real time monitoring

taper angle. The maximum values of mean are for Gas

and adaptive control system for Laser Flame Cutting.

pressure at A2 i.e. 5 Kg/cm2, for pulse frequency at B3 i.e.

Conference Proceedings, ICALEO 2009.

10 Hz and for cutting speed at C3 i.e. 8 mm/min.

[3]. John Ion, (2005). Laser processing of engineering

7. Results and Discussion

materials: Principles, Procedure and Industrial

Genetic algorithm is used for multi-objective optimization.

Application. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 347-

By using genetic algorithm, both the objective functions


i.e. surface roughness and taper angle are optimized

[4]. N. Rajaram, J. Sheikh-Ahmad and S.H. Cheraghi

simultaneously. For this optimization, MATLAB 2014 is used.

(2003). "CO2 laser cut quality of 4130 steel. International

Equations used for the computation are given below:-

Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 43, pp. 351-

Ra = -0.00 + 0.017 pressure + 0.195 pulse frequency +


0.208 cutting-speed

[5]. S. P. H. Narendra B. Dahotre, (2008). Laser Fabrication

Ta = 0.022 - 0.0336 pressure + 0.0323 pulse frequency +

and Machining of Materials. Newyork: Springer, pp. 34-

0.0109 cutting-speed


Figure 5 shows the pareto chart obtained from the

[6]. William Steen and Jyoti Mazumder (2008). Laser

genetic algorithm. In this chart, two objective functions

Material Processing. London: Springer-Verlag, 2008.

are taken which are chosen for optimization on different

[7]. M. Madi, M. Radovanovi, M. Trajanovi, and M.

axis. After 167 iterations, the optimization curve for the

Mani, (2015). Multi objective optimization of laser

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cutting using cuckoo search algorithm. Journal of

[14]. A. K. Dubey and Vinod Yadava, (2008).

Engineering Science and Technology, pp. 353-363.

Optimization of kerf quality during pulsed laser cutting of

[8]. Avanish Kumar Dubey and Vinod Yadava, (2008).

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Technology, pp. 412-418.

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[9]. K. Venkatesan, R. Ramanujam, and P. Kuppan,

optimization of cut quality during pulsed Nd:YAG laser

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Mr. Sandeep Kumar Singh is an M.Tech Student in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Madan Mohan Malaviya
University of Technology, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. After graduated in Mechanical Engineering from the Institute of Engineering &
Rural Technology, Allahabad, UP, India, he is studying Computer Integrated Manufacturing in the Madan Mohan Malaviya
University of Technology, Gorakhpur. He has published and presented more than 5 papers in peer reviewed Journals and
International/National conferences.

Swati Gangwar is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Madan Mohan Malaviya University of
Technology, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. She has completed her Bachelor Degree in Mechanical Engineering in 2009 from
Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institutions, Bareilly, Lucknow and Master Degree in 2012 from National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur,
Himachal Pradesh. Currently she is pursuing Ph.D at Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur. She has published more
than 18 papers in National and International Journals as well as conferences. Swati Gangwar also guided 4 students for their
projects in UG and PG courses.


i-managers Journal on Future Engineering & Technology, Vol. 11

No. 3
February - April 2016