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Lenz's Law

Emil Lenz gave the following simple rule to find the direction of induced current:
The induced current will flow in such a direction so as to oppose the cause that produces it.

Let us apply Lenz's law to figure given above. Here the N-pole of the magnet is approaching a coil
of several turns. As the N-pole of the magnet moves towards the coil, the magnetic flux linking the
coil increases. Therefore, an e.m.f and hence current is induced in the coil according to Faraday's
laws of electromagnetic induction. According to Lenz's law, the direction of the induced current will
be such so as to oppose the cause that produces it. In the present case, the cause of the induced
current is the increasing magnetic flux linking the coil. Therefore, the induced current will set up the
magnetic flux that opposes the increase in flux through the coil. Therefore, the induced current will
set up the magnetic flux that opposes the increase in flux through the coil. This is possible only if the
left hand face of the coil becomes an N - pole. Once we know the magnetic polarity of the coil face,
the direction of the induced current can be easily determined by applying the right hand rule for the
The Lenz's law can be summed up as under:
If the magnetic flux linking a coil will flow in such a direction so as to oppose the increase in flux,
i.e. the induced current will produce flux as shown in the figure given below,

If magnetic flux linking a coil is decreasing, the induced current i in the coil will flow in such a
direction so as to oppose the decrease in the flux, i.e. the induced current will produce flux to aid
the flux as shown in the figure given below.

A. The basic difference:

AC Gen uses Slip rings and brushes (there are brushless designs as well)
DC Gen uses a Commutator and brushes.
The commutator switches polarity of the winding as the shaft rotates. The
switching occurs where the generated voltage would start to change polarity. In
essence the commutator acts like a mechanical fullwave rectifier allowing the
generator to produce a unidirectional flow of electricity (DC).
B. Transformers have a primary side and a secondary side. The side with the energy
source is the primary side. The side with the electrical load is the secondary
For a step-up transformer, the primary side has fewer coils and the secondary
side has more coils. The voltage across the primary side will be less than the
voltage across the secondary side. This is the kind of transformer that will be
installed at a power generating facility, as it steps-up the voltage to match the
utility transmission voltage.
For a step-down transformer, the primary side has more coils and the secondary
side has fewer coils. The voltage across the primary side will be greater than the
voltage across the secondary side. This is the kind of transformer that will be
installed in your neighborhood for household use, as it steps-down the utility
distribution voltage to match the voltage suitable for household use.
In principle, a step-up and step-down transformer can be used reversibly as the
alternative by swapping source wiring with load wiring. In practice, this is seldom
done, because most step-up transformers will be built for high power
applications (megavoltampere scale), and most step-down transformers will be
built for low power applications (kilovolt ampere scale).
C. A motor is a form of rotating machinery that takes electrical energy and converts
it to mechanical energy in the form of a rotating shaft. Electrical energy is in the
form of AC or DC voltage and power, depending on the motor design.
An electrical generator is a form of rotating machinery that takes mechanical
energy in the form of a rotating shaft and converts it to electrical energy, either
AC or DC depending on design.
I use the term "electrical generator" because there are many other uses of the
word generator.
Depending on the design, sometimes the two are interchangeable, that is, a
rotating machine can function either as a motor or as an electrical generator,
depending on the mechanical load and electrical load applied.
A transformer is a stationary machine that takes AC power at a specified voltage
and converts it to power at a different voltage. A transformer does not generate
power, the E x I product of the input (primary side) has been always larger than
the E x I product of the output (secondary side). So for example, You can supply
120 volts at 100 amps to the primary and get 1200 volts at 9.9 amps on the
D. It is fairly basic. A generator means that something is generated, in this case it is
electricity, the generator can be driven by water power or by mechanical means
such as a fuel burning engine, some are driven by wind power. An electric motor

is a mechanical device that is driven by electricity. A transformer has no moving

parts, induction is used to step up, or step down voltage, it can't be used to
increase the current, if voltage is doubled by a transformer the amount of
current available is halved. I hope this has helped.

Dos and Donts of filling in application forms

Before you even start - you should have the following
practices in place:

Formally constituted group

Bank account with at least two signatories
Committee meetings on a regular basis
Should be clear on what you want to do and what is the need for the
project? Who it will benefit and what you expect to achieve with the
work you plan to do
How will you carry out the work?
You will need an accurate budget whether you are applying for capital
costs (equipment and furniture) or revenue (salaries and running
costs). You need to have precise quotes or costs of everything that you
are asking for.
How will you measure the success of your work how will you report
this back to the funders?
Think about the problems that may occur
You should allow a minimum of six months between applying and
receiving the money


Research into the most appropriate funder(s) to meet the groups

requirements. If your request doesnt meet the funders criteria, then
you are applying to the wrong funding source
Read the eligibility criteria and the guidance notes before starting the
application. Match what your organization does to the funders
criteria. You dont want to waste time writing an application if you
dont meet the criteria
Be clear about what you want to achieve
Contact the funder before starting to fill in the form. Dont be afraid to
ask questions. It is also a good opportunity to talk about your project
and see if the funder would be interested to fund your organization.
Request clarification where necessary.
Ask for a contact name from the funder so that you can talk to them
again if required

Filling in the Form

Confine your application to the information required

Describe the project in a way that it meets the funders priorities
Respond to each question and read the small print
Keep it short and simple, but make sure that you get all your points
Use bullet points wherever possible
Show how your service users are consulted/involved
Get as many people involved as possible. Its good practice to ask
advice from staff as they are usually the people who will be delivering
the project.
Make the budget clear and concise. Present it in such a way that
someone unfamiliar with your organization can understand it. Ensure
that the figures add up and that you have included everything e.g.,
salaries, running costs and all other expenses associated with
delivering that project.
Demonstrate why your work is unique, or particularly deserving of
Think about including a project plan. Which should include ideas about
what will happen at the end of the project will it still be needed? Will
it have changed? What will happen when the funding ends?

Before completion

Get someone else to check your application for clarity and mistakes
preferably an external reader who may not know too much about the
Make sure that all additional documentation that has been requested
has been included with the application
Allow enough time between sending applications and the start of the
If you have hand written an application, take a copy. The main contact
should be the person who keeps the copy in case the funder contacts
them to ask any questions
Meet the deadline
Respond promptly if you have asked for more information after sending
the form in


Make spelling mistakes or use abbreviations and jargon

Make vague statements about what you want to do
Send in lots of information unless the funders have specifically asked
for it
Forget to include all expenditure items and overheads in the costs.
Also allow for VAT and inflation
Send a standard or a begging letter
Expect to be successful. There are hundreds of other voluntary
organization applying for the same pots of money
Assume that the funders know about you. You need to be very precise
when completing an application form
Apply for the maximum funds available, but build your project based
on the needs
Dont leave it to the last minute
Dont forget grants are not the only way to bring in money. There is a
wide range of other sources such as fundraising event, donations,
members' subscriptions, partnership/collaboration etc.
Give up if your application is unsuccessful, ask for feedback from the
founders and then try again!

Resume Preparation Do's and Don'ts

Do read our detailed Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete
Job-Search Resume FAQ if you have questions about resume writing and
And do review some of the many no-cost professional resume samples we have
published here: Sample Job-Seeker Resumes for Job-Seekers in Various Professions.
It never hurts to see what a strong resume looks like before tackling your own.
Do consider a bulleted style to make your resume as reader-friendly as possible.
Don't get overwrought about the old "one-page resume rule." It's good to keep your
resume to one page, if possible, but if you have a lot of experience, two pages may
be more appropriate. If your resume spills beyond one page, but you have less than
a half a page of material for the second page, it may be best to condense to one
But preferably don't go beyond two pages with your resume -- even if you are an
executive job-seeker; resumes are trending shorter these days. (Academics,
doctors, researchers, and others who use CVs rather than resumes do not have to
pay attention to the page-length rule.)
Do consider a resume design that doesn't look like everyone else's. Many jobseekers use Microsoft Word resume templates. There's nothing wrong with them,
per se, but your resume won't look distinctive if you use one; it will look like the

resume of everyone else who used a Word template. These templates can also be a
bit inflexible to work with.
Don't use justified text blocks; they put odd little spaces between words. Instead,
make your type flush left.
Don't ever lie on your resume.
Do include ways to contact you -- Website address/URL (if available), city and state
only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax
number), and a single email address. While job-seekers were once advised to
include as much contact information as possible, the emerging trend is for minimal
contact information, in part because of identity theft.
Do give your resume as sharp a focus as possible. Given that employers screen
resumes for as few as 6 seconds, you need a way to show the employer at a glance
what you want to do and what you're good at.
Do consider a section such as "Summary of Qualifications," or "Profile," which can
also help sharpen your focus. Here's a resume with an example of such a section.
Don't use personal pronouns (I, my, me) in a resume.
Do list your job information in order of importance to the reader. In listing your jobs,
what's generally most important is your title/position. So list in this preferred order:
Title/position, name of employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment.
Don't leave out the locations of your past jobs (city and state). This information is
expected, but many job-seekers unwittingly omit it.
Do list your jobs in reverse chronological order.
Don't mix noun and verb phrases when describing your jobs. Preferably, use
concrete action verbs consistently.
Do avoid the verb, "Work" because it's a weak verb. Everyone works. Be more
specific. "Collaborate(d)" is often a good substitute.
Do think in terms of accomplishments when preparing your resume.
Accomplishments are so much more meaningful to prospective employers than runof-the-mill litanies of job responsibilities.
Don't use expressions like "Duties included," "Responsibilities included," or
"Responsible for." That's job-description language, not accomplishments-oriented
resume language that sells.
Do emphasize transferable skills, especially if you don't have much experience or
seek to change careers.

Do quantify whenever possible. Use numbers to tell employers how many people
you supervised, by what percentage you increased sales, how much money you
saved, how many products you represented, etc.
Don't emphasize older experience on your resume. Include your jobs that are more
than 15 years old, but list them in bare-bones fashion (title, employer, location) with
or without dates of employment. You may want to title this section Previous
Professional Experience.
Don't emphasize skills and job activities you don't want to do in the future, even if
they represent great strengths for you. In fact, you may not even want to mention
these activities. Why describe how great your clerical skills are if you don't want to
do clerical work in the future?
Do remember that education also follows the principle about presenting information
in the order of importance to the reader; thus the preferred order for listing your
education is: Name of degree (spelled out: Bachelor of ____________) in name of
major, name of university, city/state of university, graduation year (unless you
graduated more than about 15 years ago), followed by peripheral information, such
as minor and GPA. If you haven't graduated yet, list your grad year anyway. Simply
by virtue of the fact that the date's in the future, the employer will know you don't
have the degree yet. If you're uncomfortable listing your future grad date, you can
say, for example, "expected May 2014."
Don't list high school (unless you're still a teenager)!
Don't include on your resume your height, weight, age, date of birth, place of birth,
marital status, sex, ethnicity/race, health, social security number (except on an
international resume), reasons for leaving previous job(s), names of former
supervisors, specific street addresses or phone numbers of former employers,
picture of yourself, salary information, the title "Resume," or any information that
could be perceived as controversial, such as religion, church affiliations, or political
Don't include hobbies or other irrelevant information on a resume. In most cases,
they are seen as superfluous and trivial. An argument can be made that hobbies are
interview conversation starters or that they make you seem well-rounded, but they
are generally seen as fluff or filler.
Do, however, list sports if you're a college student or new grad. Many employers
specifically seek out athletes because of their drive and competitiveness, as well as
teamwork and leadership skills. Collegiate athletes should even consider listing their
sports background in the Experience section.
Don't list references right on your resume. References belong in a later stage of the
job search. Keep references on a separate sheet and provide them only when they
are specifically requested.
Do realize that the phrase "References available upon request" is highly optional
because it is a given that you will provide references upon request. If you couldn't,

you would have no business looking for a job. The line can serve the purpose of
signaling: "This is the end of my resume," but if you are trying to conserve space,
leave it off.
Do proofread carefully. Misspellings and typos are deadly on a resume.