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:

E ob (x,y,z, ,t)

c -

i
2c

rE

ob

S 0 T0

1
( x0, y 0, z 0, t 0 ) exp [(t t 0 ) r ]dt 0 dS 0 ,
c

(1)

; x 0 , y 0 , z 0 , t 0 x, y, z, t

- ; r
;

S 0 , T0 - - ,

; dS=dx 0 , dy 0.
(1) E ob ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 , t 0 ) - .
-
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0 ,

z, . ,

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E 0 =E 0 x exp

E0 y
i 0 z 1
, 0 =
1
c
E0 x

(2)

E 0

15

m ( x , y , z , t ) m12 ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 )

M ob (x 0 ,y 0 ,z 0 ,t 0 )= 11 0 0 0 0
m21 ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) m22 ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 )

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1
i
E ob ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) = [ E Ax M ob ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) EBy M ob ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) ] exp it0 ,
i
1

E Ay

E Ax

EBx

EBy

(3)

; 0 1; ,

E A

EB

) ,
, ,

, -

:
1

1
E = [ E 0 x exp i E 0 x exp i ] exp i t z ,
2 1

(4)
16

E0 y

E0 x

, E 0 x , E 0 y ;

.
, ,

:
E ( x, y, z , t ) = E p + E ob

(5)

1
E ( x, y, z, t ) = {E 0 x exp i exp i t z +

c 2c S0T0 r
1
1

E Ax M ob ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) exp i (t t0 ) r dS0 dt0 }


c

.
E
i

t
z
E
M
x
y
z
t
i

t
t
r
dS
dt
exp
exp
(
,
,
,
)
exp
(
)

0x
0
0
0
By ob 0 0 0 0

c 0 1
2

c 2c S 0T0 r

(5)
.
Re (E ) = p cos t + g sin t,
p

(6)

, [14]
p = Re(E ) A Re(E ) B = p A p B
g = Im(E ) A Im (E ) B = g A g B

(7)

(5) ,
- ,
- , ,
, ,
.
17

s ,

L-

G - ,

.
,

M
M = exp(2idn0 ). 11
M 21

M 12
,
M 22

(8)

M 11, 22 = 1
M 12, 21 =

(8)

id
[s( I1 + I 2 ) A + s( I1 + I 2 ) B vL cos 2 A .( I1 I 2 ) A vL cos 2 B .( I1 I 2 ) B ],
2n0

id
[vL sin 2 A.. ( I1 I 2 ) A + vL sin 2 B .( I1 I 2 ) B m ivG ( I I m ) A m ivG ( I I m ) B ].
2 n0

= 2 , (,

in vivo);

d - ;

n0 -

, ;
( I 1 + I 2 ) A ( I 1 + I 2 ) B - ,
( I1 I 2 ) A

( I1 I 2 ) B

- , ( I I m ) A

A B ;

A-

(I I m ) B

B -

B - ,

x .
(8) p A , p B , g A ,g B
,

,
M = M 0 + M 1 + M +1 ,

(9)

M 0 - , ,

18

ids
1 0
;
M 0 exp(2idn0 ) 1
1 + 2 E02x
n0

0 1

(10)

M 1 - , ,

M 1

( M 1 )12
(M )
d

exp(2idn0 ) 1 11
4cn0
( M 1 ) 21 ( M 1 ) 22

(11)

( M 1 )11, 22 =

S 0T0

{E Ax [( s vL )(m11 + im12 ) i ( s m vL )(m21 + im22 )]E0 x exp i + EBy

[( s m vL )(m22 + im21 ) i ( s vL )(m12 + im11 )]E0 x exp i (


exp i

)}

1
z exp i (t0 + r )ddt0 dS0 ,
c
c

( M 1 )12, 21 =

S 0T0

{E Ax [(vL vG )(m21 + im22 ) i (vL m vG )(m11 + im12 )]

E0 x exp i + EBy [(vL m vG )(m12 + im11 ) i (vL vG )(m22 + im21 )]

1
E 0 x exp i ( )} exp i z exp i (t 0 + r )ddt 0 dS 0 ;
c
c
2

M +1 -

M +1

( M +1 )12
(M )
d

exp(2idn0 ) +1 11
4cn0
( M +1 ) 21 ( M +1 ) 22

(12)

( M +1 )11, 22 =

S 0T0

*
*
*
*
{E Ax
[( s vL )(m11* im12* ) + i ( s m vL )(m21
im22
)]E0 x exp i + EBy

*
*
) + i ( s vL )(m12* im11* )]
[(s m vL )(m22
im21

1
E 0 x exp i ( )} exp i z exp i (t 0 + r )ddt 0 dS 0 ,
2
c
c
19

( M +1 )12, 21 =

S 00 T0

*
*
*
{E Ax
[(vL vG )(m21
im22
)+

*
*
*
i (vL vG )(m11* im12* )]E0 x exp i + EBy
[(vL vG )(m12* im11* ) + i (vL m vG )(m22
im21
)]

1
E 0 x exp i ( )} exp i z exp i (t 0 + r )ddt 0 dS 0 .
2
c
c

mij mij ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) -

:
vL = vG ,

s = vL ,

(11)

(12)

(13)

(13)

.
(13) M 1 M + :

M 1

dvL

1
exp(2idn0 ) M ob P exp i[t0 + (r z )]ddt0 dS0 ,
2cn0
r
c
S T

(14)

dvL

1
*
exp(2idn0 ) P*M ob
exp i[t0 + (r z )]ddt0 dS0 ,
2cn0
r
c
S T

(15)

0 0

M +1

0 0

(14)

(15)

M ob ,


a + 2b i ( a b )
,
P =
2 a + b
i ( a b )

a = E Ax E0 x exp i

b = EBy E0 x exp i (

) ;

*
P* , M ob
- .

20

E 0 x exp i , E 0 y exp i ( =

E 0 y

E 0 x

1
1
i
E rec = [ E 0 x exp i E 0 x exp i ( ) ] exp i (t z )
2 1
c
i

(16)

E ( x , y , z , t ) =

ME
2c r

rec

exp i

S -

r dS ,

(17)

.
, (17) (10), (14)
(15),

. , /
,

.
P . ,
1
P
i

i

1


(1 + 2 )a (1 + 2 )b .

, , ,
. , ,
, ,

.
21

- , -
, .
,
,
, , .

:
E0 exp(2idn0 )[1

1
ids
1
i
2
(1 + 2 ) E0 x ][ E0 x exp i E0 x exp i ( ) ] exp i (t z),
n0
2 1
c
i

(18),

E1 ( x, y, z, t )

rr [ E
S S 0 T0

Ax

idvL
exp(2idn0 ) E02x (1 + 2 )
(2c) 2 n0

i
1
M ob ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) EBy M ob ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) ]
1
i

1
exp i [(t t 0 ) (r + r )]ddt 0 dS 0 dS ,
c

E+1 ( x, y, z, t )

(19)

1
idvL
2 * *
2

exp(
2
)
[ PA M ob ( x0 , y0 , z0 , t0 ) PB*
idn
E

0
0x
2
(2c) n0
r r
i
S S 0 T0

i
1
*
M ob
( x0 , y 0 , z 0 , t 0 ) ] exp i [(t + t 0 ) (r r + 2 z )]ddt 0 dS 0 dS ,
c
1

(20)

PA* = exp iP * ,

PB* = exp i ( ) P * .
2

, (19) (20), [21]


S , S 0 , T0 , . . S
-. ,

22

- .
z = z 0 (19)

E1 ( x, y, z, t )

2idvL
exp(2idn0 ) E02x (1 + 2 )[ E Ax M ob ( x, y, z, t )
n0

(21)

1
i
EBy M ob ( x, y, z, t ) ].
i
1

,
- ,

, , . /
, ,
-, -
,
,
.

4-

,
, .
, .
(20) z = 2 z z 0

E+1 ( x, y, z, t )

2idvL
2z
*
exp(2idn0 ) E02x [ PA*M ob
( x, y, z, t )
c
n0

1
i
2z
*
PB* M ob
( x , y , z , t ) ] .
c
i
1
(22) ,
(19)

(22)

z = 2 z z 0 ,

.
,

2z = z + z0 ,


23

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PA*

PB* .

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E1 = A1 (sin 1i + cos 1 j ) , A1 = A1 cos ,

- ; A1 -

P1; 1 - ,
.
()

, 2 d
:

bd
,
cos 2

(3)

b - . ,
(
), b ,
d 2 .
:
E 2 = A2 [sin( + 1 )i + ( + 1 ) j ], A2 = A1 , 1 - .

E = A3 [sin( + 1 ) sin 2 + cos( + 1 ) cos 2 ] = A3 cos( + 1 2 ),


A3 = A2 2, 2 , 2 - ,
.

I = I 0T cos 2 ( + 1 2 ) ,
T - ,

(4)
I 0 - ,

, . (3) (4),

I = I 0T cos 2 (

bd
+ 1 2 ) .
cos 2

(5)

(5), ,

, ..
. ,
2 ,

2 = const, I = const

26


.
, 2
, ,
cos 2 :
cos 2 =

1 2
n sin 2 1 .
n

(6)

(4) (5)
I = I 0 cos 2 (

bdn
n sin 2 1
2

+ 1 2 ) .

, 2 = 1 , cos 2 :
cos 2 =

L
L + r2
2

(7)

L - ()
(), r - ,
, ,
-.
, ,

1 = 2 . , (6) (4),
I = I 0T cos 2 (

bd
L

L2 + r 2 ) .

(8)

,
-.
( 1 = 0 ),
, 2

0 m0 = 2 1 .

0 = bd -

m0 - 180 0

27

I = I 0 t cos 2 ( 0 ) , (4) (7),


I = I 0T cos 2 [

bd
( L2 + r 2 L)] .
L

(9)

r N
N =
r = L

( ) ,

bd
( L2 + r 2 L) . N
L

N N

(
+ 2) .
bd bd


,

I 1 = 4 I 0 cos 2 [

k0
( L2 + r 2 L)],
2

(10)

k 0 = 2 . (10) (9), ,

, d ,
L
.

(8)

I ( x , y , z ) = I 0 ( x, y, z )T cos 2 [

bd
( x x) 2 + ( y y ) + ( z z ) 2 ],
z z

(11)

T = T ( x x, y y, z z ).

(11),


I ( x , y , z ) = I 0 ( x, y, z )T cos 2 [
V

bd
( x x) 2 + ( y y ) + ( z z ) 2 ]dxdydz,
z z

(12)

(
) :

h( x, y, z ) = T ( x, y, z ) cos 2 (

bd
z

x2 + y2 + z2 ) .

(13)

, (13). ,
,
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28


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D- , Lc -
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r : N ~ rD .

D<3

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r 3 D

r 3 ,

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38

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39


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60

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44

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47


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[Lushnikov et al., 1982]


02 R 3
d 2
1
r0 0
=
dn f
3
c3 i f

f
2 + 2f 2 i f cos 0 i f 0 d f + 1 i f 1 d f
i i

)[

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48

n f - , - , R ,

r0

0 -

,
, , i f > 0 ,
3
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i
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49

, ,
, .

d
1 r0 0
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=
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i

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2
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i

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GGC TGA CTT TGG GCT GGC ACG CCT CAT CGA GGA CAA CGA GTA CAC AGC
ACG GCA AGG TGC AAG TTC CCC ATC AAG TGG AGA GCC CCC GAG GCA GCC
CTC TAT GGC CGG TTC ACC ATC AAG TCG GAT GTC TGG TCC TTC GGC ATC CTG
CTG ACT GAG CTG ACC ACC AAG GGC CGG GTG CCA TAC CCA GGG ATG GGC
AAC GGG GAG GTG CTG GAC CGG GTG GAG AGG GGC TAC CGC ATG CCC TGC
CCG CCC GAG TGC CCC GAG TCG CTG CAT GAC CTT ATG TGC CAG TGC TGG CGG
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CTT AGG GTT AGG CGT TTT GCG CTG CTT CGC GAT GTA CGGGCC AGA TAT ACG
CGT ATC TGA GGG GAC TAG GGT GTG TTT AGG CGA AAA GCG GGG CTT CGG
TTG TAC GCG GTT AGG AGT CCC CTC AGG ATA TAG TAG TTT CGC TTT TGC ATA
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CAT GCC GAT TGG TGG AAG TAA GGT GTA CGA TCG TGC CTT ATT AGG AAG GCA
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CAG AGA TAT TGT ATT TAA GTG CCT AGC TCG ATA CAA TAA ACG CCA TTT GAC
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i
i
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: i , i , K i , K i
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3
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2 -

Ki = Ki = K , Ii = I .

i = i i , (1), .
:
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i = = 1 ,

I
K

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-:

tt = xx sin ,

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(2). ,
, , , .
,

V ( ) = 1 cos( ) (4), .
2

Fedyanin I.A., Yakushevich L.V. // Stud. Biophys.1984.V.103. P.171.

58

:
1 cos , cos > cos C
VC ( ) =
.
1 cos C, cos cos C

, ( ~ 1).
, ,
,
1 cos( i + L ( i 1 )), cos > cos C
VCL ( i ,i ) =
,
1 cos( C + L ( i 1 )) cos cos C
L=

2
,
D

D .
L
(2) VC ( i ,i ) :

&& = i 1 2 i + i +1
i

VCL
( i , i ).

(5)

, .
, D0 = 10 , D1 10. 3
10. 6. .
( )
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Ddry Dwater = 0,5

300
1
1
250 ( Ddry
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(5) T [0,2000] T = 0,1 .
:
i ( 0) = iD ( 0), & i ( 0) = iD ( 0), D = D1 ,

(5) D = D1 , poly(A)- 300 .


(5) .
, ,
in vivo.
59

( ):
0 = N T , N +1 = 1 + T , T = N 1 .

,
10 10, 5
().
.
: 1)
, ...0.5,
/ K = 01

= 01
. ...1, 2)

3)

C = cut = 10o ...20o .

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D
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1

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. 3(a), 4() .
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o
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,
; ,
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60


:
H=H0+H1+H2
H0 =

1 N
I& 2i ,
2 i =1

H1 =

1 N
K 1 cos 2i ,
2 i =1

H 2 = i [1 cos i ],
i =1

(1)

; H 0 ,

( i ,
H1

);

, -

( K ,
i = i+1 i ), H 2 ,

) = 1, / K = 0.5, cut = 10
)x0=200 )x0=250
.3

. , cut = 10o
) = 1, / K = 01

)
)

= 1, / K = 0.5, cut = 20 o

. , cut = 20o
) = 1, / K = 01

61

) x0=300
. 4

) x0=350

( i = 0 )

, i (1) :
i = 2 , i = 3 ; = 2 10 3 ,

(. ) -).
1

H = K i
,
i 1 2
2

, (. ).

i , (1),
:
&&i = i 1 2 i + i +1 i

i =

I
K

sin( i ),

(2)

t.

(2)

-:
tt = x x sin ,

(3)

(2). ,
,

.
(1)
:
&& i = sin( i 1 i ) + sin( i +1 i ) i

sin( i ).

(4)

, (2) (4) . , ,
(2) (4) :
(2)
(3) (. ),
.
, :

62

( x ,0) = ( x ) = A( x x 0 )
2

0
&
&
( x , 0) = ( x ) =

0
1

A( x x 0 ) < 0
0 A( x x 0 ) 2 ,
A( x x 0 ) > 2
A( x x 0 ) < 0
0 A( x x 0 ) 2 ,

A( x x 0 ) > 2

(5)

0
( x) 2

A, (. .1 2, 3). ,
(2) (4) -
, (7),

T [0,750]

T = 01..

-:
0 = N T , N +1 = 1 + T , T = N 1 .
i = 2 (-A-). / K = 0.1 .
0
A ( ( x) ).

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63

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x
< diss ,
v

v - , diss - .

13
x 5 v 105 cm / s ( ), diss > 5 10 s . ,

diss 1012 1010 s,

11
9
diss 10 10 s (.,

., .. . .,1994. .39. .949.; . 1986. 287. .


21.).

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64

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) , .

65

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) , .

66

a)

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) , .

67

-
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200- 500- ,
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68

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69

[, ., 1996 (); , ., 1996


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70

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( ).
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),


.

.

() .
, - .
x 1 , K , x N ,
y . :

U ( x1 , K , x N , y ) = 2x x k2 + x x k3 + 2y y 2
3

k
+

(x x
2 [

3 [( x x

2xx

k 1

xx

k 1

y
3

y3 +

) 2 + ( x k x k +1 ) 2 ] +

) 3 + ( x k x k +1 ) 3 ]

+ L.

(1)

(1) (
); ,
.
:
x&&k + 2x& k =

U
+ f ( t ),
x k

&&y + 2y =

U
,
y

(2)

f ( t ) = f 0 cost ,
, , (
, ).
(1), (2) :
71

x&&k + x& k = 2x x k x x k2 2xx ( x k 1 2 x k + x k +1 ) +


+ 2xy ( y x k ) + xy ( y x k ) + f ( t ),
2

k =1

k =1

&&y + y& = 2y y y y 2 2xy ( y x k ) + xy ( y x k ) ,


2

(3)
x k + x k + ( x2 + xy2 ) x k xy2 y =
= xx2 ( x k 1 2 x k + x k +1 ) + xy2 x k + xy ( y x k ) + f ( t ),
2

k =1

k =1

y + y + ( y2 + xy2 N ) y xy2 x k = y y 2 xy ( y x k ) .
2

(4)

x = xk
k =1

(5)

(4) :
2
x&&k + x& k + 12 xk 20 y = 20 ( xk 1 2xk + x k +1 ) + x xk + f (t ),

&&y + y& + 22 y 20 x = 0,

(6)

:
12 = x2 + x2y ,
22 = y2 + N x2y ,
02 = x2y ,
20 = x2x ,

N .

2
2
(5) x + x + 1 x N0 y = Nf (t ),

y + y + 22 y 02 x = 0.

(7.2)

x=

02

(7.1)
(7.2)

( y + y + 22 y ) = 0.

(8)

(8) (7.1)
y ( 4 ) + 2y( 3) + ( 12 + 22 + ) y( 2) + ( 12 + 22 ) y ( 1) + ( 12 22 + N 04 ) y = N 04 f ( t ) .

(9)

(
y e kt

):

(k

)(

+ k + 12 k 2 + k + 22 = N 04 .

(10)

2
z k = k + k ,

72

z 2 + 12 + 22 z + 12 22 N 04 = 0,


z1,2 =

1 2
1 + 22
2

) (

2
1

+ 22

+ 12 22 N 04 .

(11)

:
12 22

12 <

< 12 + 22 .

(12)


, .

k 1 ,2 =

12

2
4

k 3 ,4 =

i 12

2
4 ,

(13)

:
1
1 = 12 + 22
2

1
2 = 12 + 22
2

1
+ 12 22
4

1
12 22
4

+ N 04

1
2

2
,

2

+ N 04 .

1
2

(14)

( f 0 cos t ):
y = A cos t + B sin t .

(15)

(15) (9)
cost sint :

(
(

) (
) (

)
)

A 4 + 2 2 + 0 B 2 3 + 1 = F0
,

3
4
2
A 2 + 1 B + 2 + 0 = 0

:
0 = 12 22 + N 04 ,
1 = ( 12 + 22 ) ,
F0 = N 02 f 0 .

y=

F0
p2 + q2

cos( t + ) ,

p = ( 2 12 ) ( 2 22 ) + 2 2 + N 04 ,
q = ( 2 12 22 ) ,

tan =

q
.
p

73

,
:
N 20 f 0 cos(t + )

y=

( 2 12 )( 2 22 ) + 2 2 2 2 + ( 2 12 ) 2 + ( 2 22 ) 2

].

(16)

(16) ,
: = 1 , = 2 .
:
y=

N 02 f 0

+ (
2 2

22
1

2
2

(17)

(17) ,
,
,
.
( )
. (6) k -
:
&&
x k + 2x& k + 20 x k = 20 ( x k 1 2 x k + x k +1 ) + 02 y + f ( t ).

(18)


zm =

2 N sin mk
x k , m = 1,K N

N + 1 k =1 N + 1

,
:
xk =

sm sin mk
2 N
[ f 0 cos( t + m1 ) + y0 cos( t + m 2 ) ]

2
N + 1 m =1 ( m2 ) 2 + 2 2
,

(19)

:
m2 = 02 + 02 sin2

m
,
2N + 1

N
sin m sin
2
2
2 N +1 ,

sm =
m
N +1
sin
2 N +1

m = 1,K N ,

y0 - (16).

74

f ( t ) = f 0 cost

1 = ,

2 = .

2, :
1)

:
1,2

= + ,
.

2)
1,2 = 2 .
3)
:
1,2

2 ,
=
2 ,
2( ) .

, ,
.

, , ,
, ()
.

Albada P. van, Lagendijk A., 1985, Observation of Weak Localization of Light in a Random
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