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LECTURE:CLASSIFICATION

OF
SEDIMENTARYROCKS
1. Clastic(siliciclastic)

Sandstones
Mudstones(shales)
Conglomerates

Carbonates
SiliceousOozes/Cherts
Evaporites

2. Chemical/Biochemical

CLASTICSEDIMENTARY
ROCKS(siliciclastic)
Rockcomposedmainlyofsilicateparticlesfrom
weatheringofrocks
SANDSTONES
CONGLOMERATES
SHALES

Sandstones

20to25%ofallsedimentaryrocks

Environments:
Coastal/shelfmarine,fluvial,subaerial
Composition:
GrainSize:
frameworkfraction:particles125to
2000mindiameter
Mineralogy:

Quartz(SiO2)dominantmineral5060%framework

monocrystallineformsinglelargegrains

polycrystallineformweatheredbeddedchert/chertnodules

Feldspars(AlSi3O8)secondmostabundantmineral1020%oftheframework

lessstablethanquartz

Alkali(PotassiumK)Feldspars(orthoclase,microcline),Plagioclase
Feldspars
Kfeldsparsmoreabundant
Plagioclasemoreabundantinsandstonesderivedfromvolcanicrocks

Sandstones
Mineralogy(Cont.):
ClayMinerals<5%matrix
AccessoryMinerals<1to2%
micas(muscovite,biotite)
heavyminerals(zircon,
rutile,magnetite,
pyroxenes,amphiboles
MineralCements:

Silicate (SiO2) based cements (mainly


Quartz,someopal(containswater&
ismetastable)

form rims of
cements called
overgrowths
syntaxial
maintain
crystallographic continuityof
thegrain

Carbonate(CaCO3)basedcements

Photomicrographpolarizedlight

Sandstones
Classification
Arenites grain supported, well
sortedsandstones(<5%matrix)
1. quartzarenite

extensivechemicalweatheringproductof
multiplerecycling,mature
Marginal marine facies (beach,
offshore)

2. feldspathicarenite(>25%arkose)

limitedchemicalweathering
either very cold and dry
climate,orrapiderosionand
deposition

3. lithic(rockfragments)arenites

limitedchemical
weatheringmountainous
region,rapidtransport
alluvial fans, or
other
fluvial
environments

Laminations,xbeddingpossible

Sandstones
Classification:
Wackes abundant matrix, poorly
sorted(>15%matrix)
Deepwaterfacieswaning
turbiditycurrent
1. quartz wacke, feldspathic
wacke

2. lithic(rockfragments)wacke
3. graywacke

matrix rich sandstone of any


composition
very hard, and dense undergone
deepburial

Conglomerates

1% of all sedimentary
rocks

HIGH ENERGY
environments

mountains, margins
fans,glacial

Composition:
GrainSize:

30%
gravel
size
(>2mm
in
diamet
er)
rounde
dclasts

2Types:

1. o
l
i
g
o
m
i
c

t
conglome
rate

clasts
predomin
antly one
compositi
on

several generations of
recycling eliminated
unstableclasts

2. polymict
conglomerate
assortment of
clast
compositions

unstable components
(limestones,basalt)

matrix

various clay minerals


andmicas
cemented withquartz,
calcite,hematite,clay

Triassic
Hawksmoor
Formation,

NeedwoodBasin,
UK

Shales

LOWENERGYEnvironments;
Deepquietwater
Abundantfinesediment

Shale

Composition:
GrainSize:
siltandclay(<63m)
Mineralogy:
finegrainquartz
Clay

Classification:
1. siltstone(>66%silt)
2. mudstone(<66%silt,
>33%clay)

3. claystone:(>66%clay)

Pelagic
clay

sil
t

CARBONATESEDIMENTARY
ROCKS

Calcite Rhombs

Rockcomposedmainlyofcarbonateminerals
3mostcommoncarbonates:
CalciteCaCO3(Rhombohedral)

Arag Needles

AragoniteCaCO3(Orthorhombic)

DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2(Rhombohedral)

Dolomite/dolostone

Dolomite Rhombs

Aragonitic Corals

Textures:(3primarytextures)
A.CarbonateGrains
silt size or larger
particlesofcalcite
clasts rock fragments
derived from weathering
oflimestones
skeletal particles

microfossilsor fragmentsor
macrofossils
zooplankton (foraminifera), corals,
molluscs,

ooidscoatedcarbonate
grainswithseednucleus
(ie.,qtzgrain,shellfrag.)

mainlyaragonite

A.CarbonateGrains

Coral (aragonite)
crinoids (white fragments) and brachiopods (dark)

Bivalve (oyster) shells


bryozoan

Textures:(3primarytextures)
B.microcrystallinecalcite
(micrite)

claysizeorsmallerparticlesof
calcite

mudneedleshaped
aragonitecrystals(1
5m)
nannofossils
(coccoliths)calcareous
phytoplanktonprecipitate
testscomprisedofshields
(15m)

B.microcrystallinecalcite(micrite)

Calcareousnannofossils

C.sparrycalcite(spar)
largecrystalsofcalcite(0.02to0.1
mm)

limestones/marbles

Primarilydiageneticinorigin
1. Precipitationofsecondarycalcite
invoids

2. Recrystallizationoffossilcalcite

Recrystallized
mollusc

A. Castle Hayne Limestone(Eocene), North Carolina

Calcitization of aragonite

B. Castle Hayne Limestone(Eocene), North Carolina

3.SILICEOUSSEDIMENTARYROCKS(Chert)
rockcomposedmainlyoffinegrained,silicaminerals

comprise<1%ofallsediments
abundancethroughtimevaries

Composition
Diatoms&Radiolaria(Silicashells)
Opal(hydrousSiO2)

unstableTransformstochert

Microquartz(SiO2)

Permian Kaibab Limestone. Grand Canyon

Silicificationofcalcite(chert)