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Name: Jouya Najafi___

Date: June 4th, 2016

Biology 12 Unit 1 Assignment 2: Scientific Method Virtual Lab


Instructions:
Please complete the Scientific Method Virtual Lab.
External Link:
http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs_2K8/labs/BL_01/index.html
Read the information and procedures provided in the lab and complete both the table and journal
questions (provided below). Please note you should be answering your questions in detail, by
providing support in the form of data values (external or from the lab) and scientific
information/research to explain your statements.
Table/Graph Section:
Table 1: Crop Yield In Relation to Level of ECB Infestation
Corn Variety
Golden Crop
BT 123 Corn
BT 456 Corn
Super Harvest
Golden Crop
BT 123 Corn
BT 456 Corn
Super Harvest
Golden Crop
BT 123 Corn
BT 456 Corn
Super Harvest

Level of
ECB
Infestation
None
None
None
None
Low
Low
Low
Low
High
High
High
High

Growing Pot
1 Yield

Growing Pot
2 Yield

Growing
Pot 3 Yield

Average
Yield

181.6
160.1
190
164.1
177.9
164
178.8
159.1
135.4
155.1
157.3
125.5

182.8
164.8
183.2
164.3
171.2
162.6
172.6
155
139.6
163
157
129

189.8
164.2
184.8
161.9
170.6
168.3
179.6
157.5
138.3
163.9
159
130

184.7
163
186
163.4
173.2
165
177
157.2
137.8
160.6
157.8
128.2

Journal Questions:
1. Describe the effects of the ECB infestations you used. Were all corn varieties equally
effective at controlling the ECB? How do you know?
Based on the data above, the ECB infestation had effected the yields of corn. As the
infestation increased, the yield had decreased across all types of corn. The exception was
BT 123 corn. At low infestation levels, the yield had increased. Not all corn varieties equally
effective at controlling the ECB. Most of the Corn's yield was reduced by the ECB except
for BT 123 corn. The yield of the corn was increased by 2g during the low level infestation
yet the yield decreased by 2.4g during high level infestation. Each corn variety's yield were
affected differently by the ECB and had different changes in amount of corn yielded.

2. If there was no ECB infestation in a certain year, would a farmer gain or lose financially
by planting Bt corn? Explain why?
Farmers would gain financially by planting BT corn. Since high ECB infestation
had decreased yields of corn, having no infestation would increase yield which
would allow for more to be sold which would be financially beneficial.
3. What might happen if Bt corn affects non-target organisms such as beneficial insects or
harmless insects?
Non-target organisms affected by Bt corn can be either injured or killed by coming
in contact with BT corn. Since Bt is genetically engineered, it's natural insecticide
could harm non-target insects
4. What might happen if ECB became resistant to Bt?
If ECB was resistant to BT then BT corn's yield would be affected which would
reduce the yield of corn. Compared to non-BT corn like golden crop, the yield was
reduced by 46 due to infestations
5. Discuss possible benefits and drawbacks of a transgenic organism such as Bt corn?
Benefits of BT corn would be more corn yields during ECB infestations and less
insecticides would be used to combat infestations as the BT corn is able to withstand
pests on its own
Drawbacks of BT corn would be it can kill not-target organisms and it is not safe for
human consumption as it can cause allergic reactions.
6. A farmer planted a field of Bt 123 corn and wants to estimate the yield in terms of
bushels per acre. He counts 22 ears in 1/1000 of an acre. He determines that each ear has
about 700 kernels on average. He also knows that a bushel contains about 90,000 kernels
on average. What is the farmer's estimate of yield in bushels/acre?
The farmer estimates that there is about 128 ears of corn in each bushel per acre.
*Chosen answers below have been bolded*
1. ECB refers to:
a. A genetically engineered plant that is resistant to insect pests
b. Edible corn byproducts
c. An insect pest that reduces corn yield
d. European corn borer
e. c and d

2. How many days are required for a corn seed to become a mature plant with maximum
weight kernels ready to be harvested?
a. about 23
b. about 65
c. about 140
d. about 180
3. BT Corn refers to corn that:
a. Has been infested with insect pests
b. Has been infected with bacteria
c. Is resistant to ECB
d. Is not affected by pesticides
4. BT is:
a.
b.
c.
d.

A stomach poison produced by bacteria


A genetically engineered corn product
A bacterium carried by the European corn borer
A bacterium that has a gene for producing Cry proteins

5. Creation of BT corn requires genetic material from all of the following except:
a. European corn borer
b. Bacillus thuringiensis
c. a corn plant
d. all of the above contribute genetic material to the production of BT corn

Table 1: Average Yield for each seed variety at no, low, and high infestation levels
Seed Variety
BT 123

Level of
ECB
Infestation
None

Pot 1
Yield

Pot 2
Yield

Pot 3
Yield

Average
Yield

160.1

164.8

164.2

163

Low

164

162.6

168.3

165

High

155.1

163

163.9

160.6

BT 456

Golden

Super Harvest

None

190

183.2

184.8

186

Low

178.8

172.6

179.6

177

High

157.3

157

159

157.8

None

181.6

182.8

189.8

184.7

Low

177.9

171.2

170.6

173.2

High

135.4

139.6

138.3

137.8

None

164.1

164.3

161.9

163.4

Low

159.1

155

157.5

157.2

High

125.5

129

130

128.2

Table 2: % Reduction in yield for each seed variety at high levels of infestation
(transfer data on average yield with no infestation and high infestation from Table 1 to Table 2)
Seed Variety
BT 123

Avg. Yield with


No Infestation
163

Avg. Yield with


High Infestation
160.6

% Reduction
In Yield
1.47%

BT 456

186

157.8

Golden

184.7

137.8

25.39%

Super Harvest

163.4

128.2

21.54%

15.16%

6. For each seed variety, why did you need to collect data from 3 pots for each infestation
level to obtain reliable data?
You would need 3 pots at each level to ensure that the data was not affected by other
variables and to ensure that the data is accurate.
7. Which seed variety has the highest yield under conditions of no infestation?
Seed variety BT 456 had the highest yield under condition of no infestation which
was 186 yield.

8. Which transgenic seed variety was most resistant to the ECB at high infestation levels?
BT 123 was the most resistant to the ECB at high infestation levels at only 1.47%
reduction in yield
9. Which non-transgenic seed variety was most resistant to the ECB at high infestation
levels?
Super Harvest was the most resistant to the ECB at high infestation levels at 21.54%
reduction rate.
10. Compare the yield of Super Harvest seeds and BT 123 seeds under conditions of no
infestation. Is there any difference in the avg. yield?
Super Harvest had an average yield of 163.4 while BT 123 had an average yield of
163. Super harvest was slightly higher at a difference of 0.4g

11. If you compared one pot of Super Harvest and one pot of BT 123 with no infestation,
would you expect the yield of each pot to be within 0.5g? Explain your answer.
I would not expect one pot of Super Harvest and another of BT 123 with no
infestation to have a yield within 0.5g because each seed variety can have a pot with
a high yield and another with a low yield. So if it was not out of an average of three
then it would not be accurate.

12. A farmer decides to plant 90% of one field with BT 123 seeds and the remaining 10% of
the field with a different seed variety. He hopes this will slow the evolutionary development
of BT resistant insects. Which seed variety should he use the 10% of his field that is not
planted with BT 123 seeds? Explain your answer.
The seed variety the farmer should use for the 10% of the field that would also slow the
evolutionary development of BT resistant insects should be Golden Crop. Golden Crop
is non-BT so it would slow the evolution of BT resistant insects. Golden Crop also
produces more yield than Super Harvest by 23.4g so it would be more financially
beneficial to the farmer.