ESSENTIALS
BOOK
THREE
BY
J. ANDREW
TBACHBR
OF
PROFESSOR
THB
OF
PEDAGOGY
DRUSHEL,
OF
MARGARET
E.
(TEACHERS
COLLEGE.
EUEMBNTARY
HARRIS
ARITHMBTIC,
TBACHXRS
COLUMBIA
YORK
ST.
COLLBGB,
LOUIS
Ph.D.
NOONAN,
KBW
EDUCATION,
(YALE)
A.B.
UNIV.)
UNIVBRSTTY,
NEW
TORS
CTTY
AND
JOHN
DEAN
OF
THB
SCHOOL
W.
OF
LYONS
CHICAGO
WITHERS,
EDUCATION,
AND
NEW
Ph.D.
YORK
(YALE)
UNIVERSITY,
NEW
YORK
CITY
CARNAHAN
NEW
VORK
" .ii^.c Y
/.'";)
HARVARD
,
UNIVERSITY^
LIBRARVy
COPYRIGHT.
1921
BY
LYONS
AND
CARNAHAN
for
Provision
This
is intended
book
Pupils
class.
The
children
slower
is
be the
should
teacher
in
seventh
the
eighth
superior pupils
much
the
accomplish.
can
the
and
judge of how
Skill
provides abundant
text
children
of the
provided for
Computing
This
Varying Ability
for children
of
to
TEACHERS
TO
SUGGESTIONS
AND
HELPS
practice in
grades: first,through
upper
computation
a
for
of timed
series
1319; Chapter V,
which
material
year
to
should
minute,
from
Courtis
to
use
the
Courtis
to insure
forms
exercises
tests
standardized
B.
against the
This
in these tests.
have
been
mental
funda
in the
derived
sponding
corre
enables
The
from
the
ards
stand
enough
their validity.
intended
in the
8 minute
Standards
Answers
to
Tests, Series
Short
It is not
and
integersare
Research
exercises.
computing
this book
6 minute
with
processes
teacher
in these
to
provide standardized
299
use
their classes.
be the aim
Chapter VI,
of these types.
and
297
pages
teachers
measure
speed should
of each
examples
3241; and
pp.
that
Methods
children
chapter. Saving
Time
should
in
memorize
Computing.
short
SUGGESTIONS
iv
processes
that
be selected
methods
seem
by each
should
decreases the
most
TO
teacher
be
TEACHERS
chances
of
for
and
error
saves
to the
and
answer
answer
for themselves
or
the
The
A
full discussion of
Use
graphs as
of
use
of
whether
pencil.
Graphs
instruments
or
tools to be used
in
making number
in
everyday business.
Square
Root
This method
readily rationalized and easilyremembered.
requiresthe pupilto know division of integersand of decimals,
and the meaning of a square root.
is
SUGGESTIONS
TO
Metric
TEACHERS
System
more
an
in parallelwith
case
the
the text.
Organization
Organization of material is not only an essential element
in the learningprocess, but it also is a necessary
factor in one's
abilityto use what has been learned.
the
The material of this book is organizedfor the supervisor,
teacher, and the learner. The chapter titles indicate to the
supervisorthe order of development that is intended for the
The chapter analysisas shown
in the table of contents
course.
should guide the teacher in the presentationof the different
topics. The development of the topicin the text is for the learner.
CONTENTS
SEVENTH
CHAPTER
USING
I.
Organizing Idea
Theory
PART
YEAR"
FIRST
GRAPHS
IN
Arithmetical
of Problem
Solving
Learning
the
HALF
PROBLEM
SOLVING
Activityor Outcome
meaning and use of
Page
graphs
112
Graphic Expression of
Numerical
Relations
Reading graphs
Learning
in
CHAPTER
Practice
II.
THE
express
numerical
relations
112
way
SOLUTION
TABLE
Large Numbers.
with
to
new
1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 11, 12
PROBLEM
IN
SOLVING
given
set of data
Finding
Cash
HI.
CHAPTIER
Accurate
THE
1315
balances
1619
18
account
PROBLEM
IN
EQUATION
SOLVING
Expression of
Numerical
Relations
20, 21
Using equations
22, 23
20
22
Problems
CHAPTER
Economy
IV. REVIEWING
m
Problem
THE
2325
METHODS
Solving. .Choosing
.
OF
method
PROBLEM
SOLVING
of solution
26
Problems
CHAPTER
Motivated
V.
PRACTICE
Practice
TESTS
2531
FOR
Practice
in
ACCURACY
the
integers, mixed
and
Objective Standards
Speed
decimal
tests
vi
AND
fundamentals
numbers,
fractions
SPEED
with
common
3241
3241
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
VI.
vii
TIME
SAVING
IN
Arithmetical
OrganizingIdea
Economy through Short
COMPUTING
or OvJtcome
Activity
Methods
omy
in
teox^
computing
In addition and
In
of
principle
Page
subtraction
42, 43
multiplication
4347
In division
VII.
CHAPTER
COMMON
47, 48
49, 50
and division
multiplication
In
BUSINESS
FORMS,
PRACTICES,
AND
PROBLEMS
How
Business
Learning and
Is Done
The
pay
using the
conunon
ness
busi
forms
5161
roll
62, 63
Problems
CHAPTER
PERCENTAGE
and
Decimal
VIII.
64, 65
Fractions
Expressing per
decimal
in
cents
fraction
and
common
equivalents
66
Examples
67, 68
Problems
6873
Projectproblems
SEVENTH
CHAPTER
YEAR"
IX.
74,75
SECOND
USING
HALF
PERCENTAGE
Percentagein Everyday
Business
Problems
Problems
Problems
about
76, 77
.78,79
80
....
Learning discounts
Computing successive discounts
Discount problems
CHAPTER
X.
Meaning of Insurance
PROTECTING
ONE'S
LIFE
AND
81
82
83
PROPERTY
CONTENTS
viii
Idea
Organizing
Arithmetical
Meaning of Insurance
Kinds
of lifeinsurance
88
Value
of lifeinsurance
89
Problems
How
Arithmetic
Towards
Health
CHAPTER
and
may
and
Need
about
Accident
Safety
AND
health and
of Taxes
Tax
DISTRIBUTING
Page
disease
9095
96101
PUBLIC
MONEY
distribution
102
expressingtax rates
Applying the
XIL
(hUcome
preventionproblems
Finding and
CHAPTER
or
Contribute
XI. COLLECTING
Meaning
ActwUy
tax rate to
103
Specialtaxes
104, 106
Income
tax
107,108
Tax
imports
on
AND
CONSTRUCTING
109111
MEASURING
LINES
AND
ANGLES
Lines and
Angles as Elements
Straightand curved lines
112, 113
line
113
Bisectinga
Constructingand readingangles...114,115
116
Using the protractor
of Surfaces
CHAPTER
Xm.
Parallel lines
117
Problems
118
CONSTRUCTING
AND
MEASURING
SURFACES
linear
Measuring Rectilinear and CurviSurfaces
their
in Terms
of
119, 120
121
122
Problems
123
Triangles
124
Rhomboid
and rhombus
125
Trapezoid
126
Problems
127
Trapezium
128
The
circle
128
The
meaning of
The
area
of the circle
129
130
CONTENTS
IX
Arithmetical Activity
OrganizingIdea
or Outcome
vilinear
Measuring Rectilinear and CurSurfaces
Page
ued)
(continArea formulas
131
The
132
meaning of "/?
Problems
133
Sectors
134,135
Problems
CHAPTER
COMPUTING
XIV.
Arithmetic
CHAPTER
of Solids
XV.
CONTENTS
THE
OF
The
136
SURFACES
AND
SOLIDS
Prism problems
The cylinder
Cylinderproblems
Measuring lumber
REVIEWING
139
140,141
142
YEAR'S
THE
PROBLEM
137,138
THROUGH
WORK
SOLVING
Reviewing Principles
through
New
Problems
Problems
143145
Solvingproblems by
ObjectiveStandards
148
Incompleteproblems
Estimatingresults
149
The
I.
TESTS
151
'
problem
test without
figuring.
.
152
II
YEAR"
IN
150
Rice test
PART
CHAPTER
146, 147
Reavis
EIGHTH
how
telling
FIRST
FUNDAMENTALS
HALF
FOR
SPEED
AND
ACCURACY
ObjectiveStandards
Review
Fundamental
facts
Fundamental
processes
Use of
signs
Fractions test
Decimals
Motivated
Practice
153, 154
155159
159
160, 161
162, 163
Tellingthe missingnumber
164
165
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
II.
OrganizingIdea
An
Applicationof Long
in which
SQUARES
AND
Arithmetical
or Outcome
Activity
Page
sion
Divi
Quotientare Equal
CHAPTER
A
ROOTS
SQUARE
III.
USING
166
167170
to table of square
AND
SQUARES
170
roots
ROOTS
SQUARE
New
CHAPTER
IV.
USING
Economy in Problem
FORMULAS
PROBLEM
IN
SOLVING
Solving. .Understandingformulas
178
Formulas
applied to
the
fundamental
179
processes
Problems
180
Formulas
appliedto surfaces
181183
Problems
184, 185
in
Formulas
solids
computing
The formula in problem solving
Silo problems
Water supply problems
CHAPTER
The
Use of
MONEY
V.
AND
banks
What
to do at
187, 188
189
190, 191
BANKING
Learning about
What
186
money
and
194
are
a
bank
195, 196
Indorsingchecks
What
one
197
should know
about
Banking problems
CHAPTER
The
Arithmetic
VI.
of Trade
Transportation
TRADE
AND
checks.
198
.
199, 200
TRANSPORTATION
and
How
trade arises
Cost of
selling
Computing
Problems
201
rate of
202
profit
202
203
CONTENTS
OrganizingIdea
The
xi
Arithmetical
Arithmetic
of Trade
OtUcome
or
Activity
Page
and
arises
transportation
How
Transportation(continued)..
Good
204
roads
204, 205
Learning about
Problems
206
concrete
about
207
concrete
Railroad
problems
Freightproblems
Shipping by express
Express problems
Parcel post
Paying debts at
Postal money
208
209, 211
212
213
214, 215
a
distance
216
order
217, 218
order
Express money
218
draft
Bank
Commercial
219
drafts
220
Problems
CHAPTER
The
Arithmetic
Problems
Involved
about
VII.
221
TRAVEL
in
Travel
time
How
changes as
travel east
we
west
Standard
time
Problems
EIGHTH
YEAR"
CHAPTER
The
Arithmetic
and
of
VIII.
222, 223
224, 225
.226,227
227230
HALF
SECOND
ECONOMY
AND
THRIFT
Economy
Thrift
Problems
about
school thrift
Problems
about
Orchard
problems
growing com
Profit in feedingpigs
Keeping poultryfor profit
Mixed problems
Thrift in
CHAPTER
or
rx.
MONEY
HOW
EARNS
of interest
231
.232234
236
236238
239241
242244
245, 246
MONEY
meaning
Computing interest
248
Exact
249
The
interest
247
CONTENTS
xii
Idea
Organizing
Arithmetical Activity
or Outcome
Promissorynotes
(continued)
Time
between
Page
250253
dates
two
254,255
256,257
258,259
260
261
The
you
owe.
.262,263
264266
Problems
CHAPTER
X.
Techniqueand Operation
267
ACCOUNTS
SAVINGS
account
270
Problems
Compound
interest
270,271
Compound interesttable
Compound interestproblems
CHAPTER
272
273,274
INVESTMENTS
XI.
Understandingand Making
Good
Investments
Judginginvestments
275,276
Mortgages
277,278
279281
Stocks
282,283
284,285
problems
286,287
Learningabout bonds.
Buying bonds.
Bond problems
Comparing bonds with stocks
Farm investment problems
Problems
Mixed
292
293
294
investment
Problems
288
^^^^^..
v,
probler^^
about educati
295
investment
XIL
CHAPTER
ObjectiveStandards
"
296
TESTS
problem test.
1920 problem test
Reavis problem t
297
Rice
289291
guring.
,
ESSENTIALS
ARITHMETICAL
THREE
BOOK
PART
USING
1. This
chart
2.
Read
95%,
3.
in
7th
ance
attend
the
SOLVING
which
record
for
week:
90%, 100%,
John's
daily marks
Day
Th
Day
Th
this
chart
shows
85%.
chart
arithmetic
4.
PROBLEM
the
90%,
This
IN
it.
Make
attendance
shows
of
YEAR
CHAPTER
GRAPHS
record
week.
SEVENTH
I"
shows
for
Read
week.
it.
weeks
were
90%,
90%,
95%.
Make
as
follows: 75%,
75%,
for 10
85%, 95%,
95%,
90%,
85%,
70"
68"
which
chart
shows
this
record.
66"
64"
62"
6. This
chart
shows
the
for
week.
perature
daily temDay
at 7
A.M.
6. Construct
A.M.:
The
Graphs
the
chart
Read
for these
it.
daily temperatures
at
used
the results in
in
charts
this page
on
strikingway.
1
are
we
called
wish
graphs.
to
show
GRAPHS
USING
Reading
'2
84
6 81012
Line
This
P.M.
A.M.
PROBLEM
IN
4 6 81012
when
82
Graphs
kind
we
SOLVING
of
wish to show
how
ture
tempera
80,
78
76
74
72
70
68
66
In
64
the
illustration the
horizontal
62
60"
58
56
twohour
54
52
"2 4 68101224
periods.
In
the
681012
vertical
degreesof
temperature.
How
many
3. Which
At
what
time?
4. What
before 2
was
might
p.m.
account
in the
for
September
the
30
drop in temperature
curve?
CONSTRUCTING
JULY
JUNE
AUQ.
READING
AND
SEPT.
NOV.
OCT.
DEC.
JAN.
FEB.
1919
WEEKLY
GRAPHS
LINE
MAR.
APR.
MAY
1920
CATTLE
RECEIPTS
AT
SEVEN
MARKETS
graph is read
The
markets
seven
as
follows: "The
at the end
total
1. Read
receiptsof the
in June
were
of cattle.
were
the receiptsfor
in June?
the
proper
number
at
both
ends
of
each
GRAPHS
USING
horizontal
number
line.
IN
PROBLEM
SOLVING
For
is 50,000: What
the
bottom, thk
line?
(4) Connect
right,you have
the
the dots.
a
better line
would
from your
6. Find
your
the
Do
total
one
shown
receiptsfor
and
work
your
on
month
it for December.
6. Make
done
find the
you
graph?
have
Why?
previouspage.
4. How
If you
in
solve another
$8.20
January
February... 8.10
March
8.20
April
9.75
May
$14.75
June
13.00
October...
10.00
July
August..
10.50
November.
10.00
11.75
December
September $9.85
.
10.30
.
of your
own
weeks.
USING
6
7. What
GRAPHS
SOLVING
PROBLEM
IN
followingscore: 3 had
right,2 had 7 right,5 had
is the median
in the
8
right,4 had 5 right,1 had 6
right? Construct the graph for the median.
8. Make
ing
a graph showing the productionof the four leadflaxseed states when
the annual yieldwas
follows:
as
North Dakota, 8,200,000bu.; South Dakota, 3,500,000bu.;
Minnesota, 3,300,000 bu.; Montana, 3,100,000 bu.
Hint.
^Let
"
unit
one
of
length
in
your
graph represent
100,000 bushels.
9. If the total
one
was
year
States in
the %
produced
19,500,000bushels,compute
average
Using
states
prices per
your
and
answer,
compare
construct
with
the
wool
for
the
average
convenient
drawing bar graphs you will find it often more
It is suggestedthat pupils
to use metric units of length than English units.
have access
of both systems and that they be provided
to squared paper
with rulers showing both metric and English units.
Note.
"
In
USING
Table
of
BAR
Foreign Monetary
of Coin
Name
Krona
Units
Value
Normal
in U. S. Money
Country
Krone
or
GRAPHS
Sweden, Norway,
Denmark
$0,268
Florin
Netherlands
402
Franc
193
Mark
France,Switzerland,Belgium
Italy
Germany
238
Milreis
Brazil
546
Peseta
Spain
193
Peso
Mexico
498
Peso
PhilippineIslands
500
Lira
Pound
(Sovereign)
Great
Britain
193
4.8665
Ruble
Russia
515
Yen
Japan
498
The
above
countries most
our
table
country.
Below
coins
these
is
the above
table.
(U.S.)
USING
IN
GRAPHS
Learning
and
SOLVING
PROBLEM
Circle
Using
1. The
shows
Graphs
circle
graph
50 % of the
of the 360^
180^
Earthworms
360^
Ants
are
10%.
FUes
are
5 %.
.05 of 360^
The
remainder
2. Make
as
rately
accu
can.)
you
18^
Find
is other insects.
other
is
valuable
It is 75%
it in %.
the relative
insects and
vegetablematter.. Do
How
is
25%
think
you
of
amounts
wild fruit
the bluebird
diet of the
3. The
12%,
estimate
or
the
it shown
.30 of
protractor
as
food,
of the circle.
30%.
are
108^
of different
by baby robins.
are
Caterpillars
or
at the left
cowbird
consists of wasps
12^%, spiders12^%,
seeds
the remainder.
caterpillars
Draw
and
ants
and
grasshoppersand
circle graph to show
this condition.
4. About
water
and
graph
to
5. The
world's
wheat
sq.
mi.
are
land.
Make
are
circle
this relation.
States
crop.
produced in
Draw
crop
1915
circle
about
of the
of the United
States to that of
LEARNING
RECTANGLE
GRAPHS
6. The
of the United
7.
States
States and
22%, and 9%
Alabama
produce 60%,
of the
Graphs
the rainfall
August, 1918.
The
inch
1
Read
days
the graph.
rainfall in hundredths
is shown
mm.
on
.01 in.
of
an
days
are
corded
re
on
1. Make
two
boys
if
one
much
as
and John
John.
togetherhave 8j5.James
How
much
money
has each?
has 3 times
small
6^
I
8^
11
USING
10
4. How.
after
GRAPHS
IN
of it
done
was
in 6
PROBLEM
SOLVING
complete
days?
to
piece of work
in many
problems
of this type.
Show
5.
as
6. Jane
have
15.
solved
twice
How
many
How
one
both
as
problems
many
did each
as
Ada.
Both
solve?
192
sq.
ft.
If
one
is
was
times
weight of each.
the average
1915
37^ bu.
acre.
Mary, and
apples as
many
each?
as
10. In
was
has
many
has each?
many
as
How
rectanglestogetherhave
8. Two
The
has
20.
2 times
Robert.
as
many
solved
7. Ahce
9.
4 times
your
W. H. Dunson,
Draw
acre.
Hint.
"
11. The
Let
An
acre.
per
corn
crop
Ohio
record
corn
in the United
farmer
average
grower,
rectanglegraphs showing
1 unit in
States
the above
on
results.
1917
were
as
of butter in Illinois
follows:
34ff,
32ff,
33ff,32ff,35ff,34j5,33ff,34ff,35ff,38ff,
40ff,40ff. Find the
Construct
for the year.
graphs showing the
average
monthly and the average price for the year.
PICTORIAL
GRAPHS
11
Pictorial
of
In
graphsuse pictures
the objects
to be compared.
the figure
the 4 ears represent
the world's
1916; 3 of them
of the
crop
the
same
com
in
crop
represent the
States in
United
year.
1. The
United
corn
of
crop
States
in
1916
the
was
2,718,000,000bushels.
What
was
2. How
many
representedby
3. The
the:
bushels
each
United
States raised
4. The
world's average
year
period was
each
unit in your
6. What
was
the United
6. A
this with
recent
figure?
in the
ear
wqpld
are
yearly
average
cotton
crop
for
production of
States in bales?
bale of cotton
7. Frank
has 10 times
as
much
cotton
money
as
crop.
Roy.
Draw
pictorial
graph showing their comparative wealth.
8. One apple tree bore 10 bushels of fruit;another
the
yieldof these
wheat
20 bushels.
year had
same
9. The
five
bales does
many
yearly cotton
in the
pictorial
graph.
in
United
crop.
Draw
two
trees
States
a
with
How
a
would
you
one
represent
graph?
pictorial
i2
GRAPHS
USING
the
Learning
PROBLEM
SOLVING
Distribution
Graph
IN
This form
COAX
of
graph is
ACREAOK
much
Government
States
ports.
re
It is also often
found in
geographytexts.
The graph in the figure
shows the distribution by
counties of the
com
in Missouri
dot
Each
firststep in the
value
each
to
making
Then
dot.
of such
find out
in 1919.
in this
equals 5000
The
age
acre
graph
acres.
graph is to give a
the
number
of dots
767,996
443,083
352,421
Hampshire
Vermont
2. Make
when
between
all
map
3. Consult
this kind
distribution
are
Connecticut
Rhode
in their seats.
text in
of graph.
3,851,615
1,380,585
604,397
Island
room
graph of the pupilsin your school
of this room
your
Massachusetts
What
is the difference
have made?
THE
14
3. This
the
TABLE
SOLUTION
table contains
IN
the
PROBLEM
number
States
SOLVING
and
total value
of
in 1918.
total number
of
having a
71,374,000,
(1) What was the average value per head?
does this value compare
with the average
(2) How
value for the six leadingstates in problem 3?
of hogs in 1918 is
% of the total number
(3) What
found in the six leadingstates? What
% of the total value?
6. In 1917 Walter
Whitman, a boy Uving in Indiana,
raised a pig weighing 456 lb. at 8 months
of age.
the average
was
(1) What
growth per day if the
weight at birth was 3 lb.?
(2) This pig gained in 4 consecutive weeks as follows:
18 lb.,21 lb.,27 lb.,24 lb. Find the weekly and daily
gain for this period.
average
(3) Find the market value of this pig at the current
price.
was
USING
6. This
table shows
STATISTICS
in bushels
the
15
principalcereal
crops
in 10 states in 1917.
was
not
crop
What
in the United
was
grown
States in 1917
by the
states
in the table?
(7) Make
bar
THE
16
TABLE
SOLUTION
the
Finding
!"
3+4+7+?
IN
SOLVING
PROBLEM
by Addition
Balance
=20.
This
sum
what
must
make
20.
be added
to the sum
2. 246
are
of the known
to
20.''
1480.
First Method
246
1480
382
1191
563
"^
1480.
find the
subtract
sum
this
of the
siun
from
1191
Second
1480
Method
Sum
IKnown
IAddends
T"
By this method add the units' column, saying 5, 11, and 9 make 20. Write the 9 in the
units' column.
Carry the 2 and add the tens'
column
by saying 8, 16, 20, and 8 make 28.
Write
8 in tens' column.
Carry 2 and add
the hundreds'
column, saying 7, 12, and 2
make
14.
balance
1480
Proof
add
"
be
supplied
siun
Principle. The
equal the whole.
to
Write 2 in hundreds'
sum
and
column.
is 289.
the
For
balance.
The
proof
The
be 1480.
must
of
all the
parts (addends)
must
FINDING
THE
BALANCE
BY
ADDITION
17
order stated
were
as
follows:
THE
18
SOLUTION
TABLE
The
In
making
Cash
Cash
Account
IN
on
PROBLEM
SOLVING
Account
write
on
(left)
(right)all the
bookkeeper'srule is,
all that
comes
goes,
out."
'^"?^^^2."^"^C^
^jg^
;^
/"^/"/^
/^..tJ
3/
i/ZdTa
"
"
"
/3tt/cutuc"y(^^
""#"i""
/^
AAsuS^uo'tyC^^'
1. On
2.
How
Did
whose
J. C. Rankin
do you
3. Who
4. Who
6. The
book
I
is this Cash
on
Mar.
found?
Account
22 receive
or
pay
$195.43?
know?
Who
are
received them?
usuallywritten in
pencil.
6. The
Balance
on
added
to the smaller
side.
Find
it. This
Mar.
31 is the amount
side to make
it
is often written
which
must
be
CASH
THE
Methods
of
ACCOUNT
Finding
the
1^
Balance
of
largerside subtract the smn
called the Balance,,
the smaller side. Write this difference,
the
I. From
the smaller
on
II. Find
find what
the
must
of the
sum
side.
largerside by inspection.Add
be added
to
the smaller
^As
"
balance
once
check
on
to
more
work
your
see
if this
add
sum
it.
Then
side to make
shown
the
on
page
smaller
it
16.
side and
Problems
1. Make
the accoimt
(1) On Monday
and
in
(1)and (2).
each
morning
grocer
of these accounts.
2.
3.
CHAPTER
THE
IN
EQUATION
23+?
SOLVING
PROBLEM
and
Explaining
Using
Equations
=37.
This
is
wanted.
In
example
an
result is 14 because
The
each
process
1. If
in addition
of these
by
the
The
Use
of
equation,
wish
to
write
need
we
23
added
to
to
the
the
is
equals 37.
fundamental
result.
Signs
of
statement
know
14
tell the
equation; then
Arithmetical
addend
one
is shown
we
because
of
use
problem in
an
the
arithmetical
the
usage
signs.
2.
The
three
next
followed
(1)
the
In
an
paragraphs
express
monly
com
by mathematicians.
expression having
and
2+32=52=3.
20
"
only, perform
IN
EQUATION
THE
22
PROBLEM
SOLVING
b
4.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Solving
The
most
Problems
with
themselves
the
this account
the most
accurately in number
equation method
desirable
in many
one
Steps
in
out
2. Find
what
3. Find
the necessary
4. Find
what
the
of solving problems is
Problem
problem
data
be
can
says.
(thingsknown).
what
either in oral
is wanted
expressedin
or
written
your
one
is
of
form.
step as an equation,
(The reasoning is
Simplifythe equation.
9. Prove
of
what
in the 4th
the result.
your
terms
and
processes.
8. Test
On
is wanted.
6. Estimate
relations.
cases.
Solving
1. Find
7.
Equation
It is the
equationis the sentence of mathematics.
effective working tool of those who wish to think and
express
6.
the
is computing.)
SOLVING
PROBLEMS
EQUATION
THE
WITH
23
1. A
50^ a
sugar
Thinking.
value
of the
butter
^
of 1 lb.
value
'*
of lb. of butter
^Number
"
NXTf
"
of lb. of butter
^Number
Computation.
i""M+l"
lb. of butter
60ff
$7 25
of lb. of butter
Number
.,' =14J
oOfft
2. A
in
and
works
man
He
year.
How
^The
Thinking.
"
balance
week
for
buy?
bought
"
Computation.
"
he
bought
man
at $90
an
gain or lose?
bought
=^
"
"
x50.
100
acres
He
acre.
How
Gain
x50.
^25f!f
No.
acres
of land at $80
an
an
acre
and 25
acre.
"
Gain =$10625
Gam
tations
"
on
It is
X85
^^^
=$375.
having
125
$10250.
the paper
Did
much?
selling
pricecost.
Statement."
Gain
(125x$85) (100 x$80 +25 x$90)
Computation." Gain =$10625 ($8000 +$2250).
Thinking.
Note.
in
y^i x$25
3. A
bought
=no.
wk.
no.
Statement.
for 50 weeks
livingexpenses
for thrift stamps at 25 jfeach.
of thrift stamps
no.
of his income
many
1 week
salaryof $25
80%
uses
of the
50%
on
the necessary
the statement.
625
compu
10625
THE
24
EQUATION
IN
PROBLEM
SOLVING
4. A
Davis
$2.75.
bbl.
Find
his
6. The
sold them
He
at
an
profit.
furnished
overcoats
our
government
357
War
soldiers in France
our
$14.92 each.
villagebought in
"cents would
his
bought
of it @
60%
How
and
cost
day
one
many
coats
over
how
many
remain?
dealer
6. A
of $3.50 per
average
bbl. of flour @
50
$10.20, and
the remamder
$9.50.
$11.00.
sold
He
Fmd
profit.
containing64 Florida
for $2.75 and detailedthem at 5^ each. Find his
grapefruit
decayed.
% of gain if 4 were
8. If a grocer
can
buy Jello in packages at $11.52 per
144, how much must he charge for it a package to make
25% profit?
is sold at 25f(a cake.
9. Soap costing $2.40 a dozen
Find the rate of gain.
retail grocer
7. A
10. How
at
50
miles
11. A
of gas.
12.
far does
certain class
Find
its cost
During the
total of
French
was
an
and
carried
express
box
train
run
in 1 hr. 36 min.
hour?
an
carried without
of
bought
during an experimentused
at 90j5per 1000 cu. ft.
recent
loss of
World
War
United
10
cu.
ft.
States vessels
singlelife 961,537of
our
men
out
What
of the total
PROBLEMS
13.
tons.
An
auto
truck
bricks
The
draws
of the
are
cu.
25
load
of bricks
ordinarysize,8'
ft. How
weighing ^
by 4' by 2',
bricks in the
many
load?
14,
sold
On
at
National
Stock
63
Yards
the value
at
were
St. Louis
East
at
of the lot.
On
month
of reduction.
In May,
a lb.
Sugar sold in Chicago in 1918 at lOfif
1920, it sold at 28jf. Find the % of increase.
17. On January 1, 1919, butter in a certain cityretailed
later the pricefor the same
at 73)ia lb. One month
grade
Find the % of drop.
was
47f!f.
truck in 1918 carried a full load
18. A Goodyear motor
from Boston to San Francisco and returned via Los Angeles
with a full load making the 7763mile round trip
to Boston
16.
was
rate of travel
the average
hour?
per
19.
made
71.5%
over
road
20.
On
journey described
unimproved roads. How
of the
there in this
were
December
Houston, Texas, in
Waco
at
against a
was
What
the
plane?
11:50
actual
problem
miles
many
an
per
airplaneat
distance
hour
18
wa"
of improved
journey?
a.m.,
45mile
in
197
wind
9:12
left
arrivingat
This plane flew
a.m.,
mi.
all the
speed developed by
Jones
the
way.
What
engine of the
IV
CHAPTER
REVIEWING
In the
previous chapters
of stating the
solution
of
solve
problem, then
wish
you
with
manner
methods
three
learned
have
you
SOLVING
PROBLEM
table, and
a
OF
METHODS
THE
which
suitable
is most
as
the
to
it.
number
show
to
only approximate
relations
in
the
use
accuracy,
striking
graph
solution.
(2) If
amount
(3) If
In
and
1916
find accurate
number
tions
rela
1,398,283 bbl.
1918
in the
three
in
Show
production of each
produced
were
solution.
How
year.
years?
some
(A bbl.
1 compare
the
1918
production with
years,
to
the nearest
each
tenth
cent.
per
3. Find
If
lai^e
solution.
produced in
problem
other
show
to
lb.)
196
table
the relative
pounds
of the
many
the
equation
manner
of flour
4.
need
from
1,619,256 bbl;
many
use
the
obvious
of
of data,
St. Louis
1917
2.
to
you
use
1.
wish
you
the
each
loaves
value
loaf
of
of the
of
bread
flour in
bread
problem
1 at
6^
lb.
could
be
problem 1?
26
made
from
the
flour
in
PROBLEMS
FOR
REVIEW
27
Its
6. A
Hint.
^How
"
equal parts
many
in 48?
HH
dia
See
gram.
6. The
of three numbers
sum
the numbers?
are
7. In
pupilsthan
both
Hint.
school there
one
in
there
are
^Draw
"
more
school.
second
277
are
The
second
number
What
is 72.
pupils.
rectanglegraph.
7
In
How
277
are
many
there
each?
Hint.
farm
9. A
and
Show
"
four
your
thinkingwith
yieldedtwice
times
as
many
as
many
bushels
as
much
For
all
rectanglegraph.
bushels of oats
of
com
as
as
oats.
wheat
The
11.
ten
of each of the
in each
case?
The
receiptsof
one
REVIEWING
28
15. The
THE
METHODS
rainfall in
OF
SOLVING
PROBLEM
certain
secutive
large city for four conmonths
follows: 3.15 in.,2.84 in.,.75 in.,
as
was
4.18 in. Show
this condition by proper graphs.
14. The distance between
Chicago and St. Louis via the
Chicago and Eastern Illinois is 290.4 miles. The train
which leaves Chicago at 10 a.m. is scheduled to arrive at
over
it is
is the average
of travel
rate
time?
on
distance between
railroad is 954
one
miles.
What
p.m.
New
York
another
miles;over
road
it is 918
two
What
16. A
What
17.
requiredto
earn
$15 interest.
be
must
allowed
how
comer,
finish
much
for
turning
square
handkerchief
in. square
10
to
with
finchlace?
19. A
dresser
cover
18
inches
the two
the lace.
pin cushion
How
many
If
4 in.
by
45
inch lace
15 in. is
requiredfor both?
20.
farmer
sold
Each
did he receive?
137^
bushels
of Baldwin
barrel contained
2 bu. 3
apples at
pk. How
REVIEWING
30
THE
METHODS
OF
PROBLEM
SOLVING
22. The
it
24. The
588,193. Find
was
Union
Gas
the rate
of increase.
The
collections
(1) Find
and
the
weekly collection
the week
if she receives
of her collections.
1%
board?
THE
ADDING
salesman
traveling
EXPENSE
SHEET
31
account
for October.
Find
of each
for each
Wilson
"
Gibbons
"
Month
.
^e
sum
"
^After
Salesman
Note.
expense
adding, prove
by adding
to the
of
19_
_
sum
CHAPTER
PRACTICE
Each
in which
TESTS
of these
to
FOR
exercises is
write the
ACCURACY
AND
SPEED
answers
II
234463
734743
498826859420
650879485269
7_4_2485598388
492813735352
815994822964
786222986889
377588684446
32
otherwise
indicated.
IV
What
must
you
followingto make
100?
1. 40
25
37
84
52
33
19
82
76
53
96
26
59
89 36
2. 18
32
56
92
37
46
83
25
88
14
41
77
22
35 69
3. 85
92
28
15
63
39
23
29
79
58
26
86
44
74
The
followingare
exceed
Write
9.
the
answers
in
one
12
ends
minu
minute.
1. 18
10
16
12
17
15
12
15
13
14
16
10
11
10
10
2.
17
14
12
13
14
10
12
11
12
18
16
11
14
10
13
3.
13
10
14
13
10
10
15
12
11
11
12
11
15
13
11
987653763248985
34
PRACTICE
TESTS
FOR
ACCURACY
AND
SPEED
IN
SUBTRACTION
36
IX
Business
method.
men
Make
and
X
A
you
good subtracter
beat
a
1.
can
do
10
right in
3 minutes,
Can
this record?
b
329642
896284
300296
248654
756200
158364
99396
125472
159728
297472
PRACTICE
36
TESTS
ACCURACY
FOR
AND
SPEED
XII
Note.
"
Exercises
XVI
and
XVII
contain
all the
multiplicationfacts.
38
PRACTICE
TESTS
FOR
ACCURACY
AND
SPEED
IN
two
exercises.
DECIMALS
point where
Write
the
XXXI
39
it
answers
on
another
sheet.
PRACTICE
40
TESTS
FOR
ACCURACY
AND
SPEED
XXXIII
10
right in 8 minutes.
XXXIV
These
in 5 minutes.
THE
FUNDAMENTAL
PROCESSES
41
3528
9158
9389
5624
35
42
79
18
7558
3478
3484
3792
3098
83
92
208
57
67
6309
69
XXXVI
9
rightin 8 minutes.
CHAPTER
SAVING
good
Add
2.
To
the
in
IN
TIME
In
Addition
shortest
COMPUTING
for computers:
motto
I.
1.
VI
Subtraction
and
way.
find the
is common,
sum
products
of several
multiply the
by the
factor
common
when
factor
one
of the
sum
others.
Write
answers
(8x3ft.)+(5x3ft.)+(12x3ft.)=?
2.
($5X16) +($5X24)
3.
4.
(5ix4)+(6fx4)+(7ix4)=?
(3ix8)+(3ix9)+(3xl3)=?
5.
(16X22) +(18X22)
+(6X22)
6.
(34X19) +(34x21)
+(34X10)=?
=$9
$6.20x4
$6.20x7=?
$6.20
=?
8.
$6.20
X2i
X7i
$6 20x''
+(44X56)=?
save
in No.
42
$6.20x9=?
(84X56)+(72x56)
do you
9.
+($5X20)=?
7.
much
108
only.
1.
How
?
^
MULTIPLICATION
IN
3.
43
just learned
so
that it
appliesto
these examples.
1.
($36 X5)
2.
3.
4.
6.
(8fx6)(5ix6)=?
6.
(7x2^) (3x2^)
=?
(96X4) (85X4)=?
(19X2) (19X0)=?
7.
(56x3)(56x2)
=?
8.
(24x3i)(21x3j)=?
($36X3)
II.
In
Multiplication
1. To
4 and
move
21.50
Think
4)86
Write
Multiply each
products only.
2150.
numbers
of these
by
25.
Write
the
12
144
48.4
5.6
632
1728
96
18
360
52.8
3.8
728
1960
196
34
528
5.28
8.4
388
508
3.24
35X35
Write
the
Think3x4,5x5.
Say
or
write 1225.
products.
abed
85x85=?
65x65=?
3.5x3.5=?
.85x.85=?
2.
95x95=?
25x25=?
55x55=?
9.5x9.5=?
3.
7.5x7.5=?
4.5x4.5=?
2.5x2.5=?
.35x.35=?
1.
SAVING
44
TIME
IN
the decimal
Remembering
the short method
on
be
85X8.5
1.
2.
2.5x'25
3.
65X6.5=?
4. .55X5.5
numbers
method
same
whose
.35x3.5=?
65X.65=?
7.5 X. 75=?
45X.45=?
.15x1.5=?
95X.95=?
.85x85
the
9.5X95=?
Use
COMPUTING
to find the
integersare the
product of
and the
same
mixed
two
of whose
simi
fractions is 1.
8f x8^
Think
=?
8 x9
and
4fx 4i=?
4f X 4f ?
3X 3f ?
12xl2f ?
3jX 3=?
7X 7i=?
llfxllf =?
8X 8i ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
method
of any
ones
two
be extended
factors in the
to include the
decade
same
72^.
write
may
or
5fx5i=?
?
^x9^r^
7ix7f ?
5fx5i=?
3. This
f x^. Say
annex
the
product
simi
of whose
or
write 1221.
or
write 3016.
is 10.
33 x37
=?
Think
58 x52
=?
Think
3 x4
6 x6
and
and
3 x7.
annex
8 x2.
annex
Say
Say
1. 92X98=?
22x28
43x47=?
2.54X56=?
55X55
21x29
3.26X24=?
16X14=?
18x12
4.44X46=?
73X77
86x84
72x78
23x27
5.71X79
the
TIME
SAVING
46
IN
6. To
make
COMPUTING
is
niunerator
the next
by
fraction
less than
one
lai^erintegerand
subtraction.
the proper
24
24
12
32
,
14
64
36
7. To
"
15f
42J
'
48
240
96
1728
multiply any
72^
33^
number
66f
5^
of two
144
320
12
128
160
18
digitsby
less one.
(1) Write the number
the difference betwpen
(2) To this annex
and
99
100
999
or
or
1000
the number.
999.
48
12
32
34
42
88
92
79
72
24
36
56
94
76
80
40
84 X.99
.99
by having the
proper
.76X.99=?
9.2x.99
2. 7.4X9.9
.72X.99=?
62x.99
3.5.4x9.9
.63X9.9
70X9.9
1.
4.
76X9.9
58X9.9
6. 2.5x9.9
3.5X9.9=?
.65X99
15x99=?
45x9.9
IN
reduce
8. To
parts of
to
each
the number
of
other,proceed as shown
846
47
partialproducts when
one
(a) 246X846
an
easy
reduce
5076
Multiply by 6.
product by 4.
20304
208116
Solve
multiplerelation
(b) 348x945
to two.
24 =4
x6.
Then
this
the
246
then
MULTIPLICATION
348
945
3132
15660
In
(b) multiply
firstby 9.
Multiply this product
by 5. Why?
32Sm
count
many
save
you
1. 364 X956
981 X429
563 X328
279x252
2.
562X832
872x322=?
3.
525X164
356X636
648x758
4.
642x259
864x135
382x459=?
III. In
1. To
2
divide any
number
36.2 25
each
Division
by 25,
move
multiplyby
4.
=.362 x4 =1.448.
of these numbers
by
25.
the decimal
point
TIME
SAVING
48
12j,move
divide by
2. To
COMPUTING
IN
the decimal
do you divide
How
multiplyby 8. Why?
by 16? by 33i? by 66f? by 75?
Divide each of these numbers
by each of the divisors
to the left and
named
in number
2.
24
384
255
8.4
75
35.6
716
36
256
375
9.6
32
48.2
896
18
144
.260
5.4
96
43.2
324
3. To
reduce
division
and
an
remove
factor from
large common
to
in short
one
dividend
both
divisor.
4
682
Remove
4"88+""r170i.dividend
the
Review
the
and
for 3, 4, 6, 8, and
28
"
18248^72
2. 1828536=?
23205549
24
15681^24
^
74328 ^36
4. 7356 ^44
69381
^63
many
How
in
tons
one
in
or
more
zeros,
cancel
the decimal
^
move
16496
and
29840 ^64
27
zeros
^
4. When
92484
3. 2379539
these
9.
^
both
divisor.
tests
divisibility
1. 1356
factor 4 from
common
canceled
are
carload of coal
zeros.
17.32
2000)34.640
There
are
17.32 tons.
1. 3484^80
65182^60
just shown.
c
as
43242^70=?
IN
2.42860+2000=?
3. 9652+40
can
decimals
watch
the
49
9642052240
?
with
in the
same
the decimal
76630+2240
84320+80
decimals.
way
and
factors
common
remove
73482+440
6. Cancellation
You
DIVISION
as
with
whole
cancel
nimibers
Then
with
if you
solve
examples by cancellation.
next
2^
.03
.84x.7gxtg_.03_g
.01
.9"X^XXA
.pe*
.1
.40X64X.76
.1
6.4X32.8
1.
25X.4X.80
144
.60X.70X$120
2
16.4X2.4X3.6
"
1728
.90X.80X$100
4.2X3.5X4.4X1728
35X84X60
'
.90X2.8
231
IV.
Examples
for
Practice
work
write
the
Each
of these
answer.
SAVING
60
V.
Use
IN
TIME
Applications of
one
cost
year
of various
result.
the
to
estimated
solve
these
consumption
our
army
in
war.
places to determine
your
Methods
of the recent
Estimate
Short
your
problems.
The
followingtable shows
and
COMPUTING
how
to four decimal
estimate
is.
Prove
CHAPTER
BUSINESS
COMMON
VII
FORMS,
PRACTICES,
AND
PROBLEMS
Checks
Bank
check
1. A
the
has
check
greater than
order
is
an
deposit,to
the
deposit
on
^^
No.
and
^^lioo
^^^^
of money
sum
in the
not
check.
Mich.,^^?l?^iW5a_
BANK
Po^r
'
signer of
MICH.
LANSING.
nf
to the order
the
named
one
GROVE
OF
Four
some
Lansing,
OAK
Pay
certain
pay
to
in which
bank,
Ice Co.
Wave
^ 4
''lioo
n^llj^rg
John
Jackson
CHECK
2.
What
3.
When
charged
is
Jackson.
of the
check
It
serves
as
Wave
Ice Co.
should
Why
6.
Arthiu"
from
McCoy
the
Model
Oak
and
is
the
on
do with
this check?
Grove
Bank,
is marked
check
back
be
it has
the
his check.
Write
51
John
signature
kept?
in his home
it.
to
of it.
Clothing Co.
it is
paid. It
finallyreturned
receipt because
canceled
of
the
account
and
canceled
Polar
to
comes
Ice Co.
Wave
Jackson's
John
4.
$20
check
the
to
a
now
suit for
town
and
BUSINESS
52
FORMS,
PRACTICES,
Salesman's
Checks
1. A
form
duplicateby
made.
One
by the
2.
salesman's
store
paper
is given to the
as
3. Make
slip
copy
a
PROBLEMS
Slips
or
is filledout
of carbon
means
AND
by the salesman
at the time
buyer. The
to learn what
you
in
the sale is
other is
kept
it should contain.
are
your
teacher is the
Invoices
An
or
itemized
of
statement
wholesale dealer at
one
BUSINESS
54
FORMS,
PROBLEMS
AND
PRACTICES,
was
if paid
What
1, 1920?
@ $12.00,less 20%.
on
"Terms:
This
in 60
pay
the
buyer
may
take
must
that
means
days.
the check for this invoice if it was
6. Write
bill* is
1. A
for service
formal, written
furnished,within
UNION
ELECTRIC
14 Kilowatt
March
Note.
"
^The term
STATEMENT
18 to
bill
OP
CO., Dr.
April18.
jTet biU
hours^$L15
or
INVOICE,
Lows^ApTlIM^
LIGHT
BILL
GROSS
materials
Ray
To
For
and
due
designatedtime.
St.
J. A.
of amount
statement
PAPER.
OP
a PIECE
MEASURE,
definition
above.
to restrict it to the
before
Apr.
on
28,91.10
BILL
is also used
ACCOUNT,
if paid
indicate
to
sales
an
check,
a
ISLATIVE
LEGCURRENCY,
DRAPT,
In this chapter it is deemed
proper
PIECE
OP
PROBLEMS
2. Mrs.
Jan.
John
15 to Feb.
ABOUT
White
used
days.
Make
8200
cubic
55
feet of gas
proper
3. John
4. When
requiredMr.
sign his name.
from
BILLS
Smith
Mrs.
Abel
furnished
This
$4 per
at
is called
Paid
on
receiptingthe bill.
Receipts
1. In
all
cases
where
debt, a receiptshould
given in payment
be requested.
money
is
JL^^^v^^."A^
/^/"^^
A
.A
of
RECEIPT
BUSINESS
56
PRACTICES,
FORMS,
Debit
the account
the account
with
Dr.
19W
Apr.
"
To
"
Cash
Bal.
on
taken
all money
Hand.
$12.50
Apr.
'
The
account
on
Hand.
'
"
11
'
8.00
**
to make
Balance
is written
is then
amount
much
the
at any
(Contrihur
.26
Balance
16.60
the
to the smaller
side
This amount
smaller
on
balance
time.
be added
must
written
.16
20.60
is to find how
This
Church
$ A.50
(Movies)
Amusement
16.60
account
on
Cash.
tion)
12
be balanced
may
from
By Clothing(Shoes)
20.60
To Bal.
receives. Credit
Cr,
"
12
Cash
1920
ing
(work
Wages
afterschool
and Sat.)
PROBLEMS
Account
Cash
The
AND
side in red
the
largerside
To
ink, preferably.
as
Balance
on
Hand.
1. Rule
small blank
book
above,
or
buy
Why
one
LEARNING
An
account
does
for you.
THE
PERSONAL
ACCOUNT
57
be
1. Who
may
Fox
account?
on
Explain the meaning of To Balance
Who
performed the labor debited Mar.
2.
3.
4. Who
6. What
Frank
Fox
6. Write
March
on
Mar.
keep?
would
How
the proper
he
name
Mar.
1.
8?
12?
transactions would
the account?
might be requiredon
receiptwhich
18.
7. Write
book
Oct.
the
on
yom
Sold him
10
15
Sold him
mdse.
15
Received
$30 cash
merchandise
amounting to $65.75.
for $40, due Nov. 5.
valued
amounting
on
at $2.50.
to $40.25.
account.
30.
BUSINESS
58
FORMS,
PRACTICES,
AND
PROBLEMS
Statements
the time
received at
of the sale,is
on
a
cash is not
statement
fact
of the customer's
copy
Such
account
This statement
is in
the books
of the
on
periodit is made.
statement
should show
these items:
ment
(1) the condition of the account at the time the last statewas
rendered,if the account is not new;
(2) the various dates on which additional charges were
of each;
made
and the amount
allowed and
(3) the various dates on which credits were
the amount
of each; (4) the balance due.
It need not show the details of the purchasesbecause these
shown on the separateinvoices and sales slips.
are
customer
salesman's
with
charge account
the statement
sent
him
should
in order to compare
at the end of the month.
with
MONTHLY
THE
STATEMENT
59
Bush
IN
ACCOUNT
T. RAYNOR
H.
WITH
364
To Staiement Rendered
Jan. SI
Feb.
"
Mdse.
"
ii*^
^'
By Cash
"
Mdse.
S
18
Avenue
$60,90
1540
CREDITS
Feb.
Wabash
$60,00
returned
1,25
61,25
Feb. 28
Balance
Study both
James
1.
from
due
of H.
Bush
T.
is the item
Why
21.SO
first of
the
"To
Statement
rendered"
Raynor's monthly
to
omitted
statements
on
page 58?
2.' How
this
do you
on
page?
3. The
second statement
What
receiptedstatement.
Is a receipted
if paydoes this mean?
statement
necessary
ment
is made by check?
Why?
which the grocer might
4. Write a monthly statement
send to your
father
or
is a
mother.
BUSINESS
60
The
An
itemized
valuation
1.
or
on
in the home
is based
the cost
on
of the
Find
J. O. Summers.
of Mr.
questionmarks.
AN
2. Make
such
3.
in
inventoryis made.
The inventorybelow shows the property in one room
property
the
Inventory
list of property
inventory. The
an
PROBLEMS
AND
PRACTICES,
FORMS,
one
an
inventory of all
personalpossessions;
books, pictures,
clothing,
money,
Make
an
inventory of the property
room
etc.
have
in your
home,
or
home.
of your
should
owner
is carried
an
on
household
contents, the
in
some
place.Why?
6. Merchants
twice
your
as,
4. If insurance
safe
INVENTORY
year.
make
Why?
an
once
or
BUSINESS
62
PRACTICES,
FORMS,
Making
In
the
find each
Company
The
roll of
followingpay
man's
Roll
Pay
and
pay
PROBLEMS
AND
American
Furnace
roll for
the week.
for
Memorandum
the
roll is made
as
shown
coin to be
placedin each
shown
in the table
as
pay
of your
Envelope
Pay
way
to check
man's
begim
the correctness
work.
$10
Brod, Chas.
Buck, Joseph
$5
$2
$1
50^ 25fflOff5ff H
1
1
4
1
1
Total
$22.80
14.25
of
Memorandum
TRUST
AITO
of Chicago
PEOPLES
THE
Roll
Pay
63
This
dum
Pay
Roll
Furnace
is
prepared to
teller
in
cashier
or
American
memoran
assistthe bank
for
The
Bank
the
for
BAKK
SAVINGS
of
Memorandum
Bank
ROLLS
PAY
MAKING
viding
pro
Co.
the company
with
the change
man's
sheet
envelope.
pay
1. On
separate
complete the
shown
form
each
for
quired
re
here for
page
62,
2. Write the check
which
must
this
pany
accom
dum.
memoran
On which bank
isthis check
Total.
drawn?
money
signsit?
their pay envelopeseach must
received. Write Loy Wilson's
receipt.Loy Wilson's
name
islast on
As
the
Make
men
handed
the memorandum
it the bank
Name
W.
are
Who
HiU
Due
$25.85
T.Brown...
J. Sanford.
memorandum
Amt.
Name
Amt.
envelopesand from
roll.
Due
H.
page 62.
Name
Amt.
Due
M.
33.69
Daly.. .$27.65
Frank Fry.. 32.78
C. Stout...
30.26
20.46
J. Sands.
F. See
20.85
36.84
Fisher. .$29.63
BUSINESS
64
FORMS,
PRACTICES,
Business
Smith
AND
PROBLEMS
Problems
painted John
of the bill.
in payment
Smith
Alva
worked
request when
3. Write
of cash
in
payment
made
good Englishhow
person
has
cash there
was
on
how
cash
was
much
was
hand
at
you
in full in cash.
would
if it is known:
(a)how much
hand when the account
was
begun; (b)
received since that time; (c)how much
on
paid.
4. On
September 1, 1920, A. L. Black had on hand
of cash during the
$40.60. His receiptsand payments
follows: Sept. 2, received $10.25; Sept. 3,
month
as
were
paid $2.24; Sept. 6, received $17.68; Sept. 8, paid $4.50;
Sept. 10,rejceived$23.75;Sept.15, received $1.72;Sept. 16,
paid $4.83; Sept. 18, paid $4.50; Sept.21, received $43.25;
Sept. 22, paid $2.50; Sept. 23, paid $2.50; Sept. 24, paid
$2.50; Sept.25, paid $2.50; Sept.26, received $2.50; Sept.
27, paid $2.50. Write the cash account for the month and
fijidthe balance Sept.30.
the invoice,deduct the discount,and write the
Make
check for each of the next two problems.
6. On Jan. 31, 1921, James
Carver, Joplin,Mo., bought
of the Hollis Lumber
Co., Kansas City, Mo., 36 doors at
cash
was
SOLVING
PROBLEMS
65
Terms:
12
doors at $12.50
necessary
10
5%
and
The
$140
land
which
on
the
wheat
grew
was
valued
on
an
acre.
per
He
acre.
was
at
interest
$1.25
under
the
marketed.
producing one
bushel
CHAPTER
VIII
PERCENTAGE
The
fraction,and
one
to
solve
of the
is worth
values
2.
while
of the
to know
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
11.
12.
Write
the
50%
2.
3%
3.
25%
4.
16%
12i%
and
of indicating
In order
without
conmion
cents.
14.
80%
16.
.8=^
17.
18.
5%
19.
4%
20.
21.
22.
24.
min.
acres
in.
of $96
of 72
decimal
.6=1
23.
of 32
often
very
decimal
answers
of 60
whole.
60%
of 80
1.
ways
13.
16.
10.
of
the
.1=tV
90%
.9=T^
6j .06j=Ti,r
8.
the
following per
=.50=1
.25
25%
J
75%=.75=f
12%=.12^=i
37i%
.37Hf
.62Hf
62j%
87f%
.87j 
33i%=.33i

66%
.66f=f
16f%=.16f =i
20%
.20=i
40%
.4=1
=
3.
three
are
equal parts
50%
1.
6.
fraction
common
more
number,
pencil,it
fraction
the
or
after
sign (%)
cent
per
in.
to these
7.
8.
9.
10.
.05=^
=3^
3j%
.03i=^
2%
.02"=^
2% =.02=^
1.25 =f
125%
112i%
1.12i=f
.04
examples in
87%
37i%
6.
10%
2 minutes.
of 24
12.
4%
of S800
13.
66%x6
87J%X24
2i%x40
6%
of $150
14.
4%X$175
of 18
16.
6%X32
33i%
66
of
48}^
11.
gal.
yd.
PERCENTAGE
need
You
APPLICATION
AN
learn these
to
OF
MULTIPLICATION
terms
new
67
in percentage: the
whole
and
centage),
per
(also
Percentage is
fractions
applicationof multipUcationof
an
of decimal
or
mon
com
fractions.
is either the
1. The
whole
2. The
multipUcand
or
the
product.
(rate)or the
to the
whole
multipUcand.
In the problem, "Find 6% of $100,''$100 is the whole,
6% is the relation of the part to the whole, and the part
3. The
the
is to be foimd.
As
to
in
of the terms
multipUcationtwo
are
alwaya given
Examples
1. Find
8%
Practice
of $20.
8%
(multipKer)XS20
$3 is what
=$1.60
(multiplicand)
of $9?
(product).
The
=$3
X ? (multiplier)
(multiplicand)
Multiplier t or 33J%.
$9
(product).
3.
The
$6 is
33^%
of how
questionis,"by what
The
part)XS6
In each
what
of these
is wanted.
result.
Thus
in
must
(the whole)
whole?"
money
much
money
I
=3
money?
(the relation of the
use
whole
to
the
the
$18.
Then
is given and
to
get the
% is the multipUer,
example 1, think,''33f
PERCENTAGE
68
is the
1. What
2.
is 33^% of $1062?
$6 is how
many
3. Find
25%
4. Find
12%
of
6.
$40 is what
6.
125%
of
133%
ft. is 25%
8. 18
$3 is what
of how
11. Find
8%
of $24.50, 12%
12. Find
7%
of 52 mi., 9%
13. What
is
14. What
is 1 qt. of 1
16. Find
pecks?
$6 is what
90%
Of $30?
ft.?
many
10. Find
of 30
Of $40?
of $150
many
of $4?
cu.
Of $60?
of $50?
$45,75% of $75.
of
$35, 45%
$864, of 1728
7. 60
9.
Of $36?
of $9?
of $25,35%
of $80
Of 954 ft.?
of $3?
of $65.
mi., 80%
ft.
of 840
of 700
in.
2^ of lOff? Of $1?
the number
if 6%
pk.? Of
pk.?
of it is $36, if 3%
of it is 3
Problems
method
1. A
in the
answer
manner
explained
by the shortest
know.
sold
automobile
costing$1200 at a profit
of 8^% of the cost.
Find the profitand the sellingprice.
2. 45%
of a cotton crop of 40 bales,averaging 500 lb.,
sold at 25jfa lb. Find the selling
was
price.
3. In a certain arithmetic test of 24 examples in percentage,
John had 18 rightand Frank had 15 right. Find
man
an
PERCENTAGE
70
f%
16. Find
$10 is
^%
of $1200,
of how
much?
i%
of
Find
$80, 66f%
J%
of 60
of $1500.
acres.
$15 is what
of $2000?
16.
How
10% of
much
17. A
gold in $500?
pure
is
only
3j inches wide on its face. In computing
[^ the amount of such lumber for a floor,what
5
be allowed for the groove?
% must
18. Draw
without the aid of a ruler a square
inch, a
twoinch square, 2 square
inches. With
the help of the
ruler compute
Problems
(Where the
to tenths of
1. The
per
your
in
Percentage
answer
per
percentage of
cent
error.
Involving Large
is to be
unless
groove
Numbers
carry
it
Fourth
subscribed
LibertyLoan of $6,000,000,000was overthe % of overwas
subscription?
by $866,400,000. What
to hundredths
of a
(Carry your answer
cent.)
2. On
March
17, 1919, it
was
announced
PROBLEMS
to the normal
WITH
LARGE
NUMBERS
Express in
expense.
71
cent
per
have
just found.
(4) Show with a graph the rdation of war to peace as
regards cost.
the army
cost?
cost of the total war
% was
(5) What
3. On May
15, 1919, the War Department at Washington
that
announced
there
were
ExpeditionaryForce under
classed
number, 237,135 were
American
Of this
remainder
as
General
as
Pershing.
and the
wounded
deaths.
the deaths
ties.
of the total casual
were
were
4. The
The
$4,500,000,000.
quota of the Victory Loan was
actual amount
subscribed was
ing
$5,249,908,300,accord
to
What
was
issued May
Washington statement
the % of oversubscription?
estimated
bu.
actual
The
accurate
in per
cent
crop
actual crop
was
the estimate
May
amount
1, 1919,
was
would
it was
estimated
659,797,000
How
nearly
3,159,494,000bu.
wrong?
hay
farms
on
estimated
at
be 3,191,000,000bu.
States would
By what
was
of
be
the estimate?
of 1916
in the United
The
7. The
was
crop
650,828,000 bu.
was
crop
6. In the autumn
corn
Department of Agricultiu'e
of 1916 the
6. In the autumn
26, 1919.
per
in the United
States
against
8,493,000 tons
as
How
short
of
many
May,
1918?
cent
was
PERCENTAGE
72
8. On
mated
estiApril 1, 1919, the winter wheat crop was
at 836,000,000 bushels by the Department of Agriculture.
On
bushels.
9. In
1, 1919, it was
May
Find
the %
of each
"
(Apr.,1917
to
our
ment
govern
States.
3,091,165,000
War.
SpanishAmerican
World
the cost
117,048,000
Civil War
The
year?
92,989,000
War
Mexican
What
15%.
wars
of 1812
War
The
of the
sonal
per
$565,302,070. The
for the
10. The
899,000,000
valuation
was
at
diuing April.
commission
tax
of increase
1919
property of
state
estimated
718,836,000
War
to
24,481,000,000(To April,1919.)
Nov., 1918)
?
Total
Hint."
(2) The
(3) The
the
to
of the World
was
the
United
States?
(5) Do
the amounts
our
is what
is what
pays
of
War?
monthly
above
cost
show
of the World
War
country?
(6) Who
of the cost
War?
cost
(4) What
graph represent$100,000,000.
cost
of the World
the cost
1 in. of your
War?
to
war
PROBLEMS
(7) How
11.
The
LARGE
WITH
is the money
NUMBERS
73
this debt?
raised to meet
War
amounts
to
about
How
Two
"
degreesof
will the
money?
Do
the
nations
sums
represent$1,000,000,000.
arc
for this
pay
above
largeexpenditureof
represent the
war?
12.
man
citylicenses
an
paid $2000
for
cost $5 each.
an
The
the year
were
automobile.
tax
was
The
state and
His expenses
on
for repairs
for
480 gallons
at
$60.50;for oil $10.20;for gasoline
his
on
gasoUne?
(3) If the machine carried,on an average, 4
every tripduring the season, find the mileage
persons
cost
per
passenger.
omit any
item of importance in
(4) Did the owner
estimatingthe total cost of his machine for the year?
in the 50yard dash
13. A good record for a 7th grade girl
is 7.8 seconds;a good record for the same
girlin the 100yard dash is 15.4 seconds. What is the difference in speed
in yards
Express your answer
per second in the two races?
and in per cent.
PERCENTAGE
74
Scale
1. Find
iO JNJi.=Vi\r\.
representedby the
above oblong, whose dimensions
4 in. by 3 in.
are
2. What
by each square?
per cent of an acre is shown
the
3. What
in
area
per cent
in oats? in com?
acres
of the farm
is in woodland?
of the farm
in
timothy?
in red
in wheat?
clover? in
pasture?
in alfalfa?
4. What
per
cent
of the farm
is in orchard
and
truck
garden?
6. What
this
answer
6. Add
should
per cent
do the farm
buildingsoccupy?
5.
Prove
What
PROJECT
PROBLEMS
75
in
peas
beans.
and
form
One
of
half
an
what
of
remains
is
beans?
10.
What
11.
Find
the walk.
your
answer
area
in square
fractional part of
per
cent.
an
acre
is this?
Change
CHAPTER
USING
and
Bu3ring
1. A
What
S9000,
the
on
sold
man
Selling
his
was
often
men
based
rate
based
rate
100%
of the
3.
If the
4.
Thus,
of
125%
of
of
the rate
compute
of the selUng
What
to be
profiton
able to convert
gain of 25%
price,which
the
the
an
equivalent
on
the
cost
of the cost.
is 125%
of
(sellingprice)=25%
cost
is
cost.
gain
of
rate
sold his
John
the cost
on
the
6. If
on
cost?
the
on
for
$8000
is 20%,
is it
what
on
selling price?
the
on
gain
it is necessary
the cost.
on
20%
Proof."
the
Gain
costing him
lot
of
or
the
on
or
20%
only J^
on
Loss
and
rate
sellingprice. Therefore
a
at
sellingprice?
Business
2.
PERCENTAGE
house
IX
loss of 20%
the
was
the
on
is sold
watch
the
cost.
7. A
gain
8. A
the cost
of loss
rate
cost
loss of
is
on
16f %
the
equivalent
to
of the
cost?
what
rate
selling price?
at
the
at
of
33^%
on
cost
the cost
and
is
the
rate
is
12f %
of
of loss based
equivalent to what
rate
sellingprice?
man
of
sold
one
two
and
farms
for
gaining 25%
76
$9000
of the
of
the
USING
PERCENTAGE
Selling for
Another
78
When
fanner
to
person
He
broker.
has hogs
largecityto
Such
Person
some
one
is called
is said to do
commission
commission,
for him.
who
merchanty
or
or
brokerage
He
merchant's
the commission
1. An
remittance.
$125
at
owner
an
acre,
mission
com
land?
2. I
amount
3. A
grapes
$12.60.
4. A
was
commission
at
The
commission
amoimted
agent sold
ranch
of land at $22.50
an
in Texas
acre.
How
his commission
the agent receive for his services,
5. An
Indiana
his Cincinnati
of Concord
to
real estate
acres
merchant
30)ia basket.
Find
of 42,800
due me?
watermelon
broker.
The
grower
broker
sent
400
consisting
did
much
being2%?
melons
at
to
an
SELLING
FOR
ANOTHER
PERSON
79
of
6. Find
the net
amount
due
the
owner
from
the following
sale: 12 carloads of
commission
much
8. I
merchant
How
PERCENTAGE
USING
80
for Another
Buying
this
1. In
the amount
the
of commission
the rate
case
of money
the commission
does this differ from
How
goods.
2. I instruct my
broker
buy
to
is
computed
merchant
pays
on
for
transaction?
selling
bushels
1000
of
com
at
If there are no
other
2%.
bushel,commission
charges,what is the corn costingme per bushel?
is a broker's charge for buying 1800 bushels of
3. What
$1.40 per
wheat
^^
at
4. I asked
bushel?
commission
$8.50,commission
6, A
earned
man
commission.
6. An
How
%.
$18
much
How
client,charging him
merchant
3%
much
week
$2.20
rate
bushel.
How
of commission
Hint.
Find
"
8. Mr.
is
collecting
gas bills at 1%
did he collect?
for Texas
acre
an
commission.
How
buy 1000
largea check
B.'s broker
commission
in St. Paul
transaction?
to
bushels of wheat
I send
must
if the
bought
2%.
100
Find
barrels of
the amount
firm
2 weeks
32j5a lb.,commission
amounted
did the
commission, and in
at
much
my
500 lb. to
for his
land
J%?
I send him?
must
money
to
$85.
How
Did
much?
the
same
DISCOUNTS
LEARNING
Buying
1.
at
81
Discount
list,or
logue
cata
What
dozen.
of
rate
is allowed
to the
purchaser
dozen?
7. A
merchant
being allowed
8.
of discount
One
subject
to
allows
Another
10%
25%
invoice of
an
discount of 10%.
firm
listed at $6.
What
discount
discount.
Which
same
goods after
the listprice?
was
on
lawn
machine
is the better
mower
at
$5,
purchase?
9. Goods
sold at a profitof
costing $2 per yd. were
the cost after dropping20% from the marked price.
on
20%
the marked
What
was
price?
a
PERCENTAGE
USING
82
Discounts
Successive
and
20%
on
$240 and
deduction
This may
of $240.
I.
then
that
deduction
of 10%
is made
of 20%
is made
from
80%
second list.
(100%20%)X$240=$192
(100% 10%) X$192 =$172.80 net seUing price.
of 80%
II. 90%
of $240 =$172.80.
Or
80%
of 90%
of
$240 =$172.80.
it is shorter to find
III. Often
singlerate of discount
which
glance,business
dealer
1. A
Find
the net
The
The
The
"
3. One
20%.
at $75 less
^Find the
singlediscount in
dealer offers
Another
20%
of 20%
is the better
this method.
use
2. Which
or
often
men
dozen
much?
and
5%.
=24%.
and 30%;
case.
each
and
10%,
Which
and
is the
DISCOUNTS
SUCCESSIVE
4. A
clerk in
singlediscount
and
allowed
8. I
9. Goods
10. What
a
above
at
on
on
and
at
10%.
$400, subjectto
invoice whose
an
15 and
list is
off?
5%
invoice of
an
off. What
10%
was
at
$500 at 20 and
What
was
bought
at
off.
15%
rate
my
of
the cost?
listed at
from
at
off,or
profitbased
5%
10%
and
I sold them
and
goods listed
man
20
of
$800; 10 and
7. A
the
aa
off?
5%
6. Which
30%
did he make?
error
is the cost
6. What
10%
an
allowed
house
on
of
much
How
wholesale
83
$1000
were
the listpriceand
of gain
per cent
discount of 20%
on
were
profiton the
25%,
10%,
the selling
price.
cost is reaUzed
by buying
from the listpriceand selling
at 20%
the Ust
11. Green
price?
and Jaeger,wholesale merchants
of
Chicago,
CHAPTER
PROTECTING
1. Mr.
Johnson,
his back
so
weeks.
His
the
on
are
him
2.
$20
If
ONE'S
severely
that
he
pays
Mr,
had
you
Name
call such
could
AND
from
not
PROPERTY
ladder
work
his workmen
Johnson's
for 8 weeks.
Johnson
LIFE
painter, fell
employer
week
had
died
from
have
for the
he
injured
at his trade
insurance
How
and
for 8
time
they
paid
company
protected himself?
the
received
eflfects of
$2000,
this
What
need
such
protection.
PROTECTING
86
Ross
12. Mr.
owns
Boyd
Mr.
country.
ONE'S
the residence
frame
a
owns
portion of
Which
LIFE
house
worth
brick house
in the
$6000
worth
$6000
in
must
one
PROPERTY
AND
pay
Why?
Dwell
Stone
Dwell
Movie
Garage
XX
Church
Theatre
STREET
Fitting
Station
Restaurant
XX
Barber
Shop^
Confect
ionery
X
Fire
House
O
STREET
A
'
13. In
have
the
case
Plan
Shows
of
an
Insurance
BrIcK BIdgs.
BIdgs.
fire insurance
of large cities,
in their ofl"ce
plans showing
of property insured.
Plug
District
Frame
XX
Water
the
In the
companies
and
location
plan
on
at
roundings
sur
this page
a
low rate
INSURANCE
FIRE
14.
periodof 3 years or of
2f times that of one
that of
one
year.
16. When
the
what
87
and
year,
annual
rate
The
5 years.
is
bam
for 5 years
it is 4 times
42)iper hundred
worth
$1200 for
dohars,
a
threes
18.
If
later it
was
insurance
should
man
found
company
the furniture in
case
and
that
it could be
arrangement?
19.
Careful
21.
Mrs.
Peter
insm'ed
$1000
to
the
company
that
of the fire?
the
furniture
was
worth
PROTECTING
88
Life
1.
LIFE
ONE'S
Insurance
Why
PROPERTY
AND
are
life
insurance?
to have life insurance
people whom
you know
(1) whether they think it is a good thing,(2) why
they think so, (3) what kind they carry.
issued by life insurance
contracts
3. The more
common
and
companies are limited term poUcies,whole lifepolicies,
endowment
poUcies.
4. A limited term
policyceases at the expirationof the
for which it is written.
term
The poUcy becomes payable
In
only in case of death of the insured during the term.
2. Ask
some
fire insurance.
of cash
8. With
solve three
the
company
the
on
the next
holder
if he
period.
page
make
and
PROBLEMS
ABOUT
Table
of Life
Partial
of
1. Which
LIFE
INSURANCE
Rates
Insurance
per
$1000
Policy
in this table at
given
life insurance
tam
a
recent
cash
year
with
income.
dollar
was
How
company
did
each
dollar of
much
spent by the
for
company
of
What
poUcy?
company
to
the
part what
Paid
Dividends
^\Expense
^ZT^Z
\
40%^
kind
expense?
for
L^Jl\^J\
^{"J'J:^
of the
do dividends
expense? To whom
and reserve
belong? The amount
paid to Uving poUcy holders represents
for the most
/"et aside
by the
PROTECTING
90
ONE'S
I 70
TO
80
"""
66
TO
69
Y^?7A
60
TO
64
^H
60
TO
69
PHYSICAL
Under
LIFE
AND
FITNESS
PROPERTY
GRAPH
Problems
1, From
which
show
these two
how
the
About
Health
examinations
men
from
facts have
been
found
pared
com
PROBLEMS
2. Name
of
ABOUT
physicalfitness. How
3. Name
those
groups;
which
showed
highestper
themselves
do you
account
Washington?
Of New
York?
6. The
records
show
that
of
into two
people sufferingfrom
contain a largeper cent
many
cent
divide
certain
Of
91
there?
showed
states
attract
the
are
many
physicalfitness. These
HEALTH
every
Michigan?
The high record of Ky.?
100,000 country boys
soldiers than
militaryservice 4790 more
in per
each 100,000 city boys. Express this superiority
cent.
likelyto be physically
Why are country boys more
fitthan cityboys? What
can
cityboys do to improve their
physicalvigor?
6. A report of the causes
of rejection
of 10,258 recruits
of the firstselective draft in 1917 from eightdifferent camps
shows that 21.68% were
rejectedon account of defective
rejectedon account of defective teeth.
eyes and 8.5% were
Find the number
rejectedon account of these two defects.
furnished
What
for the
children do to avoid
can
7. In
the
730, 756
of
of this number
and
eye
tooth troubles?
2,510,706 men
were
per cent
army,
were
rejectedon
rejected,
both
amined;
ex
account
and
in France
in
48,909
were
accidents and
of deaths
due
to
other
battle;56,991
causes
were
contributed
due
to
the rest.
disease;
Find
causes.
the
PROTECTING
92
soldiers than
American
in round
claimed
LIFE
PROPERTY
AND
influenzapneumonia
epidemicof
9. The
that
ONE'S
of the
slain in battle.
were
This
48,000 victims.
numbers
due
total deaths
plague
What
tp disease?
See
deaths
those
is
previous
problem.
10.
battle.
11.
Get
2.2%.
How
to
was
tuberculosis accounted
for
8.
12. The
States with
in the United
10,000,000persons
of
due
problems 8 and 9.
responsiblefor i% of the American
many
problem
with
data from
your
Typhoid
influenza
army
See
the
Compare
of the
cost
mortaUty
epidemic on
the following
basis:
Do
on
loss
the United
funeral cost
$2400,
at
$90.
at
are
on
an
average
(1) What
is the annual
(2) What
is the death
400,000 cases
10% of them
death
rate per
populationof 100,000,000?
(3) Compare the death rate
in the
by death
care.
to
society
of influenza?
account
13. There
the average
for medical
case
in
rate
of
are
from
100,000 on
typhoid
in
fatal.
this disease?
the basis of
rate
(4) Why
the small
town
and
in the
country?
largecitythan
in
ONE'S
PROTECTING
94
17. The
and
LIFE
PROPERTY
AND
followingtable shows
in 1917
in the 12
mated
principalcitiesof the United States. The estipopulationis based on the rate of increase from
1910
to
1920.
I.
.i
CrriBs
^2
11
.
o
s"
Baltimore
Buffalo
Boston
Chicago
681,223 11,364
481,857 7,559
724,817 12,722
,
.a
2,646;77838,055
Cleveland
725,984 10,848
389,950
6,833
835,347 11,758
6,364,870 78,575
29,679
Philadelphial,740,913
Pittsburgh 571,906 10,657
SanFrancisco 480,960
7,154
St. Louis
747,136 11,626
Cincinnati
Detroit
New York
51
8
102
245
53
24
57
556
87
60
11
58
38
30
108
55
44
218
46
278
624
1216
155
14
15
144
120
31
11
12
36
98
62
?~
?~
51
129
36
415
149
1157
445
486
168
131
48
68
205
39
28
92
48
22
43
53
16
107
229
108
66
23
58
1213
699
1148
3284
1024
856
827
8824
3019
677
744
1399
in the above
table.
of the six
common
fectiou
in
from
is
an
infectious disease?
13 deaths
(3) In 1917 in the above cities there were
smallpox. Find the death rate of smallpoxper 1,000
measles?
ABOUT
PROBLEMS
HEALTH
DISEASE
AND
95
rate
of every
about
and
the death
10
rate
19. In the
of vaccination
per
of every
their
were
pockmarked
Find
.
100,000.
tenyear periodfrom
of
against smallpox 9
old
30 years
peopleover
out
one
order
1,000.
the time
18. Before
out
per
cities in the
1901
to 1910
there
were
population
For the same
of 50,000,000 in round numbers.
period in
many
England and Wales with onehalf the populationof GerFind the smallpox death
4286 deaths.
there were
100,000 in each country.
rate
per
two
rates.
conditions
The
found
Find
in the
previousproblem are
due to the fact that Germany has compulsory vaccination
Should
the United
States have
and
England has not.
compulsory vaccination for smallpox?
20.
21. Malaria
to another
intermittent fever
22.
If 80%
are
How
can
one
person
cannot
names
for malaria.
how
yearly) is preventable,
there?
is carried from
have
and
by
is a disease which
many
cases
(1,500,000
unnecessary
cases
are
PROTECTING
96
ONE'S
Safety and
industrial accidental
How
many
unnecessary
country in 1918
our
and
States in 1918
and
deaths
Problems
deaths
of all accidental
be
PROPERTY
AND
Prevention
Accident
1. Threefourths
can
LIFE
deaths
had
injuries
22,000
accidents occurred
in
industrial workers?
among
Serious accidents
Serious accidents
1913
1916
decrease
3. The
in Wisconsin
in
to
death,
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
(1) What
to accidents.
3,110,000
permanent and partialdisability, 1,897,700
absence from 1 to 2 weeks,
136,373
2 weeks,
over
807,485
"
was
at
an
average
of
(2) What
was
annual
the average
loss?
to
careless habits?
When
are
is
ACCIDENT
4. The
PREVENTION
followingtable shows
is the result of
an
accident
PROBLEMS
the accident
97
record which
preventioncampaign begun in
ONE'S
PROTECTING
gg
LIFE
PROPERTY
AND
wealth
followingis the accident record of the CommonSteel Company
the result of a safetycampaign
as
begun in 1913. Find the value of each questionmark.
5. The
Av.
Days lost
per
ployee
Hint.
of
"
days lost
no.
Carry
cases.
6.
^Av.
the
235,000 of
in France
our
case
per
quotientto
one
soldiers out
No.
days lost
Total No.
days lost
em
per
case
7.2
4.2
2.3
2.6
2.4
.6
4:0
days
decimal place.
=
total
of
an
no.
army
of
lost
sno.
2,200,000
wounded
yoiu"
Hint.
"
answer.
Before
making
persons
the
comparison
in each
find
the
number
of
group.
mentioned
in the previous problem
During the war
killed or died
70,000 in round numbers of our soldiers were
from wounds
dental
or
disease,while 120,000 persons met accideaths in the United States during the same
period.
Using the necessary data in problem 6, compare our war
7.
with
our
PROBLEMS
8. Deaths
ABOUT
from
ACCIDENT
PREVENTION
99
1912
to 1919.
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
492
530
459
402
525
510
420
370
10 years of age
Children
killed from
80
88
70
70
78
75
86
73
10 to 20 years
Adults
59
40
45
34
42
48
28
34
Total
number
????????
in
value
1912, 9 +3
5.
Carry
19.
Write
1912
is 353.
(2) What
can
12.
1.
Write
1+3
=4.
3.
Carry
Write
3.
1.
The
+6 +8 +5
answer
for
this number
of deaths?
9. The
causes
main
of each
of fatal accidents
in St. Louis.
1912
What
total?
is the
of decrease
of the
1919
(3) Draw
1912
to
1919.
line
graph
for the
auto
accidents
from
PROTECTING
100
ONE'S
of age
years
killed by
were
children under
In the United
10.
PROPERTY
AND
HEALTH
distributed
accident,
the
among
shown
causes
10
of the question
mark.
(2) What
are
accidents
street
dents
acci
car
with
(4) What
children do to
can
duce
re
of accidents listed
the number
under
the automobile
would
be needed
11. An
if thece deaths
moving
auto
60 ft. away
from
the person
to take
at
person
could have
of 15 mi.
the rate
about
the chance
to
been
hour
per
the street.
cross
if it
avoided?
requires3
Ought
to
sec.
is
cross
the street?
far away
12. How
order for
the
machine?
schoolroom
or
13. If each
United
the street
on
or
short is your
person
killed
on
were
estimate?
of accident
account
laid
on
cot
6 ft.
in the
long and
in the United
were
problem 11 be in
with safetyahead of
in
auto
States in 1919
these cots
cots 60
cross
the
Estimate
long
many
to
person
must
States in 1919?
unnecessary?
How
many
of these deaths
CHAPTER
AND
COLLECTING
the
Who
owns
Who
pays
Who
owns
Who
Who
state
roads
for then*
the
teachers'
pays
for the
in
pays
Of
officers?
of
upkeep
of
which
in any
I.
Certain
be
(called the
cent
rate
be
may
many
dollars
cent.
per
or
as
low
as
33%,
property
is fixed
Personal
property,
cattle, horses,
or
value
money,
assessed
mills
much
so
on
is the
personal, for
as
full
such
called
notes,
village,
its expenses
given
certain
the
on
each
taxing
land
The
or
such
placed against
In
purposes.
value, in others
as
per
dollar,so
$1000,
value
munity
com
value.
even
property,
also
conamunity
many
this is the
communities
some
be
real
property,
any
so
$100,
and
ways.
in
owns
person
that
as
assessed
The
public
Property
on
tax) of the
of
each
by
rate
all of several
Tax
which
expressed
on
Of
postmasters?
nation, pays
or
or
one
taxed
and
conamunity, such
General
property
may
city?
or
public parks?
letter carriers
with
be obtained
county
your
repau*?
salaries?
salaries
Of
money
neighborhood?
your
universities?
state
the
in
and
making
MONEY
PUBLIC
streets
or
schoolhonses
pays
The
DISTRIBUTING
the
libraries?
Who
'XI
and
it may
Real
buildings.
102
as
THE
TAX
Methods
of
RATE
AND
the
Expressing
Tax
1. Tax
Tax
Example."
2. Tax
Tax
Example."
3. Tax
rate
Rate
and
Solving
=$2.25
rate
Tax
103
Problems
$2000 =2000
on
PROBLEMS
mills
rate =22.5
TAX
valuation).
on
=$22.50
tion).
Tax
Example."
4. Tax
rate =2
J%
Tax
Example.
on
on
Tax
1. In
pay
certain
Problems
(1) How
much
is that
On
each
thousand
muat
owner
certain
public school
to
the
largecity the
state?
Smith
Mr.
Find
of $5100.
as
his
tax
pays
tax
rate
is $2.30
on
is $4310.
How
on
much
an
yearly tax.
contribute
dollars?
city
purposes,
year"
On each hundred
each dollar?
on
distributed
$100 valuation,
Mr.
property
2.25%
dollars?
of $2000 =$45.
How
to
much
each
$.13;
$1.54.
does he
publicschools?
much
$135 tax
on
to the
COLLECTING
104
DISTRIBUTING
AND
$2,580,000 and
raised,find the
tax
6. What
nity?
rate in mills
on
generalproperty
of
tax
city is
$32,250 is
to
be
dollar.
each
coininu
is it distributed?
How
property
MONEY
of the property in
generalproperty
is the
and
6. Make
PUBLIC
tax
solve two
of your
rate
II.
problems based
community.
Assessments
Special
community does
on
on
the general
Property
Examples.
"
Paved
roads and
macadam
and
streets
drainageditches
cement
in the
1. The
walks
in
the
city,
total
of
cost
paving
Street and
in the
If the city
$4000.
figure,was
paid half of the cost and the
facing the street
property owners
paid half,compute the tax levied
against Mr. B, against Mr. D,
were
againstMr. S. The owners
or
given the option of paying the specialtax in one sum
in several instalments
2. What
Of that of Mr.
was
with interest.
Mr.
R's assessment
B?
D?
and the
of that of Mr.
generaltax
on
front foot
H's total
general
SPECIAL
ASSESSMENT
TAX
105
and
tax in one
specialtax if he elected to pay all his special
See previouspage.
sum.
4. Mr. D paid his paving tax in 3 equal annual instalments,
due
in 1, 2, and
3 years
interest at 6%
with
III.
In
Licenses
In most
communities
many
communities
for
tax
for
Special Privileges
there is a
a
per
person
dog
must
pay
$5,
or
some
of owning an automobile.
yearly for the privilege
In some, the owner
of a lot in a citymust pay a tax
in dry
to have the street in front of his property sprinkled
other
weather.
In others,druggists
must
pay $25, or some
of conductingtheir business.
yearly for the privilege
sum,
the United
of tobacco
Manufacturers
goods must
pay
States Government
certain sum
a
yearly for the privilege
states persons
of conductingtheir business. In some
must
of voting.
(poll.tax)for the privilege
pay a certain sum
which may
other examples of special
1. Name
privileges
other sum,
be taxed.
named
104 is
owns
one
druggist,
dog,an automobile,and Uves in a citywhich has a sprinkUng
tax of lOjfper front foot of lot,find his probabletotal tax
street tax in full.
for the year in which he paid his special
See No. 3 on page 104 for Mr. H's generalproperty and.
street paving taxes.
taxes in your com3. Find examples oifspecial
munity.
privilege
2. If Mr.
on
page
"
106
COLLECTING
IV.
AND
DISTRIBUTING
Payments Made
Bought from
PUBLIC
for Direct
the
MONEY
Benefits
City
way
community may sell water, heat,light,
power, or railtransportation
just as any privatecompany
may.
1. A
certain large city in 1919 received 7^ per 1000
gallonsfor 104.3 million gallonsof water consimied daily.
the city'sincome
At this rate what was
from its water
plant in one year?
2. A manufacturing concern
uses
a
monthly average of
bought from the city
29,600 kilowatthours of electricity
At this rate how much
at a cost of 4jfper kilowatthour.
is paid by this concern
to the city in one
year?
certain municipal street railway carries on
3. A
an
average
98,400 adult
of 6 tickets for
passengers
each 24 hours.
At the rate
INCOME
Tax
V.
Some
collect
collected
the net
on
net
on
and
persons
married
must
net
on
the
income
above
incomes
annual
incomes
with
This
the
and
collects an
At
income
of immarried
case
$2000 in
incomes
net
case
over
income
above
of
$5000
additional rate.
followingtable shows
amoimts
over
regularrate, plus an
varies with
government*
tax is usually
certain amount.
$1000 in
over
rate
The
Such
government
Persons
persons.
pay
tax.
(1921)our
federal
our
income
an
107
Incomes
on
and
states,certain cities,
levy and
tax
TAX
This
$5000.
surtax.
rates
of net income
Rate
less $1000
or
excess
$2000
of $1000
or
$2000
$5000 to $6000
$6000 to $8000
$8000 to $10000
$10000
to $12000
$12000
to $14000
and
net
so
on,
income
increasing1%
to $100,000.
$100000
to $150000
$150000
to $200000
for each
to $500000
$500000
to
All in
*
excess
Note.
"
52%
56%
60%
63%
64%
65%
$1,000,000
of $1,000,000
^The sixteenth amendment
8%
4%
1%
2%
3%
4%
5%
additional
"
"
"
$200000 to $300000
$300000
of tax
to the Constitution
additional
of the United
"
"
"
"
"
States,
tax.
COLLECTING
108
How
I, For
DISTRIBUTING
Compute
to
PUBLIC
Individual
an
with
singleperson
Normal
AND
Income
net income
MONEY
Tax
of $7000.
tax.
$7000 $1000
nonnal
tax.
=$160)
4% of first $4000
8% of $2000 excess
*^=$160/^^"^^
$4000
over
Surtax.
$7000 $5000
From
$5000 to $6000:
From
$6000 to $8000
$320
normal
subject to
surtax.
=$10l
$1000 at 1%
II. For
head
net income
The
head
$1000 at 2%
tax +$30
whose
=$2000
surtax
^^^^"
singleperson
with
from
exempt
of
income
total
=$350
surtax
J
income
tax
of
is $7000.
family with
two
dependent children
of $9000.
of
net
$20
tax.
subjectto
normal
tax.
4% of first $4000
8% of $2600 excess
^^l^^Wrmal
tax
208/^^"^^^
^^"^
over
$4000
Surtax.
$9000 $5000
exempt
from
=$4000
surtax
subject to
From
$5000 to
$6000:
$1000 at 1%
=$10l
From
$6000 to
$8000
$2000 at 2%
=$20
From
$8000 to $10,000
$1000 at 3%
=$30
$368
normal
head
of
tax +$60
family with
two
"
[Surtax.
total income
tax
net
surtax
=$428
surtax.
of the
income
is $9000.
1. Find
income
the income
is $8500.
tax
of
singleperson
whose
net
110
COLLECTING
DISTRIBUTING
AND
Article
PUBLIC
Schedule
MONEY
Duty
Oats
Barley
Automobiles
Oatmeal
Beans
.....
and
Peanuts
Ootton
Value
G
G
G
I
stockings
...
over
value not
value not
value
Gloves
I
....
Beadymade clothing
Carpets
Silk clothing
Note.
"
IVee List
Potatoes.
.
The
different schedules
N.
Schedule
are
named
I contains cotton
over
704per doz.,30%
$1.20 per doz.,40%
over
Handkerchiefs
over
by
are
schedule.
placed in the same
A to
from
alphabet
manufactures
and
contains woolen
factures.
manu
Problems
1. Tell
which
of the
duties
listed
on
this page
are
PROBLEMS
of
DUTIES
HI
is benefited
4. Who
that
ABOUT
peanuts?
on
Who
shelled peanuts
is benefited
over
by this
increase?
6. Which
farmers
benefited
duty on barley?
Ohio farmer bought a team
of Belgian horses for
7. An
much
$300, plus an ad valorem duty of 15%. How
duty
did he pay?
8. A Chicago firm bought from a Canada
farmer 150 bu.
of barley;1800 lb. of oats; and 60 sacks of beans averaging
Find the total duty on this invoice.
65 lb. to the sack.
9. A St. Louis firm bought from a London
firm goods as
follows: 30 doz. not hemmed
handkerchiefs
cotton
@ 30ff
clothingat $4 each;
per doz.;2 doz. suits of boys' woolen
10 doz. machinemade
cotton
stockingsat $1.25 per doz.;
and 40 yards of Brussels carpet at 40jfper yard. Find the
total duty.
10. Write and solve five other good problems based on
the duties shown
the previous page.
What
the
on
are
requirements of a good problem?
are
by
CHAPTER
XII
AND
CONSTRUCTING
MEASURING
AND
ANGLES
Lines
Constructing
1. On
of unruled
sheet
the
What
can
you
straightUne
one
2. With
board.
the
in number
3.
as
unruled
an
attached
the
help of
point. What
What
do you
in number
what
units
6. What
7.
Any
are
3inch
*
Note.
of
line
on
that
only
your
board
black
the bottom
from
of
learned
you
compass
a
you
which
or
lead
about
line
this Une
(1)
points in problem
used
you
piece of cord
pencil, draw
say
joining two
call any
as
units may
1?
center?
you
constructed
by
portion of
Une.
straightlines?
measure
you
used
often
is meant
of that
a
points.
3?
6. With
What
can
the Une
place
sharp end
the
to
sheet
the
compared with
as
two
points.
of what
use
any
points.
Note
two
fourfoot
two
1?
On
around
make
you
center, with
through
every
Did
line drawn?
the
be drawn
can
any
yardstick draw
that
so
about
place
paper
With
say
LINES
measuring curved
in
lines?
arc?
90"
How
can
you
find
2inch
ment
seg
segment
of
Une?
"
^Hereafter
when
the
word
line
112
is
meant.
LINES
CONSTRUCTING
the
ends
two
below
the line.
two
centers,
as
con^
and
above
intersectingarcs
struct
into
113
equal segments, it is
said to be bisected (cut into two equal parts).
methods
of bisectinga Une.
9. Three
(1) Find the midpointby measuring with ruler,
(2) Fold the Une on itself,
making the two ends coincide.
(3) Using a radius greater than half of the line and
8. If
line is divided
ANGLES
AND
which
Then
constructed
line
cuts
segments,
12.
13.
If segment AB
that Une
construct
result
Using
inch line
parts.
or
in nimiber
with
12 is
or
compasses
by measuring with
^
of
radius.
^
requiredline,
Check
your
ruler.
Constructing Angles
1. Place
2. Join A
3. A
on
an
and
unruled
B;
is the vertex
and
sheet three
C.
Name
points.A, JB,and C.
the figure.
angle. Draw
and
the two
letter two
Unes
other
are
angles.
LINES
114
4. An
angle
of two
be
may
lines
which
AND
ANGLES
defined
meet
the
as
at
difference
in direction
point.
5. An
rightangles.
it.
10. Draw
an
angle less than a rightangle. Name
two lines begin at a common
11. When
point and move
said to fonn
in exactly opposite directions they are
a
is a straight
straightangle. Thus, BAC
CAB
^
^
tion
angle whose vertex is at il. The direcof AB
is toward the right. What
is the direction of
form
'
AC1
12. How
ifthe sides
anglein number
11
LEARNING
Draw
14.
than
angle largerthan
an
straightangle. Can
and
16. Acute
ANGLES
obtuse
you
name
angles
115
are
oblique
angles.
help of the book, draw and letter the
followingangles: acute, obtuse,right,straight.
17. Find ten rightanglesin your room.
draw
18. Can
an
angle larger than a straight
you
angle?
do we use obliqueangles?
19. Where
16. Without
the
io\
Fig. I
Fig. II
Fig. Ill
Fig. IV
Fig. V
20.
the
into halves.
22.
One
Draw
an
of about
23.
angle of about
10".
Figure VI shows
compass.
60".
Name
them.
pointsof the
How
many
and
Northwest
southeast?
and southwest?
Fig. VI
LINES
116
1. If
measiire
what instruments
straightlines,
use?
we
may
wish to
we
ANGLES
AND
2. If
wish
we
use
to
measure
instrument
an
angles we
construct
or
called
See
protractor.
monly
com
the
3. To
there
are
measure
angle is
to
find how
degrees
many
How
Trace
an
/C
to
the
Use
angle on
Protractor
when
thin paper.
it is
sides.
Stationary
of the
in the figure,Z
BOC
contains
and
60"*,
obtuse
AOC
tains
con
angle with
the protractor in the figure? If D and 0 in the figurebe
joined with a fine,find the size of angle made with OB;
with OC; with OA.
120".
How
can
you
measure
an
LINES
118
ANGLES
AND
draw
(4) Why
to each
line
before.
as
are
five
Problems
1. Estimate
or
have constructed
parallel
other?
(5) Draw
AB
you
which
and
HKy
Lines
is the
and
Angles
longer line,
longer it is.
much
how
Then
"B
A"
about
suggested.
the
compare
ii"
marks
on
edge of
straight
2. Estimate
much
of compasses
means
which
longer. Then
or
paper.
is the
longer,AB
or
CD, and
how
them.
measiu'e
it?
Find
construct
is
their dimensions
a
similar
and
design on
scale of 2.
4. A
40inch
spokes.
(1) Draw
(2) How
wheel
has
4inch
hub.
It also has
16
CHAPTER
Constructing
Draw
with
one
by straight lines is
polygon with
Surfaces
Measuring
and
bounded
flat surface
XIII
with
sides, one
three
polygon*
four
sides,
five sides.
Triangles
triangleis
1. A
The
2.
sides.
two
altitude
base
to the
is the
is the
to the base
or
3.
Triangles named
equal sides.
Scalene
book,
See
at
room,
how
which
Read
a
the
home,
the
triangle
the
this
any
vertex
paragraph
^triangleshowing
Obtuse
or
triangles have
correct
on
your
acute.
no
called
lateral,
equi
to
their
angle
triangles.
119
so
this
book, draw
each
can
graph
para
these
figure.
find in yoiu*
school.
largest angle
equal sides.
Read
triangles you
triangleshave
triangles have
the
two
under
name
way
from
are
Equilateral triangleshave
then, without
of these
or
sides
equal sides.
no
Triangles named
90".
Acute
Isosceles
many
right, obtuse,
of
draw
their
scalene.
and
more,
triangles. Write
6.
on
from
perpendiculsir
from
triangles have
once
4.
sides.
parts.
isosceles,and
three
side
prolonged.
three
base
The
The
rests.
of
vertex
polygon with
are
one
large as
90".
Draw
called
angle
90".
these
CONSTRUCTING
120
SURFACES
MEASURING
AND
6. The
of
sum
the angles of
angle
tri
is 180",
or
righiangles.
two
Prove
this
Zi
by
and
ting
cut
Z2,
and
about
A, B, C
1.
A=90^B=40^
=90"*,A and C
2. B
this?
Draw
3. A
the
anglesof
FmdC.
are
Angles
a
of
Triangles
triangle.
What
kmd
equal. What
of
triangleis it?
kind of
triangleis
it.
=100"*,5=40*".
4. A =60"*.
draw
are
the
Find
Find B and
C, and
C if they
name
are
the
triangle.
equal. Name
and
the triangle.
the triangle.
C, and name
6. Try to draw a trianglewith two obtuse angles.
with two rightangles.
7. Try to draw a triangle
two acute angles.
and name
8. Draw
a trianglewith
has two names.
See if you
9. Remember
every triangle
to each of the triangles
can
givetwo names
you have drawn.
10. Draw
a
trianglewhose altitude falls on the base
whose altitude falls on the end of
within the triangle,
one
whose altitude falls without the triangleon
the base, one
each of these triangles.
the base prolonged. Name
5. A
=40^
B =60^
Find
QUADRILATERALS
polygon with
1. A
2. There
four
sides is called
three classes of
are
121
quadrilateraL
quadrilaterals.
(1) Those
with
(2) Those
with
one
with
no
sides
pair of parallel
called parallelograms
are
called trapezoids.
Draw
rhomboid.
rhomboid
9. A
sides
equal sides
with
is
rhombus.
Draw
rhombus.
10.
Any side
11.
The
vertex
prolonged,as
base
which
the
to the base
AB,
or
or
the
/nj\
CD, in the
figure, AECF.
vertex
to
diagonal is the line drawn from one
not adjacent.
another one
13. Show
base, altitude,and diagonal in the rhomboid
12.
have
you
14.
sides.
drawn.
with
trapezoidis a quadrilateral
one
pair of parallel
CONSTRUCTING
122
SURFACES
MEASURING
AND
15. The
16.
Do
it.
Can
17.
draw
you
trapezoidwith the
nonparallel
two
sides
equal? Do it.
with no sides parallel.
18. A trapezium is a quadrilateral
Draw
a
trapezium.
books
the three quadrilaterals?With
19. What
are
under each.
closed,draw them and write the correct name
Rectangles
Measuring
1. A
in. wide
contains
See
inches?
square
how
rectanglefour times
the
4x8
2. Draw
and
find its
wide.
How
Hint.
"
many
4. A
figure. Hence
we
may
say:
many
acres
you
do
"
Area
scale
convenient
this
one
20
rd.
in it?
acres
many
in it?
5. How
4x
area.
square
squares
and
wide
in.
of the border.
'Can
sq.
as
length contains
same
figure.
3. A
How
See
inches?
square
many
are
the board
a
street
without
contains
12 in.
measures
squares
in
1 rd. wide
on
to
scale.
long and
pencil?)
acre.
the inside
1^
1 mi.
many
4 rd. wide?
PROBLEMS
PROJECT
6. An
part of an acre
solve,expressingyour
in. square
part remains?
7. Cut
What
8. How
1
in
acres
many
of
out
Make
in
answer
123
ft.
200
measures
is it?
What
RECTANGLES
ABOUT
by
150
estimate.
an
ft.
Then
one
of
comer
square
field whose
square
inch.
perimeter is
mi.?
study
Always
pencil before
without
9. Find
10
cents
to
it it
see
trying written
per
be
solved
in your
schoolroom
at
foot.
square
many
cannot
work.
How
10.
problem
your
feet of
square
lightingsurface
in your
schoolroom?
much
11.
How
12.
Estimate
average
your
13.
16. Find
worth
40
16.
per
garden,make
part of
what
the value
cents
what
an
acre
of the land
square
part of
map
an
acre,
places.
of it,df awn
it contains.
in this
garden, if it is
foot.
able
priceper square foot in problem 15 a reasonfor your locality? If not, find such a price.
rectangletwice as long as wide contains 128 sq.
in.
What
can
be
is the
cut?
What
least number
is the
area
What
are
length of each?
the figure.
rectangle? Draw
The
schoolroom?
Is the
one
17.
your
to 3 decimal
answer
your
or
acres,
many
school has
Find
scale.
to
how
Carry
If your
pupilin
Determine
it contains.
14.
of squares
of each
the
into which
it
of these
squares?
dimensions
of the
CONSTRUCTING
124
SURFACES
MEASURING
AND
Measuring
Triangles
Fig. II
Thus
area
in the
trianglewhose
is 12 sq. ft.Xj.
Draw
the
figureto show
whose
1. Base
is 18
2. Base
is 3
3. Base
is 10 feet,altitude is 4 ft.
4. Base
is 6 ft.,one
base and
find its
ft.,the
inches,altitude is 6 in.
yards, altitude is 2 yd.
side is 4 ft.
this side is 90
area.
altitude is 8
this.
degrees.
The
Draw
angle made
by the
the triangleand
CONSTRUCTING
126
8. Draw
rhombus
AND
MEASURING
and
its two
SURFACES
agonals
diagonals. These dirightangles. What does this
mean?
rhombus
of your
and
rhombus.
10. From
rhombus
whose
number
when
you
make
know
Measuring
its
area
of the
diagonals.
the
Trapezoid
is a quadrilatera
trapezoid
with one
pair of
sides,called upper
parallel
1. A
and
lower bases.
Draw
trapezoidshowing the
two
bases.
2. The
altitude of
between
the two
tance
trapezoidis the perpendiculardisbases. Draw
a trapezoidshowing
the altitude.
3. An
isosceles
TRAPEZOIDS
AND
TRIANGLES
127
these
Study
shortest
1. A
and
solve
to
way
the
Hint.
How
Find
sides of
parallel
two
area
its
a
80
many
3. This
is
scale with
none
to
find
the
in.,
84
in square feet.
field having the form of
rd.
area
The
width
is 40 rd"
acres.
"
figures
them.
altitude of 40 in.
an
trapezoidare
Find
their
and
sides
trapezoidhas parallel
2. The
a
problems
field drawn
1 rd. wide
contains
acre.
to
of itssides equal
parallel.It is divided
into the rectangleEBFD, the
angle
triangleEAB, and the triand
Find
BCF.
the field in
4. Draw
the
area
of
acres.
a
figuresimilar
to
the above
in which
CD
is
Trapezium
the
Measuring
is a trapezium
Figure ABCD
and
whose diagonalis AC
1.
whose
altitudes drawn
other
vertices to
DI
are
2.
the
SURFACES
MEASURING
AND
CONSTRUCTING
128
trapezium into
two
and
this
from
the
diagonal
BH.
serve,
Study the figure and obvides
(1) that the diagonal ditriangleswith a common
base ACy
is divided into two right
(2) that each of these triangles
triangles
by the altitudes drawn from the vertices D and B.
that the trapezium is equal to a rectangle
3. Discover
whose length is the diagonalof the trapezium and whose
width
is onehalf the
4. Make
of the two
sum
rule for
findingthe
The
1. A
circle is
3.
area
of
trapezium.
Circle
meter
point of whose perifrom the center.
is equidistant
boimdary line
The bounding Une is called the circumference.
The line passing through the center terminated
or
2.
altitudes.
the circumference
4. The
radius
by
is the distance
from
the center
to
any
THE
7. Draw
8. A
large arc,
portion of
is a sector.
arc
becomes
each
to
a
a
small arc,
long chord.
semicircle.
short chord, a
circle bounded
When
other, the
9. Draw
129
CIRCLE
is called
sector
circle showing
quadrant.
a quadrant,a
semicircle,
sector
smaller than
90",and the
contains
11.
Draw
about
sector
whose
semicircle contains
is 45*",one
arc
whose
of the
Ratio
1. Measure
diameter
as
Circumference
accuratelyas
the
to
places in each
case.
Place
in the form
you
can
the work
2. Place
are
is
the circmnference
Find
to the diameter
the
Compute
to 4 decimal
of the
average
"
the average
Measm^
available.
to 8ths
found
or
Express
16ths of
your
ratios.
here shown.
Average
rulers
arc
Diameter
Note.
180"*.
30^
The
and
of
arc
inch,or
to
results in decimals.
millimeters
if metric
130
CONSTRUCTING
of the
class
on
SURFACES
MEASURING
AND
the board
and
determme
the
average
for
this group.
If the work
C=2x72, (4)
72=^,
(5) 2)=^,
(6) 72=^.
4. Tell how
to
Area
of the
and
that
By drawing
placing them
the
Circle
1^
Fig. I
1.
equationsabove.
each of the
use
sectors
as
as
shown
circle is converted
Fig. II
shown
in
follows: the
mle
from
CxR
area
of the circle
which
"
This
be made.
is the
basic
THE
the sake
2. For
rule in terms
of
131
it is better to express
of the circle,
D.
as 72 or
element
one
CIRCLE
THE
of economy
(1) C=2Rt.
Substitutingthis value
basic rule,
x/2*.
OF
AREA
have,
you
Area
for C
the
in
the
of the circle
(Read wR square.)
(2) C=tD.
fi="
basic rule,you
"
have. Area of
the circle=irZ)X
^2=
"
"
8. Three
area
be written
follows:
as
(1) Area
(2) Area
tR^
xthe unit of
measure.
(3) Area
xthe unit of
measure.
xthe unit of
ir,
measure.
4. All
formula
numbers
for the
Problem.
6. Find
"
the
12
J2
1 rd.
terms
of
6
=
In most
x, as
6. Measure
in
of each.
14
(3) C=20
in. (7) D
cases
(1)area
the
abstract.
are
radius is 5 ft.
sq. ft.
followingcircles. (1) R
ft.
16
(4) Z)=2
ft. (8) 2)
it is best to express
=
The
thus.
circle whose
in.
the
rd.
8 in.
answer
(5)
(9)
in
diameter
of
area
of each of the
area
=
formula
^Area =ir5 x5 xl
(2) 2)
yd. (6)C
ft.
10
in
area
^Find the
"
Solution.
used
or
of the base
your
of three
circular
the
CONSTRUCTING
132
The
AND
of tD^
Meaning
1. In the
SURFACES
MEASURING
f4 in Terms
of the
Square
is equal
figure,
D, the diameter of the circle,
the side of the circumscribed
2. The
square,
of this square
area
to
ABHK.
is D\
irD\
The
3. Then
K
of the circleis
area
ABKHis
2)2
^U'
"
=5^x4r==.7854.
X
That
is,the
than
f)
work
shows
of the
numerical
The
of
area
that
area
of any
area
of tR^
1. In
in
The
circle is
Terms
is
of the
of the
is tR^ ^R^
NMOE
square.
more
This
findingthe
Square
square
is
NMOE
of the circle.
is R\
circle is tRK
3. The
Fig. I
(a Uttle
of this square
area
area
square.
the radius R
2. The
of any
diameter
figureI, the
on
p^
its circumscribed
of the circumscribed
erected
"
circle is .7854
squaring the
Meaning
times the
area
That
t.
of the square
is,the
area
erected
on
is the inscribed
the square
arc
ABH?
many
Why?
grees
de
See
figureII.
to
FINDING
134
THE
OF
AREA
1. A
sector
bounded
by
2. Read
SECTOR
THE
is
two
portion of
radii and
an
circle
arc.
four sectors in
3. Which
two
4. What
is the
figureI.
nearlyequal?
are
of
sum
the
five
sectors?
6. What
sector
4?
6. What
is the
for
name
sector
the
of sector
area
8. Can
of this size?
figureI is
ft.,what
is
4?
9.
you
find the
the
linear
Compare
for findingthe
10.
11. The
the
your
the radius
are
known
in
units,such
statement
as
feet
or
inches.
developed
of the circle.
area
radius of
sector
is 8 ft. Its
arc
is 14 ft. Find
area.
12. Do
you
the sector
13. If
in
a
sector
with
would
you
14. What
a
and
arc
Fig. Ill
Fig. II
know
problem 11?
classmate
a
say
to
he
you
an
arc
can
draw
of 22 ft.,what
say?
is the
radius of 8 in.?
largestpossiblesector
you
can
draw
with
CONSTRUCTING
Areas
of Sectors
AND
Given
the Radius
Size
the
or
MEASURING
of the
SURFACES
the Arc in
and
Central
135
Degrees
Angle
1. The
How
2.
area?
know
3. If you
sector, can
you
How?
Why?
4. If the
of
arc
such
many
the 12 of
sectors
with
sector
can
place in
you
circle whose
radius
is 2 ft.?
6. How
6. The
the
do you
of
arc
Draw
find the
sector
of the sector
area
with
in
problem 4?
Find
the
tomorrow.
is called a
Angle 2 of sector AOC
central angle. It is said to measure
the
length of its arc in degrees. Thus, if
8.
drawn
10.
about
How
such
many
the center
arc
angles
is 60".
can
be
0?
arcs, such
many
ABC
ABC,
as
can
circumference?
11.
If you
radius,can
know
you
the
find the
central
area
angle
of
of the sector?
sector
How?
and
its
THE
136
1.
Figure II
placingthe
2. What
and
THE
the
cone
with paper
and
flat position.
(figure
II)
the sector
convex
3. The
in
paper
CONE
figureI by coveringthe
from
of the
siurface (curvedsiurface)
convex
then
obtained
was
OF
SURFACE
CONVEX
slant
heightof the
cone
is the
same
as
the
of the sector.
Fig. I
4. The
Fig. II
circumference
of the
is the
cone
as
same
the
of the sector.
6.
Knowing the
and
arc
radius of
do you
sector,how
slant
is 20 ft. Find
8. Make
inches.
do you
how
find the
height of
the
paper
convex
cone
convex
siurface of
cone?
its circxunference
is 10 ft.,
surface.
funnel
and
find
its
area
in
square
XIV
CHAPTER
COMPUTING
AND
CONTENTS
THE
SOLIDS
OF
Prisms
Rectangular
rectangular prism is
1. A
SURFACES
solid
which
has
rectangle? Point
objects in
out
length,
What
schoolroom
your
is
senting
repre
rectangular soUds.
2. The
box 4 in.
and
4 in.
in
The
4.
the
How
5 in. X4
6. A
is the
solid
the
volume
number
of
of
its
such
=24
of
3 feet thick.
ft.
cu.
(Why?)
(Wliy?)X3
cubic
many
inches
=72
there
are
cu.
in
ft.
a
block
8 in. X
m.?
soUd
volimae.
6. How
The
volume
wide, and
volume
rectangular
thickness.
the
Find
4 feet
in its volume
high, multiplied by
unit
one
units
inches
of
volume
The
base,
removed.
contents?
or
3.
cubic
front
the
been
top have
many
resents
rep
high, of which
sides and
How
this page
figure on
bottom
is 8
Do
you
many
and
inches X 2
inches X 4
know
faces
any
are
top faces
such
there
are
its
solids?
in the
soUd
Find
inches.
in
problem 5?
base
and
the
138
COMPUTING
lower base.
CONTENTS
Find
the
SURFACES
AND
of these bases.
area
Entire
Surface
of
Bases
Plus
Solid
the
Lateral
The
Find
8. How
many
9. How
10. A
siirface
of the
problem
in your
5.
schoolroom?
when
the
Surface
7. Find
other faces
Surface
the
Equals
SOLIDS
OF
many
if there
full,
are
onehalf full.
34^ cubic
feet in
are
there in
ton?
How
bin,
many
tons
your
is 3
many
inches,how much
water falls on a boy's thrift garden, 100 feet by 40 feet?
14. In Columbus, O., the snow
6 inches
is sometimes
cubic feet does a boy shovel
deep on the level. How many
if he clears a walk 100 feet long and 4 feet wide?
16. The inside dimensions of a certain Pennsylvaniasteel
freightcar are 40 ft. 1 in. x8 ft. 10 in. wide X 9 ft. 1 in,
high. Find the capacityto the nearest cubic foot.
bushels of wheat may
be placed in the
16. How
many
in problem 15 if it is filledto a depth of 5 feet?
car
ing
17. Find and solve other problems,not in books,involvvolumes and siurfaces of rectangular
solids.
a
month
find how
CYLINDER
THE
Finding
Volume
the
139
of
Cylinders
cylinderis a
1. A
solid with
equalparallel
circlesfor bases
and
with
uniform
diameter.
2. Name
which
objects
be
may
sidered
con
for
cylinders
practical purposes.
all
3. How
are
Name
Fig.II
I and
figures
each figure.
II alike?
How
are
ent?
they differ
The
base
in
unit
one
the
radius is 2
Volume
3f
cylinder is equal
high multipliedby
the volume
the
to the
number
volume
of the
of such
of
tomato
cylindrical
inches and whose heightis 4 inches.
=(irx2X2
=47r
Explainthe
of
units
height.
7. Find
"
of
volume
cu.
cu.
can
whose
m.)X4i
in. X9/2=187r
above
work.
cu.
Estimate
in.
the value of 18
by givingt
value
COMPUTING
140
8. How
tumbler
CONTENTS
AND
cubic
inches
many
3 in.
across
of water
3^
in.
cylindrical
sugar box is 8 inches
deep. Find its capacity.
9. A
10. A
4
in. in diameter.
How
syrup
much
OF
SURFACES
in
SOLIDS
deep, if it is full?
and 5 inches
across
cans
does the
cylindrical
is
can
5^
in.
deep by
lack of holding
onehalf
gallon?
fish bowl is 15 in. across
11. A cylindrical
the top and
18 in. deep. How
gallonsof water in it when it is
many
fuU?
12. Measure
the volume
cyUndricalobjectsat home
and
compute
of each.
Finding
Why do
cyUnders?
1.
we
the
Surface
need to know
of
how
Cylinders
to find the surface of
OS.
CONTENTS
COMPUTING
142
SOLIDS
OF
SURFACES
AND
Lumber
Measuring
boards,planks,etc.,is measured
in board feet. Other lumber, such as lath,plasterlath,and
shingles,is measured either in linear feet or by the 100
pieces.
lumber, such
Some
as
^icic
board
12 In.
width
Boards
See
than
less
one
inch
of
piece
lumber
wide,
is
foot
1 inch
and
or
less thick.
figure.
thick
considered
are
an
inch
board
thick,a board
16
has
board
how
many
2. How
9 in.
wide, and
thick?
If it
board
foot
3. How
in.
1 in. thick
feet
there in
are
How
inch thick?
many
board
if it
this page.
much
lumber is there in
plank
in. thick?
12 ft.
1. Amount
"
2. Amount
many
6. Find
at $90 per
in.
a
board
of lumber
of liunber =20
feet in
long, 8
X.
12
6. How
were
4. How
16 ft. long,
on
wide, and 2^
Solution.
1 in.
feet?
1 in. thick?
were
wide, and
board
many
in.
bd. ft.
stick of timber
14 ft. long,
4 in. thick?
board
many
M.
(thousand).
CHAPTER
REVIEWING
THE
XIII
YEARNS
WORK
PROBLEM
1.
sold
In
for
2.
of
discount?
When
evening
is the
$45.00, what
Find
columns
6.
sold
sold
them
the
on
7.
the
more,
What
price. Find
the
What
from
the
was
each
$65.00
above
in
at $400
Ust.
the
to
advertising
them.
off the
of
rate
at
What
cost.
bought shoes
of the
article
16%
9.
10%
gain
list
was
price
the
on
and
10%
are
cost.
off and
5%
rate
my
of
gain
what
on
costing $3.50
cost?
is
so
marked
that
Find
the
sells
would
list
an
after
ducting
de
profitof 20%
price.
gaining 20%
penses
ex
he sell them
price must
If he had
the
gross
pair. If his
$6 per
from
merchant
cost.
at
20%
12^%
An
of the
and
merchant
clear
8.
20%
at
regularly sold
sellingprice?
are
to
reduced
solve
15%
at
yard.
problems
newspaper
bought
list
table
of reduction?
cloth, which
and
of your
Goods
extension
of reduction?
cent
per
are
wraps
discount
other
at the
6.
the
was
oak
$52
$1.50
4.
sale
at
3.
What
$35.
In
SOLVING
January clearance
THROUGH
been
sellingprice?
the
gain
per
on
cent
on
the
cost?
REVIEWING
144
10. A
his
Determine
WORK
bought
sold it at
and
ton
per
coal dealer
YEAR'S
THE
profitif
200
it cost him
$1.00 per
ton
to
de
Uver it.
11. When
based
rate
on
of
the cost.
13. The
Yards
224
at
premium
lb.
Fmd
the commission
If%.
16. The
was
100
George Jones
of its value
insured at 60%
at
on
an
insurance
policyif the
owns
1%,
and
policywas
was
2%?
worth
$3000
rate
house
$20.
household
insured
goods worth
Find
What
at
$1000
insurance.
17.
B's
Mr.
personalproperty is assessed
at
$6500.
Find
his tax
when
at
$2450, and
the rate
was
$2.35.
18.
In
certain month
Mr.
Johns
wrote
PROBLEMS
REVIEW
146
If he received 40%
premiums, what
of the total
his commission?
was
19. A
His
acre.
per
in Texas
man
insurance
taxes
is $40
bushels of
on
In 1919
year.
$1.60
of land worth
acres
12 mills
are
worth
com
160
owns
$100
His
valuation.
his tenants
raised 1500
bushel,600 bushels of
oats
worth
received
of the
and
com
and
oats
for him?
earn
The
growing
and
one
on
acre.
In
cotton
to
valuation.
1918
cotton
cotton
seed
2%
produce ^ bale
the profit
on
one
worth
was
ton.
30fta lb.,
of fiber cotton.
On
this
of 1918 cotton?
acre
basis,what was
I kept it three years.
21. I bought a house for $3600.
Each
a
f valuation. The
year I paid 2"% for taxes on
insurance
was
1^%
house, and
2 months'
on
my
rent, what
investment
was
was
my
this?
net
annual
income?
If I
years
What
REVIEWING
146
THE
YEAR'S
Solving Problems
WORK
by Telling
would
How
solve the
problem;
then write in a sentence the answer
to the question.
do you find the net price,
when the listpriceand
1. How
the rate of discount are given?
do you find the list pricewhen you know
2. How
the
net priceand the rate of discount?
3. How
rate of discount which is
can
you find the single
the equivalentof two successive rates of discounts?
do you find the % of gain on the selling
4. How
price
when you know the cost and the gain?
6. Find the cost when the selling
priceand the % of gain
the cost are given.
on
the agent'scost price and the rate of com6. Given
mission,
you
the %
know
the owner's
commission,how
priceof the goods?
of
to his
remittance
can
you
find the
agent and
agent'scost
know
property, how
9. Given
how
do you
10. If you
service and
do you
policy,
premiimi?
the number
the number
of men
how
rejected,
examined
can
you
for miUtary
find the %
passed?
11. Given
the number
death
the
populationof
cityin
SOLVING
of another
death
100,000 how
per
can
you
HOW
147
one
cities?
reduce
do you
13. How
TELLING
BY
know
If you
12.
PROBLEMS
lent
equiva
fraction to the
common
%?
If you know the amount
an
agent receives for
his rate of commission,the amount
of storage, and
14.
charges,how
to
can
you
of the
goods,
other
tance
agent'sremit
the owner?
imported, the
duty on each,the rate of ad valorem duty,and the
specific
of the invoice,
cost?
how can you find the importer's
amount
the populationof your state in 1910 and
16. If you know
know
If you
16.
do you
17.
find the
the number
must
you
find the %
and
know
school
average
of articles
of increase?
what
attendance
must
do
you
to
class for
of your
month?
18.
you
What
do to find how
tank
19.
it is
when
If you
know
yoii know
would
measurements
you
gallonsthere
many
in
are
would
rectangular
full?
the number
employed by
day each worked, what
of
men
of hours per
do to find the amount
firm
must
roll
If you
know
the
purchase priceof
house
and
lot,
owner
cost of his
may
property?
make
given %
of interest
on
the
REVIEWING
148
Surfaces
Reviewing
Write
Remember
than
in
answer
your
that
YEAR'S
THE
WORK
Solids
and
good English.
of these questionsmay
some
have
more
answer.
one
Construct
the
you
to
answer
the
question.
What
I find and
can
how
I find it if I know:
can
1. The
length of
cube?
2. The
radius of
circle?
3. The
side of
4. The
base
square?
rightisosceles triangle?
6. The
circimiference of
6. The
area
of
of
face of
one
diameter
7. The
circle?
of
the
cube?
base
and
the
altitude
of
cylinder?
base and
8. The
9. The
10. The
11. The
12. The
13. The
14. One
16. The
16. The
drawn
altitude of
righttriangle?
base and altitude of a rectangle?
radius of a sector and its central angle?
dimensions of a rectangularsolid?
radius and length of a cylinder?
two
angles of a triangle?
of the acute anglesof a righttriangle
to be 45*"?
bases and altitude of a trapezoid?
diagonalof a trapezium and the two altitudes
it?
to
17. The
dimensions
18. The
radius of
19. The
diameter
of
80. A
circle and
of
sector
a
rectangularcoal bin?
and
its
arc
in feet
circle?
its circumscribed
square?
or
inches?
An
YEAR'S
THE
REVIEWING
150
Exercise
in
WORK
Estimating
Results
knowledge of arithmetic
in checkingyour answer
to a given question.This exercise
illustratesthis type of problem solving.
Often
in life you
can
use
your
work.
for your
No.
the
Read
the
Then
check
as
your
of these
the niunbers
between
problem carefully.When
you
have
decided
of the problem
of 3 for
can
10i^,
paper.
bought for
is the
way
to
check
on
your
your
answer.
Check.
"
buy
you
10 for 40j5?
as
many
is Fes; therefore write Yes opposite No.
The right answer
This
on
or
by solvingthe problem.
answer
1. If oranges
to these
answer
answer
paper.
The
numbers
the
^The
on
your
number
40c=j^X3=12.
2. I went
to the store
$3.50 worth
with
20
pounds of
sugar
at
This
THE
RICE
is the Rice
Test
children.
The
Try
a
map
salt.
10 inches wide
and
grade
which
evaporate in order
area
obtained from
was
weight of salt
long is made
16 inches
inch^what is the
represents?
What
7th
974
39.4%.
mine
to
rightin 30 minutes.
1902
151
(rightanswers)for the
average achievement
81.1%; for the poorest class it was 18%; the
to solve 6
1. If
on
given in
average
TEST
PROBLEM
the bottom
water
to obtain 3896
in square
was
poimds
it necessary
of salt?
to
3. A
farmer's wife
No
deduction to be made
for waste.
THE
REVIEWING
152
Reavis
The
Problem
YEAR'S
Test
WORK
Figuring
without
the surface.
on
given number
certain number
going a
of miles,
and the remainder
would you
How
the surface?
on
2. A grocer received
billgivingthe number
of poimds shipped
If you were
order of sugar.
given this bill,
how would you find the cost of the sugar per pound?
the weight of dough requiredto make a single
8. If you know
the cost of
and
an
must
would
prepare
4. A
If you
6.
the cost of my
piu'chaseat a store and the
when
I left the store,how would you find the
know
amount
I had
amount
of money
If you know
I had when
I went
to the store?
7. A
paid a
bought
man
certain amount
8. If you
from
go
how
9.
each
At
the nmnber
cityto another
you
and
lot for
gave
would
you
the children?
serve
and
certain
of the mortgage?
of hours requiredby
the
price.
He
rest.
train to
knew
cream
would
and
in cash and
of ice
how
know
one
would
house
would you
How
the number
the cities?
a
the nmnber
the number
treat of ice
of children
cream
a
to
gallon
of children present,
PART
II"
TESTS
SHORT
THE
FUNDAMENTALS
IN
allotted
if you
exercise.
time,
more
are
It is
than
the
be
in
able
in
exercise
pupil
that
in
in
the
the
checking
than
accurate
to
do
time
particular
less than
remainder
to be
important
more
each
exercise
an
spend
should
in
should
you
standard
finish
If you
you
work.
grade
right indicated
number
FOR
ACCURACY*
AND
finishingthe 8th
Before
YEAR
CHAPTER
SPEED
the
EIGHTH
to
given
your
attempt
standard.
the
Addition
All
"
right in
one
minute.
239468464329772
1.
485260395279675
laid
Note.
below
time
"
In
the
most
cases
examples.
should
be
the
Where
can
answers
examples
be
need
written
to
on
be
paper
tional
transferred, addi
allowed.
153
slip of
Digitized by
TESTS
154
FOR
SPEED
ACCURACY
AND
II
Subtraction
1.
^All right in
"
one
minute.
two
minutes.
145632734549769
114111222145562
III
Subtraction"
1.
18
10
16
12
17
All
15
right in
12
15
13
14
16
10
11
999988765877641
IV
Multiplication^AU right in
"
1.
349054327496547
278261696059280
one
minute.
10
10
IN
THE
FOUR
FUNDAMENTALS
155
V
Division
^All rightin
"
X.
3J9
2.
5)16 4)"247)"63"
6)"0 8)32 l}8
3.
4.
258
5.757
minute.
one
7)28 9j9
3527"8564 l52
656
3)21 6)^
ijl
550
752! 454
VI
Addition
"
right in
minute.
one
VIII
MultiplicationAll right in
"
2534
5
3075
2
7689
5
6879
9
minute.
one
3245
6
2354
4
3524
7
TESTS
156
SPEED
FOR
AND
ACCUEACY
IX
Division
right in
"
6)21279
4)38968
one
minute.
5)71289
8)66720
7)39872
X
Addition
right in 3 minutes.
"
XII
Long Division
32)793664
"
right in
46)284602
3 minutes.
97)102626
88)671792
XIII
Addition
I
S
i
t
i
TS
f
T^
"
10
right in
f J
'S
T^
3 minutes.
^
T^
^
TT
TW
T^
"^
I
4
FOR
TESTS
158
SPEED
ACCURACY
AND
XVI
XVII
facts
examples contain all the multiplication
These
"
All
53429
60871
951
273
278
39245
87160
71608
916
845
436
XVIII
Division
11
"
28)8204
65)45825
58)51736
94)38634
47)39997
36)23076
74)48100
25)12075
93)69006
76)29184
49)34986
52)14196
34)31960
85)28685
56)45304
XIX
Subtraction
2^
m
3i
"^8
100
100
51
jf
12U
50
62%
25
^AU
n
6i
m
If
66f
18f
"
Qh
2i
200
200
1374
187i
ih
12
"
50
33i%
87^%
16f%
24
15t
75
37i%
16%
6i%
12i
2
Tit
i
IN
ALL
FUNDAMENTALS
THE
159
XX
Use
of
18.
5.
(8x4) +(3x5)?
6+(8x5)=?
(6^2)+(3 XlO) ?
(1586)
+(2157)=?
(2416)
(34 +17) .?
6.
25x2h10=?
16.
7.
18+6x5=?
17.
1.
2.
8.
4.
8. 27 +3
9.
10.
x4 5 =?
(18 +6)=?
?
(3X4) +(8 X5) (12 !6)
(5 X6) (2 +4) +(7 X2) ?
(6xj) +(8 14x7)=?
=?
(6 X2) (8 s8)
(7 x8 s4)
3x52+7?
(18+6) +(7 x4) (24 ^8 x4) =?
(8+4) X (1612)=.?
(73)x(8+2)(6s2)?
(1412)
+(4 3) +(6 x8) ?
11. 36
12.
14.
16.
18.
2510+5=?
19.
18+(4^2)?
20.
XXI
There
is
an
way
easy
certain numbers.
to add
the
followingby grouping
add.
XXII
These
division
facts if the
rightanswers
All
are
rightin
obtained.
ten
minutes.
71608)60508760
87160)79838560
39245)17110820
45239)12576442
53429)50810979
60871)16617783
TESTS
160
SPEED
FOR
AND
ACCURACY
XXIII
A
Read
across
the page,
100
Fraction
write
Test
answers
only.
rightin thirtyminutes.
4.
ii
ii
fi
li
li
6.
ix3
ix4
ix6
ix6
ix4
6.
tx4
1X4
f X4
X4
f X5
8.
H^
Hi
H^
f^f
l^l
9.
H2
H2
i4
fs3
1^5
10.
f+^
11.
HI
T^+f
ix4
1^X5
^59
fxi
^^3
i+i
Hi
COMMON
IN
FRACTIONS
161
d
12.
2ix4
15f+5
f+2i
1^1
f XA
13.
3143
8^s4
10^5
12f h4
18i6
f^6
i^4
li8
fi9
2li
3j+2i
ixA
T^irI
14.^57
16.
fT^
16.
i+i
i+i
T^+"
i+f
l+J
17.
fi
fi
ff
ff
ii
18.
ix3
f X6
^X9
f X5
^X3
19.
ixf
f X
xf
f xi
IXt^
20.
h^
h+l
hH
f+f
h+^
21.
l+i
lf
8Xt^
f X3
5121
22.
2^X8
1+^
^H
f4
7511
83.
6li
fH
f+l
2H2
2x5f
TESTS
162
FOR
SPEED
AND
ACCURACY
XXIV
Write
with
on
another
the decimal
sheet
each
of the
followingquotients
All
IN
DECIMAI5
AND
PEECENTAGE
163
TESTS
164
FOR
SPEED
ACCURACY
AND
XXVII
Name
the
.The
correct
of
6%
or
50,
^ of
10 is f of
50 is f of
24 is 1^of
J is ^ of
27 is I of
f is f of
18 is I of
.8 is 1^of
1. 3 is
2.
3.
4.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10. 25 is 20%
11.
12.
missing numbers.
14 is
2x1^"
or
I of
or
_,
_,
.1 of
or
If X__,
of
6%
or
_,
or
or
6, or J of 12,
of
2^X_,
or
or
20%
f of
33^%
or
or
_,
3x_,
or
_,
or
_,
1.
3^X_,
or
of
or
_,
or
_,
of
10%
or
of
50%
or
of
of
12%

or
_,
2f 3, 6i 4,
and
of
_,
or
_,
25%
or
3.
4.
5.
60ff,48^, 55f^,60ff,50jf
48.3 yd., 52.8 yd., 50.7 yd.
2^X__,
or
88%
10 yr. 2
8. 5 ft. 4
9.
10.
of
_
21
9 yr. 3 mo.,
16%
or 2ix_
f
of
_.
2.
6 mo.,
.6 of
of
of
_,
1^X_
4x_
or
_,
the median.
95%,
of
or
or
_,
4%
of
2f X_
_
2lx_,
or
_,
or
25%
or
__,
the average
7. 8 yr.
of
or
_,
6.
of
50%
or
100%
_,
2x_,
or
_,
of
or
of
3x
or
of
40%
or
_,
XXVIII
Find
2x_
or
_,
5x_,
or
of
75%
or
,
of
1 is "3 is
_,
is .9X_,
90
for No.
answer
mo.
CHAPTER
AND
SQUARES
1. The
of
square
product obtained
is the
be indicated
product may
ber
right and above the num
The
3X3a9.
2. The
factors
of that
sign
of square
by "mting
4.
in
or
is
of the
one
equal
two
\/.
sign over
column
1 to
13^ and
4 is
The
the
one
equal factors of
number
be
may
16.
cated
indi
\/\",
as
all the
of
squares
two
of
root
square
number,
the
of the
ending in
numbers
zero
between
lOo!
Recall
the
Write
in three
method
short
squaring numbers
of
ending
5.
6.
(1) Of
all
(2) Of all
.05
to
6.
pure
and
1.5
to
this table
Show
(1)
the
decimals
of two
squares
from
15
to
125.
places ending in
from
.95.
in 5 from
Use
columns
integers ending in
is
root
in
10 and
number
of 16 because
the
Write
from
squared,
number.
root
square
of
root
square
4 is the
3.
of 3.
square
The
by
factor.
as
because
ROOTS
SQUARE
number
twice
of
square
II
The
by
squares
decimals
of
one
decimal
place ending
12.5.
when
example
extract
you
truth
the
of all numbers
100.
166
square
of
between
these
1 and
root.
statements.
10 lie between
OBSERVATIONS
(2) The
100 and
ON
SQUARES
of all numbers
squares
of
square
(4) The
an
(5) The
square
(6) The
fraction less
proper
squared. HY =]^.
decimal
decimal
many
nimiber
even
nimiber is a mixed
mixed
of
root
square
decimal
many
of
square
fraction is
proper
as
10 and
between
167
10,000.
(3) The
twice
ROOTS
SQUARE
AND
fraction has
decimal
the decimal
places as
nimiber.
half
one
fraction whose
root
is
as
tracted.
ex
\/.49=.7.
(7) The
than
the
(8)
square
but
fraction,
The
(9) The
7.
fraction
proper
has
one.
of numbers
between
of numbers
between
100
roots
100
tween
lie be
Observations.
Vl6=4.
Vi69=13.
(4) Perfect
Vl2i=ll.
(5) Perfect
8.
squares
ending in
6 have
root
can
\/4225=65.
in 5.
their root
be found
ending in
or
6.
V36=6.
(3) Perfect
or
10,000 lie
10.
(2) Perfect
9.
and
1 and
7.
largervalue
100.
square
1 and
roots
square
10 and
between
of
root
squares
ending
in 9 have
their root
ending in
or
in 1 have
their root
ending in
or
V289=17.
squa^res
ending
V8T=9.
squares
ending
in 4 have
their root
ending in
\/64=8. '\/l44=12.
(6)
No
perfectsquare
can
end in
one
(7)
No
perfectsquare
can
end in
zero,
2, 3, 7, or 8.
Root
Extracting Square
By this method
is
is the number
I. Of
by Long
extracting square
divisor which
ROOTS
SQUARE
AND
SQUARES
168
root
Division
ing
consists in find
whose
is to be extracted.
root
square
the dividend
perfectsquares.
the
1. Extract
^
The
99)9801
What
is the square
of 95?
99
divisor.
try
as
99 is the square
r"
lie between
must
root
square
square,
ggi
of 9801.
root
square
Assuming
Divide
9801
9801
100.
to be
Why?
perfect
by 99.
Why?
of 9801.
root
and
95
891
In
whose
perfectsquares
root
square
does
not
be determined
exactly
places the root can
the observations
the first trial by keeping in mind
exceed
two
upon
on
of
case
page
167 and
ending in
0 and
2. Extract
remembering the
squares
of the nimibers
5.
the square
of 6084.
root
78
The
^
78)6084
observed
be
546
78,assuming
proves
nt^A
3. Extract
the last
the
76 and
6084
to
the correctness
of the
inspection.
of 6.76.
root
square
80.
digitin
2.6
2.6)6.76
Assuming 6.76
to
be
perfect square,
2.5*=6.25and3"=9.
5 2
I56
4. Extract
the
root
square
of .6889.
83
.83)
.6889
Try
.83.
.8" =
.64 and
.85"
.7225.
.664
249
EXTRACTING
The
SQUARE
solutions
squares
ROOT
OF
PERFECT
SQUARES
169
on
page
whose
roots
may
be extracted
accurately
by
numbers
root of each.
are
Then
perfectsquares.
prove
your
Estimate
estimate
the
by division.
abode
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
.3025
.0484
.7225
.9025
.9409
.4225
.6241
.5625
.2025
.3364
.4489
.0625
.2704
.3136
.1225
.1681
.2809
.6084
.3721
.5329
7. The
Find
followingmixed
their square
root.
decimals
Remember
perfectsquares.
the decimal point.
are
SQUARES
170
ROOTS
SQUARE
AND
table
is not
1. Extract
the square
4.79 +
Inspectionshows the
^q 2
"
the divisor.
"
3.80
of
If
inspection
1.
root to liebetween
The
is
root
you
What
How
Try 4.8.
found
4.5 and 5.
6 than 4.5.
nearer
tical purposes
root
a
square
If you find your first estimate
enough in ordinarywork.
not accurate enough, use it to help you make
another one.
3.36
777^
sign V
2. The
Have
example
302.
page
of 23.
root
4.8)23.00

in
shown
as
on
one
the method
convenient,use
long division
and
use
mtegers and
mixed
the
extract
means
the
decimals,carry
root.
square
root
In
tenths;
to
Remember
the decimal
decimals,to himdredths.
the first
on
point. Many pupilshave estimated correctly
trial in most
examples of this list. Check your answer.
in pure
be
e
,
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
V34=?
\/3!4=?
\/79=?
V70=?
III.
Extractingthe
mixed
square
root
of
fractions and
common
numbers.
Note.
"
^Ifboth
extract
squares,
reduce
V9l25=? ViQ?
\/i525=?
\/j=?
VSOOO?
V7325=? V':2250"?V^=?
Vl25=? y;036=?
V90=? ^^85=?
\/42:9=?V;56i8=?\/36:8=? V^SiB^?
the
numerator
the square
and
denominator
root of each
a
decimal,and
fraction_to
term, as
of
fraction
\/j=f
proceedas
you
are
perfect
In all other
did above.
cases
y/\=
CHAPTER
USING
AND
SQUARES
The
1. Draw
The
lemSf and
problem
between
Draw
3.
sides
whose
as
did
you
the
to
in
The
problem
contains
base?
same
line.
right triangle
in.
Erect
squares
relation
between
the
other
two?
sq.
of
hypotenuse
in.
The
is the
What
certain
the
on
square
right
altitude
of the square
area
area
the
is the
100
the
at
floor
along
end
of the
the
measure
you
length
find?
of the
corner
one
connect
the
do
15
regards
as
two?
What
the
on
feet,making
Now
measure
What
mark
corner
exactly
at
on
measure
a
scale
triangleyou
on
the
How
making
other
2.
on
36 sq. in.
Beginning
6.
the
and
square
trianglecontains
the
are
largest square
4.
and
relation
convenient
some
(Read
345
sides of the
is the
large square
the
the
carefully studied.
three
What
1.
whose
frequently in prob*
occurs
be
the
on
is 4 in. and
is called
should
squares
base
drew
you
therefore
2. Erect
in
the
five) triangle. It
four
drew
Right Triangle
Measure
figure
ROOTS
SQUARE
right trianglewhose
altitude is 3 in.
three
III
the
of
the
What
wall
one
at
the
between
is the
171
name
Then
from
points with
cord
room
school
exactly 6 feet,
6foot line.
the floor
mark
two
floor of your
end
a
of the
8foot
stiff cord
the
two
and
points.
of this line?
USING
172
The
AND
SQUARES
SQUARE
ROOTS
called the
previousproblems may
of the Right Triangle." It may
"Rule
be
be
equal
the
to
the
on
square
of the
sum
of the
right triangle is
the
on
squares
Rule
the
Expressing
of any
hypotenuse
two
other
Right Triangle
in
sides.
Formula
1. A
formula
is
When
If
formulas,these letters stand for abstract numbers.
representsfeet,then a and h must also represent feet.
used in
given formula
in
rule of the
3. The
righttrianglemay be expressed in
Tell the meaning of each from the figure.
these ways.
h when
h^
Solve these
(1) Find
(2) Find
(3) Find
One
when
b when
of the
Find
=4
ViH^.
6=3.
h
v^
=20
and
=21;
h =53 and b =45;
and h =85;
a =36
a
in the
triangles
it and
prove
(1) a
5, " =12, h =13.
(2) a =30, b =40, h =50.
=
and
or
5.
h when
a
next
your
when
6 =33
and
when
h =89
and
b =80.
when
=44
and
h =125.
list is not
=56.
angle.
right tri
answer.
USING
174
SQUARES
The
AND
Isosceles
ROOTS
SQUARE
Right Triangle
1. ABC
is an
isosceles
right
triangle.
Why?
2. What
lation
re
exists
the
between
on
the
and
the
square
base
one
on
the
3. What
titude?
al
lation
re
is there
between
6.
can
on
the
square
equal sides?
AB
is also the diagonalof the square AOBC.
If the diagonalof the square in the figureis
either
4.
the square
of the
one
find the
you
lengthof
on
area
of the square
side of the
one
without
square? How?
10
feet,
findingthe
What
is the
area
of the square
6. From
the
Of AOBC?
ABMN?
the
figureand
of any
your
when
work
write
know
its
diagonal.
7. DE
represents the height of a tree from the ground
find the length of DE
How
to the first limb.
can
by
you
If HF
is a telephonepole, can
using the triangleABC?
of ABC?
Do it.
you find its heightby means
8. Some
boys wished to know how they might measure
the height of trees, towers, telephonepoles,etc.
This is
their teacher told them to proceed.
the way
area
square
you
USING
I.
(1) Cut
isosceles
ISOSCELES
THE
TRIANGLE
RIGHT
Constructing
the
Apparatus
heavy cardboard, or
from
176
ABC
as
thin
in
board,
the
an
figure on
174.
page
this triangleon
(2) Mount
height.
II.
Problem.
the
Using
level stand
of convenient
Apparatus
How
AH
Une
zontal
is hori
right angles to
at
Why?
(3) The
triangleAOH
isosceles right.
III.
piece
at
ground
Why?
anchor
the
can
How
long
the
top of
in
Result
of
you
must
the
the
from
AH
N=
(2) How
from
at
cross
of
the
distance
(1) The
is
Why?
Computing
10.
ure.
fig
+AE.
find the
a
wire
length of AH?
be
to
reach
pole?
Anchor
USING
176
AND
SQUARES
ROOTS
SQUARE
diamond
baseball
11.
^
is
feet square.
90
(1) How
far
the
must
8B.^
second
at
to
base?
decimal
one
Plata
second
(4) How
fielder stands
center
base, how
place.
to third base?
first base
(3) If the
sult
re
far is it from
(2) How
Home
Carry
feet
100
far is he from
hind
directlybe
the home
far is it from
the center
far measured
on
plate?
of the diamond
to
third base?
(5) How
bat
ball to make
fielder who
12.
way
the
groimd
must
player
stands
100
directlybehind
feet
base?
second
Road
boy Uving
at ff
he
can
in
save
school
13.
girlwalks
then
3
measiured
in
and
from
the
mi.
a
3^
due
mi.
west.
by
much
of 200
year
R"""*
go
in
answer
places.
due
south
How
straight line is
far
she
startingpoint?
Two
SOLVING
15. Find
attached
The
the
to
TRIANGLES
RIGHT
length of
wire
guy
60foot smoke
16. Find
end
of which
ground
is
the top.
50 feet from
the
Allow
side and
the unknown
one
177
above
the
side
area
of each of the
by inspection.
plate?
(2) How
extend
18
long if they
in. beyond the
plates?
(3) Find
18. How
the
much
area
lumber
one
required
for the
What
IV
CHAPTER
USING
FORMULAS
formula
states
of the radius
square
formula, A
the
of
area
the radius
of
know
circle if you
factors,of which
of two
tells you
its radius.
From
its area.
know
The
find
to
the
also find
can
is the
area
The
way.
equals the
expressed by
how
it you
(v).
one
area
rule is
This
t.
short
the
formula
know
you
that
found
multipliedby
This
SOLVING
principlein
or
circles you
=xK*.
circle if you
rule
with
work
In your
PROBLEM
IN
product
unknown
factor
of the radius.
is the square
The
by the
by the number
rate
for this
formula
The
of
rule
years."
is
I ='PxRxT.
By
explaining
In
as
formula, therefore,you
any
it,as
formulas
The
of
in terms
Loss
no
cost
matter
at
problems
as
writing
re
there
are
terms
known.
are
one
provided
solve, without
can
different types of
many
in the formula,
terms
but
one
"
of arithmetic
are
term
is to
be
178
processes.
a
found.
subtraction
Thus,
formula
FORMULAS
Where
and
APPLIED
state
is
term
how
(1) ?
5=
6, c,
(2) D
a,
(2) S
=? +6 +c.
remainder, Af
or
S.
(3) D
(alsowritten ikfm),where
=multipUcand, m=multipher.
3. P=:MXm
^M
dividend
(1)
The
which
and
? =D
d=
(2) Q
formulas
out
Jkf?
product, M
P=
(3) P
xm.
"? ^d.
=Jlf x?
quotient,D
Q=
(3) Q
problems
=D
^?
be called fundamental
arithmetic
divisor.
^d.
above
grow
Q=D4d
4.
may
(2) P
xm.
the addends.
are
sum;
difference
where
D=
D^M"Sf
minuend, 5= subtrahend.
2.
(1) ?
it
be found.
it may
+ft +c.
=o
179
jS=a+fe+c, where
1.
PROCESSES
FUNDAMENTAL
TO
grow
processes.
problems because
out
These
of them.
(5) 75=x24
(6) 68 f4=x
(7) X 55=20
(14)
=x
FORMULAS
USING
180
PROBLEM
IN
SOLVING
Solve the
to
"
2. A
the number
'50
nearest
weighs about
brick
conunon
4
of bricks that
lb.
Find
teamster
to
the
should
load to have
3.
approximatelya ton.
In 1917, the productionof gasolinein the United
States
Find
68,000,000bbl.
was
the %
In 1918, it was
85,000,000 bbl.
of increase.
8
half
the cost of
much
as
as
doz.
then had.
John
How
much
give him?
6. The
with
candy for
to make
7. At
an
school made
party.
600
were
7 made
on
children of
did
needed.
The
8th
the rest.
How
$2.01 per
assessment
many
they agree
of $434,733,255.
Grades
3 to
grade agreed
to make?
find the
tax
USING
182
FORMULAS
SOLVING
PROBLEM
IX
perimeterof
for the
"
^The
are
an
lateral
equi
derived from
the
Measuring Surfaces,
124134.
Trapeziums.
6.
A=dXa
and
this
a'
"
where d
diagonal,
are
to
diagonal.
7. Circles.
C, D,
and
radius.
(1) C=tXD=2tR
(2)
(4)
A=^XR
A=l^
(5) A
(3) A^irR^
=f
8. Sectors.
(1)
Arc
A=^XB
ViAro
9. Cones.
(1) Convex
surface
(2) Entire
surface
s.
h. (slantheight)X"
c
s.
face)+ir7J2(areaof base)
.
h. X
(convex sur
IN
FORMULAS
MENSURATION
183
10. Prisms.
Spheres.
12.
S=TD^=4irR\
(1) 4iTR^
means
is 4 times that of
sphere
circlewhose
of the
sphere.
(2) What is the meaning of tD^?
13. Right Triangles.
h, by a, are hypotenuse, base and altitude. Tell the
meaning of these formulas.
(1) h=V"+a^
(2) 6
VW^
(3) a=V"^^^
(4) Write the formula which shows how
to find the altitude of an equilateral
trianglewhen one side
is given.
(5) Write the formula which shows how to find the
diagonal of a square if one side is known.
=
All terms
in
mensuration
formula
solution
abstract.
which
involve
such
a
are
abstract,
formulas
formula
There
all parts of
should
be
kept
FORMULAS
USING
184
1. Find
the
Formula.
of
area
IN
circle whose
SOLVING
PROBLEM
radius is 8 ft.
A ="irJB*
"
22
Solution."
x8 x8 xl sq. ft.
="
The
201sq.ft.
area
2. A
in the
lawn
36 feet wide.
a
rhomboid
long and
sod it at 25f5
is 50 feet
much
How
yard?
square
The
shape of
Solution.
"
Cost
$x =25^
or
$x=$50.
3. There
rods wide.
How
4. Find
whose
rectangularfield which
is 40
long is it?
area
of
trianglewhose
trianglewhose
Find
6. The
16
the
in
acres
altitude is 16 feet.
6. A
feet.
40
are
square
the altitude.
lower base of
trapezoidis 20 feet;the
upper
is
miles,what
is the
area
diameter
of the
of the
moon
portionvisible
to us
is 2000
at full
moon?
9. Find
diameter
the
area
is 8000
miles.
(Callx 3.1416.)
sphere whose
MEASURING
AND
COMPUTING
SURFACES
185
of each
of the figureswithin this
Compute the area
rectangle. What % of the largerectangleis the sum of the
of the figureswithin it?
areas
USING
186
FORMULAS
Fonnulas
Used
in
SOLVING
PROBLEM
IN
Volumes
Computing
Rectangular prisms.
where
h, I, and w represent
Y=:hxlXw,
height,length,and width.
(1) What does the formula become when I
and w are equal?
(2) Write the formula for the cube.
2. Cylinders.
F=J5xa, where B represents the area of the base, and
1.
the altitude.
the altitude
and
the diameter
of the base
given.
are
(2) Write
base
when
the formula
the altitude
when
given.
are
would
find the altitude of
(3) How
you
cylinder,
knowing the volume and the radius?
3. Cones.
^^^^^
( )^
BXa
V='Tr
(1) What
cylinder?
(2) Construct out of heavy paper a
cylinderand a cone with equal altitudes
and diameters. Observe by actual measurement
this formula
with the
the
4.
cone
of sand
Spheres.
V=^iy^
use
and
or
that of the
the contents
This formula
says
sphere is a littlemore
of the diameter.
fill
that you can
of the cylinder..
sawdust
of
of the cube
PROBLEMS
Read
the
or
1. How
bushels of wheat
many
boy built
ft. high. How
2. A
187
3. John
36 ft. and
was
based
on
cu.
12
.8 bushel?
ft.
tons
many
rectangularbin
if it
foot of the
top?
silo whose height,he thought,
cylindrical
saw
7 ft. high if 1
be filledto within
can
in
diameter
whose
was
15 ft. Find
the volume
his estimates.
much
4. How
is 18 ft. and
air space
in
diameter
whose
heightis 12 ft.?
6. This battery jar is 6 inches in diameter
and 8 inches high. Dick thought it w^ould
hold a gallon. Was
he too high or too low?
How
much?
6. The
bodies
are
as
dimensions
of these three
are
1 :2:3. What
7. Jennie
^^i^^
\3^ ^^
said,"I
jtf
^^
the
cylinder
she right?
Was
and then add one
full of water."
cone
be made by a pump,
8. How
strokes must
having
many
a
cyUnder 16 in. long and 4 in. in diameter,to throw a
barrel of water
(31 gal.)if each stroke empties the full
volume
of the cylinder?
9. The
foot per
if
can
second.
7 gal.=l
cu.
What
ft.?
of
twoinch
is the flow in
artesian well is
gallonsin
24
one
hours
USING
188
10. Find
10 ft. and
FORMULAS
the
IN
surface of
convex
the diameter
11. Find
the
PROBLEM
of whose
of
area
altitude is
whose
cone
base is 12 ft.
whose
sector
SOLVING
and
radius is 10 inches
whose
is 10 inches.
arc
12. The
accompanying
figure represents a garden
in the form of a rectangle,
40 ft. long and 30 ft. wide,
with a walk extendingacross
it. The
and AE
at FC
are
(1) Find
the
(2) What
(3) What
is the
gates, located
two
respectively,
6 ft. wide.
walk.
of the walk?
area
of the
area
walk?
13. One
altitude.
side of
Find
14. The
equal sides
the
base
is 15.
of
12 ft.
is
triangle
equilateral
an
Find the
area.
an
Find
isosceles
triangleis 18,
the
corner
area.
wished
contractor
if the foundation
square.
the
of the
one
to know
buildingwas
He took a point 6 ft.from
wall and a point
on
one
8 ft. from
other wall.
the
of
same
What
was
corner
must
on
have
the
been
pointsif
square?
these
USING
190
FORMULAS
MODERN
IN
FILTERING
PLANT
PROBLEM
AND
SOLVING
SETTLING
BASIN
some
modern
conveniences.
by modern conveniences?
State several reasons
why the last method
1. What
2.
is meant
is most
desirable?
Some
cities
are
so
draw
their
SUPPLY
WATER
1. A
PROBLEMS
has
191
in round
numbers
is driven
on
an
average
of 8 hours
daily,
itant
gallonsof water are allowed dailyto each inhabin the village
of problem one?
4. In a city whose
population is 750,000, the cost of
$7.37 per miUion gallons.
purifyingits water in 1918 was
how
How
many
much
that per
was
gallon? At this
rate
how
many
gallons were
by adding 5.35
(copperas),and
each gallon. How
used
yearly?
.58
grains aluminum
many
tons
sulphate (alum)
to
are
CHAPTER
have
other
an
opportunity
words, in monetary
things which
to learn
about
more
You
will
thus
far
cents,
or,
have
now
itself and
money
those
materials
some
and
which
of
medium
used
were
as
exchange.
in
money
past.
$10 gold piece is called
2. A
3.
half
eagle?
The
half
4.
Gold
in each
6.
eagle, of
coins
of
6. The
7.
not
which
258
grains. The
90%
Find
other
the
weight
eagle.
gold and
pure
alloy. How
10%
copper,
many
grains of
412.5
grains. It
pure
gold
the
silver coins.
silver
dollar
10%
weighs
How
copper.
many
grains
is 90%
of silver
silver dollar?
The
nickel
call it
8. What
9.
double
coins?
silver and
pure
double
are
an
our
Name
is
quarter eagle?
proportionate weight.
is called
which
eagle. What
an
$10
eagle?
in
units.
of value
standard
1. Name
of
solved
represent money.
is
Money
have
you
values
with
in
the
problems which
of the
dealt
BANKING
AND
MONEY
Many
How
are
is 75%
copper
and
25%
nickel.
Why
copper?
is bullion?
does
the Government
coined
into
money?
192
MONEY
10. Bar
193
York
November
(bullion)sold in New
(437grains). What was the
23, 1920, at 99^j4an ounce
silver in a silver dollar worth on that day?
11. Consult
the newspaper
the day you
on
are
ing
studythis page for the priceof silver and compute the value
of the
silver
silver in
silver dollar.
when
the silver
priceof silver per ounce
in a dollar is worth exactlylOOff?
13. The
the pricesof silver per ounce
following were
in New
York City on the dates named:
ll/10/'08,(Read
Nov.
10, 1908), 49ji;
10/17/'13,61jff;
10/21/'12,63jff;
82ff
92ff
10/25/15, 48ff
; 10/20/'19,
; 10/25/'17,
; 3/23/'18,
$1.18f; ll/23/'20,99jif.
Make
line graph showing the fluctuation (change in
a
price)from 1908 to 1920.
12. What
14.
What
16.
The
is the
is
mint?
is found
letter D
beneath
does D stand
gold coins. What
Examine
dimes, quarters, and other
certain
on
'
16.
letter D
which
have
tellwhat
letter
no
on
for?
coins
for the
each represents.
them
are
made
in
Philadelphiamint.
Mills
18.
as
at
some
Coins
17.
the
or
eagle
in the
$.033 per
19.
What
20.
are
The
problem, "Find
They
are
used
in computing,
lb."
paper
money
gives value
Name
coined.
not
to
of
paper
money?
circi^tionin
this country.
of paper
money
in
mon
com
MONEY
194
21.
Read
United
youngest
read
money).
paper
BANKING
States
money); then
paper
AND
(greenback
note
our
"
Federal
How
are
Reserve
oldest
(our
note
alike?
the two
How
they different?
are
22.
Read
silver certificate
certificate. How
Why
23.
does
not
one
What
are
see
is meant
we
say,
"A
credit is
man's
good'7
24.
How
may
work
Is
which
on
check
which
money?
you
it is drawn
How
several debts
sign pay
marks
does
it
paid?
it accompUsh
the
of money?
26.
Does
27.
The
in 1919
round
check
check
represent money?
total amount
was
numbers
of money
$7,662,893,238. The
in the
same
year
in the
United
total bank
were
States
depositsin
$22,000,000,000.
DOING
BUSINESS
Banks
money;
of credit easy.
are
banks
The
banker
must
write your
you
wish
to
you
checks.
on
and
book
is
small
deposit and
condition
the
this
For
a
the
reason
depositis made
pass
and when
on
the
$500
or
banks
allow
on
checking account
more.
the
Other
daily balance.
deposits. Other banks
on
small
account.
should
you
wish your
Checking
rate
Some
make
banks
a
it is balanced.
presentedwhen
balanced.
account
of interest
allow
of
statement
be
writes your
Accounts
whenever
banks
bank
contains
book
low
the
at the time
account
Interest
Some
in which
It also
of your
banker
Book
Pass
book
its date.
The
exactly as
then gives
name
your
which
on
book.
check
The
This
signaturecard
and
to
tion.
of identifica
other form
a
address
sign it
bank, it is customary
some
gives you
you
pass
or
the transfer
Account
an
the
to
stranger
they make
Open
to
introduction
requirean
Banking
sell notes;
Some
How
If you
195
deals in money
and credit.
credit for deposit;they loan
and
receive money
Banks
and
BANK
institution which
is an
A bank
THE
AT
the
a
low
pay
(2%
or
3%)
daily balance
rate
no
is
of interest
interest
on
MONEY
196
How
Fill out
AND
BANKING
Make
to
deposit
taining
slip(seeform) cona
your
Merchants
total.
this sUp,the
Bank
Deposited to
the Credit
192_
of
Hand
deposit,
Coins
Currency
and
your
book
pass
the banker.
to
National
Cleveland,O.J
name,
of
date, nature
whether coins,
items,
currency, or checks,
and
Deposit
He
Checks
List
"
separately
on
the
sUp, places
total
to
your
Total
credit
in the
book, and
it to
pass
Checks
returns
In
you.
are
case
forgottenyour
pass
book, make
time you
have
the pass
depositslips
marks
one
"duplicate"and
exactly alike. The banker
it to you.
This duplicateshould be presentedfor
returns
you
have
entry the
next
How
to
Draw
on
Your
other person
A
draw
the
or
check
money
check, fillout
firm to whom
you
should be made
in person.
the stub
to
book
check
This
wish
to
to cash when
the time
keep track of
make
of
your
be
may
to the order of
payable
At
with you.
Account
Checking
Fill out
made
two
some
ment.
payyou
writingthe
account.
MONEY
AND
Everyone
Should
198
What
1. A
check
BANKING
Know
given in payment
about
of
Checks
debt
becomes
receipt.
2. A
check
should
stolen,the finder
3. A
check may
collect such
or
not
thief
be made
be
can
made
to
If lost
bearer.
or
collect it.
to read
"Pay
to Cash."
(Who
check?)
4. Signaturesin lead pencilare
good.
6. Checks
should be presented for payment
without
unreasonable
delay.
6. It is not permissible
to overdraw
one's account.
can
7. Partial
payment
is either "all
8. Checks
9. Checks
good
can
be
not
made
good.''
dated on Sunday are good.
postdated are charged to the
or
on
check.
It
no
proper
accoimt
12. A
What
such
check
indorsed
danger is there
an
indorsement
13. When
checks
on
bearer
indorsement?
When
in blank
in such
which
becomes
check.
may
safelymade?
deposited,
they are usuallycredited
be
are
as
cash
SOLVING
PROBLEMS
BANKING
199
Problems
3. Write
check
favor of John
on
in
account
your
Domer.
in full the check
4. Indorse
6. Under
what
drawn
in No.
3.
to indorse
condition is it proper
check
in blank?
6. When
may
properlywrite
one
Why should a
depositedcheck?
7.
8. On
balance
the
of
person
draw
not
first of November
"Pay
at once
Mr.
During the
$242.75.
check
to Cash"?
check
had
Mann
he
month
against
a
bank
made
the
,
$14.22.
his balance
was
on
December
1?
9.
of the United
States in 1918
which
growth of $1,268,207,000in
What
10.
was
was
the
In 1918
Only
What
was
there
to
$19,821,404,000,
a
single year.
growth?
were
of these
one
the
of
amounted
of failure?
failed
in this
during the
try.
coun
year.
AND
MONEY
200
11. The
total amount
BANKING
named
of
in
Growth
of American
Savings
Banks
Av.
Due
Each
Av.
per
Capita
Depositor in U. S.
Deposits
1,138,576
43,431,130
549,874,358
14.26
1,524,844,506
24.35
2,449,547,885
4,070,486,246
5,471,579,949
31.78
45.05
52.05
.12
1.87
number
of banks
from
1820
1918.
to
banks
of the
United
was
States.
The
$878.87.
average
Find
per
the total
CHAPTER
The
he
TRANSPORTATION
AND
TRADE
fanner
consiime
cannot
produce, neither
can
needs.
clothing he
VI
he
can
coal
The
wheat
civilized
Among
produce
to
and
to
the
these
needs
it to
another
the
1.
who
2.
you
sell
directly
Do
Do
business
4.
must
than
to
man
6.
and
and
Why
Write
a
and
consimier
consume
produce.
cannot
and
transportation.
it is to
often
sends
it.
producers
any
business
sell
to
the
the
can
men
in
community
your
men
who
from
buy
ducers
pro
consumers?
know
men
they
for
need
business
any
sell to
you
of the
consumers?
to
know
you
small
any
thing
surplus and
the
who
any
only
grow
they
business
those
know
Do
and
3.
of
not
than
trade
to
buys
whose
common
people and
of
man
man
hands
commodity
one
meat
bread.
for
give rise
business
does
He
and
wheat
needs
miner
things which
many
producer
The
into
of
more
the
produce
people it is
need
Meeting
of
needs
he
all
who
men
buy
to
more
pay
other
"
consumers?
consimier
from
the
business
producer?
solve
in
your
problem
about
community.
201
business
man
TRADE
202
AND
How
TRANSPORTATION
Business
Is
Done
Before
cost
varies from
expense
items of expense
10%
charge,
article and
an
Total
cost
of
its total
The
last two
doing business, or
Business
men
cost.
Such
is actuallyreceived
what
cost.
cost
+ overhead.
of the
This
overhead.
or
J%
the
etc.,
rent, tax, clerk hire,advertising,
as
called overhead
are
33
to
to
addends
are
expense.
often compute
their rate
of
profiton
the
sellingprice.
Problems
about
Business
He
marked
slow
season
cost.
to
merchant
an
due
average
priceof $2.25.
on
on
his rate of
profitmay be computed on
business
the sellingprice. Among
this point.
Rate
of
Find
the net
men
cost, on
there
is
no
HOW
IS
BUSINESS
DONE
203
and
cantaloupes. Who
solve
Ohio farmer
the year
of
average
for which
per
above?
% is it of what
8. An
hen?
809 dozen
43jfper doz.
He
he received $38.70.
How
broker
would
had
of eggs.
you
is this difference?
received?
the farmer
in 1918
much
How
$3.50 and
These
sold
eggs
What
was
sold at
were
during the
laid during
year
an
poultry
bought
TRADE
204
How
Much
trade and
TRANSPORTATION
AND
TransportationArises
arise also
transportation
in the process
found
in the home
To
of the
get commodities
who
man
from
grew
the cotton.
dantly
regionwhich can very abunregion whose people want to
produce them, to a
buy them, because they can do other work with greater
such as,
profit,requiressome
system of transportation,
or
good roads,railroads,
steamship lines.
Good
Good
roads
may
be
Roads
built
(crushedrock),brick,or
of
concrete.
dirt,gravel,macadam
Some
good roads are
prvrp)
Tig. I
Loose
Fig. II
Gravel
Earth
with Dust
Top
Fig, III
Packed
Gravel
Fig. IV
Waterbound
Macadam
TRADE
206
TRANSPORTATION
AND
Using
1. Concrete
Concrete
is a mixture of cement
and
sand;or of cement;
stone.
tions,
in the construction of walks, roads,founda
floors,
walls,curbs,fence posts, trolleyposts, water
troughs,etc. How else have you seen concrete used?
3. Cement
is bought by the sack, or by the barrel. A
sack contains 1 cu. ft.,
and a barrel contains 4 cu. ft.
4. Sand, gravel,and crushed stone
are
bought by the
cubic yard in many
places. In largecitiessand and gravel
are
commonly sold by the ton; crushed stone by the hundred
cubic feet. A cu. yd. of sand or gravelweighs approximately
2700
6. Since
go
concrete
into it are
mixture
lb.
mixed
is 1:2:3
in different ratios. A
(read one
two
Table
common
Concrete
rather
means
cubic
yard of
be used
concrete
to
certain amount
foundations
may
ture
1 : 3 : 6 mix
be used.
What
requiresabout 1.45
practicean additional 10%
space
cu.
cubic
yd. of material.
is allowed.
yard of
In actual
PROBLEMS
1. Find
ABOUT
CONCRETE
207
in the table.
questionmarks
of
mixture.*
1:2:3
much
3. How
containing8
coat
4. How
for
many
top
concrete
requiredfor
basement
ft.X
36
25 ft.?
Hint.
Use
"
6. A
base
each
top
kind
1 : 2 : 3 mixture.
walk
concrete
and
coat
3 ft. wide
is to be built with
of material
is
1:2:3
How
1:1 mixture.
waste?
mixture,
much
is allowed
required if 10%
for this
of
for
walk,
prices.
6. If cement
costs 75)ia sack, sand $2.50 a cu. yd., and
crushed stone $2.16 a cu. yd.,find the cost of the materials
in a 1:2:3 mixture sufficient to make
200 cu. yd. of concrete.
using
current
7. The
foundation
wall for
80
ft.
or
Note.
"
^Any part of
stone, should
sack
be considered
or
bbl. of cement,
full sack,bbl.,or
or
cu.
of
yd.
cu.
yd. of sand
TRADE
208
TRANSPORTATION
AND
Railroads
In 1917 there
were
in 1917
How
over
enough
$17,000,000,000.
to
meet
actual
1918.
1. What
2
and
of
many
was
tracks between
our
railroad
mileage make?
3. The
total
was
729,800mi.
of the world's
The
United
railwaymileage was
1917
What
States?
Methods
Merchandise
may
of
be
Shipping
Goods
shipped by freight,
by
express,
or
by parcelpost.
is shipment by parcelpost preferable?Do you
1. When
know the maximum
weight which can be shippedby parcel
post? If not, see page 214.
from Texas to Chicago
2. Would
you ship watermelons
by freightor by express? Why?
3. Would
you shipcoal from the Illinoismines to Chicago
by freightor by express? Why?
4. The freight
chargeon a car of tomatoes containing500
$237.56.
crates,shipped from Miami, Fla.,to Chicago,was
The cost of refrigeration
$80 and the drayage charge
was
cost per
3jfper crate. Find the total transportation
was
crate
PROBLEMS
FREIGHT
209
the
$1.19?
9. In 1919
from
shipping wheat
How
much
10.
was
Buenos
of 2240
Aires
to
lb. was
New
niade for
York
City.
In 1919 the
ArgentineGovernment
at
same
$2.40 per
year
bushel.
Which
was
priceof imported
more
prpfitable
TRADE
210
13.
14.
22400
24000
TRANSPORTATION
ditions
profitby the condescribed in problems 10, 11, and 12?
Why?
A Chicago firm had a shipment of books weighing
load is
lb. for Louisville,
car
Ky. The minimum
lb. The car load rate per 100 lb. was
45ft;the rate
the American
Does
100
per
AND
wheat
car
grower
load lots
66"}t.Which
was
is
to
at
better?
Texas
16. A
planterin
1919
grew
40 bales of cotton
ship
(500
How
much
crop
after
Advantages
1. In a recent
by
was
Transportation
100,000,000bu. of wheat
were
carried
from
steamer
cost
year
Water
shipments?
2. It costs
feet to
lumber
move
from
carried
over
this make
were
How
allowed
many
car
to each car?
loads would
ADVANTAGES
Superior and
Lake
One
WATER
TRANSPORTATION
St.
Mary's
wide, and
22
ft.
deep.
the
211
4. The
ft.
OF
River
Lock.
How
below
It is 800
many
boats
between
are
the
rapids.
ft. long,100
handled
are
(8 months)
14 minutes
boat every
day and night
(Omit December, January, February,
one
season.
of navigation
season
March.)
6. On
Buffalo
draw
United
center, and
States and
Canada, using
radius
representing500 miles,
circle. This circle contains 60% of the population
as
of the United
conamercial
Lakes
of the
map
States and
centers
have
been
Canada.
Name
at least 12
how
great
the Great
great cities.
6. Will the
become
than
greater,or less,
it is at
near
present? Why?
future
TRADE
212
7. When
New
York
TRANSPORTATION
AND
the L. C. L. rate
to
certam
on
commodity from
Chicago was
or
$.788
at
100
lb.
What
comparative cost of
the
was
of
Express
Rates
Chicago by Scale
from
Numbers
100
13
1.26
16
1.43
18
Numbers
23
1.54
28
1.81
43
2.09
124
2.91
7.37
179
10.39
Shipping by Express
CJonmiodities shipped by express
quickly,but at a
higher rate, than those shipped by freight.Express charges
include free deliverywithin certain limits. Such shipments are
classifiedas first,
second,or third class. The rate on a given
commodity varies with the weight of the shipment,and with the
distance between the shipping points. The
rates charged are
determined by the Interstate Commerce
Commission.
This
made
commission
divided
the
by the intersections of
go
United
the
more
States
meridians
into 826
blocks
of longitude and
TRADE
214
TRANSPORTATION
AND
Shipping by
Parcel
Post
ages
1920, provides that pack
Table
showing
rates
50 mi.
To 60
mi.
Wt.
Local
1 lb. $0.05
The
each
1st
$0.05
to
150 mi.
is reached.
150 mi.
to
300
300
mi.
600
600
mi.
mi.
1000
weights to
1000
mi.
to
to
to
mi.
on
zones
mi.
1400
1400
mi.
to
mi.
1800
mi.
6 lb.
1800 mi.
and
over
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
$0.05
$0.06
$0.07
$0.08
$0.09
$0.11
$0.12
largestweight for
SHIPPING
followingformulas
The
postage.
Zone
No.
are
PARCEL
BY
POST
useful in
of each with
Zone
215
No.
the table.
Postage
Wt
Local
3.
Wt.
6.
Wt.
7.
Wt.
"^
+6 =no.j!5
and
2.
Wt.
+4 =no.4
4.
Wt.
x4 +3 =no.4
x6 +2 =no.^
6.
Wt.
x8 +1 =no.4
xlO +1 =no.^
8.
Wt.
xl2
x2 +4 =no.^
=no.^
distance from
TRADE
216
AND
TRANSPORTATION
Paying
Debts
at
Distance
its
In the processes of trade,money
or
often be sent from one
city to another.
equivalentmust
Instead
of the
a check,a draft,or
a money
order,may be
itself,
used.
Why is this better than to send the money?
of Chicago, 111.,
1. D. B. Stewart
bought for cash an
invoice of goods amounting to $125 from J. B. Olmstead,
money
Moines, Iowa.
Des
This
is the
check
which
he
sent
to
Olmstead.
miuACO.
/,y^^=L^JlK^."r?A
%jl/?rii^^y^^^.
f
J^
/J^.t/7"
^^^^^7"tye"^..fs//^^^,
ZofA^..^.^^l^A~^^A'^"
.c/h:^^^^
(1) What will Olmstead do with the check?
(2) It is said that a canceled check is as good as a
receipt.What is meant by this statement?
firms do not wish to accept personalchecks. In
2. Some
such a case
order (postalor express),
a money
or
a bank
draft (banker'scheck),may
be sent.
for
Application
Spaces below
MONEY
POSTAL
THE
LEARNING
^^es
Money Order
Domestic
by
another
for him
person
Amt.
to
OrSer
of I
(Name
of person
for whom
firm
or
la intended)
order
for Domestic
^^01
Add?^
$60.01 to
$60.01 to
"
Street
JNo
...
"
Scents
6 cents
Scents
$20.00 10 cents
$30.00 12 centS
$40!00
16 cents
$60.00 18 cents
$60.00 20 cents
$76.00 26 cents
$100.00 30 cents
to
$76.01 to
)
Post
Office }
Fee
$2.60
$6.00
$10.00
$20.01 tO
$30.01 to
"^"^o'"i
is
Orders
of Order
$0.01 to
$2.61 to
$6.01 to
$10.01 to
Cents
Dollars
217
Money
to
^^^*
p.
ORDER
NoTTB.
^The maximuin
for which a single
order
money
oe
may
issuea is $100.
When
a
Jarser sum
is to be sent
additional orders must be
obtained.
Any number
^j Orders may
be drawn
order office
on
any money
"
Q.
^^^^
Sent
amount
by
of Sender)
(Name
Taa
Address
i
1
Sender
J No
Street
on
Purchaser
tend
most
Order
and
Coupon
to
any
one
day.
Payee
did Brown
postmaster? See
the receipt.
4. What
value
should
page
Brown
for
do
forin of money
with
the
the
order and
receipt? Of
what
is it?
6. How
6. Write
did
in
TRADE
218
10277
AND
TRANSPORTATION
The
91830
chaser
purmust
statesPostalMoneyQnkr
send both
the
coupon
named
in
the coupon
as
payee.
Express Money
Orders
The
fee for
these orders
isthe
sta,126, N.
91830
91830
money
be
rom
MOM*
INDICATCD
or
TION
THK
OR
THAN
ON
ORDBR
CIIA9UM
LAnacrr
LKFI^NAND
AND
ANY
RBNDBII*
amount
AT
TM"
e"nm
or
imwk
as
RECEIPT
same
tl"
ders.
or
No
gle
sin
order
will
issued
for
more
than
$50.
The
number
of indorseme
MANOtN
is
ALTBIA*
IT VOIO
not limited to
one.
PAYING
Business
WITH
find it
men
BANK
THE
DRAFT
Economical
more
219
to remit
by
bank
draft
than
certain
by
money
of money
sum
to
BANK
John
Gibbs
is a farmer
party named
in the draft.
DRAFT
Millersburg,
Ohio, who owes
the Cleveland MillingCo. a bill for mill feed,amounting to
$125. Since he has an account with the Millersburgbank,
he is not charged a fee for drafts which he may wish to buy
near
at this bank.
1. Of
what
2. Who
bank
is ordered
is Louis
to pay
Miley cashier?
$125?
Millersburgbank?
3. Why
the Millersburgbank
can
bank
to
4. To
5. What
Cleveland
pay
Who
pays
order
$125 to the
the Cleveland
$125?
whom
must
is this draft
Gibbs
Milling Co.?
payable?
do before sending the draft
to the
TRADE
220
AND
TRANSPORTATION
Commercial
A commercial
firm to pay to a
at a stated time.
or
Adam
Drafts
bank, or
Miller of Mt.
person,
a person
directing
certain
Liberty,O., owes
sum
Brown
of money
"
Co.
of
Brown
"
Co.
deposit this
draft with
their bank
(New First
Sight drafts
Time
or
after
" Co.
due when
accepted.
drafts are due a stated number
of days after date
when
acceptance. The draft must state definitely
are
they
are
VII
CHAPTER
TRAVEL
How
Jack's
When
home
at
York
were
Time
father returned
hour
one
faster than
tell how
different time
have
at
that
The
places
Time
long does
earth
tion?
a
in New
different
why
1. How
the
clocks
the
to his
moment.
same
and
Longitude
City
of Cincinnati.
those
the
York
New
learned
Jack
Travel
We
from
followingpages
may
When
Changes
make
to
far in
How
1 hr.?
In
what
rota^
one
degrees does
the earth
given point on
in
it take
How
tate
ro
far in
min.?
2.
the
earth
3.
noon
the
when
direction
sun
does
is
on
the
meridian
shadow
the
point
direction
rotate?
to have
does
place.
noon
in
the
time)
In
what
United
States?
4. When
all
What
For
places
it is
on
at
noon
the
is the time
all places west
same
for all
as
that
is the
222
Why?
of
of Cincinnati?
of Cincinnati?
time
Why?
STANDARD
223
it is 12 o'clock at
6. When
TIME
city? Why?
it is 12 o'clock
know
If you
9.
places,how
10.
can
If you
the
time
between
two
longitude?
the difference in longitudebetween two
you
know
places,how
11.
difference in
do you
know
If you
the
between
two
time
12.
how
If you
at
how
from
degreesaway
many
lunch
of one,
12 o'clock
at your
noon
would
you
people be eating
breakfast time?
would
Where
Standard
You
have
travels east
observed
or
west.
or
that
To
Railroad
solar
avoid
Time
time
changes as one
confusion caused by this fact,
or
sun
TRAVEL
224
the railroads of
our
given belt
plan of giving
the
STANDARD
time
Eastern
Mountain
time
Pacific time
then
by
belt
time
is the
or
hour from
belts because
(alsocalled local)time
solar time
time
of the
of
meridian;
meridian; and
meridian.
It follows
governingmeridians
Since Jan.
to
105th
of all places in
time
of the 75th
of the 90th
of the 120th
the standard
the
BELTS
one
TIME
is the solar
meridian; Central
same
are
Time
to
15*^apart.
has been
Une
used by
through
Sault
the Mountain
Time
belt?
PROBLEMS
LOCAL
ABOUT
STANDARD
AND
TIME
225
ridians.
marking the boundaries of time belts are not meThey are irregularnorth and south Hnes connecting
stations (usuallydivision points)on important railroads.
lines
The
about
Problems
1. In
faster
your
belt do you
time
which
slower than
or
longitudeand
time
local time
Is your
time?
2. What
of
live?
standard
your
(Local)Time
Solar
knowledge
solve these problems.
help you
to
and
the map
Use
and
Standard
Central
time
and
the
local time of
3. Frank
Central
time."
What
his
was
said,"Central
4. James
local time."
What
was
faster than
longitude?
time
slower than
is 20 min.
my
his
longitude?
in problems
If the boys mentioned
5.
3 and
4 live in
must
the other?
from
time."
Where
7. When
standard
it is 1
time
a.m.
9. If you
know
you
your
p.m.
at
standard
York
Does
as
Eastern
is the
City?
standard
the
time
at
Boston, what
is the
difference between
your
local
time?
Chicago have
Why?
Memphis, Tenn.?
10.
same
Portland,Ore.?
longitudein degreesand minutes,
your
compute
standard
is the
she live?
time at New
standard
can
does
it is 9
8. When
how
local time
said,"My
Mary
6.
and
min.
noon
or
after
TRAVEL
226
"X
^
^ ^j^
SoMlo
Colorado
.^,"^^*
^^^'^
I ANoetes
^N
Note.
"
DIEGO
Light face is A. M.
TO
LEARNING
READ
RAILROAD
TIME
TABLES
227
MINMEAPOLM,
X?X
..V^
ST.
JOSEPtf
KANSAS
FROM
DOWN
READ
CITY
AND
Miles
from
St.
(One day
for eaeample) Louis
TO
LOmS
ST.
No. 17
No.
Daily
9.01
12.06
Tu
3.20
Tu
9.50
Tu
11.59
for example)
Lv
St. Louis.
.Ar
120
Lv
Hannibal.
.Ar
3.45
224
Lv
Brookfield
Ar
12.35
Tu
326
Lv
674
Lv
1.30
Lv
9.00
8.00
Mt.
The
problems
many
hours and
Los
From
Angeles?
2. What
From
Chicago
Denver
From
to
Th
Time
Lv
Timo
6.40
8.40
Cent.
Mt.
to
on
Travel
based
are
pages
minutes
Denver?
Ogden
Los
to San
the raih'oad
on
and
226
is the
227.
accordingto
run
From
to Salt Lake?
is the distance
St. Louis
5.00
in this exercise
1. How
Denver?
Th
.Ar
about
tables shown
table from
Th
6.10
Time
time
the
8.45
Denver
and
map
Ar
.Ar
Time
Problems
City
McCook.
Ar
7.19
St. Joseph.
Kansas
Cent.
928
16
Daily
(One day
Burlington Route
From
St. Louis
to
Salt Lake
to
Francisco?
from
Francisco?
3. John
arrive
at
Angeles?
leaves Chicago
Salt Lake
Monday
City? When
at 11
p.m.
will he
When
will he
arrive at
Los
TRAVEL
228
4. What
At Salt
change m time is made at Denver?
Lake City? At Ogden?
Does the table show the actual
of hours traveled between Chicago and Los Angeles?
number
cisco
5. A person leavingSt. Louis at 9:01 p.m. for San Franwishes to go by the quickestroute.
Which
is it,the
Pacific out of Salt Lake
Western
City or the Southern
Pacific out of Ogden? How
hours will be saved by
many
the rightroute?
selecting
often and in which cities is the time changed in
6. How
From
travelingfrom Chicago to San Francisco?
Chicago
to Los Angeles?
7. Excursion
have
been
At
this
and return
pricewhat
was
the
mile?
fare per
8. If
tickets from
tourist leaves
Saturday,
when should he arrive at San Francisco if there is no delay?
should leave Chicago on
9. If you
Saturday for Los
Angelesand should spend a day at Denver, one at Colorado
Springs,and should leave Salt Lake City on No. 7 (seethe
time tables),
when would you arrive at Los Angeles? Why
should one
to stop at these points?
want
10. Estimating the railroad fare at Sjif
per mi. and the
Pullman
fare at $23 for a lower berth,find the cost of a full
ticket from
Los Angeles to
fare railroad and Pullman
Chicago if there is an 8% war tax on railroad and Pullman
transportation.
a
11. The
of
Pullman
lower.
What
Chicago
fare for
would
an
have
at
upper
been
11
p.m.
on
berth is 80%
of that
an
upper?
How
PROBLEMS
TRAVEL
230
minutes.
How
many
miles per
On
hour
was
that?
Compare
flew from
stop
Cleveland,O., to Washington, D.C., in a nonin 2 hom^ 58 minutes, distance 450 miles. Compare
flight
the average
speed on this tripwith that in problem 18.
G. Kihier flew in a
20. On Feb. 21, 1919, Col. Walter
DeHaviland
machine
from Riverside,Cal., to Rockwell
What
the
was
Field,distance 115 miles, in 38 minutes.
speed per hour?
average
21. In June, 1919, Capt. John Alcock and Lieut. Arthur
made
the first nonstop transBrown, two British officers,
Atlantic ffight.They flew from Newfoundland
to Clifden,
Ireland,in 16 hr. 12 min., distance 1960 mi. Compute
their average
Hint."
hourly rate
Think
of travel.
16 hr. 12 min.
16.2 hr.
Belvin
Lieutenant
as
closest
in 26 hr. 13 min.
14
the
same
trip
sec.
min.
CHAPTER
VIII
ECONOMY
This
chapter contains
pay?'' or "Did
enables
helping
thrift,by
it
THRIFT
problems intended
of arithmetic
knowledge
and
AND
to
pay?"
"Which
or
the
answer
show
how
practice economy
to
one
to
question, "Will
of action
course
it
is most
economical?"
Thrift
The
1.
children
months
two
and
for old
children
The
collected
of old
The
3.
at the
value
old
magazines.
lb.; magazines
named
the
to
in the
Jan.
What
in the
1, 1920, 17975
If the
children
would
probably
several
ways
had
have
in which
per
not
were
100
received
of St. Louis
priced
lb.
collected
happened
to
collectingand
thrift?
231
lb.
previous problem?
$2.75
was
previous problem
amount
average
public schools
Newspapers
at
papers
news
paper?
price named
of 267450
in
lb. of
2550
was
of the
and
100
per
collected
the
4.
What
children
and
March
$1.26
Sept. 1, 1919,
from
School
newspapers
of the school
magazines.
month
per
100
per
School
Mullanphy
received
They
$2.75
the
lb. of old
the
of
11325
magazines.
in
Find
and
at
computed
lb. of
28514
$1.25
the
during
per
total value.
of
sellingold
100
it?
paper
what
Name
motes
pro
PROBLEMS
232
ABOUT
ECONOMY
Food
Knowing
THRIFT
Values
2 LB. CHICKEN
of the above
Each
AND
ORANGES
amounts
(WL2K""
in energy
value.
Table
Milk
Eggs
Cabbage
.
Tomatoes
75^
Bananas
use
is the
oranges
or
2. Which
doz.
lb.
the cost
cheaper food
or
Oranges
bananas?
fish? eggs
or
4ffa
1. If you
which
Jan., 1921,
16^aqt.
of
eggs
of
SOffalb.
8f^a lb.
00^ a
Eng.
lb.
40fia lb.
walnuts
as
2S^
the
lb.
basis,
fish?
is the
most
of energy
expensive food?
value
Sirloin steak
cheapest?
3. Callingthe energy*value of
find the
doz.
quart of milk
at the
or
Prices
to do work.
Energy is ability
qt. of milk
in 1 lb. of each
Which
one,
is the
or
100%,
of the other
THRIFT
IN
THE
HOME
233
were
October?
for potatoes and
People who have storage room
Do
applesusuallybuy their winter supply in the autumn.
you see why?
11. Canned
which retails at 15jiper can
is usually
com
sold at $1.50 per dozen.
If a family needs 3 dozen cans,
what is the % of savingby [buying
^t wholesale?
12. In May, 1920, the price of old potatoes was
lOjfa
it was
ones
lb.;of new
20ffa lb. If the largerwastp in.
peeling old potatoes is offset by their higher food value,
what is the % of savingin buying old potatoes?
10.
ECONOMY
234
Home
1. When
sweet
AND
and
THRIFT
School
potatoes
Problems
at lljf
selling
per lb.,Irish
were
In energy
value
1 lb. of sweet
is saved
for each
Allow
1%
of the flour
of 1919
lb. of newspapers
as
waste
the school
and 78345
lb. of
magazines.
there in the total?
tons were
(1) How many
papers
(2) If during this periodthe average priceof old newsthe value of the
$1.15 per 100 lb.,what was
was
monthly collection?
(3) The average pricefor old magazines was $2.45 per
lb. Find the value of the average
monthly collection.
average
100
(4) Find
of old paper
collections for
(5) At the
rate
(6) At this
calendar
rate
what
school months?
what
would
five?
would
PROFIT
IN
APPLES
GROWING
an
235
acre
of land
taining
con
Beauty 14;Arkansas
Black 16; Ben Davis 20. In 1919 the total productionand
value were
as follows: Rome
Beauty 10 bbl. No. 1 @ $3.75,
6 bbl. No. 2 @ $3.00; Arkansas
Blacks 10 bbl. No. 1 @
$3.75, 8 bbl. No. 2 @ $3.00; Ben Davis 12 bbl. No. 1 @
$3.50,6 bbl. No. 2 @ $2.75;8 bbl. of windfalls @ $2.50,
windfalls sold in baskets and sacks for $11.50; 10 gallons
of cider at 35ff;
culls fed to 4 hogs for 2 months, estimated
at $4 per hog.
The
cost of growing and
as
marketing the crop was
follows: pruning,3 days @ $2; spray materials,
$7;spraying,
4 times,requiring
each time 2 men
working 4 hours,at 25ji
and packing,40jia bbl. (omit the
sorting,
per hr. ; picking,
windfalls not in barrels);
49jfeach; drayage
empty barrels,
to freightstation j mile from the orchard,$4.50.
Compute the interest on the cost of the land at 6%.
the
The
tax
1. Find
2.
3.
the
following
appletrees:
was
on
Rome
an
the total
land and
the tax.
4. Find
the average
5. Find
the net
6. Find
the net
earnings per
7. What
cost
per
tree.
tree.
pickingand
marketing (3 items)?
8. What
on
net
9. Is it safe to
expect such
crop
earn?
as
ECONOMY
g36
AND
Thrift in
THRIFT
Corn
Growing
productionof one
comclub
boy. Find
kept by a Missouri
the value of each questionmark.
acre
com
as
Mar.
2 hr.
making
"
18
1 hr.
and testingseed
selecting
*"
18
Cost of seed
"
30
4 hr.
Apr.
"
**
15
10
May
"
28
"
29
.
June
"
15
"
Oct.
Nov.
"
2hr.
"
"
"
"
"
team, plowing @
"
harrowing
"
"
"
and
others
harrowing
?
.
"
"
"
@ 65^
Uhr.
"
"
"
"
"
@65^
"
"
"
@65^
"
"
"
@ 65^
12hr.
husking"
3 hr.
Rent
15^
hauling@ 65ji
on
land
$5.00
Sold 68 bushels
@ $1.20
Net
profiton
record
is made
^The above
growing
.
one
one
acre
?
?
acre
in full to
readingknowledge of scientificcorn
of boys in our
country.
a
"
"
"
?
.
"
"
Note.
$0.65
planting@ 65^
@ 65^
team, cultivating
Total cost of
IJhr.
lihr.
$0.15
1 hr. labor,boy
Nov.
65^
thinning
"
15
and
"
IJhr.
31
2.50
"
25
30
"
labor,boy
"
July
15^
$0.50
Ihr.
1 hr.
fertiUzer
Ihr.
25
'^
"
seed tester
Value
and Cost*
Record of Work
Date
ECONOMY
238
Sometimes
of
the
com
THRIFT
AND
one
old sprouts
year
learn from
(germinates)only
lesson
careful
may
farmer
the
below.
(1)
POOR
SEED
OF
CAUSE
GREATEST
YIELD
OF
CORN
hills
LOW
an
How
planted
are
acre
many
if an
on
8ounce
hill
ONE
OF
SMALL.
TO
EACH
26
BU. PER
CORN
EQUALS
yields25 bu. to
the acre?
(A bushel
of ear corn
weighs 70
pounds.)
(2) What is the
weight per
average
8 02. EAR
HILL
,
AVERAGE
THE
ACRE
OF
YIELD
U. S.
THREE
TO
76
MEAN
EARS
HILL
SMALL
THESE
LIKE
BU
EACH
PER
ACRE
ear
of the small
in the
THREE
THESE
WERE
KERNELS
PLANTED
JN THIS
HILL
ears
picturewhich
yield 76 bu.
to
the
acre?
of Cedarville,0., in a recent
(3) Fred Dobbins
On
to the acre.
a
year averaged 104 bushels of corn
the average weight
basis of 3 ears
to the hill,what
was
per
ear?
one,
with
the
same
soil and
When
tested before
V.
the
If
same
seed
corn
be
good yieldof
climatic
Why
and
conditions,is
selected?
com
poor
seed.
should
it be
planting?
corn
PIGS
FEEDING
PROFIT
239
bushel
month
interest
I.
FOR
made
was
on
the money
James
from
McMillen,
October
to
July.
an
pigclubboy, purchased
on
May 23, 1918, a 37pound
PolandChina
pig,2 months
old. Later weights were
as
follows: July 8, 112 lb.;Sept.
12, 229 lb.;Nov. 2, 378 lb.;
Dec. 21, 515 lb.
(1) Find the average
dailygain for each period.
(2) During which period
the per cent of gain greatest?
was
(3) Construct a graph showing the growth from May
Ohio
23
to
Dec.
21.
II. Another
Ohio
PROBLEMS
240
ECONOMY
ABOUT
AND
com
worth
THRIFT
$1.50
bu. and
$2.00 worth
the age
of 6 months
and
or
9 months.
loss if hogs
worth
were
rate
PolandChina
in I.
the older
consumed
one
pig between
Did this period show
Both
profit
a lb.?
17jlf
of
more
do you
How
account
dailyto
of
is necessary
corn
(1) What
is the
to
get the
same
gain.
each 200lb.
pig?
(2) If the dailyincrease is 1 lb. in weight,how much
gettingfor the corn fed in the dry
per bushel is the owner
lot,not countinghis labor?
IV. A balanced ration for growing pigs is 6 lb. of shelled
and 1 lb. of oilmeal. Skimmed
milk,or
corn, 3 lb. of shorts,
buttermilk,may replacepartly or wholly the shorts and
oilmeal
how
on
(1) If
much
corn
(2) How
to
the milk
boy
can
procure
will balance
much
milk,
this amount?
shorts and
to balance
com.
oilmeal must
daily ration of
the
boy add
12 lb. of
corn
to
PROBLEMS
ABOUT
FEEDING
PIGS
241
current
condition?
.
It is estimated
VI.
fed to
com
corn
Use
named
above
the information
is needed
to
make
in this section to
20 lb. of increase.
in the next
help you
one.
In
VII.
and
corn
(1) What
worth
profitoh his
day, who
hogs in
was
weight
at $22 per hundred
corn
in 20
make
days
to
each
July
dry lot?
many
ECONOMY
242
AND
THRIFT
Poultry for
Keeping
Profit
I. Missouri
a
Queen was
SingleComb White Leghorn
hen at the Missouri Poultry Experiment Station. This remarkable
hen completed her 1000egg record April 10, 1919.
This is her record: 1914, 222 eggs; 1915, 187 eggs; 1916,
She weighed 4^
217 eggs; 1917, 149 eggs; 1918, 177 eggs.
lb.,and it cost
her each year.
on
an
weight of the
The
(3) Construct
of eggs
to
egg
to feed
average
eggs
121.8 lb.
was
laid in 1919
to
complete
through
egg
record
for 6
years.
(4) Compute
each
year.
the
of
profit earned
for her
owner
THRIFT
Bertha
Stanford,age
club girl.
IN
POULTRY
oneyear
15, an
KEEPING
243
egg record
Atchison
kept by Miss
Co. (Mo.) poultry
yield.
ECONOMY
244
month
year
to have
over
feed cost?
AND
average
THRIFT
priceof
eggs
per
dozen
for
(7) Study
the
S20.
What
egg
record
was
once
the
excess
more,
of egg value
take
into
possiblemethod
sideration
con
of
roosters
before Dec.
1?
ECONOMY
246
AND
THRIFT
others?
7. A
a
working
young
6months'
business
man
course
was
Car
at
cents
necessary
his work.
How
The
and
books
hour
an
night school.
In order
a day.
lOjif
dailyfrom
hour
one
earning50
to do
tuition
stationery.
this,he lost
did the
much
took
course
cost him?
8. On
Feb.
at
reading on
Jan. 8 it was
ft.;on
cu.
7 the
95ffper
What
payment.
1000
was
376100
my
cu.
ft.,with
the saving
cu.
meter
gas
ft. The
378300
was
bill was
puted
com
10%
if the
bill
was
paid
promptly?
9. When
estimated
owner
States
move
who
that
of each
have
was
$3.18,by prompt
the % of saving?
studied the
^ gallon of
problem carefullyhave
gasolineis wasted dailyby the
of 6,000,000 passenger
cars
in the United
many
tons
for
one
mile?
CHAPTER
MONEY
HOW
1.
Mr.
John
Mr.
Adam
Smith,
2.
This
is the
(2) What
(3) On
(4)
How
Interest
The
rate
for the
use
amount
this
interest
paid
is the
of interest
is
$200
lying idle
for
the
in
end
How
his
of 6
mi^t
note?
$200?
note
will be
the
per
one
247
due?
due
on
this
day?
money.
is used.
cent
of the
principal paid
year.
principal plus
settlement.
be
of
use
which
principal for
the
at
crop
Fry signed.
money
is the
paid
for 6 months.
of the
his cotton
be
to
is given the
is money
principal
finance
work?
to
which
keep
much
The
$8,
money
name
what
to
of his $200
note
will
(1) Who
The
Smith
Smith
$200
neighbor, had
use
MONEY
EARNS
Fry needed
Fry offered
bank.
IX
the
interest
due
at
HOW
248
From
EARNS
MONEY
previouspage a generalrule
written as a formula,thus:
the definitions on
findinginterest
be
may
MONEY
the
for
I=PXRXT
in
which
interest,P
principal,R
in years or part of
Explain and then solve
T =time
X"
of
=rate
interest,and
year.
by
cancellation.
X".
100
12
iKO
X^X^^.
100
360
410
100
360
the amount
due
on
each of these
Rate
5%
6%
4%
3%
8%
7%
8%
6%
6%
6%
Problems
1. A
man
bought
house
his note
and
How
much
He
paid
6% interest,
interest
was
INTEREST
2.
249
I
Harry owned
the interest
PROBLEMS
$100 LibertyLoan
bond
4%
on
which
did he
How
much
paid every 6 months.
get at each interest period? How much interest did he get
in 2 years? How
much
in 3 years?
3. A girlsaid,"The
interest on $150 at 6% for 1 yr. is
$9.00,for 1 month it is $.75,and for 1 day it is $.025."
Was she right? There are 30 days in ai^ interest month and
360 days in an interest year.
4. Find
For
the interest
for 1 yr.
$300 at 5%
on
For
mo.
1 da.
6. How
1 yr. 1
would
days,60
7. Find
you
$160 at 6%
on
for
1 da.?
mo.
6. Banks
30
was
for
due
amount
on
as
each
of these
you
consider
notes.
Exact
Exact
or
Accurate
Interest
interest
when
in
days, or
individuals.
In all
where
cases
number
of
days
the time
must
is less than
be found.
one
MONEY
HOW
250
1. Find
=63
Complete
2. A
man
the
May
7,
"
his note
gave
note
days
"
365
on
June
6, 1921,for $120
Find
1921.
the exact
at
5%
interest and
interest.
common
3. Find
days (April)+7
computation.
to
rto
100
on
5, 1921,
the
Mar.
26
tune
(May)
MONEY
$320 at 6%.
1921, on
The
EARNS
at
and
exact
common
interest
interest,
running for 73 days in
7%
1920.
Hint.
"
1920 is a
4. Charles
days
in 1920
leapyear.
36f5. How
interest
great
Promissory
on
an
$400 at 6%
for 55
did he make?
error
Notes
40000000
^J?^iPa^
V 7^
r:^2^X"/"/Z^.W^^^
C^Zf^^^d^(^
''o/i^^aZJ^
\^^y^^i^cf^2^
'^^i^^^^^i^^W/i^^
Y'
"%_
BBC
A
TIME
PROMISSORY
NOTE
PROMISSORY
NOTES
251
one,
promissorynote is a written promise to pay to someof money
or his order,
a certain sum
on
demand, or on
specified
day.
2. Important elements of a promissorynote.
1. A
to someone
(1) A promise to pay money
by someone.
(2) The amount
promised usuallystated in figuresand
(3) Date of note and place given.
(4) Time to run.
(5) If interest bearing,the phrase wiih interest and the
words.
rate
annum.
per
signerof the
4. The
person
6. The
sum
Note.
"
You
to whom
named
should
note
is the maker.
the
be careful not
the latter
belongs to interest,
etc.
bonds, stocks,
who
note
holds
payable to bearer
it when
promise is made
is the payee.
is the face.
in the note
former
6. A
is to be made.
to confuse
to
can
be collected
by
anyone
due.
note
MONEY
HOW
252
Buying
1.
2.
and
MONEY
EARNS
Notes
Selling Promissory
quently
Negotiablepromissory notes are property and consebe bought and sold.
may
If the note contains the phrase "or order,"then the
seller must
write his
the back
across
name
of it. This
is
of your
one
Have
notes
sellthe note
the back
oh
note
Kinds
"
indorsement,as
on
Indorsements
evidence
indorsement.
the payee
1. An
be sold without
can
of
and
Meaning
below.
CV^rY^^^Cf^
^^iTT^^KV^rf^
uuuuuuuu
HOW
264
Valuable
1.
MONEY
EARNS
Information
about
MONEY
Notes
Promissory
Notes
is used.
3.
Signaturesmade
with
4.
"Value received"
lead pencilare
is usually written
legal.
in the
If not
note.
must
7. A
be
aboUshed
are
grace
10.
A note antedated
11.
1. If the time
to
the
run
months
or
"
Nov.
note
an
innocent
chaser,
pur
in most
states.
interest
noninterest
bearingor
paid when
Maturity
due.
of Notes
Date
is stated in years
from
dated
bearing,
or
months,
count
date of issue.
in three months
10, 1920.
2. If the time
from
by
or
maturity if not
Finding
matures
was
proven.
Days of
Example.
it
paid.
due on a Sunday or a legalholidayare usually
falling
the last precedingor next succeedingbusiness day.
on
years
He
be
8. Notes
by
and
or
note
must
9.
or
if the amount
can
collected
any
is lost
note
pay
given
sue
may
to
riin is stated in
days, count
by days
date of issue.
Example.
in 90
"
^A note
dated
is Nov.
8.
in 90
days
tures
ma
PROMISSORY
Time
the
Finding
of
the time
year, two
Aug. 10
month,
count
longer than
are
Settlement
the actual
months
and
and
month
shorter
used.
the actual
to Oct. 10 is 2 months.
Aug.
10 and
Nov.
Oct. 10 to Nov.
From
3.
3 is 24
days.
24 da.
mo.
II. Count
actual
method
By this
and
"
time is 2
The
of Issue
month.
Example.
From
is
methods
whole
I. Count
less than
265
days.
2. When
than
Date
1. When
niunber
between
NOTES
days elapsedbetween
the time
from
Aug.
the two
10 to Nov.
dates.
3 is 85
days.
this result
by counting.
more
commonly employed by bankers.
For determiningquicklythe number of days between two dates
bankers use
Such a table is found on page 256.
a
Day Table.
Prove
the time is
3. When
longerthan
one
year, two
methods
be used.
may
Example.
"
Find
the time
between
June
23, 1922.
Sept. 29, 1919,
From
to
May
29, 1922, is 8
This
is
2 yr., 8 mo.,
to
mo.
expressed more
25 da.
full years
less than a year.
II. Coimt
time
count
only and
or
in the
by
problem above,there
the actual
Thus
from
the table
on
page
256.
are
Bankers
usuallyuse method
II.
HOW
256
Table
for
MONEY
to the
(l) How
(2) How
4.
any
two
dates.
Table
to
one
certain
by bankers.
Hints,
3.
from
are
days between
Day
corresponding day of
used
2.
Make
table enables
above
days there
many
to
MONEY
of
findingthe number
How
1. The
EARNS
at
see
day
of
month.
a
a
glance how
given month
Why?
to find out
how
it is constructed.
Study it to discover
Would
a single
error
if there
in such
in it.
errors
are
table do much
harm?
Why?
How
1. How
Look
is 181.
2. How
In
days
many
for Feb.
There
on
are
many
to
the
Use
from
Feb.
from
Table
10 to
August
days from
days
Day
at the
Feb. 10 to
top.
In the angle
5, 1920?
Why?
USING
1920
and
is
May
May
and
but
is in the
angle July
table shows
to, Nov.
5.
whose
to
days
between
between
Oct. 5
Oct. 5, 1919,
You
to Dec.
8, 1920.
of
difference is 365
days
or
leap year,
table
are
sequently
con
certain
month,
any
the
use
There
days from
day of
also
is
1920
problem.
same
can
8, 1920?
our
the number
to the
8 to Dec.
December.
included in
is not
given month
dates
is included
213
many
153
of
are
257
5, 1920.
February
The
TABLE
DAY
February
Therefore there
5.
3. How
153
and
leap year
THE
day
Jan. 6
as
for
any
two
less. See
the
next
problem.
4. How
days from
many
Aug. 29
to Mar.
29
Therefore
6. Oct.
9 to
7.
9.
in
5 to Nov.
15
From
from Jan. 5 to
Using
the
Day
days.
Table
days from
many
3. Mar.
Sept.5.
Therefore
how
1. Jan.
256
Jan. 5 to
29 =212
Practice
Find
are
days from
13 days.
days.
6. How
Mar.
243
Jan. 5 to
to
5.
Dec.
Dec.
15.
2.
2. Feb.
4.
Apr.
6. From
2 to
15
to
Sept. 22.
Dec.
Feb. 29 to
3.
July 31.
HOW
268
10.
MONEY
EARNS
MONEY
1924.
11. The
12.
the
same
year.
13. Christmas
Day
of the current
next
above
much
money
1. The
265
da.
Note.
text
"
your
banks.
was
not
was
Prove
^When
use
Washington's
Notes
requiredto
time between
is less than
work
note
to
July 4.
Settling Promissory
The
year
1923.
How
settle it?
yr.
this result.
the
year,
Day
count
Table
on
256.
This
problems in this
of days. To shorten
is the usual
custom
of
SETTLING
interest
2. The
$200 at 6%
on
NOTES
PROMISSORY
259
this result.
Prove
4.
due?
is the amount
3. What
on
each of
the followingnotes.
write the
in your vicinity,
for each of the above settlements.
Using the
6.
check
proper
Note.
In
"
leap
A
!" Name
of
name
years
bank
Short Test
on
Promissory Notes
the
on
page
2. Write
250.
time,interest bearing,negotiable,
promissory
note.
8. A
demand
Write
payee.
demand
in blank?
What
Why
due
at
the
option of the
negotiablenote.
is the difference between principal
and face?
is the effect on
dorsed
a
promissory note if it be in
6. What
rather
becomes
4. What
6.
note
do money
than
3month
if indorsed
lenders
notes.
without
recourse?
notes
MONEY
HOW
260
This is
wish
an
find interest
to
"
the interest
^In the
and
($1,333),
2. Find
Hint.
"
3. Find
Hint."
add
on
interest
int.
on
on
$200 for 45
on
an
find the
when
see
if you
they
can
$900
Interest
Table
days.
interest for 40
days
days ($.166).
$980 for 90
for 90 da.
on
days.
($13.50)
+
the int. on
=$1.26.
($.05+$.01)
"
standing
precedingexplanationis given as a help in underthe table. In actual practicethe interest addends
from the table;thus,in problem three
written at once
The
are
to
use
=$14.70.
($1.20)
the
of
Means
^The interest
The
bankers
by
column
$200
the interest
as
quickly. Study it
Interest
Computing
Hint.
MONEY
it is made.
discover how
1. Find
EARNS
HOW
262
How
MONEY
EARNS
MONEY
Mr.
correct?
UOO^Vioo
Three Years
^^^^^.^
Four
"
Blessing,
Tex.,Nov. 18, 1917.
^^^^after
^
"
^^
.^
"
.^j,
.^"..
Hundred
"
^.
date
Dunn^'^^^
"
promise
to pay
.^"^^^^^^^QY
order,
Dollars
'"^^^^^^^v^^^^^"^^^^^^^.^^^.^^^
with interest at
8%
per annum,
payable annually.
this note
and
until
paid.
John
Roye
all
per
Roye made
Nov.
18,
Nov.
18,
Nov.
18,
Mr.
much
How
ON
INTEREST
PAYING
YOU
OWE
263
these payments:
$100;
1920, $200.
due
was
WHAT
when
settlement
made
was
on
Jan.
18, 1921?
John
pay
home
What
Some
know
you
$200 every 3
the unpaid balance.
on
to
bought
cash and
$2000
6%
Barr
for $6000,
agreeing to pay
months
plus all interest at
How
long did it take him
the total paid for it?
was
Use it unless
in this form.
better way.
Cash
$2000
In 3
mo.
In 6
mo.
In 9
mo.
200 fint.on
200
..
which
,
is
.
etc.
Note.
"
^A
indorsements
days
oommon
are
for any
full month.
Problems
1. The
June
1,
date of
1919.
HOW
264
MONEY
Discounting
A
good business
the bank
note
on
his
is due.
man
Notes
sometimes
borrow
money
at
the
can
own
Banks
MONEY
EARNS
lending
money.
notes.
1. Does
note
Why?
number
Answer
1 below
the
represent a
loan
question for
same
NOTE
NO.
NOTE
NO.
or
note
No.
count?
dis
2.
DISCOUNTING
is the interest
(1) When
(2) How
(3) When
note
No.
much
is the
discount
1?
in
(interest
paid
money
1?
long time
in No.
much
banks
why
in
2?
time
to
rather
the note
It is
discount
or
notes
in
case
than
of
or
The
rate of discount
always computed
on
the
of the note.
value
If the note
bears
of the note
he sold
the
Smith
Mr.
sum
is due
of each year
time.
The
from
proceeds.
would
paid when
at the end
maturity?
Smith actuallyget
when
due.
If the
note
advance) paid
at
is collected in advance.
Discount
varies from
Mr.
2 is called
No.
is
note
does
How
see
2. Interest
amount
pay
much
(6) Do you
lend money?
4.
Smith
in No.
maturity
No.
much
receives in note
3.
note
2?
(4) How
(5) How
bank
265
paid in
Mr.
must
NOTES
on
Jan.
does not
may
This
was
8%.
bear
sell it to the
is the note
Bank.
On
HOW
266
(1) On
MONEY
day
what
was
EARNS
MONEY
the note
the
on
previous page
due?
(2) What
(3) How
due?
it was
is used in
its
maturity value?
days did the bank
was
many
(4) How
much
the note
own
before
and
of discount
tenn
the discoimt?
was
68
Discount
Maturity
value
x8%
360
24
the
that?
siun
(6) How much did the bank receive for the note at
matiuity? From whom?
(7) Who must pay the note in case the maker refuses
to do so?
To whom?
Why?
6. Read
the previousdiscussion once
then do the
more,
followingwork.
(1) Write an interest bearing note which you might
own.
is settled.
7. John
notes
Find
Adams
which
owned
he sold to
the
followingnoninterest bearing
his bank at 7% discount:
the
sum
of money
he received from
the bank.
NOTES
DISCOUNTING
8. A
30day
Find
date at 6%.
9. A
note
for $300
was
the
proceeds.
for $400, bearing6%
60day note
42 days before due
Hint.
267
counted
diswas
interest,
Find the proceeds.
5%.
at
"
10.
Hint.
Maturity
certain Ohio
11.
Proceeds
"
bank
Discount.
value
in
month
recent
bought (discounted
and
the
Hint.
sum
"
on
page
260 to
help you
in your
computations.
On
12.
Nov.
Crane
to
one
John
two
year,
sale. Write
13.
Mr.
and
three
years
from
date
the
of
Crane
years,
one
at
exactlytwo
7%
years
discount.
was
and then
How
much
paid?
CHAPTER
X
ACCOUNTS
SAVINGS
banks
Many
rate
of interest
(3%
account
may
Such
is
have
an
be
and
1 of each
July
paid
opened with
and
generallycomputed
is
4%)
or
added
The
year.
savings deposits,followed
by
savings deposits.
on
dollar.
one
to the
low
account
Interest
Jan.
on
banks,
on
these:
are
of each
month
2.
will not
Interest
be
allowed
allowed
on
from
the
the
first
day of
balances, nor
average
for parts of
withdrawn
December
periods will
Example.
June
be
A
"
man
15 he withdraws
interest
on
July
from
deducted
on
the
Under
$100 for
sums
1 and
these
deposits.
deposits $100
$100.
first
the
above
June
on
this
1.
On
receives
man
month.
one
Problems
1. This
On
bank
problem shows
paid 4%
On
deposited$25.
was
due
On
Nov.
the above
Baker
rules
deposited $100
annum,
per
Mar.
Jan.
how
24
he withdrew
1, 1921?
268
in
savings
deposited $50.
he
used.
are
On
$35.
Aug.
What
he
ance
bal
SAVINGS
270
$10; Mar.
balance
3, $15; May
on
July
ACCOUNTS
What
1 if mterest
at
4%
per
annum,
was
her
payable
is allowed?
semiannually^
He put all
LibertyBonds.
the interest from them into his savingsaccount
at 4% per
payableJan. 1 and July 1. These were the amounts
annum,
6. A
man
young
owns
of interest he collected in
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
How
15,
15,
15,
15,
much
for him
that
some
certain year:
$ 8.50
Sept.15,
Oct. 15,
Nov. 15,
Dec. 15,
$ 8.50
4.25
17.00
4.00
4.25
17.00
4.00
Liberty Bond
interest
earn
year?
Compound
Interest
account
add
to
interest earned
the account
at the end
interest monthly.
of the month
This
is
the
compounding
HOW
INTEREST
EARNS
MONEY
271
interest is
Compound
which
amount
to
thing as
same
accoimt,
a new
pound
gettingcom
interest.
Interest
Compound
table shows
1. This
how
Problems
increases if
money
compoimd
interest is allowed.
At
interest added
3%,
duringthe
$100
(How did
The
$103
The
The
did
the
second
The
$106.09.
get $106.09?)
we
we
third
year
becomes
$109.27.
get $109.27?)
during the
sixth year
$112.55.
becomes
at the end
sixth
in the table.
(2) The
compound interest
on
at
3%
less $100.
is $
(3) How
much
for the
*
becomes
year
The
you
$103.
get $103?)
we
years
becomes
first year
during
(How did
annually.
same
time and
rate?
ACCOUNTS
SAVINGS
272
2. Find
the
annum
per
Hint.
"
years
S200 at 4%
on
year
at the end
amount
etc.
The
of the second
less $200.
Persons
so
yr. the
be
be $208.08.
$204.
would
$200
by
who
must
of
means
compute
Compound
How
1. The
amount
to
for each
Table
Interest
Construct
here.
the
Table
by
amount
amount
2. Make
is $1.0937.
The
interest
period;for the
12th.
USING
THE
COMPOUND
How
1. If the
to
interest is
INTEREST
Use
the
TABLE
273
Table
compounded
annually at 6% the
due at the end of 5 years is found by looking in
amount
the 6% column oppositethe figure5 in the periodcolumn.
This amount
(S1.3382)$I.OO is $.3382, the compound
interest
for 5 years*
SI at 6%
on
would
How
you
find the
Find
the
compound
semiannually. Look
column.
The
amount
interest
in the
on
column
2%
is $1.2190.
in the
period
opposite10
pound
com
compounded semiannually.
of
amount
is $1.5580.
amoimt) by
of $1 at 3%
Prove
1.1593
4. If the time
add
to the amount
for 15 years
compounded annually
this result by multiplying1.3439 (10 period
(5 period amoimt).
contains
fraction
of
an
interest
period,
period,such a part of
the interest for the next full period as is indicated by the
fraction of the time period.
The
for
2i
compound
years
of $1
6%, compounded
is $1.1236 +i of ($1.1910$1.1236),which
amount
at
annually,
is $1.1573.
ACCOUNTS
SAVINGS
274
in
Practice
the
Using
Interest
Compound
Table
of his investment
the amount
was
2. Some
8th
Savings Stamps
at $4.12 each.
States Government
Some
time
Jan. 1, 1920?
on
will pay
On
in
receiving on
stamp
your
annually for
test the accuracy
investment
pupils,"You
are
pounded
interest,com
4%
to
of this statement.
in the
of the pupils mentioned
July, 1920, some
previousproblem bought War SavingsStamps at $4.19 each.
3. In
These
stamps
are
worth
$5.00 each
on
Jan. 1, 1925.
if this investment
pays
4%
Use
intereist,
compounded annually.
4. Can you solve the previousproblem without using the
table? Try it. Compare the two solutions.
6. A teacher in Nov., 1920,bought 5 War Savings Stamps
at
$4.22 each.
These
stamps
are
worth
$5.00 each
on
At
1, 1925.
the
added
time
$300
Find
of each
out
if the
interest payment
to his investment.
What
due
1/1, 1921?
CHAPTER
XI
INVESTMENTS
While
is
person
accumulating savings, he
earn
how
about
give
To
money.
how
correctly,and
them
perfectly safe
Do
interest.
you
States. Government
A
class
the
bonds
the
of
mortgage,
or
by deed
chapter
judge
to
wisely.
earns
low
rate
of interest
rate
element
of risk is
cities,counties, and
promissory
of trust,
to
of
this class.
to
yields a higher
The
know
belong
greater.
district
bonds
them
usually
War
why?
investment
good
make
to
of this
to
learning
must
one
be
made
be
investments, how
investment
see
be
may
wisely
purpose
of
knowledge
some
you
this
do
is the
It
investments.
savings
words, he should
in other
money;
invest
to
his
should
than
what
some
states;
secured
notes
by
are
investment.
which
Investments
12%)
or
with
and
more
In
to
are
small
be
offer
high
regarded with
savings. Examples
mining stocks.
rate
of interest
(say 10%.
suspicion by the
of this type
Transactions
in
such
person
oil stocks
are
stocks
should
risk;a low
investment
rate
can
high
of interest
rate
of interest
also
be
means
usually means
small
readily converted
of emergency.
275
risk.
large
first class,
into cash
in
case;
INVESTMENTS
276
Judging
Which
think
next
Investments
of the followinginvestment
Which
"Thrift
1.
your
is
Keep
place for
advertisements
Power."
on
"Save
Buying War
do you
Which
the
money?
Why?
and
Succeed."
Savings Stamps.
Series of 1920
will pay S5.00 for
January 1, 1925, the United States Government
in
sold
the
1920
at
Savings Stamp
followingprices: Jan.,$4.12,
Feb., $4.13;March, $4.14;April,$4.15;etc.
On
each
War
2.
The
Stock
fortunes
many
Moneyback
Get
now
3. "Bonds
as
over
Safe
as
Our
in
Gain.*'
night,why
not
yours?
Oil Co.
Cities."
are
due.
(2) Marketable.
(3) Productive.
"
"
be
4. Individual
loans
secured
by residences,
apartments,
and
small business propertiesin Chicago, in amounts
from $2000 to $20,000. Interest yield,5% to 6%.
1st Mort$1000 denomination
6. 6 percent $500 and
gage
Serial Gold notes.
Interest payable semiannually.
Secured
by First Mortgage on Cleveland, Ohio, real
estate
Consult
of
more
than
double
the newspapers
value.
and
are
examples
INVESTMENTS
278
Problems
1. A
on
house
Olive
owned
man
Street;and
interest income
2. When
on
$3000 5%
interest,
mortgage
on
much
was
his average
monthly
James
an
Loans
Mortgage
LafayetteAvenue;
on
Julian Avenue.
on
about
Mr.
Smith
Stewart
as
gave
was
21 years
securityfor his
note
mortgage
this land.
did Mr.
Mr.
Miller
realize 6%
on
his investment?
Why?
(4) What
the
legalowner
did Stewart
of the note?
STOCKS
and
probably observed in your newspaper
magazine readingthat the business of manufacturing,minand merchandisingiscarried on chiefly
panies
ing,shipping,
by comFind the names
of several companies
or corporations.
(1)in your community, (2)in your magazine or newspaper.
Corporations are authorized by the state to transact
business justas individuals. The rights,
duties,and privileges
stated in a document, called a charter,which is
are
granted by the state to the corporation.
elect from their nimiber
of the corporation
The members
several persons
(oftenfive),called a board of hirectors..
You
27"
This
the
a
have
poration.
important business of the corThe less important business is transacted by
of a president,,
oflicersof the board,usuallyconsisting
body
the
transacts
secretary,and
treasurer.
The
of the stock
owners
is divided
are
stock.
certain nimiber
The
The
stock
each, there
The
called
next
250
are
instrument
stock
page
of
shares.
is
which
of stock is
given the owner
or stock.
Study the form on the
certificate,
such
certificatediBFers from
promissorynote.
The
of
amount
a
of money
company
among
to be
the
distributed from
owners
of
conmion
the
ings
earn
stock is
INVESTMENTS
280
(tiM"B
Qlfii
thmt.
/"i ^"f^
endorsed.
1" MteM
to
hflscaused this certificate
wdipnA the said corporation
and to be^uaUd
with the ^at of
signedby itsdufy authorioed officers,
be
^"^8^ Ms
at'j^^^r^^^,
the
Corporation,
"/
yn^ry
A. D. t9=z^
CERTIFICATE
determined
always computed
of the par
6%
$1 per
The
on
"o
^.
dividend.
the par
STOCK
of directors.
by the board
distributed is called
means
OP
J,
P^^.^^^day
The
value.
value,whether
The
of dividend
rate
Thus
so
money
6%
is
dividend
or
share.
market
purchase,or
the market
value
as
value
of
sale. If
priceit bringsas a
$80 for a $100 share,
stock is the
a
a
is $80.
man
This
pays
value may
fluctuate from
day. Newspapers
day to day or even
during thesame
always quote the market value.
issue two
kinds of stock, called
Companies sometimes
common
rate
the
common
stock
can
before
be distributed.
dend
divi
STOCK
INVESTMENTS
281
Brokerage
broker
is
agent who
an
buys
or
owners*
sold.
or
It is the custom
of the New
York
many
Pacific R. R. stock
100 shares of Mo.
Thus, the brokerage for selling
(par value $100) at $25} per share is 100X12iff,and for selling100 shares
of M. K. " T. R. R. stock (par value $100) at $9} per share is 100X6iff.
When
on
brokerage is expressedin
the par
it is
computed
value.
Problems
1. On
cent
per
about
Stocks
this statement
dollars.
2. How
of
many
company's capital
$1,000,000?
3. A
man
10 shares of bank
owns
stock.
On
his stock
value
much
is $100?
6. What
the market
is the
in money
$50?
is
when
the par
$1?
probableeffect
value?
dividend
6%
Why?
of
high dividend
rate
on
INVESTMENTS
282
How
Table
Read
to
I shows
the
Stock
Market
Sales
400
200
200
500
300
600
100
the
Prev.
Close
54
57
45
Name
of Stock
Bait, and O.
do*
preferred
Colo. Fuel " Iron
Mo. Pacific
Norfolk " Western
Wabash
Woolworth
.
23i
103
9i
112J
....
The
sold
August 5, 1918, there were
Exchange 400 shares of common
Ohio
was
Railroad.
made
at
the New
stock
follows: On
York
per
$54, which
was
Stock
of Baltimore
The
$54
on
as
and
table)
$54;
change
of the
means
more
day and the last sale of the previousday. In Baltiand Ohio there was
net change, although the price
no
fluctuated
*The
of
during
second
Baltimore
the
line
and
day.
means
this: There
were
sold 200
Ohio
shares
I.
the
nor
STOCK
Table II shows
QUOTATIONS
Table
I.
283
priceson
It is to be
interpreted
exactly
interpreted.
was
Name
of Stock
Sales
6400
1200
200
1000
1400
100
1. Find
of net
the amount
2. Tell the
3. Look
on
of your
page
for the
newspaper
(belowpar). Name
par).
2. Which
II
sold at
sold at
premium
in Table
premium
discount
(above
I and is not
II?
3. Name
made
plus
net
change in
II.
4. Find
Compute
Table
II and
6. A
stock at
he
I and
I which
those which
stock sold at
listed in Table
6.
Tables
on
1. Name
Table
Based
the
man
the
ratio between
$5000
I.
in Missouri
much
money
I.
had
Pacific Railroad
many
he left?
shares did
INVESTMENTS
284
much
?" How
broker who
sold 1000
stock at
8. What
sent
was
money
the
to
shares of Norfolk
and
by the
owner
Western
road
Rail
98j?
the total cost to the
was
0. stock at 54
who
man
bought
200
on
brokerageat 12j!f
per share?
9. If the buyer in problem 8 sold his stock on
1919, at 32f less brokerage,find his total loss.
dividend for
10. If Bait, and 0. stock paid no
Dec.
24,
1919, what
additional
of such
owner
and
1918
stock
sustain?
11.
of Wabash
in each
12.
at
omit
who
man
sold it at
transaction.
the
Compute
gain of the
stock if it
Woolworth
Table
9^ and
the
I and
sold at the
was
owner
bought
at
of
100
shares
its lowest
highestpricein Table
II.
of
price in
Do
not
brokerage.
13. Some
be classed
persons
think
should
How
In the
share
The
case
to
Compute
the
par
on
value
Rate
of Income
of the dividend
share.
X rate
of dividend.
on
each
INVESTMENTS
286
COUPON
BOND
m^mw^'^^mwmmw^miu^.
^^^
'"^^==^
A
UNDER
nRATlON'
Tuc
N;;^i"=
LAWS OF
CORPOP^'jj,jtgj,^jj",^^.^"E
.
"^:UOJ^e^iz:z.
tawr^^sjas
.;;^fel^':j!;;^
^M'* Aa4 j/
tmMa,^*^^A*"mium.
^yfoiU^""!""tei//
^^/^4ifj/^ffJtu^Jtf"i
mJ*/t^^^rm.
Jlt*'/M,/"m//te44mmmi;/i0y^
mMfj^u/^ryf^
4mu^M^HM^/^
,
.^^^f^lf^
./^h
Zi^^/lftj^Mit^Jm^^n*
i^;/A
ii^f:^
l'!!!;dMi"JP*
cJ3^_
'^S^^'tf'te:;
Note.
"
^The above
form
attached.
This
originally
fallingdue each year.
shows
is
ten
of the
two
fiftycoupons
interest coupons
LEARNING
BONDS
ABOUT
287
Bonds
and
the resemblances
4. Write
5. Bonds
differences.
be issued in any
may
denomination,but the
usuallyhave
long
time
such
to run,
as
15,
20, or 30 years.
7. Turn
to page
once
280, and read carefully
more
stock
certificate.
8. Write
bond
on
at
the
286 differsfrom
page
in which
9. Some
10.
Then
(1) How
America
on
is the
(2) What
from
which
(3) If
this coupon
coupon,
how
for it?
When?
coupon
were
you
(4) What
face of the
would
the
you
was
owner
bond
will pay
March
15, 1922,
or
get payment
at
bonds?
must
be
taken
of
the
designated
agency,
$1.06, being
months'
interest
on
4i%
then
six
due
of the Third
care
at
ington,
TreasuryDepartment,Wash
cut?
of this
to bearer
Liberty Loan.
1379535
of the Treasury.
llegister
INVESTMENTS
288
Buying
1. Bonds
banker
2.
bonds
are
Your
can
Why
Bonds
for you.
it be better for the small investor to buy his
may
his banker?
from
6. Interest
bonds
6. When
buyer
This
owner
is called accrued
of the bonds
from
$88.50.
at
$88.50 for
4i%
at the next
This
it
means
day of purchase.
comes
payment
Third
in the bond.
the
to
and
interest
Nov.
quoted
pay
bought between
are
pays
7. On
were
on
back
the
of interest.
to
on
$100
at
27.
this accrued
9. How
bonds
interest?
much
based
on
money
the
did I pay
on
Nov.
brokerage?
10. Find
the cost
of ten
one
thousand
dollar U.
S. 2's
BUYING
12.
On
BONDS
LIBERTY
Dec.
289
Liberty Loan
bonds
much
Hint.
a
left?
was
money
Remember
"
paid for
one
bond
is
of three addends.
sum
13. With
the money
many
14. Consult
and
find out
which
newspaper
how
many
in
1. The
rate
of interest
that
the
bonds
that
the
face
bond
contains
can
buy
bonds
earn
are
value
held
is
the bond
bonds
for $5000
market
described
at the time
for the
until
paid
ing
buyer, assummaturity and
at that
time.
in the bond.
at
or
3. If a
the
discount.
5%
total bond
interest
is
6x$5,
whereas
the
paid
at par
value.
INVESTMENTS
290
4. If a
$100 bond
5%
total bond
due
$17.
or
actuallyearned is $15 and $2 (discount),
for its buyer is based
6. The rate of interest a bond earns
the amount
on
paid for the bond, exclusive of accrued
is returned
interest which
the
to
at
owner
^thetime
he
problem
investment
of $104 is $26.
The
interest earned
in
rate
or
7. If the
in 6 yr.
rate
an
in 1 yr. is
of interest the
+ %.
problem 4, the
by
of interest to the
the bond
on
buyer
$17^3
=
$98
5.78
+ %.
$98
8. The
bond
formula
next
will be foimd
convenient
in solving
problems.
Par
value + Bond
9. What
interest
Market
of interest do
rate
6%
value +
Buyer's interest.
bonds
yield,due
in 7
interest).See
fonnula
in
number
$x$34.
of interest
Rate
Note.
use
^In the
with
small.
the method
^rrT^=4i%nearly.
short time
For
above
tables in which
bonds
very
"
to buyer
jrielded
all
practicalpurposes
indicated above.
the
the two
methods
ordinarybond buyer
may
is
use
PROBLEMS
ABOUT
BUYING
BONDS
291
to
see
which
Third
statement
is correct.
By
Why
1.
are
of the
use
We
Should
Want
to
Own
be others
justas safe,but
Bonds
and many
municipalbonds
that can be made.
There may
Good
none
safer.
INVESTMENTS
292
2. The
3.
4.
They
They
to borrow
can
axe
for
money
is
6. There
the
6. In
to
the
case
for them.
market
This
is
to
are
income, United
small
depreciation(lossin market
8. Their
that of most
be less than
How
1. Bonds
a
cash
sent
owner.
7. To
bonds
short time.
always
advantageousboth
needs
other
Bonds
and
promisesto
are
Stock
definite time.
States
value) is likelyto
property.
Stocks
of money
merely evidence
certain
pay
Differ
certificates are
sum
at
of
ownership.
2. The
of interest and
amount
fixed. Dividends
definitely
are
3. The
security. There
Why
of bonds
payment
Persons
is
with
are
not
Small
of its payment
certain.
guaranteedby
guarantee of
no
is
the time
any
Should
Income
form
some
kind
not
in
Buy
of
stock.
Stocks
for Investment
1. The
market
2. Dividends
3. The
stocks.
4. The
rate
Even
value of most
are
not
stocks fluctuates
widely.
certain.
of dividend
is not
in this
it is not
case
factor
speculative
is too
fixed except in
guaranteed.
large.
preferred
INVESTMENTS
294
About
Problems
1. If you
have
Estate
which
$7200 to invest,
lendingit
proposition,
at
property which
business
Real
or
interest,
buying
6%
for $55
rents
small
month?
Allow
$125
year for
At the end
Did
years
of
he make
more,
money
3.
What
rent must
the cost of my
8%
4. A
yearlyexpenses
chargeper month
other
I
are
estimated
to make
$60.
at
6% interest on
on
an
age
aver
of the time?
paying $60
man
savingsbank.
The
bank
month
pays
him
4%
Wood
for
one
has
Forest
year at
$1250.
6%,
would
investment?
of
why
be Mr.
or
he
He
lend it to Alfred
purchasewith it a farm
and bearing 5j% per annum.
can
Forest's income
he should
can
in each
reasons
case
you
from
can
his
think
MIXED
How
is 6%.
rate?
much
What
2. In the window
statement, "We
of
pay
bank
4%
statement, "We
25%
pay
of
per
Across
it
In Ohio
rate than
the Ohio
greater?
cent
per
295
the
1. In Texas
PROBLEMS
INVESTMENT
annum
on
savings."
this
is found
window
bank's
What
more."
your
soon
it was
as
manner
Hint.
"
on
much
had
the dividends
at
earned
4%
simple
in
for him
Jan. 1, 1920?
^The first
The
second
was
depositedon
was
on
How
interest.
this
man
young
was
dividend,$50, was
depositedJan. 2, 1913.
depositedbefore July 5, 1913. Each dividend
or
of the month
in which
it
due.
(4) On Jan. 20, 1920, this stock was sold at $140 per
share. What
the rate of profit?
was
owner?
(5) What was the rate of income to the new
4. In July,1899, a teacher bought a $1000 5% Florence,
much
Ala.,bond, interest payable semiannually. How
interest had
bond
was
this investment
paid,Jan., 1919,
interest coupon
of $25.00 at 4%
owner
the
day
owner
when
reinvested
it
was
due?
the
each
INVESTMENTS
296
Investing
Federal
The
in
Bureau
High
School
of Education
Education
at
Washington has
at
25
that
out
is $7,337.50.
1. Construct
the two
groups
quit at
at the ages
average
weekly wage
of
named.
2. Find
remained
at 25 of the
of the
boy who
one
who
14.
3. Was
4. Which
of these groups
ment?
good invest
the limit of
their earning
power? Why?
the high school boy have at
6. What
opportunities
may
which probablywould never
25 years of age, or older,
come
to the boy who
quit school at 14?
for a young
it be a good investment
6. Would
person
without
6%
means
to borrow
from
some
friend $100
school?
to go
year,
to
at
high
CHAPTER
XII
TESTS
is the Rice
This
The
achievement
average
91.7%;
the
classes
to
Find
If
3.
lent
then
of the
had
parts, and
pounds
Steel
and
7. A
The
dn
in square
area
away
4^of
the books
sold
is
composed
in his
of what
left.
was
had
many
library,
He
he at first?
much
of
each
in
360
f of
on
rate
the value
being 70
cents
of
on
hotel and
$100, what
furnitiu'e
was
the
property?
was
total
man
long is made
is the
remaining. How
insiuance
of the
6.
16 inches
powder?
$420.
value
gave
sulphiu* 2 parts.
of
6. The
to evaporate
represents?
books
420
pure
of salt?
to
bottom
weight of
it necessary
was
and
wide
the
from
of its
0.08
water
the average.
below
or
obtained
was
remainder, and
Gunpowder
4.
cost
miles
gentleman
above
3,896 pounds
10 inches
the map
that
A
obtain
to
niap
scale of 50
miles
which
weight of salt
in order
for all
average
minutes.
salt contained
of rock
What
2.
50
class stands
salt water
mine
salt.
right in
if your
out
the
11.3%;
was
49.4%.
was
solve
1. The
of
poorest class it
for the
Try
test
sold at $27.60
profitof $184.50.
sold
50
horses
ton, with
How
at
297
$126
much
each.
profitof 15%,
was
On
sold?
onehalf
of
TESTS
298
he made
them
20
per
cent
fruit dealer
cent, and
bought
at 4 for
300
of 8 for 5 cents.
rate
300
How
much
did he gain?
applesat the
rate of 5 for
sold them
cent.. He
What
the other
on
did he
cent
per
all at the
gain on
his
investment?
A
An
8th
rightin
in
Test
problem solvingshould
30 minutes.
you
1. I went
my
Reasoning
those
also
1920
to
purchasewas
8. An
store with
the average
speed per day?
8. John's growth last year
2i inches.
How
tall is he
did not
try,
change did
$3.69,how much
liner traveled
ocean
have
2012
was
now
miles in 8
2J
inches.
if 2 years
of
I receive?
days.
This
ago
What
year
his
was
he grew
height was
4 feet 9 inches?
4. A grocer
baseball uniforms
worth
7. A
fruit dealer
are
worth
If he sells them
120
will it cost to
equip a
pounds,
shoes
baseball
at
are
nine
ens,
bought a stalk of bananas,containing21 dozfor $7.77. What
pricedid he pay per dozen?
8. A dealer bought 75 bushels of applesat $1.65 per bushel and
At the same
time he purchased
sold them at $1.75 per bushel.
20 bushels of nuts which he sold at a profit
of 15 cents per peck.
and how much?
Which purchaseproved to be the more
profitable,
9. A grocer received a bill of ladingfor 300 pounds of sugar
allowed a profitof 10%, what
was
costing $37.50. If he was
the selling
price per pound?
TESTS
IN
THE
299
PROCESSES
FUNDAMENTAL
11.
news
house
and
lot.
If the taxes
$60 and
are
other expenses
$48 per year, what rent must I charge per month
to make
6% interest on the cost of my property?
12.
dried fruit?
Reavis
The
Problem
Test without
Figuring
missed.
not
1.
going a certain
of the distance
traveled
the surface.
on
received
the cost of
how
would
of
How
git^ennumber
water
would
and
you
you
of sugar.
find the cost of the
If you know
loaf of bread,how
prepare
order
an
would
to make
A fruit dealer
number
of dozens
cost per
dozen?
the remainder
of
pounds shipped
If you were
given this bill,
sugar per pound?
given number
bought
for
find the
you
weight of
the
containinga
would
If you know
the cost of my
purchase at a
I had when
I left the store, how
would
amount
of money
I had
when
I went
dough
single
baker
of similar loaves?
stalk of bananas
6.
amount
of miles,
8.
4.
voyage
of miles under
number
and
must
the surface?
on
A grocer
2.
made
submarine
you
store
to the store?
you
certain
find the
and
the
find the
300
TESTS
If you
6.
IN
know
PROCESSES
FUNDAMENTAL
THE
of bricks carried by
the number
load and
7.
the
bought
man
paid a certain
How
would
and
in cash and
amount
you
house
in
hod
pounds, how
lot for
gave
carrier
would
you
certain price. He
mortgage for the rest.
a
of the mortgage?
the number
of hours requiredby a train to
If you know
cityto another and the speed of the train per hour,
go from one
how would you find the distance between the cities?
8.
9.
of ice
how
would
cream
would
10.
He
gave
you
boy
a
serve
and
of children present,
the number
given sum
of gallonsrequired?
last week
sellingnewspapers.
How
would
you
and
find the
invested
amount
TABLES
302
A Table of
"
REFERENCE
Note.
FOR
table,multiplythe
root
by
For
Decimal
to
Places
in the
100 times any number
root of any number
Since the square root of 27 is 6.19,the square
10.
the
approximate
square
root
of any number
10
The square root of
nearly18.17.
FOR
TABLES
303
SIZE)
(ACTUAL
DECIMETER
ONE
REFERENCE
ITTTmTT
100
I
10 mm.
Icm.
4cm.
3cm.
2cm.
lin.
7cm
10cm
9cm.
m.
iin.
2iii.
of
Measures
English
=1 foot (ft.)
12 inches (in.)
=1 yard (yd.)
3 feet
5 J yards,or 16i ft. 1 rod (rd.)
=
1 mile (mi.)
==1 mile
=lmile
^=1 mile
320 rods
5280 feet
1760 yards
6360mches
6cm.
6cm.
"
Length
Metric
(mm.)
10 millimeters
1 centimeter
10 centimeters
10 decimeters
10
10
10
1
(cm.)
(dm.)
(m.)
decimeter
=1
1 meter
dekameter
(Dm.)
meters
=1
dekameters
hektometers
1 hektometer
(Hm.)
1 kilometer (ICm.)
=^40 in. (more accurately
=
meter
39.37
of
Measures
English (Avoirdupois)
(oz.)
437} grains(gr.) =1 ounce
16
100
(oz.)
ounces
pounds (lb.)
2000poimds
pounds
pounds
2240
196
1
(lb.)
1 hundredwt
pound
(cwt.)
ton (T.)
grains
poimd
Measures
of
Weight
Metric
10
milligrams(mg.)
1 centigram (eg.)
10 centigrams=1 decigram (dg.)
I gram
10 decigrams
(g.)
I dekagram (Dg.)
10 grams
10 dekagrams =1 hektogram (Hg.)
10 hektograms
1 kilogram (Kg.)
=2.2 pounds.
1 kilogram
=
1
1 long ton
1 barrel (bbl.)
of flour
7000
in.)
Capacity
or
Volume
Metric
English
LiquidMeasure
10
milliliters (ml.)
1 centiliter (cl.)
1 deciliter (dl.)
centiliters
deciliters
lUter(l.)
Uters
1 dekaliter (Dl.)
1 hektoliter (HI.)
dekaliters
nektoUters =1 kiloliter (Kl.)
=
Dry Measure
10
10
10
10
10
1 quart (qt.)
2 pints (pt.)
8 quarts (qt.)=1
(pk.)
4 pecks (pk.) =1 bushel (bu.)
2150.42
cu.in. =1
peck
inter
bushel
1 hektoliter
(bu.)
about
liquidqt.
(1.1
dry qt.
.9
l64cu.
=
about
2.8 bu.
in.
TABLES
304
FOR
Measures
144 square
inches (sq.in.)
"1
9 square
feet
1 square
30}
sq.
sq. ft.
rod
1 square
Surface
rods
160 square
yard (sq.yd.)
of
(sq.ft.)
foot
square
REFERENCE
640 acres
36 sq. mi.
"a
township (tp.)
inile (8q.mL)
square
(sq.rd.)
of Volume
Measures
or
Capacity
1 cubic
cu.
cu.
cu.
ft.
ft.
ft.
of Time
Measures
60 seconds
60 minutes
90
360
B66dayB
360 days
too years
10 years
"1
Table
3
(yr.)
leapyear
1
1 interest year
1 century
of
"1
Century
other
leap
years
=38
Used
(')
years
years
400
divisible by
divisible by 4 are
in
Recipes
"
"
1 lb.
1 lb.
Enough
cu.
ft.
7} gal.
8} lb.
barrel (bbl.)
=lbbl.
of flour
=1
minute
1 quadrant
1 circumference
3.1416 or 3}
Accurate
soft coal
1 cu. ft.
2747.07 cu. in.
4000 cu. in.
Arcs
=1
degrees(")
and
or
2 cups
for
ear
"
(')
degrees("")
x(pi)
Equivalents
'St
(')
=1 tablespoonful
(tbsp.)
teaspoonfuls(tsp.)
tablespoonfuls
=} cup or } gill.
(tbsp.)
1 cup
2 tbsp.sug"Cr 1 oz.
gills
1 lb.
2 cups granulatedsugar
cups
flour
3 cups meal
gal.water
Angles
decade
2
2
4 cups
Values
of
Measures
(approximately)
1 ton
soft coal
hard coal
".8 bushel
".63 heaped bushel
in
43 bu. of com
a.
yard (cu.yd.)
1 ton
feet
cubi";
=
(approximately)
38 cubic feet
"
1 ton
1 ton
acre
yd. or 272}
"
27
(A.)
"1
"1
solid butter
"
lib.
1 lb.
Ordinary Computation
SOMETIMES
FACTS
NEEDED
Weights
IN
per
SOLVING
PROBLEM
30p
Bushel
Wheat,
Shelledcom,
rye, kafir
com
Sweet
potatoes,turnips
Barley,buckwheat, api^es,peaches
Condensed
and
Multiplication
123466789
2
8
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Vs
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
2's
56 lb.
65 lb.
48 lb.
Division
Com
in
Onions
Oats
70
57
seed. .45
32
Tables
to
Timothy
10
To
9
12
16
18
21
24
27
30
33
86
3's
use
16
20
24
28
82
86
40
44
48
4's
as
ear
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
12's
12
11
multiplication
table,read to the right to the
ANSWERS
omitted
from
this book.
Answers
to all examples and to certain problems are
Page 14. 4. (1)$19,506;(2) $2.59 leas; (3)45.2%, 51.2%. 6. (1) 1.884 lb.;
(2) 22.5 lb.,3.214 lb.
Page 15. 6. (1) Last ? 3,360,213,000bu.; (4)45.02%; (6) 38.4%.
Page 17. 6. $137.76. 7. 110 lb. 8. Total balance, $924.94.
Page 19.
1.
6. $51. 7. 94%.
8. 10^. 9. 25%.
rem.
10. 80 mi.
48.5%, 5.24%.
13. 1620.
14. $2980.53.
15. 29.3%.
16. 180%.
17. 35.6%.
Page 25.
19. 2212.455 mi.
18. 13.434 mi.
20. 119.84 mi.
Page 26. 1.934,562,3001b. 2. 1918 was 86.3% of 1917 and 79.9% of 1916.
3. $56,073,738. 4. 1,246,083,066.
12. $471,795.
Page 27.
^. 15. 2 mi. 16. 8.4%. 17. $1000. 18. 45 in. 19.
Page 28! 14."
Page 24.
37.07*4
(3) $755.52.
Page 64.
Page 65.
26. $4165.20.
25. 32.
4. $111.18.
5. Disct. $20.66. 6. Disct. $46.58.
1. 14.44%.
2. (2) 8.84%.
8.
Page 70.
Page 71. (3) 11.24, 11244%.
(5) 65.74%. 3. (1) 17.1%; (2) 20.64%.
5. 1.4%
too high. 6. .994% too high. 7. 26%.
4. 16.64%.
9. $650,097,380.50. 10. (2) 12.64%; (3) 16.44%;
Page 72. 8. 7.54%.
(4) $1,288,500,000 nearly.
Page 73. 12, (1) 12.17^;(2) 12; (3) 3.044fi.13. .084 yd. 100 yd. dash is
1.244% faster.
2. 62i%.
3. Woodland
Page 74. 1. 120 A.
8i%, wheat 16f%, oats 16%,
15f %, timothy 6i%, red clover 10A%, pasture 16i%, alfalfa 3 J%. 4. 4 J%.
5. 2A%.
com
12. 12J%.
10. 10%.
11. .434 ton.
Page 77. 8. $750 loss. 9. 42"%,30%.
15. 12i%.
16. $64.29.
17. $5.25. 18. 144%.
46f%.
3. 5%.
4. $19,260.
Page 78. 1. $18,961.25. 2. $890.90.
8. 52.44fi. 9.
Page 79. 5. 23.3^. 6. $37,370.58. 7. $19.30, $1241.37.
74.44fi.
9. $805 gain.
8. 940.
Page 80. 7. 800.
8. 25.74%.
9.
6. The
latter, $2. 7. $200.
Page 83. 4. $4. 5. $342.
11. $300.98.
56%,
35.875%. 10. 50%.
8. 43.5%, 50.7%,
5.84%.
Page 91. 6.2224,872. 7.29.1%.
11. 285, 1254.
12. $1,246,000,000. 13. (1) 40,000;
Page 92. 9. 84.2%.
(2)40.
14.
306
22. 1,200,000.
ANSWERS
Page 101.
14.
15.
96%.
307
16.
(1) $77.29;(2)
1.48+.
Page 103.
city,$99.13 total. 3.
$8000.
Page 111.
Page 127.
Page 133.
27.3%.
Page'l38.
10.
tons, 521.7+
bu.
bu.,counting 1
cu.
$809.99,counting 2150.42
13. 1000
ft.
cu.
cu.
cu.
ft.
in. to
bushel.
15. 3216
cu.
ft.
.8 bu.
9. ^tr cu. in. 10. 80ir cu. in. 11. 28.03 cu. in. 12. 9.18 gal.
Page 141. 8. $7.54. 9. 35.95+ sq, ft. 1. 13.571+. 2. $10.86. 3. 13.5+
6. 9.5+ in. 7. 424.1+ gal. 8. 2.45 gal.
sq. ft. 5. $27.54.
sq. ft. 4. 31.756. 25.6+%.
5. 38.9%.
2.
143.
1.
32.7%.
Page
33i%. 3. 30.7+%.
7. $8.10. 8. $5. 9. 80%, 44t%.
14. $171.53. 15.
Page 144. 10. $400. 11. 16J%. 12. 33J%. 13. 34+%.
16. $45.75. 17. $210.33.
$800.
Page 145. 18. $1274.40. 19.12.17%. 20. $63. 21. $158.67,4.41%.
14. 25 mi.
Page 176. 12. 117.16 mi. 13. 4.9+ mi.
Page 177. 15. 75.6 ft. 17. (1)15 ft.;(2) 16i ft.;(3) 1617 sq. ft. 18. 2525
Page 140.
bd. ft.
tons.
10. .01+%.
Page 199. 8. $581.47. 9. 6.8+%.
Page 200. 11. $1,941,062+. 13. $15,924,825,161.
2.25.9+%.
Page 202. 1.10%.
3.8.1+%.
Page 203. 5. Apples $1.50 better. The walnuts yielded32% greater rate of
7. 154+%.
8. $3,865+.
9. $1645.80.
profit. 6. ISU per can, 25.3+%.
Page 205. 1. $20.83.
Page 207. 2. 21 bbl.,7 cu. yd., 10 cu. yd. 3. 38 bbl.,6 cu. yd. 4. 117 sacks,
9 cu. yd., 13 cu. yd. 5. 45 sacks,3 cu. yd., 3 cu. yd. 6. $1050, $260, $336.96.
7. $1336.50,$534.60,$1069.20.
4. $.665+.
Page 208. 1. $66,018 per mi. 2. 79. 3. 34.7%.
10.
8.
9. $.937+.
7.
6.
209.
$63.88.
5.
$176.40.
$27.76.
27fi.
Page
$2,487.
11. Yes.
12. $.597+
per
bu.
ANSWERS
308
Page 210.
102.94 mi.
Page 231.
Page 233.
1. $211.69.
2. $123.58.
3. $4127.27.
9.200%.
11.20%.
12.100%.
8.47.4%.
2. 81.5H%. 3. $3.31. 4. (1)380.1735;(2)$1960.76;
Page 234. 1. 33.7%.
(3)$479.86: (4)$9762.47;(5)$12,203.10;(6)$21,965.57.
3. $87.96.
4. $1,759.
5. $138.54.
G.
I lb. oilmeal.
Page 241.
(2)40.
VI.
(1)Gain 49fion
each
bu.
fed;(2) Gain
$392.
Page 242.
Page 244.
Page 245.
ft.'7i
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