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ARITHMETICAL

ESSENTIALS

BOOK

THREE

BY

J. ANDREW
TBACHBR

OF

PROFESSOR

THB

OF

PEDAGOGY

DRUSHEL,
OF

MARGARET

E.

(TEACHERS

COLLEGE.

EUEMBNTARY

HARRIS

ARITHMBTIC,

TBACHXRS

COLUMBIA
YORK

ST.

COLLBGB,

LOUIS

Ph.D.

NOONAN,
KBW

EDUCATION,

(YALE)

A.B.

UNIV.)
UNIVBRSTTY,

NEW

TORS

CTTY

AND

JOHN
DEAN

OF

THB

SCHOOL

W.
OF

LYONS
CHICAGO

WITHERS,
EDUCATION,

AND

NEW

Ph.D.
YORK

(YALE)

UNIVERSITY,

NEW

YORK

CITY

CARNAHAN
NEW

VORK

" .ii^.c Y

/.'"-;)

HARVARD
,

UNIVERSITY^
LIBRARVy

COPYRIGHT.

1921

BY

LYONS

AND

CARNAHAN

for

Provision
This

is intended

book

Pupils

class.

The

children

slower

is

be the

should

teacher

in

seventh
the

eighth

superior pupils
much

the

accomplish.

can

the

and

judge of how

Skill

provides abundant

text

children

of the

provided for

Computing
This

Varying Ability

for children

grades. Sufficient material


of the

of

provide the largestpossible opportunity

to

for self instruction

TEACHERS

TO

SUGGESTIONS

AND

HELPS

practice in
grades: first,through

upper

computation
a

for

of timed

series

in each year; second, through the use


of statistics
practiceexercises
in table form; third,through the applicationof short methods.

13-19; Chapter V,

See Chapter II, pp.

pp. 42-50 (Part 1) for


The
tests listed on

which

material
year

to

should

examples are omitted


checking computations.
Certain

minute,

from

Courtis
to

use

the

Courtis

stated in all other


cases

to insure

forms

exercises

tests

standardized
B.

against the
This

in these tests.

have

been

mental
funda-

in the

derived

sponding
corre-

enables
The

from

the

ards
stand-

enough

their validity.

intended

in the

8 minute

Standards

Answers

emphasize the need of

to

Tests, Series

Short
It is not

and

integersare

Research

exercises.

computing

this book

6 minute

with

processes

teacher

frequently during the eighth


with
reasonable
100% accuracy

in these

to

provide standardized

299

use

their classes.
be the aim

Chapter VI,

of these types.

and

297

pages

teachers

measure

speed should

of each

examples

32-41; and

pp.

that

Methods

children

chapter. Saving

Time

should
in

memorize

Computing.

all the short


The

short

SUGGESTIONS

iv
processes

that

be selected

methods

seem

by each

should

decreases the

most

TO

suitable for individual classes should

specialemphasis. Using short


encouraged whenever
possiblebecause it

teacher

be

TEACHERS

chances

of

for

and

error

time. Children who

saves

wish to develop specialcomputing skill will find it valuable to


do all the work in the chapternamed.
Problems

problem material of this book aims to give pupils a^


acquaintancewith civic,social and business practices.
Three methods of showing the reasoningin a problem are suggested;
the graphicform, the table form, and the equationform.
In the computing part of a problem pupilsare encouraged to
The

take the shortest road

to the

to be certain that the

and

answer

is right. Pupils should decide


not their skill in computing demands

answer

for themselves

or

the

The
A

full discussion of

Use

graphs as

of

use

of

whether

pencil.

Graphs

instruments

or

tools to be used

relations obvious is presentedearlyin the seventh


year in order to givepupilsample time to acquireproficiency
method, which has frequentappUcationin ordinaryreading

in

making number

in

Pupilsshould be encouragedto collect


local material to be used in constructing
graphs,to graph results
and to bringto class from their outside
of their school activities,
reading what they consider to be unusuallygood examples of
graphs.
and in

everyday business.

Square

Root

In the extraction of square root the naethod of approximation


by long division is employed in this text because this method

This method
readily rationalized and easilyremembered.
requiresthe pupilto know division of integersand of decimals,
and the meaning of a square root.
is

SUGGESTIONS

TO

Metric

TEACHERS

System

It is intended to give a readingknowledge of the more


common
units of measure
(meter,millimeter,
incidentally
gram, and liter)
in connection with problem solving.
The more
metric tables are
conunon
of the book
as

more

an

in parallelwith

aid to the teacher in

case

the

placed in the latter part


correspondingEnglish tables

she wishes to teach metric imits

than is provided for in


intensively

the text.

Organization
Organization of material is not only an essential element
in the learningprocess, but it also is a necessary
factor in one's
abilityto use what has been learned.
the
The material of this book is organizedfor the supervisor,
teacher, and the learner. The chapter titles indicate to the
supervisorthe order of development that is intended for the
The chapter analysisas shown
in the table of contents
course.
should guide the teacher in the presentationof the different
topics. The development of the topicin the text is for the learner.

CONTENTS

SEVENTH
CHAPTER

USING

I.

Organizing Idea
Theory

PART

YEAR"

FIRST

GRAPHS

IN

Arithmetical

of Problem

Solving

Learning

the

HALF

PROBLEM

SOLVING

Activityor Outcome
meaning and use of

Page

graphs

1-12

Graphic Expression of
Numerical

Relations

Reading graphs
Learning
in

CHAPTER
Practice

II.

THE

express

numerical

relations
1-12

way

SOLUTION

TABLE

Large Numbers.

with

to

new

1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 11, 12

PROBLEM

IN

SOLVING

.Solving several problems from

given

set of data

Finding
Cash
HI.

CHAPTIER
Accurate

THE

13-15

balances

16-19

18

account

PROBLEM

IN

EQUATION

SOLVING

Expression of

Numerical

Relations

Explaining equations. .'.


Use of arithmetical
signs
Examples

20, 21

Using equations

22, 23

20

22

Problems
CHAPTER

Economy

IV. REVIEWING
m

Problem

THE

23-25

METHODS

Solving. .Choosing
.

OF
method

PROBLEM

SOLVING

of solution

26

Problems
CHAPTER
Motivated

V.

PRACTICE

Practice

TESTS

25-31

FOR

Practice

in

ACCURACY
the

integers, mixed
and

Objective Standards

Speed

decimal
tests

vi

AND

fundamentals

numbers,

fractions

SPEED
with

common

32-41
32-41

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

VI.

vii

TIME

SAVING

IN

Arithmetical

OrganizingIdea
Economy through Short

COMPUTING

or OvJtcome
Activity

Skill in applying the

Methods

omy

in

teox^

computing

In addition and
In

of
principle

Page

subtraction

42, 43

multiplication

43-47

In division

VII.

CHAPTER

COMMON

47, 48
49, 50

and division
multiplication

In

BUSINESS

FORMS,

PRACTICES,

AND

PROBLEMS
How

Business

Learning and

Is Done

The

pay

using the

conunon

ness
busi-

forms

51-61

roll

62, 63

Problems
CHAPTER

PERCENTAGE

and

Practice with Common

Decimal

VIII.

64, 65

Fractions

Expressing per
decimal

in

cents

fraction

and

common

equivalents

66

Examples

67, 68

Problems

68-73

Projectproblems
SEVENTH
CHAPTER

YEAR"
IX.

74,75

SECOND

USING

HALF

PERCENTAGE

Percentagein Everyday
Business

Problems
Problems
Problems

about

gain and loss


about selling
for another..
about buying for another

76, 77
.78,79
80

....

Learning discounts
Computing successive discounts
Discount problems
CHAPTER

X.

Meaning of Insurance

PROTECTING

ONE'S

LIFE

AND

81
82

83

PROPERTY

Meaning of the terms needed


84, 85
and practices.84-87
Learning the principles
Fire insurance problems
85-87
.

CONTENTS

viii
Idea
Organizing

Arithmetical

Meaning of Insurance

Kinds

of lifeinsurance

88

Value

of lifeinsurance

89

Problems
How

Arithmetic

Towards

Health

CHAPTER

and

may

and

Need

about

Accident

Safety

AND

health and

of Taxes

Tax

DISTRIBUTING

Page

disease

90-95

96-101

PUBLIC

MONEY

distribution

102

expressingtax rates

Applying the

XIL

(hUcome

preventionproblems

Finding and

CHAPTER

or

Contribute

XI. COLLECTING

Meaning

ActwUy

tax rate to

103

problems. 103, 104


.

Specialtaxes

104, 106

Income

tax

107,108

Tax

imports

on

AND

CONSTRUCTING

109-111

MEASURING

LINES

AND

ANGLES
Lines and

Angles as Elements
Straightand curved lines
112, 113
line
113
Bisectinga
Constructingand readingangles...114,115
116
Using the protractor

of Surfaces

CHAPTER

Xm.

Parallel lines

117

Problems

118

CONSTRUCTING

AND

MEASURING

SURFACES

linear
Measuring Rectilinear and CurviSurfaces
their

in Terms

of

EquivalentRectangles Reviewing triangles


Quadrilaterals
Rectangles
.

119, 120
121
122

Problems

123

Triangles

124

Rhomboid

and rhombus

125

Trapezoid

126

Problems

127

Trapezium

128

The

circle

128

The

meaning of

The

area

of the circle

129
130

CONTENTS

IX

Arithmetical Activity
OrganizingIdea
or Outcome
vilinear
Measuring Rectilinear and CurSurfaces

Page

ued)
(continArea formulas

131

The

132

meaning of "/?

Problems

133

Sectors

134,135

Problems
CHAPTER

COMPUTING

XIV.

Arithmetic

CHAPTER

of Solids

XV.

CONTENTS

THE
OF

The

136
SURFACES

AND

SOLIDS

Prism problems
The cylinder
Cylinderproblems
Measuring lumber

REVIEWING

139

140,141
142

YEAR'S

THE

PROBLEM

137,138

THROUGH

WORK

SOLVING

Reviewing Principles
through
New

Problems

Problems

143-145

Solvingproblems by

ObjectiveStandards

148

Incompleteproblems
Estimatingresults

149

The

I.

TESTS

151

'

problem

test without

figuring.
.

152

II

YEAR"
IN

150

Rice test

PART

CHAPTER

146, 147

Surfaces and solids

Reavis

EIGHTH

how
telling

FIRST

FUNDAMENTALS

HALF
FOR

SPEED

AND

ACCURACY

ObjectiveStandards
Review

Fundamental

facts

Fundamental

processes

Use of

signs

Fractions test
Decimals
Motivated

Practice

153, 154
155-159
159

160, 161
162, 163

Tellingthe missingnumber

164

All the fundamentals

165

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

II.

OrganizingIdea
An
Applicationof Long
in which

SQUARES

AND

Arithmetical

or Outcome
Activity

Page

sion
Divi-

the Divisor and

Quotientare Equal

Meaning of square root


Finding square roots
Reference

CHAPTER
A

ROOTS

SQUARE

III.

USING

166

167-170

to table of square

AND

SQUARES

170

roots

ROOTS

SQUARE

New

Aspect of the Right


Triangle

CHAPTER

IV.

Learning the rule of the righttriangle. 171


172
Expressingthe rule as formulas
in problems.173-177
Using the righttriangle
.

USING

Economy in Problem

FORMULAS

PROBLEM

IN

SOLVING

Solving. .Understandingformulas

178

Formulas

applied to

the

fundamental
179

processes

Problems

180

Formulas

appliedto surfaces

181-183

Problems

184, 185
in

Formulas

solids

computing
The formula in problem solving
Silo problems
Water supply problems
CHAPTER
The

Use of

MONEY

V.

Money and Credit

AND

banks

What

to do at

187, 188
189

190, 191

BANKING

Learning about
What

186

money

and

credit.. 192, 193


.

194

are
a

bank

195, 196

Indorsingchecks
What

one

197

should know

about

Banking problems
CHAPTER
The

Arithmetic

VI.
of Trade

Transportation

TRADE

AND

checks.

198
.

199, 200

TRANSPORTATION

and
How

trade arises

Cost of

selling

Computing
Problems

201

rate of

202

profit

202

203

CONTENTS

OrganizingIdea
The

xi

Arithmetical

Arithmetic

of Trade

OtUcome
or
Activity

Page

and
arises
transportation

How
Transportation(continued)..
Good

204

roads

204, 205

Learning about
Problems

206

concrete

about

207

concrete

Railroad

problems
Freightproblems
Shipping by express
Express problems
Parcel post
Paying debts at
Postal money

208

209, 211
212

213

214, 215
a

distance

216

order

217, 218

order

Express money

218

draft

Bank

Commercial

219
drafts

220

Problems
CHAPTER
The

Arithmetic
Problems

Involved

about

VII.

221

TRAVEL

in

Travel

time

How

changes as

travel east

we

west

Standard

time

Reading the railroad time table.

Problems

EIGHTH

YEAR"

CHAPTER
The

Arithmetic
and

of

VIII.

222, 223
224, 225
.226,227
227-230

HALF

SECOND

ECONOMY

AND

THRIFT

Economy

Thrift

Problems

about

school thrift

Problems

about

thrift in the home.

Orchard

problems
growing com
Profit in feedingpigs
Keeping poultryfor profit
Mixed problems
Thrift in

CHAPTER

or

rx.

Using Interest in Business

MONEY

HOW

EARNS
of interest

231
.232-234

236
236-238
239-241
242-244

245, 246

MONEY

meaning
Computing interest

248

Exact

249

The

interest

247

CONTENTS

xii
Idea
Organizing

Arithmetical Activity
or Outcome
Promissorynotes

Using Interest in Business

(continued)

Time

between

Page
250-253

dates

two

254,255
256,257
258,259

Making and usinga day table


promissorynotes.
Settling
interesttable

260

Using the interesttable


Paying interest on what
Discountingnotes

261

The

you

owe.

.262,263
264-266

Problems

CHAPTER

X.

Techniqueand Operation

267
ACCOUNTS

SAVINGS

Making and usinga savings


268,269

account

270

Problems

Compound

interest

270,271

Compound interesttable
Compound interestproblems
CHAPTER

272

273,274

INVESTMENTS

XI.

Understandingand Making
Good

Investments

Judginginvestments

275,276

Mortgages

277,278
279-281

Stocks

282,283
284,285

Reading the stock market


Stock

problems

286,287

Learningabout bonds.
Buying bonds.
Bond problems
Comparing bonds with stocks
Farm investment problems
Problems
Mixed

292

293
294

about real estate.

investment

Problems

288

^^^^^..
v,
probler^^

about educati-

295

investment
XIL

CHAPTER

ObjectiveStandards

"

296

TESTS

problem test.
1920 problem test
Reavis problem t-

297

Rice

Tests in the funf

289-291

guring.
,

ESSENTIALS

ARITHMETICAL

THREE

BOOK

PART

USING
1. This

chart

2.

Read

95%,
3.

in

grade class for

7th

ance
attend-

the

SOLVING

which

record

for

week:

90%, 100%,

John's

daily marks

Day

Th

Day

Th

this

chart

shows

85%.
chart

arithmetic
4.

PROBLEM

the

90%,
This

IN

it.

Make

attendance

shows

of

YEAR

CHAPTER
GRAPHS

record
week.

SEVENTH

I"

shows

for

Read

week.

it.

Mary's weekly spellingmarks

weeks

were

90%,

90%,

95%.

Make

as

follows: 75%,

75%,

for 10

85%, 95%,
95%,

90%,

85%,

70"
68"

which

chart

shows

this

record.

66"
64"
62"

6. This

chart

shows

the

for

week.

perature
daily temDay

at 7

A.M.

6. Construct

A.M.:

The

Graphs

the

chart

Read

for these

it.

daily temperatures

at

70", 72% 74", 73", 70", 71", 75".


lines in the
are

used

the results in

in

charts

this page

on

problem solving when

strikingway.
1

are
we

called
wish

graphs.
to

show

GRAPHS

USING

Reading
'2
84

6 81012

Line

This

P.M.

A.M.

PROBLEM

IN

4 6 81012

when

82

Graphs

kind

we

SOLVING

of

graph is often used

wish to show

how

ture
tempera-

changes during the day, how


populationchanges in a given time,
what progress is made in one's study
during the term of school,etc.

80,
78
76
74
72

70
68
66

In

64

the

illustration the

horizontal

62

line represents the

60"
58
56

two-hour

54
52

"2 4 68101224

day divided into

periods.

In

the

line each unit represents 2

681012

vertical

degreesof

temperature.

Graph A shows the changes of temperature for June


September 30,
12, 1918. Graph B shows the changes [for
1918.
1. What
2. Which

How

many

3. Which

At

what

time?

4. What

before 2

the hottest hour of each

day? The coolest?


day had the greatest change in temperature?
degrees?
day had the same
temperature for two hours?

was

might
p.m.

account

in the

for

September

the
30

drop in temperature
curve?

Judging from the direction of the graphs at midnight


the
of June 12 and September 30, what would you say was
temperature of the early morning hours of June 13 and
1 compared with the same
October
hours of June 12 and
September 30?
6. Find in your
daily paper the record of temperature
for a day and construct
the graph.
5.

CONSTRUCTING

JULY

JUNE

AUQ.

READING

AND

SEPT.

NOV.

OCT.

DEC.

JAN.

FEB.

1919
WEEKLY

GRAPHS

LINE

MAR.

APR.

MAY

1920
CATTLE

RECEIPTS

AT

SEVEN

MARKETS

graph shows the number and the changes in cattle


receiptsfrom week to week at seven
important cattle
markets
from June, 1919, to the end of May, 1920. Each
This

unit of the vertical line stands

graph is read

The

markets

seven

as

follows: "The

at the end

total

of the first week

150,000 head; for the second


third

for 50,000 head

1. Read

receiptsof the
in June

were

week, 160,000 head; for the

week, 170,000head, etc.'' What

the 4th week

of cattle.

were

the receiptsfor

in June?

the graph for

April,for Dec, for May.


for the 4th week in July? for
the receipts
2. What
were
the 5th week in Aug.? for the 4th week in March?
3. Study the graph to discover how
it is made.
(1) Draw a chart like this one, omitting the graph.
(2) Place

the

proper

number

at

both

ends

of

each

GRAPHS

USING

horizontal
number

line.

IN

PROBLEM

SOLVING

the first line from

For

is 50,000: What

the

bottom, thk

is it for the second

line?

(3) For each week in the year place a dot in your


of cattle received
chart,so that it will show the number
for that week.

(4) Connect
right,you have
the

the dots.
a

better line

would

from your
6. Find

your

the

Do

total

one

shown

receiptsfor

total receiptsfor the

and

work

your

on

month

it for December.

graph. Find them

6. Make

done

graph than the

find the

you

graph?

have

Why?

previouspage.

4. How

If you

first six months

in

for the last six months.

solve another

problem from your graph.


the monthly change at Chicago in
7. This table shows
Make
the priceof flour per barrel during 1917.
a
graph
which

represents this condition.

$8.20
January
February... 8.10
March

8.20

April

9.75

May

$14.75

June

13.00

October...

10.00

July
August..

10.50

November.

10.00

11.75

December

September $9.85
.

10.30
.

Sugar was sold per lb. at these prices:1914, 5^; 1915,


1917, 7j5;1918, 9j5;1919, 12fi;1920, 22ff.
6ff;1916, m;
Show with a graph these changes in pricefrom year to year.
9. Make
a
graph showing the pricesfor Thanksgiving
turkey, which sold per lb. as follows: 1916, 30ff;1917,
32.5j5;
1918, 35ff;1919, 44ff;1920, 56j5.
the graph showing the attendance
record
10. Construct
8.

of your

own

class for two

weeks.

USING

6
7. What

GRAPHS

SOLVING

PROBLEM

IN

followingscore: 3 had
right,2 had 7 right,5 had

is the median

in the

8
right,4 had 5 right,1 had 6
right? Construct the graph for the median.
8. Make
ing
a graph showing the productionof the four leadflaxseed states when
the annual yieldwas
follows:
as
North Dakota, 8,200,000bu.; South Dakota, 3,500,000bu.;
Minnesota, 3,300,000 bu.; Montana, 3,100,000 bu.
Hint.

^Let

"

unit

one

of

length

in

your

graph represent

100,000 bushels.
9. If the total
one

was

year

yieldof flaxseed in the United

States in

the %

produced

19,500,000bushels,compute

by each state in problem 8.


bar graphs for these four
graphs in No. 8.
10. The

average

Using
states

prices per

your

and

answer,
compare

lb. for unwashed

construct

with

the

wool

for

follows: 1910, 17.7ff;


as
1911, 15.6ff;
eightyears were
1912,
18.7ff;
1913, 15.8ff;
1916, 28.40;
1915, 23.3jf;
1914, 18.6j5;

1917, 54.2{f. Find

the

average

price for the eight-year

period. Construct bar graphs showing the prices for the


above period and the average
pricefor the period.
11. In representing
lengths to scale use is made of bar
graphs. Show the relative lengthsof the inch, foot,yard,
and rod by a series of bar graphs,using firstthe scale 1 in.
=3^ in.;then the scale 1 in. =1 mm.* (millimeter).
12. Compare graphically
the meter
with the yard.
*

convenient
drawing bar graphs you will find it often more
It is suggestedthat pupils
to use metric units of length than English units.
have access
of both systems and that they be provided
to squared paper
with rulers showing both metric and English units.
Note.

"

In

USING

Table

of

BAR

Foreign Monetary

of Coin

Name

Krona

Units
Value
Normal
in U. S. Money

Country

Krone

or

GRAPHS

Sweden, Norway,

Denmark

$0,268

Florin

Netherlands

402

Franc

193

Mark

France,Switzerland,Belgium
Italy
Germany

238

Milreis

Brazil

546

Peseta

Spain

193

Peso

Mexico

498

Peso

PhilippineIslands

500

Lira

Pound

(Sovereign)

Great

Britain

193

4.8665

Ruble

Russia

515

Yen

Japan

498

The

above

countries most
our

gives the values of the standard monetary units of the


important with regard to their conmiercial relations with

table

country.
Below

coins
these

is

series of four bar

graphs showing the value of three of these

compared with the United States dollar. On a separate sheet copy


graphs and complete the seriea. Obtain the value of each coin from

the above

table.

(U.S.)

Assuming the pound to be worth $4.8665, what is


the value of a draft ealUng for 98.5 pounds in United
States money?
the pound was
time during the World
2. At one
War
quoted at $4.73. How many
% below par (the normal
value) was that? ^\Tiat is the present value of the pound?
1.

USING

IN

GRAPHS

Learning

and

SOLVING

PROBLEM

Circle

Using

1. The

shows

Graphs

circle

graph

the relative amount


foods eaten

50 % of the

of the 360^

180^

Earthworms
360^

Ants

are

10%.

.10 of 360^ =36^

FUes

are

5 %.

.05 of 360^

The

remainder

2. Make

as

rately
accu-

can.)

you

18^

Find

is other insects.

circle graph to show

the bluebird's food.


and

other

is

valuable

It is 75%

it in %.

the relative

insects and

vegetablematter.. Do

How

is

25%

think

you

of

amounts

wild fruit

the bluebird

bird to the farmer?

diet of the

3. The

12|%,

estimate

or

the

in the circle graph?

it shown

.30 of

(Lay off with

protractor
as

food,

of the circle.

30%.

are

108^

of different

by baby robins.

are
Caterpillars
or

at the left

cowbird

consists of wasps

12^%, spiders12^%,

seeds

the remainder.
caterpillars

Draw

and

ants

and

grasshoppersand
circle graph to show

this condition.
4. About
water

and

graph

to

5. The

world's

150,000,000 sq. mi. of the earth's surface


50,000,000
show
United

wheat

sq.

mi.

are

land.

Make

are

circle

this relation.
States
crop.

relation of the wheat


the rest of the world.

produced in

Draw
crop

1915

circle

about

of the

graph showing the

of the United

States to that of

LEARNING

RECTANGLE

GRAPHS

produces f of the world's,com crop,


which for a recent year was
3,624,000,000bushels. Draw
the crop
a circle graph. Place in the proper
spaces (sectors)
United

6. The

of the United
7.

States

States and

that of the rest of the world.

Minnesota, Michigan, and

22%, and 9%

Alabama

produce 60%,

of the

yearlyoutput of iron ore in the United


States.
Draw
a
graph showing the production of these
states and the rest of the United
States. If the yearly
production is 56,000,000 tons, what does each sector of
graph represent in tons?
your
Rectangle
In this graph is shown

Graphs

the rainfall

in St. Louis for five consecutive


in

August, 1918.
The

inch
1

Read

days
the graph.

rainfall in hundredths
is shown

mm.

on

.01 in.

of

an

the vertical Une.


The

days

are

corded
re-

the horizontal line.

on

1. Make

graph showing rainfall


follows: May 3.28 in.,June 1.47
as
in.,July .60 in.,August 5.26 in.,
September 5.09 in.
2. Make
a graph showing the heightsof
a

two

boys

if

one

is 60 in. and the other is 64 in. tall.


3. James
as

much

as

and John
John.

togetherhave 8j5.James
How

much

money

has each?

rectanglestand for John's


stand for
Then 3 such rectangles
money.
Read each boy'spart.
James's money.
Let

has 3 times

small

6^

I
8^

11

USING

10
4. How.

after

GRAPHS

IN

long will it take

of it

done

was

in 6

PROBLEM

SOLVING

complete
days?
to

piece of work

graph of this character


that is necessary

is all the solution

in many

problems

of this type.
Show

5.

as

6. Jane

have

15.

solved

twice

How

many

How

one

both

as

problems

many

did each

as

Ada.

Both

solve?
192

sq.

ft.

If

one

is

largeas the other,find the area of each.


Frank caught three fish whose total weight was
96 oz.
and
weight of the second was twice that of the first,
three

was

times

that of the first. Find

weight of each.
the average

1915

37^ bu.

acre.

Mary, and

apples as

many

each?

as

10. In
was

has

many

has each?

many

that of the third


the

as

How

rectanglestogetherhave

8. Two

The

has

20.

2 times

Robert.

as

many

solved

7. Ahce

9.

problems with a rectanglegraph.


togetherhave 30 marbles. Ray has

Ray and Robert

4 times

solution for each of the following

your

W. H. Dunson,
Draw

acre.

Hint.

"

11. The

Let

An

acre.

per

corn

crop

Ohio

record

corn

in the United

farmer

raised 100 bu. per

average

raised 232 bu.

grower,

rectanglegraphs showing

1 unit in

States

the above

on

results.

height of graph represent 37^ bu.

monthly pricesper lb.

from Jan. 1917 to Dec.

1917

were

as

of butter in Illinois

follows:

34ff,
32ff,

33ff,32ff,35ff,34j5,33ff,34ff,35ff,38ff,
40ff,40ff. Find the
Construct
for the year.
graphs showing the
average
monthly and the average price for the year.

PICTORIAL

GRAPHS

11

Pictorial
of
In

graphsuse pictures
the objects
to be compared.
the figure
the 4 ears represent
the world's

1916; 3 of them
of the

crop

the

same

com

in

crop

represent the
States in

United

year.

1. The

United

corn

of

crop

States

in

1916

the
was

2,718,000,000bushels.

What

the world's crop?

was

2. How

many

representedby
3. The

the:

bushels
each

United

States raised

4. The

world's average

year

period was

each

unit in your

6. What

was

the United
6. A

of the world's cotton

this with

5-year period. Show

recent

figure?

in the

ear

wqpld

are

yearly

average

cotton

crop

for

production of

States in bales?

bale of cotton

7. Frank

weighs 500 lb. At 30j5a lb. (1918

has 10 times

as

much

cotton

money

as

crop.

Roy.

Draw

pictorial
graph showing their comparative wealth.
8. One apple tree bore 10 bushels of fruit;another
the

yieldof these

wheat

20 bushels.

year had

same

9. The

five-

bales does

many

yearly cotton

price)find the value of the world's

in the

pictorial
graph.

23,000,000 bales. How


graph represent?
the

in

United

crop.

Draw

two

trees

States
a

with

How
a

would

you

one

represent

graph?
pictorial

produces one-fifth of the world's


graph to show this relation.
pictorial

i2

GRAPHS

USING

the

Learning

PROBLEM

SOLVING

Distribution

Graph

IN

This form
COAX

of

graph is

ACREAOK

used in the United

much

Government

States

ports.
re-

It is also often
found in

geographytexts.
The graph in the figure
shows the distribution by
counties of the

com

in Missouri

dot

Each

firststep in the

value

each

to

making

Then

dot.

of such

find out

in 1919.

in this

equals 5000
The

age
acre-

graph

acres.

graph is to give a

the

number

of dots

unit and placethem properly.


belongingto each geographical
1. The followingtable shows the populationof each of
the six New
England states for 1920. Draw an outline
Place properlyin each state one
of these states.
dot
map
for each 50,000 population. You now
have a distribution
graph.
Maine
New

767,996
443,083
352,421

Hampshire

Vermont
2. Make

when
between

all
map

3. Consult

this kind

distribution

are

Connecticut
Rhode

in their seats.

text in

of graph.

3,851,615
1,380,585
604,397

Island

room
graph of the pupilsin your school-

of this room
your

Massachusetts

What

is the difference

and the graph you

have made?

geography for good examples of

THE

14

3. This

the

TABLE

SOLUTION

table contains

IN

the

PROBLEM

number

hogs in each of the six leadinghog

States

SOLVING

and

total value

of

states in the United

in 1918.

(1) Find the value of each questionmark.


(2) Arrange the states in the order of highestaverage
value.
4. The

total number

of

hogs in the United States in 1918


total value of $1,392,276,000.

having a
71,374,000,
(1) What was the average value per head?
does this value compare
with the average
(2) How
value for the six leadingstates in problem 3?
of hogs in 1918 is
% of the total number
(3) What
found in the six leadingstates? What
% of the total value?
6. In 1917 Walter
Whitman, a boy Uving in Indiana,
raised a pig weighing 456 lb. at 8 months
of age.
the average
was
(1) What
growth per day if the
weight at birth was 3 lb.?
(2) This pig gained in 4 consecutive weeks as follows:
18 lb.,21 lb.,27 lb.,24 lb. Find the weekly and daily
gain for this period.
average
(3) Find the market value of this pig at the current
price.
was

USING

6. This

table shows

STATISTICS

in bushels

the

15

principalcereal

crops

in 10 states in 1917.

(1) Find the value of each questionmark.


(2) Arrange the states in the order of production (a)
of com,
(b) of oats, (e) of wheat, (d) of total.
(3) Compare the order of the 6 leading corn states
with that of the 6 leadinghog states in problem 3 on page 14.
(4) The total wheat crop in the United States in 1917
was
by the states
650,828,000 bu. How much was grown
What
not named?
% was
by the states ^^amed?
grown
3 important wheat
states not found in the
(5) Name
table.

was

not

(6) The total com


3,159,494,000bu.
named

crop

What

in the United

was

grown

States in 1917

by the

states

in the table?

(7) Make

bar

graphs showing the com


crop of Minn.,
O., and la. in 1917; also bar graphs showing the wheat
of 111.,
Kan., and Minn, in 1917.
crop

THE

16

TABLE

SOLUTION

the

Finding
!"

3+4+7+?

IN

SOLVING

PROBLEM

by Addition

Balance

=20.

This

example may be solved in two ways,


of 3, 4, and 7; then subtract it from

sum

what

must

make

20.

be added

to the sum

Say, "14 and


+382 +563 +?

2. 246

are

(1) Find the


20.
(2) Think
addends

of the known

to

20.''

1480.

First Method
246

1480

382

1191

By the first method


Then
given addends.

563

"^

1480.

find the
subtract

sum

this

of the
siun

from

1191
Second
1480

Method

Sum

IKnown
IAddends
T"

By this method add the units' column, saying 5, 11, and 9 make 20. Write the 9 in the
units' column.
Carry the 2 and add the tens'
column
by saying 8, 16, 20, and 8 make 28.
Write
8 in tens' column.
Carry 2 and add
the hundreds'
column, saying 7, 12, and 2
make

14.

balance
1480

Proof

add

"

be

supplied

the three addends

siun

Principle. The
equal the whole.

to

Write 2 in hundreds'

sum

and

column.

is 289.
the

For

balance.

The

proof
The

be 1480.

must

of

all the

parts (addends)

must

Supply the balance in these examples and problems.

FINDING

THE

BALANCE

BY

ADDITION

17

Boyd had $250. How much will he have left


(balance)after paying bills of $21.15, $75.84,$15.25?
in his thrift garden.
7. A boy raised 240 lb. of tomatoes
He sold 105 lb. to a neighbor,gave 15 lb. to his uncle,ate
10 lb. during July and August, and gave the balance to his
mother.
How
poimds did the mother receive?
many
cash registers.
ten-cent
ten
8. Brownlee's
store has
were
put in these
Saturdaymorning the followingamounts
for making change: in No. 1,$12.85;No. 2, $43.75;
registers
No. 3, $25.54; No. 4, $17.38;
No. 5, $31.62;No. 6, $18.47;
No. 7, $31.79;No. 8, $19.56;
No. 9, $23.80;No. 10, $52.76.
During the day the receipts
in the
registeredby them
6. John

order stated

were

as

follows:

$114.92; $187.45; $49.38;


$61.54; $102.09; $136.58;
$79.40; $126.82; $96.39;
made
from
these
$157.69.
Payments were
registers
during the day as follows: from No. 1,$27.56;No. 2, $96.45;
No. 3, $10.87;No. 4, $14.32;No. 5, $57.86;No. 6, $90.80;
No. 7, $23.59;No. 8, $61.38;No. 9, $17.74;No. 10, $64.27.
showing in table form all of the facts
Prepare a statement
Some
given above. You will need at least five columns.
pupilsuse six. Place in the righthand column the balances
in the different registers.Place at the bottom
the total
hand at the beginning of the day, total receipts,
total
on
payments, and total balances at the end of the day.

THE

18

SOLUTION

TABLE

The

In

making

Cash

Cash

Account

all the cash received and


cash spent. The
^^Debit

IN

on

PROBLEM

SOLVING

Account

write

the debit side

on

the credit side

(left)

(right)all the

bookkeeper'srule is,

all that

comes

in, credit all that

goes,

out."

'^"?^^-^2.-"^"^C^
^jg^

;^

/"^/"/^

/^..tJ-

3/

i/ZdTa

"

"

"

/3tt/cutuc"y(^^
""#"i""

/^

AAsuS^uo'tyC^^-'
1. On
2.

How

Did

whose

J. C. Rankin

do you

3. Who
4. Who
6. The

book

I
is this Cash
on

Mar.

found?

Account

22 receive

or

pay

$195.43?

know?

paid rent on Mar. 1?


paid salaries on Mar. 31?
footingsindicated by ****

Who
are

received them?

usuallywritten in

pencil.
6. The

Balance

on

added

to the smaller

side.

Find

it. This

Mar.

31 is the amount

side to make

it

is often written

which

must

be

equal to the larger


in red ink.

CASH

THE

Methods

of

ACCOUNT

Finding

the

1^

Balance

of
largerside subtract the smn
called the Balance,,
the smaller side. Write this difference,
the

I. From

the smaller

on

II. Find
find what

the
must

of the

sum

side.

largerside by inspection.Add
be added

to

the smaller

equal to the largerside by the method


Hint.
the

^As

"

balance

once

check

on

to

more

work

your
see

if this

add
sum

it.

Then

side to make

shown
the

on

page

smaller

it
16.

side and

equals the largerside.

Problems
1. Make

the accoimt

(1) On Monday

and

find the balance

in

(1)and (2).

began business with


The week's receipts
$15.80 on hand.
$24.15,
by days were
$35.40, $32.45, $22.40, $30.20, $50.65. During the week
he paid out $20.10,$14.25,$10.85,$17.35,$30.25, $28.60.
(2) Let this be your accoimt for January.
Receipts:Jan. 2, cash on account, $1.15;Jan. 5, shoveling
Jan. 10, caringfor the neighbor'sfurnace,60jf
75jf;
snow,
j
Jan. 25, working at the grocer'son 3 Saturdays,$3.00.
Expenses: Jan. 8, movies, lOjf;Jan. 14, book, 50^; Jan.
16, pair of skates,$1.00; Jan. 28, candy 20ji.
2. Balance
1.

each

morning

grocer

of these accounts.
2.

3.

CHAPTER

THE

IN

EQUATION

23+?

SOLVING

PROBLEM

and

Explaining

Using

Equations

=37.

This

is

wanted.
In

example

an

result is 14 because

The

each

process

1. If

in addition

of these

by

the

The

Use

of

equation,

wish

to

write

need

we

23

added

to

to

the

the

is

equals 37.

fundamental
result.

Signs
of

statement

know

14

tell the

equation; then

Arithmetical

addend

one

examples tell first which

is shown

we

because

of

use

problem in

an

the

arithmetical

the

usage

signs.
2.

The

three

next

followed

(1)
the

In

an

paragraphs

express

monly
com-

by mathematicians.
expression having

and

operations in the order indicated.


8-6+3-2=

2+3-2=5-2=3.
20

"

only, perform

IN

EQUATION

THE

22

PROBLEM

SOLVING
b

4.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

(15^5) +(21 ^7)=?


(6xi)+(8-^4x7)=?
(24^6) -(34^17) =?7x8-^4-(6x2)-(8-^8)=?
?
25X2^10
(3x5')+7 ?
?
184-6x5
+ (8x4)=?
(18^6)+(7x4)-24
27-^3x4-5=?
(8+4) X (16-12) =?
25-10+5=?
(7-3) X (8+2) -(6-^2)=?
(14-^2)+(4-3)+(6x8)=?
18+(4-^2)=?
=

Solving
The
most

Problems

with

themselves
the

this account
the most

accurately in number

equation method

desirable

in many

one

Steps

in

out

2. Find

what

3. Find

the necessary

4. Find

the relation between

what

the

of solving problems is

Problem

problem
data

be

can

the four fundamental

says.

(thingsknown).
what

either in oral

is wanted

expressedin

or

written

completedat this point. The

your

one

is
of

form.

step as an equation,
(The reasoning is

rest of the work

Simplifythe equation.

9. Prove

of

what

in the 4th

the result.

your

terms

and

processes.

Express the relation found

8. Test

On

is wanted.

given. This relation

6. Estimate

relations.

cases.

Solving

1. Find

7.

Equation

It is the
equationis the sentence of mathematics.
effective working tool of those who wish to think and

express

6.

the

result for reasonableness.


answer.

is computing.)

SOLVING

PROBLEMS

EQUATION

THE

WITH

23

dairyfarmer traded at the grocery store butter worth


lb. for 3 lb. tea @ 75^, 10 lb. coffee @ 30^,and 20 lb.
@ lOjf. How
pounds of butter did he have?
many

1. A

50^ a
sugar

Thinking.

value

of the

butter

-^

of 1 lb.

value
'*

of lb. of butter

^Number

"

NXTf
"

$2.25 +$3 +$2

of lb. of butter

^Number

Computation.

X^^^ ^'^ ^'^

i""M+l"

lb. of butter

60ff
$7 25

of lb. of butter

Number

.,' =14J

oOfft
2. A

in

and

works

man

He

year.

How

^The

Thinking.
"

balance

week
for

buy?
bought

^No. of thrift stamps

"

Computation.
"

he

bought

man

at $90

an

gain or lose?

bought

=^

|"

"

x50.

'No. of thrift stamps bought "$2.50

100

acres

He

acre.

How
Gain

x50.
-^25f!f

of thrift stamps bought =500.

No.

acres

of land at $80

sold it all at $85

an
an

acre

and 25

acre.

"

Gain =$10625
Gam

tations

"

on

It is

X85
^^^

=$375.

having

125

-$10250.

good plan to place all

the paper

Did

much?

selling
price-cost.
Statement."
Gain
(125x$85) (100 x$80 +25 x$90)
Computation." Gain =$10625 -($8000 +$2250).
Thinking.

Note.

in

y^i x$25

3. A

bought

=no.

wk.

no.

Statement.

for 50 weeks

livingexpenses
for thrift stamps at 25 jfeach.

of thrift stamps

no.

of his income

thrift stamps does he

many

1 week

salaryof $25

80%

uses

of the

50%

on

the necessary

the statement.

625
compu-

10625

THE

24

EQUATION

IN

PROBLEM

SOLVING

wholesale grocer bought 12 bbl. of Jonathan apples


$3, 10 bbl. Grimes Golden @ $3.25,and 8 bbl. of Ben

4. A

Davis

$2.75.

bbl.

Find

his

6. The

sold them

He

at

an

profit.
furnished

overcoats

our

government

357

War

soldiers in France

our

$14.92 each.

villagebought in

SavingsStamps at $4.18 each.


could be bought with this money

"cents would

his

bought

of it @

60%

How
and

cost

day

one

many

coats
over-

how

many

remain?

dealer

6. A

of $3.50 per

average

bbl. of flour @

50

$10.20, and

the remamder

$9.50.

$11.00.

sold

He

Fmd

profit.

containing64 Florida
for $2.75 and detailedthem at 5^ each. Find his
grapefruit
decayed.
% of gain if 4 were
8. If a grocer
can
buy Jello in packages at $11.52 per
144, how much must he charge for it a package to make
25% profit?
is sold at 25f(a cake.
9. Soap costing $2.40 a dozen
Find the rate of gain.
retail grocer

7. A

10. How
at

50

miles

11. A

of gas.
12.

far does

certain class
Find

its cost

During the

total of

French
was

an

and

carried

express

box

train

run

in 1 hr. 36 min.

hour?

an

carried without
of

bought

during an experimentused
at 90j5per 1000 cu. ft.

recent

loss of

World

War

United

10

cu.

ft.

States vessels

singlelife 961,537of

our

men

out

2,079,000. British vessels carried 1,008,315;


Italian the remainder.

What

by each of these three groups?

of the total

PROBLEMS

13.

tons.

An

auto

truck

bricks

The

draws
of the

are

and weigh 100 lb. to the

cu.

25

load

of bricks

ordinarysize,8'
ft. How

weighing ^
by 4' by 2',

bricks in the

many

load?
14,

sold

On

Sept. 17, 1918,


the

at

National

Stock

$20.75 per 100 lb. Find


16.

hogs averaging 228 lb.

63

Yards

the value

at

were

St. Louis

East

at

of the lot.

January 1,-1919,eggs sold at 75f5a dozen. One


Find the
later the same
grade of eggs sold at 53fif.

On

month

of reduction.

In May,
a lb.
Sugar sold in Chicago in 1918 at lOfif
1920, it sold at 28jf. Find the % of increase.
17. On January 1, 1919, butter in a certain cityretailed
later the pricefor the same
at 73)ia lb. One month
grade
Find the % of drop.
was
47f!f.
truck in 1918 carried a full load
18. A Goodyear motor
from Boston to San Francisco and returned via Los Angeles
with a full load making the 7763-mile round trip
to Boston
16.

in 24 da. 1 hr. 55 min.

was

rate of travel

the average

hour?

per

19.

made

71.5%
over

road
20.

On

journey described
unimproved roads. How
of the

there in this

were

December

Houston, Texas, in
Waco

at

against a
was

What

the

plane?

11:50

actual

problem
miles

many

an

per

airplaneat
distance
hour

18

wa"

of improved

journey?

14, 1918, Lieutenant

a.m.,

45-mile

in

197
wind

9:12

left

arrivingat
This plane flew

a.m.,

mi.

all the

speed developed by

Jones

the

way.

What

engine of the

IV

CHAPTER

REVIEWING

In the

previous chapters

of stating the

solution

of

solve

problem, then

wish

you

with

manner

methods

three

problems; namely, by graph, by

guide, select the method


(1) If

learned

have

you

SOLVING

PROBLEM

by equation. Using the following statements

table, and
a

OF

METHODS

THE

which

suitable

is most

as

the

to

it.
number

show

to

only approximate

relations

in

the

use

accuracy,

striking

graph

solution.

(2) If
amount

(3) If

In

and

1916

find accurate

number

tions
rela-

1,750,636 bbl. of flour;in

1,398,283 bbl.

1918

in the

three

in

Show

production of each

produced

were

solution.

How

year.

years?

some

(A bbl.

1 compare

the

1918

production with

carrying the results

years,

to

the nearest

each
tenth

cent.

per

3. Find

If

lai^e

solution.

produced in

problem

other

show

to

lb.)

196

table

the relative

pounds

of the

many

the

equation

manner

of flour

4.

need

from

get quickly several values

1,619,256 bbl;

many

use

the

obvious

of

of data,

St. Louis

1917

2.

to

you

use

1.

wish

you

the

each
loaves

value
loaf
of

of the
of

bread

flour in

bread

problem

1 at

6^

lb.

required f lb. of flom*, how

could

be

problem 1?
26

made

from

the

flour

in

PROBLEMS

FOR

REVIEW

27

given oblong is twice as long as it is wide.


perimeteris 48 inches. Find the length and width.

Its

6. A

Hint.

^How

"

equal parts

many

in 48?

HH

dia-

See

gram.

6. The

of three numbers

sum

the numbers?

are

7. In

pupilsthan
both

Hint.

school there

one

in

there

are

^Draw

"

more

school.

second
277

are

The

second

number

and the third is four times the first.


first,

is three times the

What

is 72.

pupils.

rectanglegraph.
7

In

How
277

are

many

there

each?

lady paid twice as much for a hat and half


for a pair of gloves as she paid for a pair of shoes.
did she pay for each?
she paid $21. What
8. A

Hint.

farm

9. A

and

Show

"

four

your

thinkingwith

yieldedtwice

times

as

many

as

many

bushels

as

much
For

all

rectanglegraph.
bushels of oats
of

com

as

as

oats.

wheat
The

yieldwas 1683 bu. What was the yieldof each crop?


10. The goal in a certain fraction race
100 examples
was
One pupil had 95 right,another had 84
in 30 minutes.
ment
right,a third one had only 48 right. Show the achieveof these pupilsin the most striking
manner.
total

11.

ten

dollar bill is offered in payment

of each of the

following debts: $2.47, $5.62, $7.89, $1.19, $.78, $3.85,


much
$5.52, $6.98,$9.43, $8.96. How
change should be
returned

in each

case?

department of a largestore for


week
follows: Mon.
as
were
$480.25; Tues. $520.60;
one
Wed.
$456.35; Thurs. $382.75; Fri. $410.22; Sat. $580.60.
the average dailyreceipts?
What
were
12.

The

receiptsof

one

REVIEWING

28

15. The

THE

METHODS

rainfall in

OF

SOLVING

PROBLEM

certain

secutive
large city for four conmonths
follows: 3.15 in.,2.84 in.,.75 in.,
as
was
4.18 in. Show
this condition by proper graphs.
14. The distance between
Chicago and St. Louis via the
Chicago and Eastern Illinois is 290.4 miles. The train
which leaves Chicago at 10 a.m. is scheduled to arrive at

St. Louis at 5:50

over

it is

is the average

of travel

rate

time?

on

distance between
railroad is 954

one

miles.

What

p.m.

of the train when


16. The

New

City and Chicago

York

another

miles;over

road

it is 918

is the diflferencein the average speed of the


trains which make
the journey in exactly18 hours?

two

What

16. A

What
17.

savings stamp in Sept.,1920, cost $4.20.


per cent of a $50 Liberty Loan bond is this?
Find the sum
of money
loaned for 3 months
at 6%
war

requiredto

earn

$15 interest.

18. If twice the width

be

must

allowed

how

comer,

finish

much

for

of the lace used

turning

square

lace will be needed

handkerchief

in. square

10

to

with

f-inchlace?
19. A

dresser

cover

18

inches

inches is to be finished with


on

the two

ends and front.

also finished with


be

the lace.

pin cushion
How

many

If

4 in.

by

45

inch lace
15 in. is

yards of lace will

requiredfor both?
20.

farmer

$4.25 per barrel.


much

sold
Each

did he receive?

137^

bushels

of Baldwin

barrel contained

2 bu. 3

apples at
pk. How

REVIEWING

30

THE

METHODS

OF

PROBLEM

SOLVING

22. The

freightrate on 500 bu. wheat shipped from


lOffa hundred lb.;drayage
Minneapolis to Chicago was
the transportation
cost per bushel?
$18. What
was
was
23. The populationof Pittsburghin 1910 was
533,595.
In 1920

it

24. The

588,193. Find

was

Union

Gas

the rate

of increase.

Co. has 6 cashiers.

The

collections

by each cashier dailyfor one week are given in the order


of the days of the week:
Miss Jones, $418.20, $392.16,
$408.95, $375.62, $296.90, $425.16; Miss Will, $428.40,
$250.20,$317.75,$296.18,$324.82,$386.24; Miss Arnold,
$432.15,$252.65,$400.20,$385.62,$216.94,$465.70;Miss
Casey, $296.33,$384.24,$253.16,$484.20,$416.10,$258.95;
Miss Baker, $304.15, $215.93, $392.99, $456.32, $389.05,
$304.01; Miss Sands, $286.66,$310.04, $464.82, $562.80,
$362.19,$218.92.

(1) Find
and

the

company's daily and

weekly collection

the total of each cashier.

(2) Find each cashier's pay for

the week

if she receives

of her collections.

1%

the best and


the
(3) Find the difference between
poorest day's collections.
is 50 feet
25. A certain sign board for city advertising
long and 8 ft. high. If a margin 12 inches wide is allowed,
how
yards of advertisingspace on the
square
many

board?

highestpricedcar load of cattle ever sold at the


of 20 steers
Stock Yards, Chicago, consisting
National
averaging 1068 lb.,were sold on Dec. 16, 1918, at $19.50
pounds. Find the value of the cattle.
per hundred
26. The

THE

ADDING

salesman
traveling

EXPENSE

SHEET

31

sent to his firm this expense

account

for October.
Find

the total expense

of each

for each

day, the total

kind,and the total of all expense

Wilson

"

Gibbons

"

Month
.

^e

sum

"

^After

for the month.

^Travelers' Monthly Expense Sheet

Salesman

Note.

expense

adding, prove

by adding

to the

of the rest of the items in that column.

of

-19_
_

sum

of the first 14 items

CHAPTER

PRACTICE

Each
in which

TESTS

of these
to

FOR

exercises is

write the

ACCURACY

AND

SPEED

designed to require3 minutes


unless

answers

II

234463

734743

498826859420
650879485269

7_4_2485598388
492813735352
815994822964

786222986889
377588684446

32

otherwise

indicated.

IV
What

must

you

add to each of the

followingto make

100?

1. 40

25

37

84

52

33

19

82

76

53

96

26

59

89 36

2. 18

32

56

92

37

46

83

25

88

14

41

77

22

35 69

3. 85

92

28

15

63

39

23

29

79

58

26

86

44

74

The

followingare
exceed

the 45 subtraction facts whose

Write

9.

the

answers

in

one

12

ends
minu-

minute.

1. 18

10

16

12

17

15

12

15

13

14

16

10

11

10

10

2.

17

14

12

13

14

10

12

11

12

18

16

11

14

10

13

3.

13

10

14

13

10

10

15

12

11

11

12

11

15

13

11

987653763248985

34

PRACTICE

TESTS

FOR

ACCURACY

AND

SPEED

IN

SUBTRACTION

36

IX

Business

method.

men

Make

and

change by the adding


for the following.
change in this manner
clerks make

X
A
you

good subtracter
beat
a

1.

can

do

10

right in

3 minutes,

Can

this record?
b

329642

896284

300296

248654

756200

158364

99396

125472

159728

297472

PRACTICE

36

TESTS

ACCURACY

FOR

AND

SPEED

XII

Note.

"

Exercises

XVI

and

XVII

contain

all the

multiplicationfacts.

38

PRACTICE

TESTS

FOR

ACCURACY

AND

SPEED

IN

Place the decimal


next

two

exercises.

DECIMALS

point where
Write

the
XXXI

39

it

belongs in each of the

answers

on

another

sheet.

PRACTICE

40

TESTS

FOR

ACCURACY

AND

SPEED

XXXIII
10

right in 8 minutes.

XXXIV
These

examples contain the 90 subtraction facts. A


should have all right
7th grade pupil,good in subtraction,
12

in 5 minutes.

THE

FUNDAMENTAL

PROCESSES

41

3528

9158

9389

5624

35

42

79

18

7558

3478

3484

3792

3098

83

92

208

57

67

6309

69

XXXVI
9

rightin 8 minutes.

CHAPTER

SAVING

good

Add

2.

To

the

in

IN

TIME

In

Addition

shortest

COMPUTING

"Speed, Accuracy, Brevity."

for computers:

motto

I.
1.

VI

Subtraction

and

way.

find the

is common,

sum

products

of several

multiply the

by the

factor

common

when

factor

one

of the

sum

others.

(8 X9) +(4 x9) (8+4) x9


(*f X7) +(*f x5) =$f xl2
=

Write

answers

(8x3ft.)+(5x3ft.)+(12x3ft.)=?

2.

($5X16) +($5X24)

3.
4.

(5ix4)+(6fx4)+(7ix4)=?
(3ix8)+(3ix9)+(3|xl3)=?

5.

(16X22) +(18X22)

+(6X22)

6.

(34X19) +(34x21)

+(34X10)=?

=$9

$6.20x4

$6.20x7=?

$6.20
=?

8.

(3 X25jf)+ (4 X25jf)+ (3 X25jf)

$6.20

X2i
X7i

$6 20x''

+(44X56)=?

save

in No.
42

$6.20x9=?

(84X56)+(72x56)
do you

9.

+($5X20)=?

7.

much

108

only.

1.

How

by the short method'

?
^

MULTIPLICATION

IN

3.

43

just learned

Change the method

so

that it

appliesto

these examples.
1.

($36 X5)

2.
3.

4.

6.

(6 x3 ft.) (4X3 ft.) ?

(8fx6)-(5ix6)=?

6.

(7x2^) -(3x2^)

=?

(96X4) -(85X4)=?
(19X2) -(19X0)=?

7.

(56x3)-(56x2)

=?

8.

(24x3i)-(21x3j)=?

($36X3)

II.

In

Multiplication

1. To

multiplyany number by 25, divide by


the decimal point two placesto the right.
86X25

4 and

move

21.50

Think

4)86

Write

Multiply each
products only.

2150.

numbers

of these

by

25.

Write

the

12

144

48.4

5.6

632

1728

96

18

360

52.8

3.8

728

1960

196

34

528

5.28

8.4

388

508

3.24

pupilshave changed this method so as to multiply


number
by 2.5. Can you?
any
2. To multiplyany number
ending in 5 by itself,
multiply
than itselfand annex
the part to the left of 5 by one more
25 (5x5) to this product.
Some

35X35
Write

the

Think3x4,5x5.

Say

or

write 1225.

products.

abed

85x85=?

65x65=?

3.5x3.5=?

.85x.85=?

2.

95x95=?

25x25=?

55x55=?

9.5x9.5=?

3.

7.5x7.5=?

4.5x4.5=?

2.5x2.5=?

.35x.35=?

1.

SAVING

44

TIME

IN

the decimal

Remembering
the short method

point in the product, apply


the previouspage to these examples,

on

be

85X8.5

1.

2.

2.5x'25

3.

65X6.5=?

4. .55X5.5

numbers

method

same

whose

.35x3.5=?

65X.65=?

7.5 X. 75=?

45X.45=?

.15x1.5=?

95X.95=?

.85x85

the

9.5X95=?

Use

COMPUTING

to find the

integersare the

product of
and the

same

mixed

two

of whose

simi

fractions is 1.

8f x8^

Think

=?

8 x9

and

4fx 4i=?
4f X 4f ?
3|X 3f ?
12|xl2f ?

3jX 3|=?
7|X 7i=?
llfxllf =?
8|X 8i ?

1.
2.
3.
4.

method

of any
ones

two

be extended

factors in the

to include the

decade

same

72^.

write

may

or

5fx5i=?
?
^x9^r^
7ix7f ?
5fx5i=?

3. This

f x^. Say

annex

the

product

simi

of whose

or

write 1221.

or

write 3016.

is 10.

33 x37

=?

Think

58 x52

=?

Think

3 x4
6 x6

and
and

3 x7.

annex

8 x2.

annex

Say
Say

1. 92X98=?

22x28

43x47=?

2.54X56=?

55X55

21x29

3.26X24=?

16X14=?

18x12

4.44X46=?

73X77

86x84

72x78

23x27

5.71X79

help of your knowledge of multipUcationof


to the examples at
decimals apply the foregoingmethod
Write products only.
the top of page 45.
With

the

TIME

SAVING

46

IN

multiplyan integeror mixed number

6. To

by a mixed number whose


the denominator,multiplyby
or

make

COMPUTING

is

niunerator

the next

by

fraction

less than

one

lai^erintegerand

subtraction.

the proper

Subtract ^ of 24 from 9 x24.


x8ii =216 -2 =214.
16 J X I
16f 21^5 14^. Subtract ^ of 16^ from 1 x 16^.

24

Multiply each of the followingby |, by |, by -J^,by \%,


by 2f by 6|,by 7f, by Sf, by 3H, by 1^.
,

24

12

32
,

14

64

36
7. To

"

15f
42J

'

48

240

96

1728

multiply any

72^
33^

number

66f
5^

of two

144

320

12

128

160

18

digitsby

less one.
(1) Write the number
the difference betwpen
(2) To this annex
and

99

100

999

or

or

1000

the number.

(b) 56 X999 =55944.


(a) 38 X99 =3762.
Multiply each of these numbers by 99, by

999.

48

12

32

34

42

88

92

79

72

24

36

56

94

76

80

40

Apply this method to 9.9 and


regard for the decimal point.
Thus,

84 X.99

.99

-83.16; 8.2 x9.9 =81.18;


b

by having the

proper

.86 X.99 =.8514.

.76X.99=?

9.2x.99

2. 7.4X9.9

.72X.99=?

62x.99

3.5.4x9.9

.63X9.9

70X9.9

1.

4.

76X9.9

58X9.9

6. 2.5x9.9

3.5X9.9=?

.65X99
15x99=?

45x9.9

IN

reduce

8. To

parts of
to

each

the number

of

other,proceed as shown

846

47

partialproducts when

of the factors bear

one

(a) 246X846

an

easy

reduce

5076

Multiply by 6.
product by 4.

20304
208116

Solve

multiplerelation

(b) 348x945

to two.

24 =4

x6.

Then

this

the

in the solutions below,

By making 246 the multhe partial


tiplier,
products

246

then

MULTIPLICATION

348
945
3132
15660

In

(b) multiply
firstby 9.
Multiply this product
by 5. Why?

32Sm

by the long method


how

count

many

by the short method.

save

you

examples (a) and (b) above,


tion
steps in multipUcationand in addi-

Followingthe directions given above, find these products,


b

1. 364 X956

981 X429

563 X328

279x252

2.

562X832

872x322=?

3.

525X164

356X636

648x758

4.

642x259

864x135

382x459=?

III. In
1. To
2

divide any

number

places to the left and


Thus,
Divide

36.2 -25

each

Division

by 25,

move

multiplyby

4.

=.362 x4 =1.448.
of these numbers

by

25.

the decimal

point

TIME

SAVING

48

12j,move

divide by

2. To

COMPUTING

IN

the decimal

point two places

do you divide
How
multiplyby 8. Why?
by 16|? by 33i? by 66f? by 75?
Divide each of these numbers
by each of the divisors
to the left and

named

in number

2.

24

384

255

8.4

75

35.6

716

36

256

375

9.6

32

48.2

896

18

144

.260

5.4

96

43.2

324

3. To

reduce

division
and

example in long division

an

remove

factor from

large common

to

in short

one

dividend

both

divisor.
4

682

Remove

4"88-+""r-170i.dividend
the

Review

the

and

for 3, 4, 6, 8, and

28

"

18248^72

2. 1828-5-36=?

23205-5-49

24

15681^24

-^

74328 -^36

4. 7356 -^44

69381

-^63

many

How

the divisor ends

in

tons

one

in

or

more

zeros,

cancel

point of the dividend

the decimal

placesto the left as there


many

-^

move

16496

and

29840 -^64

27

zeros

-^

4. When

92484

3. 2379-5-39

these

9.

-^

both

divisor.

tests
divisibility

1. 1356

factor 4 from

common

canceled

are

carload of coal

zeros.

weighing 34640 lb.?

17.32

2000)34.640

There

are

17.32 tons.

Solve these examples by the method


b

1. 3484-^80

65182-^60

just shown.
c

as

43242^70=?

IN

2.42860+2000=?
3. 9652+40

can

decimals
watch
the

49

96420-5-2240
?
with

in the

same

the decimal

76630+2240

84320+80

decimals.

way

and

factors

common

remove

73482+440

6. Cancellation

You

DIVISION

as

with

whole

cancel

nimibers

point. Study this solution.

Then

with
if you
solve

examples by cancellation.

next

2^

.03

.84x.7gx-tg_.03_g
.01

.9"X^XXA
.pe*

.1

.40X64X.76

.1

6.4X32.8

1.

25X.4X.80

144

.60X.70X$120
2

16.4X2.4X3.6

"

1728

.90X.80X$100

4.2X3.5X4.4X1728

35X84X60

'

.90X2.8

231
IV.

Examples

for

Practice

work

examples can be solved without written


the proper short method.
Find it. Then
by selecting

write

the

Each

of these

answer.

SAVING

60

V.

Use

IN

TIME

Applications of

one

cost

year

of various

result.

the

to

estimated

solve

these

consumption
our

army

in

war.

the cost per

places to determine
your

Methods

articles of food furnished

of the recent

Estimate

Short

knowledge of short methods

your

problems.
The
followingtable shows
and

COMPUTING

how

lb.,and then solve


close your

to four decimal

estimate

is.

Prove

CHAPTER
BUSINESS

COMMON

VII

FORMS,

PRACTICES,

AND

PROBLEMS
Checks

Bank

check

1. A

the

has

check

greater than

order

is

an

deposit,to

the

deposit

on

^^

No.

and

^^lioo

^^^^

of money

sum

in the

not

check.

Mich.,^^?l?^iW5|a_
BANK

Po^r

'

signer of

MICH.

LANSING.

nf

to the order

the

named

one

GROVE
OF

Four

some

Lansing,
OAK

Pay

certain

pay

to

in which

bank,

Ice Co.

Wave

^ 4

''lioo

n^llj^rg
John

Jackson

CHECK

2.

What

3.

When

charged
is

Jackson.
of the

check

It

serves

as

Wave

Ice Co.

should

Why

6.

Arthiu"
from

McCoy

the

paid for it with

Model

Oak
and

is

the

on

do with

this check?

Grove

Bank,

is marked

check

back
be

it has

the

his check.

Write
51

John

signature

kept?

in his home
it.

to

of it.

Valley Park, Mo., bought

Clothing Co.

it is

paid. It

finallyreturned

receipt because

canceled
of

the

account

and

canceled

Polar

to

comes

Ice Co.

Wave

Jackson's

John

4.

$20

check

the

to
a

now

will the Polar

suit for

town

and

BUSINESS

52

FORMS,

PRACTICES,

Salesman's

Checks

1. A

like the above

form

duplicateby
made.

One

by the
2.

salesman's

store

paper

is given to the

as

record of the sale.

Study the above form

3. Make

slip

copy
a

PROBLEMS

Slips

or

is filledout

of carbon

means

AND

by the salesman

at the time

buyer. The

to learn what

cash sales sUp in which

you

in

the sale is

other is

kept

it should contain.
are

the clerk and

buyer of certain books and paper.


4. What
advantages are there in dealingat a store which
sellsfor cash only? Is there any disadvantage?

your

teacher is the

Invoices

An
or

itemized

of

statement

wholesale dealer at

one

goods sold by a manufacturer


time or on one day is an invoice.

BUSINESS

54

FORMS,

PROBLEMS

AND

PRACTICES,

1920, the followingbill of goods: 6 dining tables @ S25,


less 15%; 3 doz. dining chairs @ $50.00,less 20%; and 18
brass beds
What

the net amount

was

if paid

What

1, 1920?

Terms*, 3/10, 1/30, n/60.


of the invoice if paid on April
April 21?^ On May 20?

@ $12.00,less 20%.

on

3/10, 1/30, n/60.

"Terms:

This

in 60

pay

the

buyer

may

take

1% if he pays in 30 days, or must


waits longer than 30 days. He

discount of 3% if he pays in 10 days, or


"net'' (i.e.,
without
discount)if he
pay
a

must

that

means

days.
the check for this invoice if it was

6. Write

paid Apr. 21.


invoice for goods purchased from
7. Make
an
some
wholesale dealer by yourselfas buyer for some
retail store
in your community.
Bills

bill* is

1. A

for service

formal, written

rendered,or for service rendered

furnished,within

UNION

ELECTRIC

electric service from

14 Kilowatt

March

Note.

"

^The term
STATEMENT

18 to

bill
OP

CO., Dr.
April18.

jTet biU

hours^$L15

or

INVOICE,

Lows^ApTlIM^

LIGHT

BILL

GROSS

materials

Ray

To

For

and

due

designatedtime.
St.

J. A.

of amount

statement

PAPER.
OP
a PIECE
MEASURE,
definition
above.
to restrict it to the

before

Apr.

on

28,91.10

BILL

is also used

ACCOUNT,

if paid

indicate

to

sales

an
check,
a
ISLATIVE
LEGCURRENCY,
DRAPT,
In this chapter it is deemed
proper

PIECE

OP

PROBLEMS

2. Mrs.

Jan.

John

15 to Feb.

ABOUT

White

used

days.

Make

8200

cubic

55

feet of gas

Peoples Gas Co. at


discount of 10% if paid within

bill for this sendee.

proper

3. John

Abel, a carpenter, worked 1^ days


Smith's porch. He
day repairingMrs. Adam
lumber

and other material

4. When

requiredMr.
sign his name.

from

15, furnished by The

90jiper 1000, subjectto


10

BILLS

Smith

Mrs.

Abel

furnished

amounting to $5. Write the bill.


paid the bill in problem 3, she

to write the word

This

$4 per

at

is called

Paid

on

the bill and

receiptingthe bill.

Receipts
1. In

all

cases

where

debt, a receiptshould

given in payment
be requested.
money

is

JL^^^v^^."A^

/^/"^^
A

.A

of

RECEIPT

Study the above form and then state the important


parts of a good receipt.
3. Ralph Parker paid Alva Smith $35 for the rent of his
house for one month.
Write a proper receiptfor this transaction.
2.

BUSINESS

56

PRACTICES,

FORMS,

Debit

with all money

the account

the account

with

Dr.

19W

Apr.

"

To
"

Cash

Bal.

on

taken

all money

Hand.

$12.50

Apr.
'

The

account

on

Hand.

'

"

11

'

8.00

**

to make

it equal to the largerone.

Balance

is written

is then

amount

much

the

at any

(Contrihur
.26

Balance

16.60

the

to the smaller

side

This amount

smaller
on

balance

time.

be added

must

written

.16

20.60

is to find how

This

Church

$ A.50

(Movies)

Amusement

16.60

account

on

Cash.

tion)

12

be balanced

may

from

By Clothing(Shoes)

20.60

To Bal.

receives. Credit

Cr,

"

12

Cash

1920

ing
(work-

Wages
afterschool
and Sat.)

PROBLEMS

Account

Cash

The

AND

side in red
the

largerside

To

with the word

ink, preferably.
as

Balance

on

Hand.
1. Rule

small blank

book

like the form

above,

or

buy
Why

ready ruled,and keep an accoxmt with your cash.


should boys and girlskeep a cash account?
mother to keep the grocery
2. Get permissionfrom your
and meat
ceries;
Grofor the family. Call one
accounts
account
the other.Meats.
3. A girlreceived during April $2.50 for helpingat home
and $1.50 for taking care
of the neighbor'shttle child.
She paid during the month
30jffor amusements, 75j5for a
day
book, 25j5for a handkerchief,and contributed 20j5to SunIf she had $2.15 on hand April 1, write her
School.
cash account
and find the balance April 30.

one

LEARNING

An

account

does

for you.

THE

PERSONAL

ACCOUNT

57

be

kept with a person in the same


way
the Cash Accoxmt is kept. Charge (debit)the person with
everythingyou do for him. Credit him with everythinghe

1. Who

may

is keeping the Frank

Fox

account?

on
Explain the meaning of To Balance
Who
performed the labor debited Mar.

2.
3.

4. Who
6. What

Frank

Fox

6. Write

March

received the wheat

on

Mar.

kind of record of the above

keep?

would

How

the proper

he

name

Mar.

1.

8?

12?
transactions would
the account?

might be requiredon

receiptwhich

18.

7. Write

the proper check for the Mar. 5 item.


8. Write Isaac Miller's account
as it would
appear
from

book
Oct.

the

on

yom-

followingtransactions dming October,1920.

Sold him

10

Miller gave his note


returned mdse.

15

Sold him

mdse.

15

Received

$30 cash

merchandise

amounting to $65.75.
for $40, due Nov. 5.
valued

amounting
on

at $2.50.

to $40.25.

account.

(1) Find the balance of the account Oct.


(2) Write the note given Oct. 5.
(3) Write the check given Oct. 15.

30.

BUSINESS

58

FORMS,

PRACTICES,

AND

PROBLEMS

Statements

record of all sales for which

the time

received at

of the sale,is

placed in the customer's accoxmt


the books of the store. Usuallyat the end of the month

on
a

cash is not

is sent to the customer.

statement

fact

of the customer's

copy

store for the

Such

account

This statement

is in

the books

of the

on

periodit is made.

statement

should show

these items:

ment
(1) the condition of the account at the time the last statewas
rendered,if the account is not new;
(2) the various dates on which additional charges were
of each;
made
and the amount
allowed and
(3) the various dates on which credits were
the amount
of each; (4) the balance due.
It need not show the details of the purchasesbecause these
shown on the separateinvoices and sales slips.
are

customer

salesman's

with

charge account

slipsfor the month

the statement

sent

him

should

keep all the

in order to compare
at the end of the month.

with

MONTHLY

THE

STATEMENT

59

Chicago,m,. Feb. 28, 1921


James

Bush

1284 Harrison St.,Chicago III.


,

IN

ACCOUNT

T. RAYNOR

H.

WITH

364

To Staiement Rendered

Jan. SI
Feb.

"

Mdse.

"

ii*^
^'

By Cash
"
Mdse.

S
18

Avenue
$60,90

1540

CREDITS

Feb.

Wabash

$60,00

returned

1,25
61,25

Feb. 28

Balance

Study both
James
1.

from

due

of H.

Raynor's monthly statements


and then answer
these questions.

Bush

T.

is the item

Why

21.SO

first of

the

"To

Statement

rendered"

Raynor's monthly

to

omitted

statements

on

page 58?
2.' How

this

do you

find the balance

due in the statement

on

page?

3. The

second statement

What
receiptedstatement.
Is a receipted
if paydoes this mean?
statement
necessary
ment
is made by check?
Why?
which the grocer might
4. Write a monthly statement
send to your

father

or

is a

mother.

BUSINESS

60

The

An

itemized

valuation

1.

or

on

in the home

is based

the cost

on

of the

its value at the time the

Find

J. O. Summers.

of Mr.

the value of all

questionmarks.

AN

2. Make

such
3.

in

showing its value is called

inventoryis made.
The inventorybelow shows the property in one room

property

the

Inventory

list of property

inventory. The

an

PROBLEMS

AND

PRACTICES,

FORMS,

one

an

inventory of all

personalpossessions;

books, pictures,
clothing,
money,
Make
an
inventory of the property
room

etc.

have

in your

home,

or

home.

of your

should

owner

is carried
an

on

household

contents, the

inventory of the property

in

some

place.Why?

6. Merchants

twice

your

as,

4. If insurance

safe

INVENTORY

year.

make

Why?

an

inventory of their stock

once

or

BUSINESS

62

PRACTICES,

FORMS,

Making
In

the

find each

Company

The

roll of

followingpay
man's

Roll

Pay

and

pay

PROBLEMS

AND

American

the total pay

Furnace

roll for

the week.

for

Memorandum

After the pay


and

the

roll is made

value of each bill and

envelope are determined


below.
Complete it. Find

as

above, the number

shown

coin to be

placedin each

shown

in the table

as

pay

of your

Envelope

Pay

way

to check

man's

begim

the correctness

work.

$10

Brod, Chas.

Buck, Joseph

$5

$2

$1

50^ 25fflOff5ff H
1

1
4

1
1

Total

$22.80
14.25

of

Memorandum
TRUST
AITO
of Chicago

PEOPLES

THE

Roll

Pay

63

This
dum

Pay

Roll

Furnace

is

prepared to
teller

in

cashier

or

American

memoran-

assistthe bank

for

The

Bank

the

for

BAKK

SAVINGS

of

Memorandum

Bank

ROLLS

PAY

MAKING

viding
pro-

Co.

the company
with

the change

man's

sheet

envelope.

pay

1. On

separate

complete the
shown

form

each

for

quired

re-

here for

the pay roll on

page

62,
2. Write the check

which

must

this

pany
accom-

dum.
memoran-

On which bank
isthis check
Total.

drawn?

sign a receiptfor the

money

signsit?
their pay envelopeseach must
received. Write Loy Wilson's

receipt.Loy Wilson's

name

islast on

As

the

Make

men

handed

the memorandum

it the bank
Name

W.

are

Who

HiU

Due

$25.85

T.Brown...
J. Sanford.

for the pay


for this pay

memorandum
Amt.

the pay rollon

Name

Amt.

envelopesand from
roll.

Due

H.

page 62.

Name

Amt.

Due

M.

33.69

Daly.. .$27.65
Frank Fry.. 32.78

C. Stout...

30.26

20.46

J. Sands.

F. See

20.85

36.84

Fisher. .$29.63

BUSINESS

64

FORMS,

PRACTICES,

Business

Smith

AND

PROBLEMS

Problems

Ryder's house. Write


the bill which is to contain the followingitems: 3 days'
labor of 3 men
at $5.50 each per day; paint and
other
materials,$40. Write the check which John Ryder gave
1. Herbert

painted John

of the bill.

in payment

Smith

Alva

worked

dressmaking for Mrs.


Mary Payne 2j days at $2.50 a day, and car fare which
which Mrs. Payne should
cost 7ffa trip. Write the receipt
2. Mrs.

request when
3. Write

of cash

in

payment

made

good Englishhow

person

has

cash there

was

on

how

cash

was

much

was

hand

at

you

in full in cash.
would

find the amoimt

if it is known:

(a)how much
hand when the account
was
begun; (b)
received since that time; (c)how much
on

paid.
4. On
September 1, 1920, A. L. Black had on hand
of cash during the
$40.60. His receiptsand payments
follows: Sept. 2, received $10.25; Sept. 3,
month
as
were
paid $2.24; Sept. 6, received $17.68; Sept. 8, paid $4.50;
Sept. 10,rejceived$23.75;Sept.15, received $1.72;Sept. 16,
paid $4.83; Sept. 18, paid $4.50; Sept.21, received $43.25;
Sept. 22, paid $2.50; Sept. 23, paid $2.50; Sept. 24, paid
$2.50; Sept.25, paid $2.50; Sept.26, received $2.50; Sept.
27, paid $2.50. Write the cash account for the month and
fijidthe balance Sept.30.
the invoice,deduct the discount,and write the
Make
check for each of the next two problems.
6. On Jan. 31, 1921, James
Carver, Joplin,Mo., bought
of the Hollis Lumber
Co., Kansas City, Mo., 36 doors at
cash

was

SOLVING

PROBLEMS

65

$3.75 each; 18 doors at $6.57 each and


each.

Terms:

12

doors at $12.50

days, net 60 days.


6. On April30, 1920, L. F. Hayes, Louisville,
Ky., bought
of the R. Y. Crowell Co., Wabash, Ind.,500 yd. silk at
300 yd. ribbon at 30ff.
$1.80; 750 yd. gingham at 75jif;
Terms:
3/10, n/60.
7. Paul Jolly contracted to work
for Henry Snyder for
to be paid in equal
one
year for $720 and board, the wages
installments at the end of each month.
Supply the other
data

necessary

10

5%

and

write the contract.

Guy Lenocker, a scientificIowa farmer,harvested 80


of wheat which yielded 30 bu. per acre.
The cost
acres
of producing and marketing the crop was
as follows: plowing
and harrowing,$4.25 per acre; seed, 1^ bu. per acre,
at $2.50 per
bu.; sowing, $0.25 per acre; harvesting,
$1.50 per acre; threshing,
6ffper bu.; hauling to market,
5^ per bu. He sold the wheat at $2.00 per bu.
8.

The

$140

land

which

on

the

wheat

grew

was

valued

on

charged the wheat crop 6%


the value of the land, also the tax which was

an

acre.

per

He

acre.

(1) Put the above facts into proper form


with Field No. 5."
title,"Account
after the wheat was
(2) Close the account
(3) What
of wheat

was

the entire cost of

at

interest

$1.25

under

the

marketed.

producing one

bushel

in "Field No. 5'7

the net earningsof the field?


(4) What were
(5) Compute the net earnings at the current price of
wheat.

CHAPTER

VIII

PERCENTAGE

The

fraction,and
one

to

solve

of the

is worth

values

2.

while

of the

to know

4.
5.
6.
7.

9.

11.
12.

Write

the

50%

2.

3%

3.

25%

4.

16|%
12i%

and

of indicating
In order

without
conmion

cents.

14.

80%

16.

.8=^

17.

18.

5%

19.

4%

20.
21.
22.

24.

min.
acres

in.

of $96
of 72

decimal

-.6=1

23.

of 32

often

very

decimal

answers

of 60

whole.

60%

of 80

1.

ways

13.

16.

10.

of

the

.1=tV
90%
.9=T^
6j .06j=Ti,r

8.

the

following per

=.50=1
.25
25%
J
75%=.75=f
12|%=.12^=i
37i%
.37Hf
.62Hf
62j%
87f%
.87j |
33i%=.33i
|
66|%
.66f=f
16f%=.16f =i
20%
.20=i
40%
.4=1
=

3.

three

are

equal parts

50%

1.

6.

fraction

common

more

number,

percentage problems qmckly,

pencil,it
fraction

the

or

after

sign (%)

cent

per

in.

to these

7.
8.
9.
10.

.05=^

=-3^
3j%
.03i=^
2|%
.02"=^
2% =.02=^
1.25 =f
125%
112i%
1.12i=f
.04

examples in

87|%
37i%

6.

10%

2 minutes.

of 24

12.

4%

of S800

13.

66|%x6
87J%X24
2i%x40

6%

of $150

14.

4%X$175

of 18

16.

6|%X32

33i%
66

of

48}^

11.

gal.
yd.

PERCENTAGE

need

You

APPLICATION

AN

learn these

to

OF

MULTIPLICATION

terms

new

67

in percentage: the

(alsocalled the base),the part (alsocalled the

whole

the relation of the part to the whole

and

centage),
per-

(also

called- the rate).

Percentage is
fractions

applicationof multipUcationof

an

of decimal

or

mon
com-

fractions.

is either the

1. The

whole

2. The

relation of the part to the whole

multipUcand

part is the multiplier.


part is either the product or

or

the

product.
(rate)or the

to the

whole

multipUcand.
In the problem, "Find 6% of $100,''$100 is the whole,
6% is the relation of the part to the whole, and the part
3. The

the

is to be foimd.
As
to

in

of the terms

multipUcationtwo

are

alwaya given

find the third.


for

Examples
1. Find

8%

Practice

of $20.

8%

(multipKer)XS20

$3 is what

=$1.60
(multiplicand)

of $9?

(product).

followingis another way of


statingthe question:"By what must $9 be multipUed to
produce $3?''
2.

The

=$3
X ? (multiplier)
(multiplicand)
Multiplier t or 33J%.

$9

(product).

3.
The

$6 is

33^%

of how

questionis,"by what
The

part)XS6

(the part). The

In each
what

of these

is wanted.

result.

Thus

in

must

(the whole)

whole?"

money

much

money

I
=3

money?
(the relation of the

use

whole

to

the
the

$18.

examples think firstwhat

Then

multiply $6 (the part) to make

is given and

the shortest process

to

get the

% is the multipUer,
example 1, think,''33f

PERCENTAGE

68

multiplicand(whole), the requiredresult is


the product (part)." Say or write $354.
S1062

is the

1. What
2.

is 33^% of $1062?

$6 is how

many

3. Find

25%

4. Find

12|%

of

6.

$40 is what

6.

125%

of

133|%

ft. is 25%

8. 18

qt. is 33 1^% of how

$3 is what

of how

11. Find

8%

of $24.50, 12%

12. Find

7%

of 52 mi., 9%

13. What

is

14. What

is 1 qt. of 1

16. Find

pecks?

$6 is what

90%

Of $30?

ft.?

many

10. Find

of 30

Of $40?

of $150

many

of $4?

in.,of 5280 ft.

cu.

Of $60?

of $50?

$45,75% of $75.

of

$35, 45%

$864, of 1728

7. 60

9.

Of $36?

of $9?

of $25,35%

of $80

Of 954 ft.?

of $3?

of $65.

mi., 80%

ft.

of 840
of 700

in.

2^ of lOff? Of $1?

the number

if 6%

pk.? Of

pk.?

of it is $36, if 3%

of it is 3

bushels,if 10% of it is 528 feet.


Everyday

Problems

Study each of these problems


in the

method
1. A

in the

then find the


previousexercise,
you

answer

manner

explained

by the shortest

know.
sold

automobile

costing$1200 at a profit
of 8^% of the cost.
Find the profitand the sellingprice.
2. 45%
of a cotton crop of 40 bales,averaging 500 lb.,
sold at 25jfa lb. Find the selling
was
price.
3. In a certain arithmetic test of 24 examples in percentage,
John had 18 rightand Frank had 15 right. Find
man

an

PERCENTAGE

70

f%

16. Find

$10 is

^%

of $1200,

of how

much?

i%

of

Find

$80, 66f%

J%

of 60

of $1500.

acres.

$15 is what

of $2000?

16.

How

10% of
much

17. A

$20 gold pieceweighing 516 grainsis alloy.

gold in $500?

pure

4-inch floor board

with tongue and

is

only
3j inches wide on its face. In computing
[^ the amount of such lumber for a floor,what
5
be allowed for the groove?
% must
18. Draw
without the aid of a ruler a square
inch, a
two-inch square, 2 square
inches. With
the help of the
ruler compute
Problems

(Where the
to tenths of

1. The

per

your
in

Percentage

answer

per

percentage of

cent

error.

Involving Large

is to be
unless

groove

Numbers

expressedin per. cent,


otherwise stated.)

carry

it

Fourth

subscribed
LibertyLoan of $6,000,000,000was overthe % of overwas
subscription?
by $866,400,000. What
to hundredths
of a
(Carry your answer

cent.)

2. On

March

17, 1919, it

was

announced

that the total

expenditureof the United States Government


during the
war
$23,363,000,000. Expenses due directly
period was
estimated at $21,294,000,000,
of which the
to the war
were
spent $14,000,000,000.
army
(1) What would have been the normal expenditurefor
the same
period?
(2) What % was the normal expenditureof the total?
the ratio of the war
(3) Find to hundredths
expense

PROBLEMS
to the normal

WITH

LARGE

NUMBERS

Express in

expense.

71

the ratio you

cent

per

have

just found.
(4) Show with a graph the rdation of war to peace as
regards cost.
the army
cost?
cost of the total war
% was
(5) What
3. On May
15, 1919, the War Department at Washington
that

announced

there

286,044 casualties in the

were

ExpeditionaryForce under
classed
number, 237,135 were

American
Of this

remainder

as

General
as

Pershing.
and the

wounded

deaths.

(1) Find what


(2) What

the deaths

ties.
of the total casual-

were

the deaths of those wounded?

were

4. The

The

$4,500,000,000.
quota of the Victory Loan was
actual amount
subscribed was
ing
$5,249,908,300,accord-

to

What

was

issued May
Washington statement
the % of over-subscription?

estimated

that the 1917 wheat

bu.

actual

The

accurate

in per

cent

crop

actual crop

was

the estimate

May

amount

1, 1919,

was

would

it was

estimated

659,797,000
How
nearly

3,159,494,000bu.
wrong?

hay

farms

on

estimated

at

11,476,000tons May 1, 1918.


the May, 1919, supply of that

that the 1917

be 3,191,000,000bu.

States would

By what

was

of

be

the estimate?

of 1916

in the United

The

7. The

was

crop

650,828,000 bu.

was

crop

6. In the autumn
corn

Department of Agricultiu'e

of 1916 the

6. In the autumn

26, 1919.

per

in the United

States

against

8,493,000 tons

as

How

short

of

many

May,

1918?

cent

was

PERCENTAGE

72
8. On

mated
estiApril 1, 1919, the winter wheat crop was
at 836,000,000 bushels by the Department of Agriculture.
On

bushels.
9. In

1, 1919, it was

May

Find

the %

of each

"

(Apr.,1917

to

our

ment
govern-

States.

3,091,165,000

War.
Spanish-American
World

the cost

117,048,000

Civil War

The

year?

92,989,000

War

Mexican

What

15%.

waged by the United

wars

of 1812

War

The

of the

sonal
per-

$565,302,070. The

for the

following table shows

10. The

899,000,000

of the real and

increased this valuation

valuation

the total tax

was

at

diuing April.

large city was

commission

tax

of increase

the assessed valuation

1919

property of
state

estimated

718,836,000

War
to

24,481,000,000(To April,1919.)
Nov., 1918)
?

Total

(1) Construct on the board a bar graph which will


show vividlythe relative cost of each of the above wars.
Let

Hint."

(2) The
(3) The

the

to

of all of the previous wars

of the World
was

the

United

States?

(5) Do

the amounts

our

is what

is what

pays

of

War?

monthly
above

cost

show

of the World

War

the real cost of

country?

(6) Who

of the cost

War?
cost

(4) What

graph represent$100,000,000.

of the Civil War

cost

of the World

the cost

1 in. of your

the cost of the World

War?

to

war

PROBLEMS

(7) How
11.

The

LARGE

WITH

is the money

NUMBERS

73

this debt?

raised to meet

total direct cost of the World

War

amounts

to

about

of which Germany spent $39,000,$180,000,000,000,


000,000; Great Britain,$38,000,000,000;France, $26,000,000,000; and the United States,$22,000,000,000.Represent
this condition with a circle graph.
Hint.

How

Two

"

degreesof

will the

money?

Do

the

nations
sums

represent$1,000,000,000.

arc

for this

pay

above

largeexpenditureof

represent the

total cost of the

war?
12.

man

citylicenses
an

paid $2000

for

cost $5 each.

an

The

assessed valuation of $1000.

the year

were

automobile.
tax

was

The

state and

$2.25 per $100

His expenses

on

for repairs
for

480 gallons
at
$60.50;for oil $10.20;for gasoline

for the year at 25%


20.4ff.He estimated the depreciation
5760 miles.
of what
he paid for the machine.
He ran
(1) What was the average running cost per mile?
much
mileage per gallon did he get out of
(2) How

his

on

gasoUne?
(3) If the machine carried,on an average, 4
every tripduring the season, find the mileage

persons
cost

per

passenger.

omit any
item of importance in
(4) Did the owner
estimatingthe total cost of his machine for the year?
in the 50-yard dash
13. A good record for a 7th grade girl
is 7.8 seconds;a good record for the same
girlin the 100yard dash is 15.4 seconds. What is the difference in speed
in yards
Express your answer
per second in the two races?
and in per cent.

PERCENTAGE

74

Scale

1. Find

iO JNJi.=Vi\r\.

representedby the
above oblong, whose dimensions
4 in. by 3 in.
are
2. What
by each square?
per cent of an acre is shown
the

3. What

in

area

per cent

in oats? in com?

acres

of the farm

is in woodland?

of the farm

in

timothy?

in red

in wheat?

clover? in

pasture?

in alfalfa?
4. What

per

cent

of the farm

is in orchard

and

truck

garden?
6. What

this

answer

6. Add

should

per cent

do the farm

buildingsoccupy?

by findingit by another method.


the per cents foimd in Nos. 3, 4, and

the total be?

5.

Prove

What

PROJECT

PROBLEMS

piece of ground in the

75

oblong is 100 ft.


by 40 ft. It has a walk 4 ft. wide running lengthwise
Each
haK
is used for a vegetable
through the middle.
garden. One half of each half is planted in tomatoes
and potatoes. One half of each remaining half is planted
A

in

peas

beans.

and

form

One

of

half

an

what

of

remains

is

planted in carrots,parsnips,and turnips;the other half is


planted in cabbage, kohlrabi,and Swiss chard.
the oblong to the scale 4 ft. J in.,showing the
1. Draw
=

garden described above.


2. Find

perimeterof the oblong.,


3. Find the length of the garden border.
4. What
% is it of
% is the walk of the oblong? What
the garden?
6. What
% is each half of the garden of the oblong?
6. The part plantedin peas and beans is what
% of the
part plantedin tomatoes?
7. What
% of the whole oblong is planted in cabbage,
kohlrabi,and Swiss chard?
is what % of the part
8. The part planted in tomatoes
planted in potatoes?
9. What
% of the whole oblong is planted in peas and
the

beans?
10.

What

11.

Find

the walk.
your

answer

is the ratio of the oblong to the walk?


the
What
to

area

in square

feet of the garden without

fractional part of
per

cent.

an

acre

is this?

Change

CHAPTER

USING
and

Bu3ring
1. A

What

S9000,
the

on

sold

man

Selling

his

was

often

men

based

rate

based

rate

100%

of the

3.

If the

4.

Thus,

of

125%

of

of

the rate

compute

of the selUng

What

to be

profiton

able to convert

gain of 25%

price,which
the

the

an

equivalent

on

the

cost

of the cost.

is 125%

of

(sellingprice)=25%

cost

is

cost.

gain

of

rate

sold his

John

the cost

on

bicycle for $12

selling price. What


5. A

the
6. If

on

cost?

the

on

for

$8000

is 20%,

is it

what

on

selling price?

the

on

gain

it is necessary

the cost.

on

20%

Proof."

the

Gain

costing him

lot

of

or

sellingprice quickly into

the

on

or
20%
only -J^

on

Loss

and

rate

sellingprice. Therefore
a

at

sellingprice?

Business

2.

PERCENTAGE

house

IX

loss of 20%

the

was

the

on

is sold

watch

the

cost.

7. A

gain

8. A

the cost

of loss

rate

cost

loss of

is

on

16f %

the

equivalent

to

of the

cost?
what

rate

selling price?
at

sellingprice, find the

the

at

of

33^%

on

loss of $3, which

cost

the cost

and

is

the

rate

is

12f %

of

of loss based

equivalent to what

rate

sellingprice?
man

of

sold
one

two

and

farms

for

gaining 25%
76

$9000
of the

each, losing 25%


sellingprice on

of
the

USING

PERCENTAGE

Selling for

Another

78

When

fanner

either sell them


to

to

person

He

broker.

ready for the market, he may


the local buyer or he may
ship them

has hogs

largecityto

Such

Person

some

one

is called

is said to do

commission

commission,

for him.

will sell them

who

merchanty
or

or

brokerage

usuallyreceives a certain per cent of the


he gets for the stock,produce,or other goods sold.
money
This is called his commission
or
brokerage.
and such other charges
After deductinghis commission
have arisen,
such as storage, or yardage in case of
as may
Uve stock,he sends the balance,called the proceeds of the
who is called the principal. This is called
sale,to the owner
business.

He

merchant's

the commission
1. An

remittance.

agent sold 154 acres of land


1^%. How much did the

$125

at
owner

an

acre,

mission
com-

receive for his

land?
2. I

shipped to my agent at Chicago a car of wheat


sold at $2.20 per bu.
containing 440 bushels which was
was
(1919 price). The commission
lj%; freight,$65.
What

amount

3. A

grapes

$12.60.
4. A

was

commission
at

The

commission

amoimted

agent sold

ranch

of land at $22.50

an

in Texas

acre.

How

his commission
the agent receive for his services,
5. An

Indiana

his Cincinnati

of Concord
to

the rate of commission.

real estate
acres

sold 840 baskets

merchant

30)ia basket.

Find

of 42,800

due me?

watermelon

broker.

The

grower

broker

sent

400

consisting
did

much

being2%?
melons

sold 375 melons

at

to
an

SELLING

FOR

ANOTHER

PERSON

79

5%. The others were


50ffa melon. Commission
a loss due to careless handling. The
$60. Other
was
freight
What
the average
to $25.
was
price
charges amounted
received for the melons shipped?
the grower
average

of

6. Find

the net

amount

due

the

owner

from

the following

sale: 12 carloads of

each car containing22 head;


cattle,
1200 lb.;price,
$12.25 per 100 lb.
weight of cattle,
average
(July,1919);conmiission,
j%; cost of imloading cattle at
stockyards,$3.50 per car; freightper car, $108.20.
7. John Smith of CentraUa,111.,
shipped on July 1, 1919,
24 head of hogs to his commission
merchant
at East St.
Louis. They were
sold on July 2 at $22.15 per 100 lb.,the
weight being 242 lb. The conamission was 1^%.
average
Other charges amounted
did
much
to $25.80. How
money
the

commission

much
8. I

merchant

receive for his services?

How

did he send to the owner?

shippedto my agent in Chicago a carload of peaches,


His com410 bushels,which he sold at $1.25 a bushel.
mission
was
$75.65;drayage at Chicago,$8.50.
8%; freight,
The cost for baskets was
$49.20; for pickingand packing,
$55.
$50.20; for cartingto station,$18; for refrigeration,
much
How
peaches?
per bushel net did I receive for my
9. A fruit grower
shipped to a commission merchant a
of 480 boxes, which the merchant
of applesconsisting
car
sold at $1.25 per box.
What
the net proceedsper
were
box, after deducting for commission 2|ffper box; freight,
Did the
$184.30; drayage, $22.50; storage, 5^ per box?
have any other expenses? Do you think he received
grower
a fair net
pricefor his apples?

PERCENTAGE

USING

80

for Another

Buying
this

1. In

the amount
the

of commission

the rate

case

of money
the commission
does this differ from
How

goods.

2. I instruct my

broker

buy

to

is

computed

merchant

pays

on

for

transaction?
selling

bushels

1000

of

com

at

If there are no
other
2%.
bushel,commission
charges,what is the corn costingme per bushel?
is a broker's charge for buying 1800 bushels of
3. What

$1.40 per

wheat

^^

at

4. I asked

bushel?

commission

$8.50,commission
6, A

earned

man

commission.
6. An

How

%.
$18
much

How

agent paid $45

client,charging him

merchant

3%

much
week

$2.20

rate

bushel.

How

of commission

Hint.

Find

"

8. Mr.

is

collecting
gas bills at 1%

did he collect?
for Texas

acre

an

commission.

How

buy 1000
largea check

B.'s broker

commission

in St. Paul

transaction?

to

bushels of wheat
I send

must

if the

bought
2%.

100

Find

barrels of
the amount

firm

2 weeks

32j5a lb.,commission

amounted

did the

bought 100 bales of cotton averaging


the bale at 29j5a lb. for a speculator,
at 2%

commission, and in
at

much

cost per bushel.

my

500 lb. to

for his

land

J%?

flour at $10 per barrel,


commission
of the bill sent to Mr. B.
9. A

I send him?

must

money

land cost the client per acre?


7. I instruct my
agent to
at

buy 70 bbl. flour @

to

$85.
How

Did
much?

the

same

firm sold the cotton

Storage and other charges


the speculatorlose or gain in the
2%.

DISCOUNTS

LEARNING

Buying
1.

at

81

Discount

Certain firms advertise their goods at

list,or

logue
cata-

buyers are allowed a 10% discount


from the list. Others are given 10% and 5% off the list;
is entitled
and stillothers must
pay the list price. Who
Who
must
to the largestdiscount?
pay the list?
in quantities,
2. A and B are neighbors. A buys groceries
paying cash. B buys in small portionson credit. Can A
who
sells only at credit
afford to patronize B's grocer
prices? Why?
allowed 5% off for spot cash,or 2% off within
3. If I am
should I pay if I cannot pay cash?
30 days, when
Why?
found on the letter
4. Explain the followingstatement
head of a largefirm: "Terms:
Cash 10%, 10 days 5%, net
30 days."
allowed 30 days in which to pay for a bill of
6. If I am
goods amounting to $500, how much do I lose by paying
spot cash,if I am receiving6% interest on my money?
listed at 30^5each or at $3 per
6. Young apple trees are
price. Some

What

dozen.
of

rate

is allowed

to the

purchaser

dozen?

7. A

merchant

being allowed
8.

of discount

One

subject

to

allows
Another

10%

25%

invoice of

an

discount of 10%.

firm

listed at $6.

paid $450 for

What

discount

firm lists the

discount.

Which

same

goods after
the listprice?

was
on

lawn

machine

is the better

mower

at

$5,

purchase?
9. Goods
sold at a profitof
costing $2 per yd. were
the cost after dropping20% from the marked price.
on
20%
the marked
What
was
price?
a

PERCENTAGE

USING

82

Discounts

Successive

dry goods merchant allows 20% and 10%


is
discount on all purchasespaid within 30 days. What
the net selling
priceon an invoice whose list is $240?
wholesale

and

20%
on

10% off means

$240 and

deduction

This may

of $240.
I.

then

that

deduction

of 10%

is made

of 20%

is made

from

80%

be done in three ways.

second list.
(100%-20%)X$240=$192
(100% -10%) X$192 =$172.80 net seUing price.
of 80%

II. 90%

of $240 =$172.80.

Or

80%

of 90%

of

$240 =$172.80.
it is shorter to find

III. Often

singlerate of discount

equivalentof the two rates. In the above


be found by
This may
problem the singlerate is 28%.
the product of the two discounts from their sum.
subtracting
discount.
10% of 20% =28%, the single
Thus, (20% +10%)
be seen
Since the singlediscount in many
at
cases
can
is the

which

glance,business
dealer

1. A

Find

the net

The
The
The

buys goods Usted


price.

"

3. One

20%.

at $75 less

$200 Ust less 40%


offer,
and 40%?

^Find the

singlediscount in

dealer offers

Another

better offer and

20%

of 20%

is the better

$200, less 30%


Hint.

this method.

use

singlediscount is (20% +5%) -5%


net rate =100% -24%
=76%.
net price=$75 x76%
=$57.

2. Which
or

often

men

dozen

much?

and

5%.

=24%.

and 30%;

case.

hats at $72 less 30%

asks $60 less 20%


how

each

and

10%,

Which

and
is the

DISCOUNTS

SUCCESSIVE

4. A

clerk in

singlediscount

and

allowed
8. I

9. Goods

10. What
a

above

at
on

on

and

at

10%.

$400, subjectto

invoice whose

an

15 and

list is

off?

5%

invoice of

an

off. What

10%

goods after being


the list price?

was

at

$500 at 20 and

less 10 and 5%.


list,

What

was

bought

at

off.

15%
rate

my

of

the cost?

listed at

from

the per cent

at

off,or

purchased goods listed

profitbased
5%

10%

and

I sold them

and

goods listed

paid $144 for

man

20

of

is the better offer

$800; 10 and
7. A

the

aa

off?

5%

6. Which

30%

did he make?

error

is the cost

6. What

10%

an

allowed

house

$200 bill of goods less 20%

on

of

much

How

wholesale

83

$1000

were

the listpriceand
of gain
per cent

discount of 20%

on

were

the cost, also

profiton the

25%,

10%,

sold at the list. Find


on

the selling
price.

cost is reaUzed

by buying
from the listpriceand selling
at 20%

the Ust

11. Green

price?
and Jaeger,wholesale merchants

of

Chicago,

publish a catalog of their hardware every year on Jan. 1.


All hardware
is listed at retail price. Retail dealers can
buy at 33^% off of catalog price. Out-of-town jobbers
can
buy at 12"% less than the price to retail dealers.
Jobbers in Chicago can
buy at 10% less than out-of-town
reduced
jobbers. On June 1 all stoves were
10% from
did Hobart
and
much
catalog price. How
Company,
Chicago jobbers,pay on June 15 for 10 stoves listed at
allowed a discount of 2%
for
$65.00 each if they were
cash?

CHAPTER

PROTECTING

1. Mr.

Johnson,

his back

so

weeks.

His
the

on

are

him
2.

$20
If

ONE'S

severely

that

he

pays

job; but Mr.

Mr,

had

accident, his family would


would
3.

you

Name

call such

could

AND

from
not

PROPERTY

ladder

work

his workmen

Johnson's

for 8 weeks.

Johnson

LIFE

painter, fell

employer

week

had

died

from

have

for the

he

injured

at his trade

insurance

How

and

for 8

time

they
paid

company

protected himself?

the

received

eflfects of

$2000,

this

What

protection against accident?

other classes of people who

need

such

protection.

PROTECTING

86

Ross

12. Mr.

owns

Boyd

Mr.

country.

ONE'S

the residence

frame
a

owns

portion of

Which

LIFE

house

worth

brick house

in the

$6000

worth

$6000

in

large city with

must

one

PROPERTY

AND

pay

good fire protection.


the largeryearlypremium?

Why?

Dwell

Stone

Dwell

Movie

Garage

XX

Church

Theatre

STREET

Fitting
Station

Restaurant

XX

Barber

Shop^

Confect-

ionery
X

Fire

House
O

STREET

A
'

13. In

have

the

case

Plan

Shows

of

an

Insurance

BrIcK BIdgs.

BIdgs.

fire insurance
of large cities,

in their ofl"ce

plans showing

of property insured.

Plug

District
Frame

XX

Water

the

In the

companies
and

location

plan

point out the buildingswhich may be insured


and* those which must pay a high rate.

on

at

roundings
sur-

this page
a

low rate

INSURANCE

FIRE

14.

People usuallyinsure their residence property for

periodof 3 years or of
2f times that of one
that of

one

year.

16. When

the

what

87

and

year,

annual

rate

will it cost to insure

rate for 3 years is about

The

5 years.

is
bam

for 5 years

it is 4 times

42)iper hundred
worth

$1200 for

dohars,
a

threes

period at 60% of its value? What would be the cost


for a five-year
period?
aflford to grant a cheaper rate
16. Why
a
can
company
contract
than for a one-year contract?
for a five-year
in
do
insiu-ance companies have
17. What
expense
securingbusiness?
year

18.

If

later it

was

insurance

should

man

found

company

the furniture in

case

insure his fimiiture for $800

and

replacedfor $600, the


replace
may
pay only $600 or they may
of total loss by fire. Why is this a fair

that

it could be

arrangement?
19.

Careful

21.

Mrs.

housekeepers keep an inventory of their


household
goods. Of what use may it be in case of fire?
should the inventoryand fireinsurance poUcy
20. Where
be kept?
Alfred

Peter

insm'ed

her furniture for $1000.

After its total loss

oflferedto settle for


by fire the company
worth
$800. Her inventoryshowed that the furniture was
$1500. Do you think she was
requiredto settle for $800?
What
might the settlement have been if she could not
have produced an inventory,nor
shown
in a satisfactory
manner

$1000

to

the

company

FaI the tune

that

of the fire?

the

furniture

was

worth

PROTECTING

88

Life
1.

LIFE

ONE'S

Insurance

ought people who

Why

PROPERTY

AND

are

good health have

life

insurance?
to have life insurance
people whom
you know
(1) whether they think it is a good thing,(2) why
they think so, (3) what kind they carry.
issued by life insurance
contracts
3. The more
common
and
companies are limited term poUcies,whole lifepolicies,
endowment
poUcies.
4. A limited term
policyceases at the expirationof the
for which it is written.
term
The poUcy becomes payable
In
only in case of death of the insured during the term.
2. Ask

some

this respect it resembles


6. In

fire insurance.

ordinary Ufe poUcy the insured pays a stated


premium at regular periods for life,the policybecoming
payable at the death of the insured. However, such a
poUcy may be modified to permit the premiums to be paid
It is then called a 10-payment, or
in 10, 15, or 20 years.
a
15-payment, or a 20-payment life poUcy.
6. The endowment
pohcy becomes due at the end of a
stated time, usually 20 years, at which time the insured
of his policy,unless death occurs
is paid the full amount
the poUcy is paid at death.
In such case
sooner.
have a table of cash surlife insurance policies
7. Most
render
values printed in the poUcy. Such value is the
an

will pay the


wishes to surrender his policyat any stated
amount

of cash

8. With

solve three

the

company

help of the table


good problems.

the

on

the next

holder

if he

period.

page

make

and

PROBLEMS

ABOUT

Table

of Life

Partial

of

1. Which

LIFE

INSURANCE

Rates

Insurance

per

$1000

Policy

of the types mentioned

in this table at

given

requiresthe highestpremium per $1000? Which the


lowest? Why?
does a 20-payment life policyrequirea larger
2. Why
premium than an ordinarylifepolicy?
3. A young
business man, age 26, with a wife and two
children depending upon
him for support, finds that he
can
spend only $100 a year for lifeinsurance. If he wishes
the maximum
of protectionfor his family, what
amount
type of insurance should he purchase?
4. The graph shows what a cerage

life insurance

tam
a

recent

cash

year

with

income.

dollar

was

How

company

did

each

dollar of

much

spent by the

for

company

of

What

poUcy?

company

to

the

part what

Paid

Dividends

^\Expense

^ZT-^Z
\

40%^

kind

is the ratio of the total returned

expense?

for

L^Jl\^J\
^{"J'J:^

of the

do dividends
expense? To whom
and reserve
belong? The amount
paid to Uving poUcy holders represents
for the most

/"et aside

by the

PROTECTING

90

ONE'S

I 70

TO

80

"""

66

TO

69

Y^?7A

60

TO

64

^H

60

TO

69

PHYSICAL

Under

LIFE

AND

FITNESS

PROPERTY

GRAPH

operation of the draft in the recent war,


were
registrants
given physicalexaminations to find out
who were
fit for militaryservice. Those who were
sent to
after passingthe firstexamination
were
givenanother
camp
examination by the army surgeons.
Some men
were
re jected
of defects found after enteringcamp.
account
on
the

Problems
1, From

which

show

these two
how

the

About

Health

examinations
men

from

facts have

been

the different states

found
pared
com-

physicalquaUfications.The above map (distribution


four classes of states.
What
are
graph) shows
that 70 to 80 out of each 100 examined
they? White means
were
physicallyfit. What does black mean?
in

PROBLEMS

the states which

2. Name

of

ABOUT

physicalfitness. How
3. Name

those

groups;

which

showed

highestper

themselves

do you

account

for the low record of

Washington?

Of New

York?

6. The

records

show

that

of

into two

people sufferingfrom
contain a largeper cent

many

and those which


diseases,
of foreigners.
4. How

cent

the lowest per cent

divide

certain

Of

91

there?

showed

states
attract

the

are

many

the states which

physicalfitness. These

HEALTH

every

Michigan?
The high record of Ky.?
100,000 country boys

soldiers than
militaryservice 4790 more
in per
each 100,000 city boys. Express this superiority
cent.
likelyto be physically
Why are country boys more
fitthan cityboys? What
can
cityboys do to improve their
physicalvigor?
6. A report of the causes
of rejection
of 10,258 recruits
of the firstselective draft in 1917 from eightdifferent camps
shows that 21.68% were
rejectedon account of defective
rejectedon account of defective teeth.
eyes and 8.5% were
Find the number
rejectedon account of these two defects.
furnished

What

for the

children do to avoid

can

7. In

the

first selective draft

730, 756
of

of this number

physicaldefects. Find the


8. In

the entire American

and

eye

tooth troubles?

2,510,706 men
were

per cent
army,

were

rejectedon
rejected,

both

amined;
ex-

account

and

in France

in

this country, there occurred 112,432 deaths from all causes.

48,909

were

accidents and

of deaths

due

to

other

battle;56,991
causes

were

contributed

due

to

the rest.

from each of these three


resulting

disease;
Find

causes.

the

PROTECTING

92

soldiers than

American

in round

claimed

LIFE

PROPERTY

AND

influenza-pneumonia
epidemicof

9. The

that

ONE'S

of the

1918 killed more

slain in battle.

were

This

48,000 victims.

numbers

due

total deaths

plague

What

tp disease?

See

deaths

those

is

previous

problem.
10.

battle.
11.

Get

2.2%.

How

to

was

tuberculosis accounted

for

soldier victims of each of these diseases?

8.

influenza-pneumonia epidemic of 1918 attacked

12. The

States with

in the United

10,000,000persons
of

due

problems 8 and 9.
responsiblefor i% of the American

many

problem

with

data from

your

Typhoid

influenza

deaths due to disease,and

army

See

the

Compare

400,000. Compute the

of the

cost

mortaUty

epidemic on

the following

basis:

(1) Allow $25 for each


(2) Consider the average
(3) Consider
the above

Do
on

loss

the United

funeral cost

$2400,

at

$90.

at

figuresrepresent the total loss

are

on

an

average

States each year.

(1) What

is the annual

(2) What

is the death

400,000 cases
10% of them
death

rate per

populationof 100,000,000?
(3) Compare the death rate

in the

by death

care.

to

society

of influenza?

account
13. There

the average

for medical

case

in

rate

of
are

from

100,000 on

typhoid

in

fatal.

this disease?
the basis of

(2) with the death

rate

large cJitiesin No. 14.

(4) Why
the small

town

is there less typhoid in the

and

in the

country?

largecitythan

in

ONE'S

PROTECTING

94

17. The

and

LIFE

PROPERTY

AND

the total deaths

followingtable shows

in 1917

also the total deaths for each of six infections diseases

in the 12

mated
principalcitiesof the United States. The estipopulationis based on the rate of increase from

1910

to

1920.

I.

.i
CrriBs

^2

11

-.
o

s"

Baltimore
Buffalo
Boston

Chicago

681,223 11,364
481,857 7,559
724,817 12,722
,

.a

2,646;77838,055

Cleveland

725,984 10,848
389,950
6,833
835,347 11,758
6,364,870 78,575
29,679
Philadelphial,740,913
Pittsburgh 571,906 10,657
SanFrancisco 480,960
7,154
St. Louis
747,136 11,626
Cincinnati
Detroit
New York

51
8
102
245

53
24
57
556
87
60

11

58

38

30

108

55
44
218

46

278

624

1216
155

14
15

144
120
31
11
12

36
98

62

?~

?~

51

129
36

415

149

1157
445

486
168

131

48

68
205

39

28

92
48
22

43
53
16
107
229
108
66
23
58

(1) Find the value of each questionmark

1213
699
1148

3284
1024

856
827
8824
3019
677
744
1399

in the above

table.

(2) Compare the total deaths

of the six

common

fectiou
in-

diseases with the total of all the deaths in the 12


cities. What

from

is

an

infectious disease?

13 deaths
(3) In 1917 in the above cities there were
smallpox. Find the death rate of smallpoxper 1,000

for these 12 cities.

(4) Compare the death rate of measles with that of


more
smallpox. Why do people fear smallpox so much
than

measles?

ABOUT

PROBLEMS

HEALTH

DISEASE

AND

95

(5) Compare the death rate of consumption with that


children do to avoid consumption?
of diphtheria.What
can
(6) Compare the typhoid death rate with that of
whooping cough. What can children do to avoid typhoid
fever?

(7) Arrange the above


total death

rate

of every

about

and

the death

10

rate

19. In the

of vaccination

per

of every

their

were

pock-marked

10 died of this disease.

Find
.

100,000.

ten-year periodfrom

380 deaths due to

of

against smallpox 9

old

30 years

peopleover
out

one

order

1,000.

the time

18. Before
out

per

cities in the

1901

to 1910

smallpox in Germany with

there

were

population
For the same
of 50,000,000 in round numbers.
period in
many
England and Wales with one-half the populationof GerFind the smallpox death
4286 deaths.
there were
100,000 in each country.

rate

per

two

rates.

conditions

The

found

Find

the ratio of the

in the

previousproblem are
due to the fact that Germany has compulsory vaccination
Should
the United
States have
and
England has not.
compulsory vaccination for smallpox?
20.

21. Malaria
to another

intermittent fever

22.

If 80%

are

How

can

one

person
cannot

by this mosquito. Ague, chills,


other

names

for malaria.

of the malaria of this country

how
yearly) is preventable,
there?

is carried from

certain kind of mosquito. A person

malaria unless bitten

have

and

by

is a disease which

many

cases
(1,500,000

unnecessary

children reduce this niunber?

cases

are

PROTECTING

96

ONE'S

Safety and

industrial accidental
How

many

unnecessary

country in 1918

our

and

States in 1918

and

deaths

Problems

deaths

of all accidental

prevented. The United

be

PROPERTY

AND

Prevention

Accident

1. Three-fourths
can

LIFE

deaths

had

injuries
22,000

500,000 serious injuries.


and

accidents occurred

in

industrial workers?

among

followingtable is the record of fatal and serious


accidents in industrial plantsin the United States for two
Find the value of each questionmark.
years.
2. The

Serious accidents

Serious accidents

1913
1916
decrease

3. The

followingtable shows the industrial loss in days

in Wisconsin

in

1915, 1916, 1917, due

Days lost due

to

death,

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

(1) What

to accidents.

3,110,000
permanent and partialdisability, 1,897,700
absence from 1 to 2 weeks,
136,373
2 weeks,
over
807,485
"

was

the total loss in wages

at

an

average

of

$4.00 per day?

(2) What

was

annual

the average

loss?

equal to how many


years
if we
count 300 work days equal to one
year?
lose anything in addition to
(4) Did the workmen
their wages?
due
of these accidents were
(5) Do you think many
(3) The

to

total loss above

careless habits?

When

are

is

careless habits formed?

ACCIDENT

4. The

PREVENTION

followingtable shows

is the result of

an

accident

PROBLEMS

the accident

97

record which

preventioncampaign begun in

largesteel plant in 1905.


Make
a rectangle
graph for the number of accidents per
1000 300-day workers and a line graph showing the relative
time lost per 300-day worker
from year to year.
a

ONE'S

PROTECTING

gg

LIFE

PROPERTY

AND

wealth
followingis the accident record of the CommonSteel Company
the result of a safetycampaign
as
begun in 1913. Find the value of each questionmark.
5. The

Av.

Days lost
per

ployee

Hint.
of

"

days lost

no.

Carry

cases.

6.

^Av.

the

235,000 of

in France

our

case

per

quotientto

one

soldiers out

No.

days lost

Total No.
days lost

em-

per

case

7.2

4.2

2.3

2.6

2.4

.6

4:0

days
decimal place.
=

total

of

an

no.

army

of

lost

-s-no.

2,200,000

wounded

during the period of 19 months


in which the United States participated
in the World War.
dents
During this same
period there were
3,000,000 serious acciin the United States. Find the ratio of safetybetween
in the United States and war
in France, estimating
peace
the population of the United
States at 105,000,000. Explain
^ere

yoiu"
Hint.

"

answer.

Before

accidents per 1000

making
persons

the

comparison

in each

find

the

number

of

group.

mentioned
in the previous problem
During the war
killed or died
70,000 in round numbers of our soldiers were
from wounds
dental
or
disease,while 120,000 persons met accideaths in the United States during the same
period.
Using the necessary data in problem 6, compare our war
7.

death rate in France

with

our

accidental death rate at home.

PROBLEMS

8. Deaths

ABOUT

from

ACCIDENT

PREVENTION

accidents in St. Louis from

99

1912

to 1919.

1912

1913

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

492

530

459

402

525

510

420

370

10 years of age
Children
killed from

80

88

70

70

78

75

86

73

10 to 20 years
Adults

59

40

45

34

42

48

28

34

Total

number

Children killed under

????????

(1) Find the


Thus,

in

value

1912, 9 +3
5.
Carry

19.

Write

1912

is 353.

(2) What

can

12.

1.

questionmark .by adding.

Write

1+3

=4.

3.

Carry

Write

3.

1.

The

+6 +8 +5
answer

for

school children in St. Louis do to reduce

this number

of deaths?

9. The

causes

main

of each

of fatal accidents

in St. Louis.

(1) Find the value of each question mark


by the
method
8.
suggestedin number
(2) What is the % of increase of the 1917 total over
the

1912

What

total?

is the

of decrease

of the

1919

total compared with the 1912 total?

(3) Draw
1912

to

1919.

line

graph

for the

auto

accidents

from

PROTECTING

100

ONE'S

of age

years

killed by

were

children under

States in 1917, 6000

In the United

10.

PROPERTY

AND

HEALTH

distributed
accident,

the

among

in the table at the side.

shown

causes

10

(1) Find the value

of the question

mark.

(2) What

are

of the total number?

accidents

(3) Compare the

street

dents
acci-

car

the railroad accidents.

with

(4) What

children do to

can

duce
re-

of accidents listed

the number
under

the automobile

Bums, Drowning, Automobiles, and Street Railways?


schools as large as yours
more
(5) About how many

would

be needed

11. An

if thece deaths

moving

auto

60 ft. away

from

the person

to take

at

person

could have

of 15 mi.

the rate
about

the chance

to

been

hour

per

the street.

cross

if it

avoided?

requires3

Ought
to

sec.

is

cross

the street?
far away

12. How

order for
the

machine?

schoolroom

or

13. If each

United

the street

on
or

short is your

person

killed

on

were

estimate?
of accident

account

laid

on

cot

6 ft.

in the

long and

placed end to end, there would be a line of


mi. long. How
accidental deaths were
there
many
were

in the United
were

problem 11 be in
with safetyahead of

in

auto

this distance in the hall of your


the playground. Then measure
it. How

States in 1919

these cots
cots 60

cross

the

Estimate

long

many

to

person

must

States in 1919?

unnecessary?

How

many

of these deaths

CHAPTER

AND

COLLECTING

the

Who

owns

Who

pays

Who

owns

Who
Who

state

roads

for then*

the

teachers'

pays

for the

in

pays

Of

officers?

of

upkeep
of

which

in any

I.

Certain

be

(called the

cent
rate

be

may

many

dollars

cent.

per

or

as

low

as

33|%,

property

is fixed

Personal

property,

cattle, horses,

or

value

money,

assessed
mills

much

so

on

is the

personal, for

as

full

such

called

notes,

village,

its expenses

given

certain

the

on

each

taxing

land

The

or

such

placed against
In

purposes.

value, in others

as

per

dollar,so

$1000,

value

munity
com-

value.

less, of the full value.

even

property,
also

conamunity

many

this is the

communities

some

be

real

property,

any

so

$100,

and

ways.

in

owns

person
that

as

assessed

The

public

Property

on

tax) of the

of

each

by

rate

all of several

Tax

which

expressed
on

Of

postmasters?

nation, pays

or

or

one

taxed

and

conamunity, such

General

property
may

city?

or

public parks?

letter carriers

with

be obtained

county

your

township, city, county,

city,township, county, state,


may

repau*?

salaries?

salaries

Of

money

neighborhood?

your

universities?

state

the

in

and

making

MONEY

PUBLIC

streets

or

schoolhonses

pays

The

DISTRIBUTING

the

libraries?
Who

'XI

and

it may
Real

buildings.

chattels, is movable, such


etc.

102

as

THE

TAX

Methods

of

RATE

AND

the

Expressing
Tax

1. Tax

Tax

Example."
2. Tax

Tax

Example."
3. Tax

rate

Rate

and

Solving

x22.5 mills =$45.0000.


of assessed

(on each $100

=$2.25

rate

Tax

103

Problems

$2000 =2000

on

PROBLEMS

(on each $1 of assessed valuation).

mills

rate =22.5

TAX

valuation).

$2000 =20 x$2.25 =$45.

on

(on each $1000 of assessed valua-

=$22.50

tion).
Tax

Example."
4. Tax

rate =2

J%

Tax

Example.-

$2000 =2 x$22.50 =$45.

on

on

(of the assessed valuation).


$2000 =2i%

Tax
1. In
pay

certain

Problems

large city each

(1) How

much

is that

On

each

thousand

(2) In the above


assessed valuation
2. In

muat

owner

certain

public school
to

the

largecity the

state?

Smith

Mr.

Find

of $5100.

as

his

tax

pays

tax

rate

is $2.30

on

follows: state purposes,

is $4310.
How

on

much

an

yearly tax.

$.63; mimicipal purposes,

A's assessed valuation

contribute

dollars?

city

purposes,

year"

On each hundred

each dollar?

on

distributed
$100 valuation,

Mr.

property

of the assessed value of his property each

2.25%

dollars?

of $2000 =$45.

How
to

much

each

$.13;
$1.54.

does he

publicschools?

city? What is his total tax?


3. In a certain citythe tax rate is 2.25% of the assessed
valuation,which is 75% of the full value. A man
pays
How

much

$135 tax

on

to the

house and lot. Find the value of this property.

COLLECTING

104

DISTRIBUTING

AND

4. If the assessed valuation

$2,580,000 and

raised,find the

tax

6. What

nity?

rate in mills

on

generalproperty

of

tax

city is

$32,250 is

to

be

dollar.

each

tax rate in your

coininu-

is it distributed?

How

property

MONEY

of the property in

generalproperty

is the

and

6. Make

PUBLIC

tax

solve two
of your

rate

II.

problems based
community.

Assessments

Special

community does

on

on

the general

Property

pieceof work which is a special


benefit to certain property in the community, the owners
tax in addition to the
of such property must
a special
pay
generaltax.
If

Examples.

"

Paved

roads and

macadam

and

streets

drainageditches

cement

in the

1. The

walks

in

the

city,

country. Find others.

total

of

cost

that part of Hartford

paving

Street and

making the walks, shown

in the

If the city
$4000.
figure,was
paid half of the cost and the
facing the street
property owners
paid half,compute the tax levied
against Mr. B, against Mr. D,
were
againstMr. S. The owners
or
given the option of paying the specialtax in one sum
in several instalments
2. What

Of that of Mr.

was

with interest.

Mr.

R's assessment

B?

D?

3. If the assessed value

and the

of that of Mr.

generaltax

on

this street is $50

rate is 2.25%, find Mr.

front foot

H's total

general

SPECIAL

ASSESSMENT

TAX

105

and

tax in one
specialtax if he elected to pay all his special
See previouspage.
sum.
4. Mr. D paid his paving tax in 3 equal annual instalments,

due

in 1, 2, and

3 years

interest at 6%

with

payable annually. Compute his paving


each of these years.
See previouspage.
annum

III.

In

Licenses

In most

communities

many

communities

for

tax

for

Special Privileges

there is a
a

per

person

dog

tax of $1 per animal.

must

pay

$5,

or

some

of owning an automobile.
yearly for the privilege
In some, the owner
of a lot in a citymust pay a tax
in dry
to have the street in front of his property sprinkled
other
weather.
In others,druggists
must
pay $25, or some
of conductingtheir business.
yearly for the privilege
sum,
the United
of tobacco
Manufacturers
goods must
pay
States Government
certain sum
a
yearly for the privilege
states persons
of conductingtheir business. In some
must
of voting.
(poll.tax)for the privilege
pay a certain sum
which may
other examples of special
1. Name
privileges
other sum,

be taxed.
named

104 is

owns
one
druggist,
dog,an automobile,and Uves in a citywhich has a sprinkUng
tax of lOjfper front foot of lot,find his probabletotal tax
street tax in full.
for the year in which he paid his special
See No. 3 on page 104 for Mr. H's generalproperty and.
street paving taxes.
taxes in your com3. Find examples oifspecial
munity.
privilege

2. If Mr.

on

page

"

106

COLLECTING

IV.

AND

DISTRIBUTING

Payments Made
Bought from

PUBLIC

for Direct
the

MONEY

Benefits

City

way
community may sell water, heat,light,
power, or railtransportation
just as any privatecompany
may.
1. A
certain large city in 1919 received 7^ per 1000
gallonsfor 104.3 million gallonsof water consimied daily.
the city'sincome
At this rate what was
from its water
plant in one year?
2. A manufacturing concern
uses
a
monthly average of
bought from the city
29,600 kilowatt-hours of electricity
At this rate how much
at a cost of 4jfper kilowatt-hour.
is paid by this concern
to the city in one
year?
certain municipal street railway carries on
3. A
an
average

98,400 adult

of 6 tickets for

passengers

each 24 hours.

At the rate

25J5,what is the city'sgross income from


this source
during the last 6 months of the year?
and operated gas
4. It is estimated that a city owned
at 80jfper
plant can deliver artificialgas to the consumer
of 4jfper 1000 cu. ft.
1000 cu. ft.and stillmake a net profit
If there are 10,000 families in this city,who average 3000
ft. of gas a month
cu.
profit
per family,what is the city's
in one
from this source
year? What is the rate of profit?
received in one
6. A certain village
year $2080.50 from
generaltaxes, $420.75 from specialassessments, $1020
and $1280 net profit
from its lightand power
from licenses,
plant. What was the income from these sources? If this
what were
the total
income was
75% of its total receipts,
what
other sources
might this village
receipts? From
derive the remaining 25% of its receipts?

INCOME

Tax

V.

Some

collect

collected

the net

on

the present time


annual

net

on

and

persons

married
must

net

on

the

income

above

incomes
annual

incomes
with

This

additional tax is called

the

and

collects an

At

income

of immarried

case

$2000 in

incomes

net

case

over

income

above

of

$5000

additional rate.

the size of the net

followingtable shows

amoimts

over

regularrate, plus an

varies with

government*
tax is usually

certain amount.

$1000 in

over

rate

The

Such

government

Persons

persons.

pay

tax.

(1921)our

federal

our

income

an

107

Incomes

on

and
states,certain cities,

levy and

tax

TAX

This

$5000.

surtax.

portion of the schedule of


of the graduated income
tax for

rates

individuals in force Jan. 1, 1921.


Amount

of net income

All of net income

Rate

less $1000

Except the first$4000 in

or

excess

$2000
of $1000

or

$2000

$5000 to $6000
$6000 to $8000
$8000 to $10000
$10000

to $12000

$12000

to $14000

and
net

so

on,

income

increasing1%
to $100,000.

$100000

to $150000

$150000

to $200000

for each

to $500000

$500000

to

All in
*

excess

Note.

"

52%
56%
60%
63%
64%
65%

$1,000,000
of $1,000,000
^The sixteenth amendment

8%
4%
1%
2%
3%
4%
5%

additional
"

"

"

additional increase of $2000

$200000 to $300000
$300000

of tax

to the Constitution

additional

of the United

adopted in 1913,gave Congress the authorityto levy a federal income

"

"

"

"

"

States,
tax.

COLLECTING

108

How

I, For

DISTRIBUTING

Compute

to

PUBLIC

Individual

an

with

singleperson

Normal

AND

Income

net income

MONEY

Tax

of $7000.

tax.

$7000 -$1000

exemption =$6000, subjectto

nonnal

tax.

=$160)

4% of first $4000
8% of $2000 excess

*^=$160/^^"^^

$4000

over

Surtax.
$7000 -$5000
From

$5000 to $6000:

From

$6000 to $8000

$320

normal

subject to

surtax.

=$10l

$1000 at 1%

II. For

head

net income

The

head

$1000 at 2%

tax +$30

whose

=$2000

surtax

^^^^"

singleperson

with

from

exempt

of

income

total

=$350

surtax

J
income

tax

of

is $7000.

family with

two

dependent children

of $9000.

family is allowed $2000 exemption plus


$200 for each dependent child under 18 years of age.
Normal

of

net

$20

tax.

$9000 -($2000 +2 x$200) exemption =$6600

subjectto

normal

tax.

4% of first $4000
8% of $2600 excess

^^l^^Wrmal
tax
208/^^"^^^
^^"^

over

$4000

Surtax.

$9000 -$5000

exempt

from

=$4000

surtax

subject to

From

$5000 to

$6000:

$1000 at 1%

=$10l

From

$6000 to

$8000

$2000 at 2%

=$20

From

$8000 to $10,000

$1000 at 3%

=$30

$368

normal

head

of

tax +$60

family with

two

"

[Surtax.

total income

tax

dependent children whose

net

surtax

=$428

surtax.

of the

income

is $9000.
1. Find

income

the income

is $8500.

tax

of

singleperson

whose

net

110

COLLECTING

DISTRIBUTING

AND

Article

PUBLIC

Schedule

MONEY

Duty

$2000, 45% ad valorem


Value less than $2000, 30%

Oats

Barley

6^ per bu. of 32 lb.


15^5per bu. of 48 lb.
30f5per 100 lb.
25^5per bu. of 60 lb.
Shelled,f|6per lb.
Unshelled,|^ per lb.
Machine
made, 20% ad valorem
Wholly or partly handmade,

Automobiles

Oatmeal
Beans

.....

and rolled oats


lentils

and

Peanuts

Ootton

Value

G
G
G
I

stockings

...

over

value not
value not

value
Gloves

I
....

Beady-made clothing
Carpets

Silk clothing

Note.

"

IVee List

Potatoes.
.

In the tariff act similar articles

The

different schedules

N.

Schedule

are

named

I contains cotton

over

70|4per doz.,30%
$1.20 per doz.,40%

$1.20 per doz.,50%

over

Wholly or chieflycotton, 35%


Not hemmed, 25%; hemmed, 30%
Wholly or chieflywool,35%
Axminster
and moquette, 35%
Wilton,30%; Brussels,25%
50% ad valorem
No duty

Handkerchiefs

over

by

are

schedule.
placed in the same
A to
from
alphabet

the letters of the

manufactures

and

contains woolen

factures.
manu-

Problems
1. Tell

which

of the

duties

listed

on

this page

are

and which are ad valorem.


specific
hand-made
2. Why
are
stockingsin Schedule I charged
than niachine-niade ones?
a higher rate
3. Why
are
high priced goods charged a higher rate
than low pricedgoods?

PROBLEMS

duty free? Who


carpets?
6. What

of

DUTIES

HI

is benefited

4. Who

that

ABOUT

by potatoes coming into our country


is benefited by the 25% duty on Brussels

% increase is the duty


unshelled

peanuts?

on

Who

shelled peanuts
is benefited

over

by this

increase?
6. Which

farmers

benefited

duty on barley?
Ohio farmer bought a team
of Belgian horses for
7. An
much
$300, plus an ad valorem duty of 15%. How
duty
did he pay?
8. A Chicago firm bought from a Canada
farmer 150 bu.
of barley;1800 lb. of oats; and 60 sacks of beans averaging
Find the total duty on this invoice.
65 lb. to the sack.
9. A St. Louis firm bought from a London
firm goods as
follows: 30 doz. not hemmed
handkerchiefs
cotton
@ 30ff
clothingat $4 each;
per doz.;2 doz. suits of boys' woolen
10 doz. machine-made
cotton
stockingsat $1.25 per doz.;
and 40 yards of Brussels carpet at 40jfper yard. Find the
total duty.
10. Write and solve five other good problems based on
the duties shown
the previous page.
What
the
on
are
requirements of a good problem?
are

by

CHAPTER

XII

AND

CONSTRUCTING

MEASURING

AND

ANGLES
Lines

Constructing
1. On

of unruled

sheet

the

help of ruler and

What

can

you

straightUne

one

2. With

board.

the

in number
3.
as

unruled

an

attached

the

help of

point. What

What

do you

in number

what

units

6. What
7.

Any

are

3-inch
*

Note.

of

line

on

that

only

your

board
black-

the bottom

from

of

learned

you

point. Using this point

compass
a

you

which

or

lead

about

line

this Une

(1)

points in problem

used

you

piece of cord

pencil, draw

say

joining two

call any

as

part of the line

units may

1?

center?

you

constructed

by

portion of
Une.

straightlines?

measure

you

used

often

is meant

of that
a

points.

3?

6. With

What

can

the Une

(2) as regards the point


4.

place

sharp end

the

to

sheet

the

compared with

as

two

points.

of what

use

any

points.

Note

two

four-foot

two

1?

On

around

make

you

center, with

through

point is six inches

every

Did

line drawn?

the

be drawn

can

any

pencil join these

yardstick draw

that

so

about

place

paper

With

say

LINES

measuring curved

in

lines?

arc?

90"

given straight line is called

How

can

you

find

2-inch

ment
seg-

segment

of

Une?
"

^Hereafter

when

the

word

line
112

is

used, a straight line is

meant.

LINES

CONSTRUCTING

the

ends

two

below

the line.

two

centers,

as

con^

and

above

intersectingarcs

struct

into

113

equal segments, it is
said to be bisected (cut into two equal parts).
methods
of bisectinga Une.
9. Three
(1) Find the mid-pointby measuring with ruler,
(2) Fold the Une on itself,
making the two ends coincide.
(3) Using a radius greater than half of the line and
8. If

line is divided

ANGLES

AND

join the two


points of intersection. The point at
the

which

Then

constructed

line

cuts

given line is called the mid-point


will
of the line. Study the figurecarefully.Later you
need this method
in making other constructions.
10. Draw
unruled paper
three equal Unes of any
on
length. Bisect them using each method shown in number 9.
11. Divide
3 a given line into four equal
by method
the

segments,
12.

13.

If segment AB
that Une

construct

result

radius,construct on a foursegment equal to the Une AB.

Using

inch line

parts.

or

in nimiber
with

12 is
or

compasses

by measuring with

^
of

radius.

^
requiredline,
Check

your

ruler.

Constructing Angles
1. Place
2. Join A
3. A

on

an

and

unruled

B;

is the vertex

the sides of the

and

sheet three
C.

Name

points.A, JB,and C.
the figure.

of the angle, and

angle. Draw

and

the two

letter two

Unes

other

are

angles.

LINES

114
4. An

angle

of two

be

may

lines

which

AND

ANGLES

defined
meet

the

as

at

difference

in direction

point.

angle is read by naming the


vertex, as angle A in the figure (the
symbol for angle is Z), or by naming
a point on
one
side,then the vertex,
in the figure.
then a point on the other side,as Z BAC
two lines intersect,
6. When
they form four angles whose
lines. Letter and read
two intersecting
is 360", Draw
sum
the four angles. Which
anglesappear to be equal?
lines so that any
of the
two
7. Draw
one
intersecting
four angles is equal to any other one.
8. How
degreesin each of the angles in nimiber 7?
many
the name
for all such angles?
Do you know
drew in nimiber 7
9. The lines in the figurewhich you
to each other because they
said to be perpendicular
are
"J5

5. An

rightangles.
it.
10. Draw
an
angle less than a rightangle. Name
two lines begin at a common
11. When
point and move
said to fonn
in exactly opposite directions they are
a
is a straight
straightangle. Thus, BAC
CAB
^
^
tion
angle whose vertex is at il. The direcof AB
is toward the right. What
is the direction of
form

'

AC1
12. How

ifthe sides

does it aflfectthe size of the

anglein number

11

is the size of an angle


prolonged? In general,
changed by making the sides longer?
13. Erect a perpendicularat the vertex
of a straight
degreesin a straightangle? Why?
angle. How many
are

LEARNING

Draw

14.

than

angle largerthan

an

straightangle. Can

and

16. Acute

ANGLES

obtuse

you

name

angles

115

right angle and less


it?
called

are

oblique

angles.
help of the book, draw and letter the
followingangles: acute, obtuse,right,straight.
17. Find ten rightanglesin your room.
draw
18. Can
an
angle larger than a straight
you
angle?
do we use obliqueangles?
19. Where
16. Without

the

io\

Fig. I

Fig. II

Fig. Ill

Fig. IV

Fig. V

anglesnamed in the above figuresselect all


the rightangles,all the acute angles,all the obliqueangles,
all obtuse angles.
draw a rightangle and divide it
21. On squared paper
From

20.

the

into halves.
22.

One

Draw

an

of about

23.

angle of about

10".

Figure VI shows

compass.

60".

Name

them.

pointsof the
How

many

degreesin the angle made by the lines


pointing north and east? North and
northwest?
East

and

Northwest
southeast?

and southwest?

Fig. VI

LINES

116
1. If

measiire

what instruments
straightlines,

use?

we

may

wish to

we

ANGLES

AND

2. If

wish

we
use

to

measure

instrument

an

angles we

construct

or

called

See

protractor.

monly
com-

the

figure. The curved edge of the protractor is divided into


180 equal parts, each of which is called a degree.
.2"

3. To

there

are

measure

angle is

to

find how

degrees

many

in the difference of the directions of the two

How

Trace

an

/C

to

the

Use

angle on

Protractor

when

thin paper.

it is

sides.

Stationary

Place the vertex

of the

angle at the central point in the protractor, and one side


of the angle on the upper
straightedge of the protractor.
The other side of the angle takes such a positionthat its
be read from the arc of the protractor.
size in degreesmay
Thus

in the figure,Z

BOC

contains

and
60"*,
obtuse

AOC

tains
con-

angle with
the protractor in the figure? If D and 0 in the figurebe
joined with a fine,find the size of angle made with OB;
with OC; with OA.
120".

How

can

you

measure

an

LINES

118

ANGLES

AND

(2) Draw a line such as AB along the lengthof the card.


(3) Slide the card along the ruler any desired distance
and

draw

(4) Why
to each

line

before.

as

the lines which

are

five

parallellines by the method

Problems
1. Estimate
or

have constructed

parallel

other?

(5) Draw

AB

you

which
and

HKy

Lines

is the

and

Angles

longer line,
longer it is.

much

how

Then

"B

A"

about

suggested.

the

compare

lengthsof the lines by


"J^

ii"

marks

on

edge of
straight

2. Estimate

much

of compasses

means

which

longer. Then

or

paper.

is the

longer,AB

or

CD, and

how

them.

measiu'e

simple design for


the trough of a pencil tray.
Into what figures
can
you divide
3. This

it?

Find

construct

is

their dimensions
a

similar

and

design on

scale of 2.
4. A

40-inch

spokes.
(1) Draw
(2) How

wheel

has

4-inch

hub.

It also has

16

figureof this wheel using a convenient scale.


degreesin the angle at the center of the
many
wheel made by the center lines of any two adjacentspokes?
(3) How
degreesin the angle made by any two
many
spokes in the same
straightline?
a

CHAPTER

Constructing

Draw
with

one

by straight lines is

polygon with

Surfaces

Measuring

and

bounded

flat surface

XIII

with

sides, one

three

polygon*

four

sides,

five sides.

Triangles

triangleis

1. A

The

2.

sides.

two

altitude

base

to the

is the
is the

to the base

or

3.

Triangles named
equal sides.

Scalene

book,

See
at

room,

how

which

Read
a

the

home,

the

triangle

the

this

any

vertex

paragraph

^triangleshowing

Obtuse

or

triangles have

correct

on

your

acute.

no

called

lateral,
equi-

to

their

angle

triangles.
119

so

this

book, draw
each
can

graph
para-

these

figure.
find in yoiu*

school.

largest angle

Right triangles have


one

equal sides.

Read

triangles you

triangleshave

triangles have

the

two

under

name

way

from

are

Equilateral triangleshave

then, without

of these

or

sides

equal sides.

no

Triangles named

90".

Acute

Isosceles

many

right, obtuse,
of

draw

their

scalene.

and

more,

triangles. Write

6.

on

from
perpendiculsir

from

triangles have
once

4.

sides.

parts.

isosceles,and
three

side

prolonged.

again; then, closing the


these

three

triangle is the meeting point of

base

The

The

rests.

of

vertex

polygon with

are
one

angle larger than

large as

90".

Draw

called

angle
90".

these

CONSTRUCTING

120

SURFACES

MEASURING

AND

6. The

of

sum

the angles of

angle
tri-

is 180",

or

righiangles.

two

Prove

this
Zi

by

and

ting
cut-

Z2,

and

placingthem as shown in the figure. Also measure


the three angleswith the protractor and add the results.
obtuse angle?
7. Why
a
can
trianglehave only one
Only one right angle?
Problems

about

A, B, C
1.

A=90^B=40^
=90"*,A and C

2. B

this?

Draw

3. A

the

anglesof

FmdC.
are

Angles
a

of

Triangles

triangle.

What

kmd

equal. What

of

triangleis it?

kind of

triangleis

it.

=100"*,5=40*".

4. A =60"*.

draw

are

the

Find

Find B and

C, and

C if they

name
are

the

triangle.

equal. Name

and

the triangle.

the triangle.
C, and name
6. Try to draw a trianglewith two obtuse angles.
with two rightangles.
7. Try to draw a triangle
two acute angles.
and name
8. Draw
a trianglewith
has two names.
See if you
9. Remember
every triangle
to each of the triangles
can
givetwo names
you have drawn.
10. Draw
a
trianglewhose altitude falls on the base
whose altitude falls on the end of
within the triangle,
one
whose altitude falls without the triangleon
the base, one
each of these triangles.
the base prolonged. Name
5. A

=40^

B =60^

Find

QUADRILATERALS

polygon with

1. A

2. There

four

sides is called

three classes of

are

121

quadrilateraL

quadrilaterals.

opposite sides parallelare

(1) Those

with

(2) Those

with

one

with

no

sides
pair of parallel

called parallelograms

are

called trapezoids.

parallelare called trapeziums.


and name
each of the above figures.
3. Draw
4. Parallelograms whpse angles are rightangles are rectangles.
Draw
a
rectangle.
either oblongs or squares.
5. Rectangles are
with equalsides. Draw a square.
6. A square is a rectangle
7. An
oblong is a rectangle with opposite sides equal.
Draw
an
oblong.
called rhom8. Parallelogramswith oblique angles are
boids.
(3) Those

Draw

rhomboid.

rhomboid

9. A

sides

equal sides

with

is

rhombus.

Draw

rhombus.
10.

Any side

11.

The

let fall from

vertex

prolonged,as

base

which

the

parallelogramrests is the base.


altitude is the perpendicular
^
(j
on

to the base

AB,

or

or

the

/nj\

CD, in the

figure, AECF.

vertex
to
diagonal is the line drawn from one
not adjacent.
another one
13. Show
base, altitude,and diagonal in the rhomboid

12.

have

you
14.

sides.

drawn.
with
trapezoidis a quadrilateral

one

pair of parallel

CONSTRUCTING

122

SURFACES

MEASURING

AND

sides of a trapezoidare called its bases.


parallel
Can you draw a trapezoidwith two right angles?

15. The
16.

Do

it.
Can

17.

draw

you

trapezoidwith the

non-parallel

two

sides

equal? Do it.
with no sides parallel.
18. A trapezium is a quadrilateral
Draw
a
trapezium.
books
the three quadrilaterals?With
19. What
are
under each.
closed,draw them and write the correct name
Rectangles

Measuring

rectangle 8 in. long and

1. A

in. wide

contains
See

inches?

square

how

rectanglefour times
the

4x8

sq. in. =32

2. Draw

and

find its

wide.

How

Hint.

"

many

4. A

figure. Hence

we

may

say:

strip40 rd. long and


such stripsare there?
checkerboard
The
Draw

many

acres

you

do

"

Area

scale

convenient

this

one

20

rd.

in it?

acres

many

in it?

5. How

4x

area.

square

squares

and

wide

in.

rectangle9 ft. by 15 ft. to

of the border.

'Can

sq.

as

length contains

same

figure.

rectangularpieceof land is 40 rd. long and

3. A

How

See

inches?

square

many

are

the board
a

street

without

contains

12 in.

measures

squares

in

1 rd. wide

on

in. long. How

to

scale.

long and
pencil?)

acre.

the inside

1^

1 mi.

many

4 rd. wide?

PROBLEMS

PROJECT

oblong thrift garden

6. An

part of an acre
solve,expressingyour
in. square
part remains?

7. Cut

What

8. How
1

in

acres

many

of

out

Make
in

answer

123

ft.

200

measures

is it?

What

RECTANGLES

ABOUT

by

150

estimate.

an

ft.

Then

decimal of three places.

one

of

comer

square

field whose

square

inch.

perimeter is

mi.?

study

Always

pencil before

without

9. Find

10

cents

to

it it

see

trying written

per

be

solved

in your

schoolroom

at

foot.

square

many

cannot

work.

the cost of the blackboard

How

10.

problem

your

feet of

square

lightingsurface

in your

schoolroom?
much

11.

How

12.

Estimate
average

your
13.

16. Find

worth

40

16.

per

garden,make

part of

what

the value
cents

what

an

acre

of the land

square

part of

map

an

acre,

places.
of it,df awn

it contains.

in this

garden, if it is

foot.

able
priceper square foot in problem 15 a reasonfor your locality? If not, find such a price.
rectangletwice as long as wide contains 128 sq.

in.

What

can

be

is the

cut?

What

least number
is the

area

What
are
length of each?
the figure.
rectangle? Draw
The

schoolroom?

Is the
one

17.

your

to 3 decimal

answer

your

or

acres,

many

school has

Find

scale.

to

how

Carry

If your

pupilin

by stepping, after measuring the length of


step, the dimensions of your school ground.

Determine

it contains.
14.

floor space per

of squares
of each
the

into which

it

of these

squares?

dimensions

of the

CONSTRUCTING

124

SURFACES

MEASURING

AND

Measuring

Triangles

Fig. II

Study each of the figuresabove and discover that


in each case is equal to that of the
the area of the triangle
rectanglewhose length is the base of the triangle,and
whose width is one-half the altitude of the triangle.
above by constructing
three trian2. Prove the statement
gles,
and fitting
the
cuttingthem as indicated in the figures
the equivalentrectangles.
to make
parts as shown
Find the area
of each of the triangles
whose dimensions
are
given below, making your solution show that the area
is equal to that of a rectanglewhose width is
of a triangle
one-half the altitude of the triangleand whose length is
the base of the triangle.
1.

Thus
area

in the

trianglewhose

is 12 sq. ft.Xj.

Draw

base is 12 ft. and

the

figureto show

whose

1. Base

is 18

2. Base

is 3

3. Base

is 10 feet,altitude is 4 ft.

4. Base

is 6 ft.,one

base and
find its

ft.,the

inches,altitude is 6 in.
yards, altitude is 2 yd.
side is 4 ft.

this side is 90
area.

altitude is 8

this.

degrees.

The
Draw

angle made

by the
the triangleand

CONSTRUCTING

126

8. Draw

rhombus

AND

MEASURING

and

its two

bisect each other at

SURFACES

agonals
diagonals. These dirightangles. What does this
mean?

Study this figure and


then show, by drawing and
cutting,that your rhombus
is equal to a rectanglewhose
lengthis one diagonalof your
width is one-half of the other diagonal
9.

rhombus
of your

and

rhombus.

10. From

rhombus

whose

number

when

you

make

know

Measuring

its

rule for the

area

of the

diagonals.

the

Trapezoid

is a quadrilatera
trapezoid
with one
pair of
sides,called upper
parallel
1. A

and

lower bases.

Draw

trapezoidshowing the

two

bases.
2. The

altitude of

between

the two

tance
trapezoidis the perpendiculardisbases. Draw
a trapezoidshowing

the altitude.
3. An

isosceles

trapezoid has two equal non-parallel


sides. Draw
isosceles trapezoid.
an
discover that the area of the trapezoid
4. From
the figure
ABCD
is equal to the area of the rectangle
EFHAj whose
width is one-half the altitude of the trapezoidand whose
of the two bases of the trapezoid.
lengthis the sum

TRAPEZOIDS

AND

TRIANGLES

127

has two rightangles. Draw


a right
righttrapezoid
have only one rightangle?
trapezoid.Could a trapezoid
6. Show
that you
by cuttingsquared paper and fitting
convert
can
any trapezoidinto a rectanglewhose width is
half the altitude of the trapezoidand whose lengthis the
of the two bases of the trapezoid.
sum
6. A

these

Study
shortest
1. A

and

solve

to

way

the

Hint.

How

Find

sides of
parallel

two

120 rd. and


in

area

its
a

80

strip20 rd. long and


there?
such strips
are

many

3. This

is

scale with

none

to

find

the

of 120 in. and

in.,

84

in square feet.
field having the form of

rd.

area

The

width

is 40 rd"

acres.

"

figures

them.

altitude of 40 in.

an

trapezoidare

Find

their

and

sides
trapezoidhas parallel

2. The
a

problems

field drawn

1 rd. wide

contains

acre.

to

of itssides equal

parallel.It is divided
into the rectangleEBFD, the
angle
triangleEAB, and the triand

Find

BCF.
the field in
4. Draw

the

area

of

acres.
a

figuresimilar

to

the above

in which

CD

is

rd.,EB 160 rd.,ED 240 rd.,and the altitude of the


EAB, 40 rd. Find the area in acres.
triangle
from E to F,
5. If in the figureabove a line is [drawn
EFD?
there in the triangle
how many
are
acres
with a base
is added on the side CD
6. If a triangle
equalto CD and an altitude of 40 rd.,what is its area?
180

Trapezium

the

Measuring

is a trapezium
Figure ABCD
and
whose diagonalis AC

1.

whose

altitudes drawn

other

vertices to

DI

are

2.

the

SURFACES

MEASURING

AND

CONSTRUCTING

128

trapezium into

two

and

this

from

the

diagonal

BH.

serve,
Study the figure and obvides
(1) that the diagonal ditriangleswith a common

base ACy
is divided into two right
(2) that each of these triangles
triangles
by the altitudes drawn from the vertices D and B.
that the trapezium is equal to a rectangle
3. Discover
whose length is the diagonalof the trapezium and whose
width

is one-half the

4. Make

of the two

sum

rule for

findingthe
The

1. A

circle is

3.

area

of

trapezium.

Circle

meter
point of whose perifrom the center.
is equi-distant

flat surface every

boimdary line
The bounding Une is called the circumference.
The line passing through the center terminated
or

2.

altitudes.

the circumference
4. The

radius

by

is called th^ diameter.

is the distance

from

the center

to

any

point in the circumference.


Une drawn through a circle,
6. Any straight
terminating
in the circumference,is called a chord.
6. Any part of the circumference is called an arc of the
circle.

THE

7. Draw

8. A

large arc,

portion of

is a sector.

arc

becomes

each

to

a
a

small arc,

long chord.

by two radii and an


the radii make a diameter,the sector
When
the radii stand at rightangles

semicircle.

short chord, a

circle bounded

When

other, the

9. Draw

129

circle showing center,radius,


ference,
diameter,circum-

CIRCLE

is called

sector

circle showing

quadrant.

a quadrant,a
semicircle,

sector

quadrant,a sector largerthan a semicircle.


of measuring,every circumference,however
10. For purposes
grees.
largeor small,is divided into 360 equal parts called dein degrees.Thus the arc of a quadArcs are measured
rant

smaller than

90",and the

contains
11.

Draw

about

sector

whose

semicircle contains

is 45*",one

arc

whose

of the

Ratio

1. Measure

diameter

as

Circumference

accuratelyas

the

to

places in each

case.

Place

in the form

you

can

the work

2. Place

are

is

the circmnference

Find

to the diameter

the

Compute
to 4 decimal

of the

average

"

the average

Measm^
available.

to 8ths

found
or

Express

16ths of
your

ratios.

here shown.

Average

rulers

arc

Diameter

of three different circles at home.

the ratio of the circumference

Note.

180"*.

30^

The

and

of

arc

by each of several members


an

inch,or

to

results in decimals.

millimeters

if metric

130

CONSTRUCTING

of the

class

on

SURFACES

MEASURING

AND

the board

and

determme

the

average

for

carefullydone, this result wiU


approximate the ratio used in ordinarycalculations,
closely
which is 3^ or ^ for oral work, and 3.1416 for written work.
letter v (read pi).
This ratio is representedby the Greek
3. C, D, and R stand for circumference,
diameter,and
radius.
Read
the following:(1) D=2/2, (2) C^tD,
(3)
is

this group.

If the work

C=2x72, (4)

72=^,
(5) 2)=-^,
(6) 72=^.

4. Tell how

to

Area

of the

and
that

By drawing
placing them
the

Circle

1^

Fig. I
1.

equationsabove.

each of the

use

sectors
as

as

shown

circle is converted

Fig. II

figureI and cutting


in figureII, it will be seen
into a figureresembling a

shown

in

lengthis ^ C and whose width is R. Then


of
the area
of the circle,
which is approximatelythe area
be expressedas
the rectangle,
This rule may
is ^ CxR.
rectanglewhose

follows: the
mle

from

CxR

area

of the circle

which

other rules may

"

This

be made.

is the

basic

THE

the sake

2. For

rule in terms

of

131

it is better to express
of the circle,
D.
as 72 or

element

one

CIRCLE

THE

of economy

(1) C=2Rt.

Substitutingthis value

basic rule,

x/2*.

OF

AREA

have,

you

Area

for C

the

in

the

of the circle

(Read wR square.)
(2) C=tD.

fi="

basic rule,you

Substitutingthese values in the

"

have. Area of

the circle=irZ)X

-^-2=-

"

"

rules for the

8. Three

of the circle may

area

be written

follows:

as

(1) Area

(2) Area

-tR^

xthe unit of

measure.

(3) Area

xthe unit of

measure.

xthe unit of

-ir,

measure.

4. All

formula

numbers
for the

Problem.

6. Find

"

the

12

J2

1 rd.

terms

of

6
=

In most
x, as

6. Measure

in

of each.

sq. ft. =25^

14

(3) C=20
in. (7) D

cases

(1)area

the

abstract.

are

radius is 5 ft.

sq. ft.

followingcircles. (1) R
ft.

16

(4) Z)=2
ft. (8) 2)

it is best to express
=

The

thus.

circle whose

in.

the

rd.
8 in.
answer

(5)
(9)
in

lOOx sq. ft.

diameter

objectsin the schoolroom


area

of

area

of each of the

area
=

formula

^Area =ir5 x5 xl

(2) 2)
yd. (6)C

ft.

10

in

of the circle is used

area

^Find the

"

Solution.

used

or

of the base
your

of three

circular

home, and compute

the

CONSTRUCTING

132

The

AND

of tD^

Meaning

1. In the

SURFACES

MEASURING

-f-4 in Terms

of the

Square

is equal
figure,
D, the diameter of the circle,
the side of the circumscribed
2. The

square,

of this square

area

to

ABHK.

is D\

irD\

The

3. Then
K

of the circleis-

area

the ratio of the circle to the square

ABKHis

-2)2

-^U'

"

=5^x4r==.7854.
X

That

is,the

than

f)

work

shows

of the

numerical
The

of

area

that

area

of any

area

of tR^
1. In

in

The

circle is

Terms

is

of the

of the

is tR^ ^R^

NMOE

square.

more

This

findingthe

Square

square

is

NMOE

of the circle.
is R\

circle is tRK

ratio of the circle to the square

3. The

Fig. I

(a Uttle

of this square

area

area

square.

the radius R

2. The

of any

diameter

figureI, the
on

p^

its circumscribed

of the circumscribed

erected

"

circle is .7854

squaring the

Meaning

(See Rule 3.)

times the

area

That

t.

of the square

is,the

area

erected

on

the radius of the circle.


4. In

is the inscribed

figure II, why

figurea square? How


at the center?
Why?
in the
5. Find

the square

arc

largeis each angle


How

ABH?

many

Why?

the ratio of the circle BOC


ADEH.

grees
de-

See

figureII.

to

FINDING

134

THE

OF

AREA

1. A

sector

bounded

by

2. Read

SECTOR

THE

is

two

portion of

radii and

an

circle

arc.

four sectors in

3. Which

two

4. What

is the

figureI.
nearlyequal?

are

of

sum

the

five

sectors?
6. What

part of the circle is

sector

4?
6. What

is the

for

name

sector

7. If the radius of the circle in

the

of sector

area

8. Can

of this size?

figureI is

ft.,what

is

4?

if the radius is 1 ft.?


lengthof BHC
Study figuresII and lU. If figureIII is made from
dicated
as infigureII by cuttingand fitting
make
a rule for findingthe
of a sector, when
the length of
area

9.

you

find the

the

linear

Compare
for findingthe
10.

11. The

the

your

the radius

are

known

in

units,such

statement

as

feet

or

with the firstrule

inches.

developed

of the circle.

area

radius of

sector

is 8 ft. Its

arc

is 14 ft. Find

area.

12. Do

you

the sector
13. If

in
a

sector

with

would

you

14. What
a

and

arc

Fig. Ill

Fig. II

know

problem 11?

classmate
a

something of the probable shape of


should

say

to

radius of 7 ft. and with

he

you
an

arc

can

draw

of 22 ft.,what

say?
is the

radius of 8 in.?

largestpossiblesector

you

can

draw

with

CONSTRUCTING

Areas

of Sectors

AND

Given

the Radius

Size

the

or

MEASURING

of the

SURFACES

the Arc in

and

Central

135

Degrees

Angle

1. The

lengthof an arc is sometimes measured in degrees.


degreesin the circumference of a circle?
many
If you
know
the 12 of a circle,
find the
can
you

How
2.

area?
know

3. If you

sector, can

you

find the area?

How?

Why?

4. If the

of

arc

such

many

the 12 of

sectors

with

sector
can

radius of 2 ft. is 36", how

place in

you

circle whose

radius

is 2 ft.?
6. How
6. The

the

do you
of

arc

Draw

find the
sector

of the sector

area

with

in

problem 4?

radius of 6 ft. is 30".

Find

the

figureto help you.


the above work some
7. From
pupilshave made a rule
for findingthe area
of a sector when they know
its radius
in linear tmits and its arc in degrees. Can
do the
you
same?
Try it. Write the rule and show it to the class
area.

tomorrow.

is called a
Angle 2 of sector AOC
central angle. It is said to measure
the
length of its arc in degrees. Thus, if
8.

angle 2 is 60", then the


9. How

drawn
10.

about
How

such

many

the center

arc

angles

is 60".
can

be

0?

arcs, such

many

ABC

ABC,

as

can

be cut out of the

circumference?
11.

If you

radius,can

know
you

the

find the

central
area

angle

of

of the sector?

sector

How?

and

its

THE

136
1.

Figure II

placingthe

2. What

and

THE

the

cone

with paper

and

flat position.

relation is there between

(figure
II)

the sector

siurface of the cone?

convex

3. The

in

paper

CONE

figureI by coveringthe

from

of the
siurface (curvedsiurface)

convex

then

obtained

was

OF

SURFACE

CONVEX

slant

heightof the

cone

is the

same

as

the

of the sector.

Fig. I
4. The

Fig. II

circumference

of the

is the

cone

as

same

the

of the sector.
6.

Knowing the

and

arc

radius of

do you

sector,how

find the area?


6. Then
7. The

slant

is 20 ft. Find
8. Make

inches.

do you

how

find the

height of
the

paper

convex

cone

convex

siurface of

cone?

its circxunference
is 10 ft.,

surface.

funnel

and

find

its

area

in

square

XIV

CHAPTER

COMPUTING

AND

CONTENTS

THE

SOLIDS

OF

Prisms

Rectangular

rectangular prism is

1. A

SURFACES

solid

which

has

breadth, and thickness,and six rectangular faces.


a

rectangle? Point

objects in

out

length,
What

schoolroom

your

is

senting
repre-

rectangular soUds.
2. The

box 4 in.

and

4 in.

in

The

4.

the

How

5 in. X4
6. A

is the

solid

the

volume

number

of
of

its

such

=24

of

rectangular prism, 6 feet long,

3 feet thick.
ft.

cu.

(Why?)

(Wliy?)X3

cubic

many

inches

=72

there

are

cu.

in

ft.
a

block

8 in. X

m.?
soUd

volimae.
6. How

The

volume

wide, and
volume

rectangular

thickness.

the

Find

4 feet

in its volume

high, multiplied by

unit

one

units

inches

of

volume

The

base,

removed.

contents?

or

3.

cubic

front

the

been

top have

many

resents
rep-

long, 4 in. wide,

high, of which

sides and
How

this page

figure on

bottom

is 8

Do

you

many

and

inches X 2

inches X 4
know

faces

any
are

top faces

such

there
are

its

solids?

in the

soUd

called the upper


137

Find

inches.

in

problem 5?

base

and

the

138

COMPUTING

lower base.

CONTENTS

Find

the

SURFACES

AND

of these bases.

area

(how many?) are called lateral faces.


lateral surface)of these faces.
(called
The

Entire

Surface

of

Bases

Plus

Solid
the

Lateral

The
Find

the entire surface of the soUd in

8. How

many

9. How
10. A

siirface

of the

problem

in your

5.

schoolroom?

cubic feet of air space per pupilin problem 8?


bin is 14 ft.Xl2 ft.x6 ft. At $2.00 per bushel
many

find the value of the wheat


11. How

when

the

Surface

7. Find

cubic feet of air space

other faces

Surface

the

Equals

SOLIDS

OF

tons of anthracite coal

many

if there
full,

are

one-half full.

in this bin when

34^ cubic

feet in

are

there in

ton?

How

bin,

many

bushels in the bin?


12. Ask

tons

your

(A bushel of coal weighs 80 lb.)


sions
janitorto giveyou the approximatedimen-

in feet of your school coal bin. Then


of soft coal it will hold when | full.

13. If the rainfall for

is 3

many

inches,how much
water falls on a boy's thrift garden, 100 feet by 40 feet?
14. In Columbus, O., the snow
6 inches
is sometimes
cubic feet does a boy shovel
deep on the level. How many
if he clears a walk 100 feet long and 4 feet wide?
16. The inside dimensions of a certain Pennsylvaniasteel
freightcar are 40 ft. 1 in. x8 ft. 10 in. wide X 9 ft. 1 in,
high. Find the capacityto the nearest cubic foot.
bushels of wheat may
be placed in the
16. How
many
in problem 15 if it is filledto a depth of 5 feet?
car
ing
17. Find and solve other problems,not in books,involvvolumes and siurfaces of rectangular
solids.
a

month

find how

CYLINDER

THE

Finding

Volume

the

139
of

Cylinders

cylinderis a

1. A

solid with

equalparallel

circlesfor bases
and

with

uniform

diameter.
2. Name

which

objects

be

may

sidered
con-

for
cylinders
practical purposes.

all

3. How

are

Name

Fig.II

I and
figures
each figure.

II alike?

How

are

ent?
they differ-

Figure II is made from figureI. The dimensions of


II are the radius and one-half the circumthe base of figure
ference
of the base of figureI.
do you find the volume of figureII?
6. How
6. If the radius of figureI is 2 inches and its length is
of figureII? What
is the
12 inches,what is the volume
of figureI?
volume
4.

The
base
in

unit

one

the

radius is 2
Volume

3f

cylinder is equal

high multipliedby

the volume

the

to the

number

volume

of the

of such

of

tomato
cylindrical
inches and whose heightis 4| inches.

=(irx2X2
=47r

Explainthe
of

units

height.

7. Find

"

of

volume

cu.

cu.

can

whose

m.)X4i

in. X9/2=187r

above

work.

cu.

Estimate

in.
the value of 18

by givingt

value

COMPUTING

140

8. How

tumbler

CONTENTS

AND

cubic

inches

many

3 in.

across

of water

3^

the top and

in.

cylindrical
sugar box is 8 inches
deep. Find its capacity.
9. A

10. A

4|

certain size of Karo

in. in diameter.

How

syrup

much

OF

SURFACES

in

SOLIDS

deep, if it is full?
and 5 inches

across

cans

does the

cylindrical

is
can

5^

in.

deep by

lack of holding

one-half

gallon?
fish bowl is 15 in. across
11. A cylindrical
the top and
18 in. deep. How
gallonsof water in it when it is
many

fuU?
12. Measure

the volume

cyUndricalobjectsat home

and

compute

of each.

Finding

Why do
cyUnders?
1.

we

the

Surface

need to know

of

how

Cylinders
to find the surface of

problem in which you need to know how to


find the surface of a cylinder
in order to solve your problem.
The figureshows the shape and
size of a sheet of paper
required to
the ciurved surface (alsocalled
cover
convex
surface)of a cyUnder which is
f in. high and ^ in. across the top.
What are the dimensions of the paper?
of the paper?
4. What
is the area
find the curved surface of a cylinder?
6. How
6. How
find the entire surface of a cyUnder?
7. A steam
pipe is 30 feet long and 4 inches in diameter.
is its heating smface?
What
2. Make

OS.

CONTENTS

COMPUTING

142

SOLIDS

OF

SURFACES

AND

Lumber

Measuring

boards,planks,etc.,is measured
in board feet. Other lumber, such as lath,plasterlath,and
shingles,is measured either in linear feet or by the 100
pieces.
lumber, such

Some

as

^icic-

board

12 In.

width

Boards

See
than

less

one

inch

of

piece

1 foot long, 12 inches

lumber

wide,

is

foot

1 inch

and

or

less thick.

figure.

thick

considered

are

an

inch

thick in computing lumber.


Problems
1. If

board

foot is 1 ft. long, 12

thick,a board

16

has

board

how

many

2. How

9 in.

wide, and

thick?

If it

board

foot

3. How

in.

1 in. thick

feet

there in

are

How

inch thick?

many

board
if it

this page.
much
lumber is there in

plank

in. thick?

12 ft.

1. Amount

"

2. Amount

many

6 in. wide, and

6. Find
at $90 per

in.
a

board

of lumber

=12 bd. ft.x"

of liunber =20

feet in

long, 8

X-.

12

6. How

were

See the definition of

4. How

16 ft. long,

on

wide, and 2^

Solution.

1 in.

feet?

1 in. thick?

were

wide, and

ft. long, 12 in. wide, and

board

many

in.

bd. ft.

stick of timber

14 ft. long,

4 in. thick?

board

feet in your desk top?


the cost of 1200 board feet of white oak lumber

many

M.

(thousand).

CHAPTER

REVIEWING

THE

XIII

YEARNS

WORK

PROBLEM
1.

sold

In
for

2.

of

discount?

When

evening
is the

$45.00, what
Find

columns
6.

sold

sold

them
the

on

7.

the
more,

What

price. Find

the

What

from

the

was

each

$65.00

above

in

at $400

Ust.

the

to

advertising

them.
off the
of

rate
at

What

cost.

bought shoes
of the

article

16%

9.

10%

gain

list

was

price

the

on

and

10%

are

cost.

off and

5%
rate

my

of

gain

what
on

costing $3.50

cost?
is

so

marked

that

Find

the
sells

would

list
an

after

ducting
de-

profitof 20%

price.

article for $150,

gaining 20%

bought it for ^ less and


have

penses
ex-

he sell them

price must

the list price it is sold at

If he had

the

gross

pair. If his

$6 per

from

merchant

cost.

at

of the cost, at what

20%

12^%

An

of the

and

merchant

clear
8.

20%

at

regularly sold

sellingprice?

are

to

reduced

solve

15%

at

yard.

problems

newspaper

bought
list

table

of reduction?

bought goods listed

cloth, which

and

of your

Goods

extension

of reduction?

cent

per

are

wraps

discount

other

at the

6.

the

was

oak

$52

yard, brought only $1

$1.50

4.

sale

special sale woolen

at

3.

What

$35.

In

SOLVING

January clearance

THROUGH

been

sellingprice?

the

gain

per

on

sold it for $30

cent

on

the

cost?

REVIEWING

144

10. A

his

Determine

WORK

long tons of coal at $3.50


$6.00 per short ton (1919 price).

bought

sold it at

and

ton

per

coal dealer

YEAR'S

THE

profitif

200

it cost him

$1.00 per

ton

to

de-

Uver it.

gain is 20% of the cost, what is


the rate based on the seUingprice?
the loss is 25% of the selling
12. When
price,find the
the rate

11. When

based

rate

on

of

the cost.

top pricepaid for hogs at the National Stock


in July, 1918, was
$16.60 per hundred
weight. In

13. The

Yards

July,1919, the pricewas $22.35 per hundred weight. Find


the % of increase.
of Mahaska
14. In July, 1919, W. A. Emmert
Co., la.,
Commission
sold through the Moody
Company at the
National Stock Yards, East St. Louis,111.,
198 hogs averaging
lb. at $22.10 per

224
at

premium

the face of the


16.

lb.

Fmd

the commission

If%.
16. The

was

100

George Jones

of its value

insured at 60%

at

on

an

insurance

policyif the
owns

1|%,

and

policywas
was

2|%?

worth

$3000

rate

house

$20.

household

of their value at 2%.

insured

goods worth
Find

What

at

$1000

the cost of his

insurance.
17.

B's

Mr.

his real estate

personalproperty is assessed
at

$6500.

Find

his tax

when

at

$2450, and

the rate

was

$2.35.
18.

In

certain month

Mr.

Johns

wrote

six Ufe insurance

follows: $10,000, premium $32.80 per thousand;


as
policies
$10,000, premium $35.60;$25,000,premium $41.20;$15,000,

PROBLEMS

REVIEW

146

premium $36,40;$25,000,premium $29.60;$5,000,premiiun


$37.20.

If he received 40%

premiums, what

of the total

his commission?

was

19. A

His

acre.

per

in Texas

man

insurance

taxes

is $40

bushels of

on

In 1919

year.

$1.60

of land worth

acres

12 mills

are

worth

com

160

owns

$100
His

valuation.

his tenants

raised 1500

bushel,600 bushels of

oats

worth

75fia bushel,and 27 bales of cotton worth $175 per


of the land
bale,includingthe cotton seed. If the owner

received

of the

and

com

net did the land

and

oats

of the cotton, what

for him?

earn

followingitems show the cost of growing one


of cotton on Texas land producing | bale (250 lb.)of
acre
fiber cotton per acre: plowing and harrowing,$3; planting,
4
$1.00;seed,50ft;chopping (thinning),
$2.00;cultivating,
times, $5.00; picking 750 lb. seed cotton @ 1ftper lb.;
ginningand bagging,$3; interest at 6% on land worth $75
20.

The

per acre; tax at

growing
and

one

on

acre.

In

cotton

to

Find the total cost of

valuation.

1918

cotton

seed sold at $60 per

cotton

seed

2%

produce ^ bale
the profit
on
one

worth

was

ton.

30fta lb.,

It takes 750 lb. of

of fiber cotton.

On

this

of 1918 cotton?
acre
basis,what was
I kept it three years.
21. I bought a house for $3600.
Each
a
f valuation. The
year I paid 2"% for taxes on
insurance

for the three years

was

1^%

of the coat of the

house, and

repairscost $140 for the three years.


rented the house for $25 per month, losingin the 3

2 months'

on

my

rent, what
investment

was

was

my

this?

net

annual

income?

If I
years

What

REVIEWING

146

THE

YEAR'S

Solving Problems

WORK

by Telling

In this exercise think how

would

How

solve the

problem;
then write in a sentence the answer
to the question.
do you find the net price,
when the listpriceand
1. How
the rate of discount are given?
do you find the list pricewhen you know
2. How
the
net priceand the rate of discount?
3. How
rate of discount which is
can
you find the single
the equivalentof two successive rates of discounts?
do you find the % of gain on the selling
4. How
price
when you know the cost and the gain?
6. Find the cost when the selling
priceand the % of gain
the cost are given.
on
the agent'scost price and the rate of com6. Given
mission,
you

find the commission.


7. If you

the %

know

the owner's

commission,how
priceof the goods?
of

to his

remittance

can

you

find the

agent and

agent'scost

the tax rate in dollars per thousand of


assessed valuation and the assessed valuation of a pieceof
8. If you

know

property, how
9. Given

how

do you

10. If you

service and

do you

find the tax?

the rate of insx^ance and the face of the


find the
know

policy,

premiimi?

the number

the number

of men

how
rejected,

examined
can

you

for miUtary
find the %

passed?
11. Given

the number
death

the

populationof

cityin

of deaths for that year, how


rate per 1000?

certain year and


can
you find the

SOLVING

of another
death

100,000 how

per

rates of the two

can

you

HOW

147

cityper 1000 and

one

find the ratio of the

cities?

reduce

do you

13. How

TELLING

BY

the death rate of

know

If you

12.

PROBLEMS

lent
equiva-

fraction to the

common

%?
If you know the amount
an
agent receives for
his rate of commission,the amount
of storage, and
14.

charges,how
to

can

find the amount

you

of the

goods,
other

tance
agent'sremit-

the owner?

imported, the
duty on each,the rate of ad valorem duty,and the
specific
of the invoice,
cost?
how can you find the importer's
amount
the populationof your state in 1910 and
16. If you know
know

If you

16.

do you

also in 1920, how


What

17.

find the

the number

must

you

find the %
and

know

school

average

of articles

of increase?

what

attendance

must

do

you

to

class for

of your

month?
18.
you

What

do to find how

tank
19.

it is

when
If you

know

and the number


and

yoii know

would

measurements

you

take and what

gallonsthere

many

in

are

would

rectangular

full?
the number

employed by
day each worked, what
of

men

of hours per
do to find the amount

firm
must

of the firm's pay

roll

for the week?


20.

If you

know

the

purchase priceof

house

and

lot,

of the other yearlyexpenses,


the taxes per year, and the sum
how would you find the rent that must be charged in order
that the

owner

cost of his

may

property?

make

given %

of interest

on

the

REVIEWING

148

Surfaces

Reviewing
Write

Remember
than

in

answer

your

that

YEAR'S

THE

WORK

Solids

and

good English.
of these questionsmay

some

have

more

answer.

one

Construct

the

figureif it will help

you

to

answer

the

question.
What

I find and

can

how

I find it if I know:

can

1. The

length of

cube?

2. The

radius of

circle?

3. The

side of

4. The

base

square?
rightisosceles triangle?

6. The

circimiference of

6. The

area

of

of

face of

one

diameter

7. The

circle?

of

the

cube?

base

and

the

altitude

of

cylinder?
base and

8. The
9. The
10. The
11. The
12. The
13. The
14. One
16. The
16. The
drawn

altitude of

righttriangle?
base and altitude of a rectangle?
radius of a sector and its central angle?
dimensions of a rectangularsolid?
radius and length of a cylinder?
two
angles of a triangle?
of the acute anglesof a righttriangle
to be 45*"?
bases and altitude of a trapezoid?
diagonalof a trapezium and the two altitudes
it?

to

17. The

dimensions

18. The

radius of

19. The

diameter

of

80. A

circle and

of

sector
a

rectangularcoal bin?
and

its

arc

in feet

circle?

its circumscribed

square?

or

inches?

An

YEAR'S

THE

REVIEWING

150

Exercise

in

WORK

Estimating

Results

knowledge of arithmetic
in checkingyour answer
to a given question.This exercise
illustratesthis type of problem solving.
Often

in life you

can

use

your

sheet of paper put in a column


problems from 1 to 6, leavinga littleroom
On

work.

for your

No.
the

Read

the

Then

check

as

your

of these

the niunbers

between

problems is either Yes

problem carefully.When

you

have

decided

of the problem

of 3 for

can
10|i^,

paper.

bought for

is the

way

to

check

on

your

your

answer.

Check.

"

buy

you

10 for 40j5?
as
many
is Fes; therefore write Yes opposite No.
The right answer
This

on

or

by solvingthe problem.

answer

sell at the rate

1. If oranges

to these

answer

write it after the number

answer

paper.

The

numbers

the

^The

on

your

number

40c=j^X3=12.

2. I went

five dollar bill. If I chased


purcould I buy as much
of groceries,
as

to the store

$3.50 worth

with

a lb. with the change?


10|i^
3. If a crate of oranges
containing9 dozen costs a fruit
dealer six dollars,
he afford to sell the oranges
for 5
can
cents apiece?
243 loaves of bread, will
4. If a barrel of flour makes
baker who
makes
a
1,000 loaves of bread daily use 10
barrels of flour a day?
water
6. One
pipe can fill a tank in four hours, and
fillit in five hours.
another pipe can
If both pipes are
allowed to run, will they be able to fillthe tank in two hours?
6. John is now
twice as old as Henry. When
Henry's age
is double what it now
is,will John's age then be twice
Henry's?

20

pounds of

sugar

at

This

THE

RICE

is the Rice

Test

children.

The

best class was

Try
a

map

salt.

10 inches wide

and

grade

which

evaporate in order

area

obtained from

was

weight of salt

long is made

16 inches

inch^what is the
represents?

of rock salt contained

What

7th

974

39.4%.

scale of 50 miles to the

mine

to

rightin 30 minutes.

miles that the map


2. The salt water
of

1902

151

(rightanswers)for the
average achievement
81.1%; for the poorest class it was 18%; the

to solve 6

1. If
on

given in

for all the classes was

average

TEST

PROBLEM

the bottom

0.08 of its weight of pure

water

to obtain 3896

in square

was

poimds

it necessary
of salt?

to

3. A

gentleman gave way ^ of the books in his library,


left. He
lent i of the remainder,and sold ^ of what was
then had 420 books remaining. How
had he at
many
first?
4. A

farmer's wife

bought 2.75 yards of table linen at


$0.87 a yard and 16 yards of flannel at $0.55 a yard. She
paid in butter at $0.27 a pound. How many
pounds of
butter was
she obligedto give?
sold at 33 cents a poimd, givesa profitof
6. If coffee,
10%, what per cent of profitwould there be if it were
sold at 36 cents a pound?
6. Steel was
sold at $27.60 a ton, with a profitof 15%,.
and total profit
of $184.50. What
quantitywas sold?
7. If a woman
1 inch of rag carpeta yard wide
can
weave
in 4 minutes,how many
hours will she be obligedto work
in order to weave
the carpet for a room
24 feet long and 24
feet wide?

No

deduction to be made

for waste.

THE

REVIEWING

152

Reavis

The

Problem

YEAR'S

Test

WORK

Figuring

without

7th grade,pupil good in problem solviagshould write 7


After the test solve those you
in 20 minutes.
correct answers
A

did not try,also those you missed.


made a voyage of
1. A submarine
of the distance
traveled

the surface.

on

given number

of miles under water

certain number

going a

of miles,
and the remainder

would you

How

find the distance

the surface?

on

2. A grocer received

billgivingthe number

of poimds shipped

If you were
order of sugar.
given this bill,
how would you find the cost of the sugar per pound?
the weight of dough requiredto make a single
8. If you know
the cost of

and

an

loaf of bread, how


baker

must

you find the weight of the dough a


of similar loaves?
to make
a given niunber

would

prepare

fruit dealer bought a stalk of bananas containinga certain


number
of dozens for a certain price. How
would you find

4. A

the cost per dozen?

If you

6.

the cost of my
piu'chaseat a store and the
when
I left the store,how would you find the

know

amount

I had

amount

of money
If you know

I had when

I went

to the store?

of brick carried by a hod carrier


at a load and the weight of the load in pounds, how would you
find the weight of a single
brick?
6.

7. A

paid a

bought

man

certain amount

8. If you

from

go

how
9.

each

At

the nmnber

cityto another
you

and

lot for
gave

would
you

the children?

serve

and

find the number

certain

of the mortgage?
of hours requiredby
the

price.

He

rest.

train to

speed of the train per hour,

find the distance between

knew

mortgage for the

school picnicthe patrons gave

cream

would

and

in cash and

child present. If you

of ice
how

know

one

would

house

find the amount

would you

How

the number

the cities?
a

the nmnber
the number

treat of ice

of children

cream
a

to

gallon

of children present,

of gallonsrequiredto treat all

PART

II"

TESTS

SHORT

THE

FUNDAMENTALS

IN

allotted

if you

exercise.

time,

more

are

It is
than

the

be

in

able

in

exercise

pupil

that

in

in

the

the

checking
than

accurate

to

do

time

particular

less than

remainder
to be

important

more

each

exercise

an

spend

should

in

should

you

standard

finish

If you

you

work.

grade

right indicated

number

FOR

ACCURACY*

AND

finishingthe 8th

Before

YEAR

CHAPTER

SPEED

the

EIGHTH

to

given
your

attempt

standard.

the

Addition

All

"

right in

one

minute.

239468464329772

1.

485260395279675

laid

Note.
below
time

"

In
the

most

cases

examples.

should

be

the
Where

can

answers

examples

be
need

written
to

on

be

paper

tional
transferred, addi-

allowed.
153

slip of

Digitized by

TESTS

154

FOR

SPEED

ACCURACY

AND

II
Subtraction
1.

^All right in

"

one

minute.

two

minutes.

145632734549769
114111222145562

III
Subtraction"
1.

18

10

16

12

17

All
15

right in
12

15

13

14

16

10

11

999988765877641

IV

Multiplication^AU right in
"

1.

349054327496547
278261696059280

one

minute.

10

10

IN

THE

FOUR

FUNDAMENTALS

155

V
Division

^All rightin

"

X.

3J9

2.

5)16 4)"247)"63"
6)"0 8)32 l}8

3.

9)36 1)7 2)10 7)42 151 6TI8 4)20 7549 l)!

4.

258

5.757

4)32 6536 2}0

minute.

one

7)28 9j9

3527"8564 l52

656

25I8 6542 350

3)21 6)^

ijl

5)30 8572 ijo

550

3524 9563 8524

752! 454

3515 9511 750

VI
Addition

"

right in

minute.

one

VIII

MultiplicationAll right in
"

2534
5

3075
2

7689
5

6879
9

minute.

one

3245
6

2354
4

3524
7

TESTS

156

SPEED

FOR

AND

ACCUEACY

IX
Division

right in

"

6)21279

4)38968

one

minute.

5)71289

8)66720

7)39872
X

Addition

right in 3 minutes.

"

XII

Long Division

32)793664

"

right in

46)284602

3 minutes.

97)102626

88)671792

XIII
Addition

I
S

i
t

i
TS

f
T^

"

10

right in

f J

'S

T^

3 minutes.

^
T^

^
TT

TW

T^
"^

I
4

FOR

TESTS

158

SPEED

ACCURACY

AND

XVI

Multiplication11 rightin six minutes.


"

XVII
facts
examples contain all the multiplication

These

"

All

rightin six minutes.


45239

53429

60871

951

273

278

39245

87160

71608

916

845

436

XVIII
Division

11

"

rightin eight minutes.

28)8204

65)45825

58)51736

94)38634

47)39997

36)23076

74)48100

25)12075

93)69006

76)29184

49)34986

52)14196

34)31960

85)28685

56)45304

XIX
Subtraction
2^

m
3i

"^8

100

100

51

jf
12U

50

62|%
25

^AU

rightin three minutes.

n
6i

m
If

66f
18f

"

Qh
2i

200

200

1374

187i

ih
12|
"

50

33i%

87^%
16f%

24

15t
75

37i%
16|%
6i%

12i
2

Tit
i

IN

ALL

FUNDAMENTALS

THE

159

XX
Use

of

Sign^^All rightin five minutes.

18.

5.

(8x4) +(3x5)-?
6+(8x5)=?
(6-^2)+(3 XlO) -?
(15-8-6)
+(21-5-7)=?
(24-1-6)
-(34 +17) .?

6.

25x2h-10=?

16.

7.

18+6x5=?

17.

1.
2.
8.
4.

8. 27 +3
9.
10.

x4 -5 =?

-(18 +6)=?
-?
(3X4) +(8 X5) -(12 -!-6)
(5 X6) -(2 +4) +(7 X2) -?
(6xj) +(8 -1-4x7)=?
=?
-(6 X2) -(8 -s-8)
(7 x8 -s-4)
3x52+7-?
(18+6) +(7 x4) -(24 -^8 x4) =?
(8+4) X (16-12)=.?
(7-3)x(8+2)-(6-s-2)-?
(14-1-2)
+(4 -3) +(6 x8) -?

11. 36
12.

14.
16.

18.

25-10+5=?

19.

18+(4-^2)-?

20.

XXI
There

is

an

way

easy

certain numbers.

to add

the

Find it. Then


All

followingby grouping

add.

rightin six minutes.

XXII
These

division

facts if the

examples requireaU the multiplication

rightanswers
All

are

rightin

obtained.
ten

minutes.

71608)60508760

87160)79838560

39245)17110820

45239)12576442

53429)50810979

60871)16617783

TESTS

160

SPEED

FOR

AND

ACCURACY

XXIII
A

Read

across

the page,
100

Fraction

write

Test
answers

only.

rightin thirtyminutes.

4.

i-i

i-i

f-i

l-i

l-i

6.

ix3

ix4

ix6

ix6

ix4

6.

tx4

1X4

f X4

|X4

f X5

8.

H^

Hi

H^

f^f

l-^l

9.

H2

H2

i-4

f-s-3

1^5

10.

f+-^

11.

HI

T^+f
ix4

1^X5

^-5-9

fxi

^^3

i+i

Hi

COMMON

IN

FRACTIONS

161
d

12.

2ix4

15f+5

f+2i

1^-1

f XA

13.

31-4-3

8^-s-4

10|^5

12f h-4

18|-i-6

f^6

i|-^4

li-8

fi-9

2|-li

3j+2i

ixA

T^ir-I

14.^-5-7

16.

f-T^

16.

i+i

i+i

T^+"

i+f

l+J

17.

f-i

f-i

f-f

f-f

i-i

18.

ix3

f X6

^X9

f X5

^X3

19.

ixf

f X|

|xf

f xi

IXt^

20.

h-^

h+l

hH

f+f

h+^

21.

l+i

l-f

8Xt^

f X3

5-1-21

22.

2^X8

1+^

^H

f-4

7-5-11

83.

6-li

f-H

f+l|

2H2|

2x5f

TESTS

162

FOR

SPEED

AND

ACCURACY

XXIV
Write
with

on

another

the decimal

sheet

each

of the

followingquotients

point property placed.

All

right in three minutes.

IN

DECIMAI5

AND

PEECENTAGE

163

TESTS

164

FOR

SPEED

ACCURACY

AND

XXVII
Name

the

.The

correct

of

6%

or

50,

^ of
10 is f of
50 is f of
24 is 1^of
J is ^ of
27 is I of
f is f of
18 is I of
.8 is 1^of

1. 3 is
2.
3.
4.
6.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10. 25 is 20%
11.
12.

missing numbers.

14 is

2x1^"
or
I of

or

_,

_,

.1 of

or

If X__,

of

6%

or

_,

or

or

6, or J of 12,

of

2^X_,

or

or

20%

f of
33^%

or
or

_,

3x_,

or

_,

or

_,

1.

3^X_,

or

of

or

_,

or

_,

of

10%

or

of

50%

or

of

of

12|%

|
or

_,

2f 3|, 6i 4,

and

of
_,

or

_,

25%

or

8.5, 6.3, 7.2,9.4, 6.1

3.

.84, .75,.62, .56, .80

4.

80%, 90%, 85%,

5.

60ff,48^, 55f^,60ff,50jf
48.3 yd., 52.8 yd., 50.7 yd.

2^X__,

or

88%

10 yr. 2

8. 5 ft. 4
9.
10.

of
_

21

9 yr. 3 mo.,

16|%
or 2ix_
f

of
_.

2.

6 mo.,

.6 of

of

of

_,

1^X_

4x_
or

_,

the median.

95%,

of
or

or

_,

4%

of

2f X_
_

2lx_,

or

_,

or

25%

or

__,

the average

7. 8 yr.

of

or

_,

6.

of

50%

or

100%

_,

2x_,

or

_,

of
or

of

3x

or

of

40%

or

_,

XXVIII
Find

2x_

or

_,

5x_,

or

of

75%

or
,

of

1 is "3 is

_,

is .9X_,

90

for No.

answer

mo.

in.,5 ft. 8 in.,5 ft. 1 in.


16^ lb.,18f lb.,19^ lb.,15} lb.,17 lb.

$125, $140, $122, $132, $135

CHAPTER

AND

SQUARES
1. The

of

square

using the number


is the

product obtained

is the

be indicated
product may
ber
right and above the num-

The

3X3a9.

by writing 2 (calledthe exponent) a little to the


Such an
to be squared, as
3X3"3'.
expression is read
the

2. The

factors

of that

sign

of square

by "mting

4.

in

or

is

of the

one

equal

two

\/.

sign over

column

1 to

13^ and

4 is

The
the

one

equal factors of

number

be

may

16.

cated
indi-

\/\",

as

all the

of

squares

of all the numbers

two

of

root

square

number,

the

of the

ending in

numbers

zero

between

lOo!

Recall

the

Write

in three

method

short

squaring numbers

of

ending

5.
6.

(1) Of

all

(2) Of all
.05

to

6.

pure

and

1.5

to

this table
Show

(1)

the

decimals

of two

squares

from

15

to

125.

places ending in

from

.95.

in 5 from
Use

columns

integers ending in

(3) Of all mixed

is

root

in

10 and

number

of 16 because

the

Write

from

squared,

number.

root

square

of

root

square

4 is the

3.

of 3.

square

The

by-

factor.

as

because

ROOTS

SQUARE

number

twice

of

square

II

The

by
squares

decimals

of

one

decimal

place ending

12.5.

when

example

extract

you

truth

the

of all numbers

100.
166

square

of

between

these
1 and

root.
statements.
10 lie between

OBSERVATIONS

(2) The
100 and

ON

SQUARES

of all numbers

squares

of

square

(4) The
an

(5) The

fraction is a decimal fraction with

placesas the fraction squared; therefore,


of places. .9^ =.81.
of

square

(6) The

fraction less

proper

squared. HY =-]^.

decimal

decimal

many

nimiber

even

nimiber is a mixed

mixed
of

root

square

decimal

many

of

square

fraction is

proper

in value than the fraction

as

100 lie between

10 and

between

167

10,000.

(3) The

twice

ROOTS

SQUARE

AND

fraction has

decimal

the decimal

places as

nimiber.
half

one

fraction whose

root

is

as
tracted.
ex-

-\/.49=.7.
(7) The
than

the

(8)

square

but
fraction,

The

(9) The

7.

fraction

proper

has

one.

of numbers

between

of numbers

between

100

roots

100

tween
lie be-

Observations.

Vl6=4.

Vi69=13.
(4) Perfect

Vl2i=ll.
(5) Perfect
8.

squares

ending in

6 have

root

can

\/4225=65.

in 5.

their root

be found

ending in

or

6.

V36=6.

(3) Perfect

or

10,000 lie

10.

(2) Perfect

9.

and

1 and

(1) Perfect squares (nimiberswhose square


exactly)ending in 25 have their root ending

7.

largervalue

100.

square

1 and

it is always less than

roots

square

10 and

between

of

root

squares

ending

in 9 have

their root

ending in

or

in 1 have

their root

ending in

or

V289=17.
squa^res

ending

V8T=9.
squares

ending

in 4 have

their root

ending in

\/64=8. '\/l44=12.

(6)

No

perfectsquare

can

end in

one

(7)

No

perfectsquare

can

end in

15,35, 45, 55, etc.

zero,

2, 3, 7, or 8.

Root

Extracting Square

By this method

is

is the number
I. Of

by Long

extracting square

divisor which

ROOTS

SQUARE

AND

SQUARES

168

root

Division

ing
consists in find-

equal to the quotientwhen

whose

is to be extracted.

root

square

the dividend

perfectsquares.
the

1. Extract
^

The

99)9801

What

is the square

of 95?

99

divisor.

try

as

99 is the square

-r"

lie between

must

root

square

square,

ggi

of 9801.

root

square

Assuming
Divide

9801

9801

100.

to be

Why?
perfect

by 99.

Why?

of 9801.

root

and

95

891

In

whose

perfectsquares

root

square

does

not

be determined
exactly
places the root can
the observations
the first trial by keeping in mind

exceed

two

upon
on

of

case

page

167 and

ending in

0 and

2. Extract

remembering the

squares

of the nimibers

5.

the square

of 6084.

root

78
The
^

78)6084

root lies between

observed
be

546

78,assuming

proves

nt^A

3. Extract

the last

the

76 and

After you have


"Why?
shows
the root to
6084, inspection
Actual division
be a perfectsquare.

6084

to

the correctness

of the

inspection.

of 6.76.

root

square

80.

digitin

2.6

2.6)6.76

Assuming 6.76

to

be

perfect square,

try 2.6, because

2.5*=6.25and3"=9.

5 2

I56
4. Extract

the

root

square

of .6889.

-83

.83)
.6889
Try

.83.

.8" =

.64 and

.85"

.7225.

.664
249

EXTRACTING

The

SQUARE

solutions

squares

ROOT

OF

PERFECT

SQUARES

169

on

page

168 represent the 3 types of perfect

whose

roots

may

be extracted

accurately
by

inspectionat the first trial.


6. These
square

numbers

root of each.

are

Then

perfectsquares.
prove

your

Estimate

estimate

the

by division.

Remembering that the square root of a decimal


decimal
fraction is a decimal with only one half as many
and longdivisionthe
find by the method of inspection
places,
perfectdecimal squares.
square root of each of the following
6.

abode

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

.3025

.0484

.7225

.9025

.9409

.4225

.6241

.5625

.2025

.3364

.4489

.0625

.2704

.3136

.1225

.1681

.2809

.6084

.3721

.5329

7. The

Find

followingmixed

their square

root.

decimals
Remember

perfectsquares.
the decimal point.

are

SQUARES

170

ROOTS

SQUARE

AND

II. Extracting the square root of imperfectsquares.


People who must often know the square root of imperfect
squares
a

table

is not

1. Extract

the square

4.79 +

Inspectionshows the

^q 2
"

the divisor.

"

3.80

of

If

inspection

1.

root to liebetween

The

is

root

you

What
How

Compare the quotientwith

Try 4.8.
found

4.5 and 5.
6 than 4.5.

nearer

the square root?


For praccarried to tenths is accurate

tical purposes
root
a
square
If you find your first estimate
enough in ordinarywork.
not accurate enough, use it to help you make
another one.

3.36

777^

sign V

2. The

Have

example

302.

page

of 23.

root

^ *^" square of 4.5?


this?
may
you know

4.8)23.00
-

in

shown

as

on

one

the method

convenient,use

long division

and

table like the

use

mtegers and

mixed

the

extract

means

the

decimals,carry

root.

square
root

In

tenths;

to

Remember
the decimal
decimals,to himdredths.
the first
on
point. Many pupilshave estimated correctly
trial in most
examples of this list. Check your answer.
in pure

be

e
,

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

V34=?
\/3!4=?
\/79=?
V70=?

III.

Extractingthe

mixed

square

root

of

fractions and

common

numbers.

Note.

"

^Ifboth

extract

squares,

reduce

V9l25=? ViQ-?
\/i525=?
\/j=?
VSOOO-?
V7325=? V':2250"?V^=?
Vl25=? y;036=?
V90=-? ^^85=?
\/42:9=?V;56i8=?\/36:8=? V^SiB^?

the

numerator

the square

and

denominator

root of each

a
decimal,and
fraction_to

\/.66+ .8+. V3i=\/3:25=1.8+.


=

term, as

of

fraction

\/j=f

proceedas

you

are

perfect

In all other
did above.

cases

y/\=

CHAPTER
USING

AND

SQUARES
The

1. Draw

The

lemSf and

problem

between
Draw

3.

sides

whose
as

did

you

the

to

in

The

problem

contains
base?

same

line.

right triangle

in.

Erect

squares

relation

between

the

other

two?

sq.

of

hypotenuse
in.

The

is the

What

certain

the

on

square

right

altitude

of the square

area

area

the

is the

100

the
at

floor

along

end

of the

the

measure

you

length
find?

of the

corner

one

connect

the
do

15

regards

as

two?

What

the

on

feet,making

Now

measure

What

mark
corner

exactly

at
on

measure
a

scale

triangleyou

on

the

long is the base?

How

making

other

2.

on

36 sq. in.

Beginning

6.

the

and

square

trianglecontains

the

in., 12 in., and

are

largest square

4.

and

relation

convenient

some

(Read

3-4-5

sides of the

is the

large square

the

the

carefully studied.

three

What

1.

whose

frequently in prob-*

occurs

be

the

on

is 4 in. and

is called

should

squares

base

long side,called the hypotenuse.

drew

you

therefore

2. Erect

in

the

five) triangle. It

four

drew

Right Triangle

Measure

figure

ROOTS

SQUARE

right trianglewhose

altitude is 3 in.

three

III

the
of

the

What

wall

one

at

the

between

is the
171

name

Then

from

along the other wall

points with
cord

room
school-

exactly 6 feet,

6-foot line.

the floor

mark

two

floor of your

end
a

of the

8-foot

stiff cord

the

two

and

points.

of this line?

USING

172

The

AND

SQUARES

SQUARE

ROOTS

truth illustrated in the

called the

previousproblems may
of the Right Triangle." It may

"Rule

be
be

stated in this way,


The

equal

the

to

the

on

square

of the

sum

of the

right triangle is

the

on

squares

Rule

the

Expressing

of any

hypotenuse

two

other

Right Triangle

in

sides.

Formula
1. A

formula

is

rule stated in letters.

h stands for the


right triangles,
hypotenuse,a stands for the altitude,and
b for the base.
See the figure.
2. In

When

If
formulas,these letters stand for abstract numbers.
representsfeet,then a and h must also represent feet.

used in

given formula

in

rule of the

3. The

righttrianglemay be expressed in
Tell the meaning of each from the figure.

these ways.

(1) h^=a^ + "; h=V^+^


(2) a^=h^-"; a=VW^
(3) 62=A2-a2; b=Vh^^^^
4. Find

h when
h^

Solve these

(1) Find
(2) Find
(3) Find
One

when

b when

of the
Find

=4

ViH^.

6=3.
h

v^

=20

and

=21;
h =53 and b =45;
and h =85;
a =36
a

in the
triangles

it and

prove

(1) a
5, " =12, h =13.
(2) a =30, b =40, h =50.
=

and

or

5.

righttriangleswith the formula.

h when
a

next

your

when

6 =33

and

when

h =89

and

b =80.

when

=44

and

h =125.

list is not

=56.

angle.
right tri-

answer.

(3) a =12, b =12, h =15.


(4) a =15, 6 =36, h =39.

USING

174

SQUARES

The

AND

Isosceles

ROOTS

SQUARE

Right Triangle
1. ABC

is an

isosceles

right
triangle.
Why?
2. What

lation
re-

exists
the

between
on

the

and

the

square

base
one

on

the

3. What

titude?
al-

lation
re-

is there
between

6.
can

on

the

hypotenuse and the

square

equal sides?
AB
is also the diagonalof the square AOBC.
If the diagonalof the square in the figureis

either
4.

the square
of the

one

find the

you

lengthof

on

area

of the square

side of the

one

without

square? How?

10

feet,

findingthe

What

is the

area

of the square
6. From

the

Of AOBC?

ABMN?

the

figureand

of any

your
when

work

write
know

rule for finding

its

diagonal.
7. DE
represents the height of a tree from the ground
find the length of DE
How
to the first limb.
can
by
you
If HF
is a telephonepole, can
using the triangleABC?
of ABC?
Do it.
you find its heightby means
8. Some
boys wished to know how they might measure
the height of trees, towers, telephonepoles,etc.
This is
their teacher told them to proceed.
the way
area

square

you

USING

I.

(1) Cut
isosceles

ISOSCELES

THE

TRIANGLE

RIGHT

Constructing

the

Apparatus

heavy cardboard, or

from

right triangle such

176

ABC

as

thin

in

board,

the

an

figure on

174.

page

this triangleon

(2) Mount
height.

II.

Problem.

the

Using

level stand

of convenient

Apparatus

How

high from the ground is the cross piece


of the telephonepole near
school?
(1) Set the apparatus on a level at such a distance
that the line AB
is in Une with 0, the upper
extremity of
the vertical distance to be measured.
See figure.
(2) The
and

AH

Une

zontal
is hori-

right angles to

at

the telephone pole in the

Why?
(3) The

triangleAOH

isosceles right.
III.

piece
at
ground
Why?

anchor
the

can

How

long

the

top of

in

Result

of

you
must

the
the

from
AH

N=

(2) How
from

at

cross

of

the

distance

(1) The

is

Why?

Computing

10.

ure.
fig-

+AE.

find the
a

wire

length of AH?
be

to

reach

pole 57 feet high to an


the ground 76 feet from the foot

pole?

Anchor

USING

176

AND

SQUARES

ROOTS

SQUARE

diamond

baseball

11.

^-

is

feet square.

90

(1) How

far

the

must

catcher,standingat the home


^iB. plate, throw (measiured on
the ground) to reach the man

8B.^

second

at

to

base?
decimal

one

Plata

second

(4) How

fielder stands

center

base, how

place.

to third base?

first base

(3) If the

sult
re-

far is it from

(2) How
Home

Carry

feet

100

far is he from

hind
directlybe-

the home

far is it from

the center

far measured

on

plate?

of the diamond

to

third base?

(5) How
bat

ball to make

fielder who
12.
way

the

groimd

must

player

it strike 20 ft. to the left of the center

stands

100

directlybehind

feet

base?

second

going to school at S, can


the roads, how
of the diagonal instead of over
If

Road

boy Uving

at ff

he

can

in

save

school

13.

girlwalks

then

3|

measiured

in

and

from

the

mi.
a

3^

due

mi.

west.

by

much
of 200

year

days? If you express your


miles, carry it to 2 decimal

R"""*

go

in

answer

places.
due

south

How

straight line is

far
she

startingpoint?

boys riding bicyclesmeet at a cross road. One


is ridingdue ea^t at 8 miles an hour, the other is going due
far apart are they in 2 J hours?
south at 6 miles an hour. How
14.

Two

SOLVING

15. Find

attached
The

the

to

TRIANGLES

RIGHT

length of

wire

guy

60-foot smoke

16. Find

end

of which

ground

is

the top.

50 feet from

the

2 feet for slack wire.

Allow

side and

the unknown

one

stack 6 feet from

other end is fastened at the

base of the stack.

177

figures.Find the unknown


17. Study this figure.
(1) How
long must

above

the
side

area

of each of the

by inspection.

the rafters be to reach the

plate?
(2) How
extend

18

long if they
in. beyond the

plates?
(3) Find
18. How

the

much

area

of the roof if its lengthis 49 ft?

lumber

one

inch thick will be

required

sidingof the barn shown in the figureif it is 48 ft.


long and 16 ft. high to the plateand if |% of that required
for the gable ends must.be added for waste
in cutting?

for the

What

will be the cost at $40 per M?

IV

CHAPTER

USING

FORMULAS

formula

states

of the radius

square

formula, A

the

of

area

the radius

of

know

circle if you

factors,of which

of two

tells you

its radius.

From

its area.

know

The

find

to

the

also find

can

is the

area

The

way.

equals the
expressed by

how
it you

(v).

one

area

rule is

This

t.

short

the

formula

know

you

that

found

multipliedby
This

SOLVING

principlein

or

circles you

=xK*.

circle if you

rule

with

work

In your

PROBLEM

IN

product

unknown

factor

of the radius.

is the square

general rule for interest is, "Multiply the principal

The

by the

by the number

rate

for this

formula

The

of

rule

years."

is

I ='PxRxT.

By

explaining

product of three factors,you can solve directly


from it the four interest problems, providing you know
any three
for each problem.
One
of these problems is,
of these terms
''Knowing the interest,the principal,and the rate, how do you
This is just another
the
find the time?"
of saying "Given
way
productof three factors,and knowing two of them, how do you find
the other problems?
What
the third one?"
are
this formula

In

as

formula, therefore,you

any

it,as

formulas

The

of

in terms
Loss
no

cost

matter

at

problems

as

writing
re-

there

given time all the

are

terms

known.

are

one

provided

solve, without

can

different types of

many

in the formula,

terms

but

one

"

of arithmetic

are

general rules expressed

of the four fundamental

selling price is in thought


which

term

is to

be
178

processes.
a

found.

subtraction

Thus,
formula

FORMULAS

Where
and

APPLIED

state

is

term

how

(1) ?

5=

(1) ? =Jlf -iS.

6, c,

(2) D

a,

(2) S

=? +6 +c.

remainder, Af

or

-S.

(3) D

(alsowritten ikfm),where
=multipUcand, m=multipher.
3. P=:MXm

^M

dividend

(1)
The
which

and

? =D

d=

(2) Q
formulas

out

Jkf-?

product, M

P=

(3) P

xm.

"? ^d.

=Jlf x?

quotient,D

Q=

(3) Q

of the four fundamental

problems

=D

^?

represent eleven types of problems

be called fundamental

arithmetic

divisor.

^d.

above
grow

(writtenalso D), where

Q=D4-d

4.

may

(2) P

xm.

the addends.

are

sum;

difference

where
D=
D^M"Sf
minuend, 5= subtrahend.
2.

(1) ?

it

be found.

it may

+ft +c.

=o

179

missing as indicated by the ?, name

jS=a+fe+c, where

1.

PROCESSES

FUNDAMENTAL

TO

grow

processes.

problems because
out

These

all the other

of them.

Explain and solve each of these examples by stating


the example belongs,
(1) to which fundamental
process
(2) what is given,(3)what is to be found, (4)the value of
the missing term which is called x for convenience.
(1) 3 +7 +8 ^z
(2) 31 =4 +9 +x
(3) 84 =100 -"
(4) x=74-39

(5) 75=x-24
(6) 68 -f-4=x
(7) X -5-5=20

(8) 120 -5-x =24


144
(9) 36 xx
(10) 58 x3 =x
(11) xx6==42
(12) I XX -24
(13) (3 +8) -6
=

(14)

=x

-(56 +20) =24

FORMULAS

USING

180

PROBLEM

IN

SOLVING

Solve the

followingproblems by writingthe proper equation


(statement),after you have determined (1) what is
wanted, (2) what is given,(3) the fundamental
process to
which the problem belongs.
had a tank holding44^ gallonsof
1. A generalmerchant
oil. One day he drew out 15f gallons,
and the next day,
9| gallons. How many gallonswere left in the tank?
Thinking. ^This is a problem in subtraction because we need
find the difference,
and subtrahend.
knowing the minuend
^Amt. left or x gal.=44J gal.-(15f gal.+9 J gal.)
Statement.
"

to

"

2. A

the number

'50

nearest

weighs about

brick

conunon

4|

of bricks that

lb.

Find

teamster

to

the

should

load to have
3.

approximatelya ton.
In 1917, the productionof gasolinein the United

States
Find

68,000,000bbl.

was

the %

In 1918, it was

85,000,000 bbl.

of increase.

8|

pencilsat 25jiper \ dozen.


He earned 30 cents each
6. John had $1.20 on Monday.
day on
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday.
Saturday morning he spent one third of what he had earned
in the four days. Saturday afternoon his father gave John
4. Find

half

the cost of

much

as

as

doz.

then had.

John

How

did his father

much

give him?
6. The

with

candy for

to make
7. At
an

school made

party.

600

small boxes to be filled

were

20,25,83, 150,and 150 boxes.

7 made

on

children of

did

needed.
The

8th

the rest.

How

$2.01 per

$100 of assessed valuation

assessment

many

they agree

of $434,733,255.

Grades

3 to

grade agreed

to make?

find the

tax

USING

182

FORMULAS

(3) Write the formula


triangle.
Note.

SOLVING

PROBLEM

IX

perimeterof

for the

figuresshow how the formulas for area


equivalentrectangle. For a full discussion of this see
pages

"

^The

are

an

lateral
equi-

derived from

the

Measuring Surfaces,

124-134.

Trapeziums.

6.

A=dXa

and

this

a'

"

where d

diagonal,

the altitudes drawn

are

to

diagonal.

7. Circles.

C, D,

and

represent circumference,diameter, and

radius.

(1) C=tXD=2tR
(2)

(4)

A=^XR

A=l^

(5) A
(3) A^irR^

=f

8. Sectors.

(1)

Arc

A=^XB

ViAro

9. Cones.

(1) Convex

surface

(2) Entire

surface

s.

h. (slantheight)X"
c

s.

face)+ir7J2(areaof base)
.

h. X

(convex sur-

IN

FORMULAS

MENSURATION

183

10. Prisms.

(1) Lateral surface =Pxa.


of 2
(2) Entire surface =PXa+area
P= perimeter of base.
bases.
11. Cylinders.
\
(1) Convex surface Cxa.
(2) Entire surface Cxa
(convex surface)
+ 2XTrR^ (area of bases).
=

Spheres.

12.

S=TD^=4irR\

(1) 4iTR^

that the surface of

means

is 4 times that of

sphere

radius is the radius

circlewhose

of the

sphere.
(2) What is the meaning of tD^?
13. Right Triangles.
h, by a, are hypotenuse, base and altitude. Tell the
meaning of these formulas.
(1) h=V"+a^
(2) 6
VW^
(3) a=V"^^^
(4) Write the formula which shows how
to find the altitude of an equilateral
trianglewhen one side
is given.
(5) Write the formula which shows how to find the
diagonal of a square if one side is known.
=

All terms

in

mensuration

formula

fore, in solvingproblems with


the

solution

abstract.

which

involve

such
a

are

abstract,

formulas

formula

There-

all parts of

should

be

kept

FORMULAS

USING

184
1. Find

the

Formula.

of

area

IN

circle whose

SOLVING

PROBLEM

radius is 8 ft.

A ="irJB*

"

22

Solution."

x8 x8 xl sq. ft.

="

The

-201|sq.ft.

area

2. A

in the

lawn

36 feet wide.
a

rhomboid

long and
sod it at 25f5

is 50 feet

will be the cost to

much

How

yard?

square
The

shape of

formula employed in the solution is A -b xa

Solution.

"

Cost

$x =25^

or

$x=$50.
3. There

rods wide.

How

4. Find

whose

rectangularfield which

is 40

long is it?

area

of

trianglewhose

trianglewhose
Find

6. The

16

the

in

acres

base is 24 feet and

altitude is 16 feet.

6. A

feet.

40

are

base is 25 feet contains 200

square

the altitude.

lower base of

trapezoidis 20 feet;the

upper

is

feet;the altitude is 8 feet. Find the area.


7. A kite is in the form of a trapezium whose
diagonals
intersect each
other at right angles as
in the figure. Find the area
and
shown
J..H_J5^!"^
the perimeter.
14 ^y^^
8. If the

miles,what

is the

area

diameter

of the

of the

moon

portionvisible

to us

is 2000
at full

moon?
9. Find

diameter

the

area

is 8000

of the earth, caUing it

miles.

(Callx 3.1416.)

sphere whose

MEASURING

AND

COMPUTING

SURFACES

185

of each
of the figureswithin this
Compute the area
rectangle. What % of the largerectangleis the sum of the
of the figureswithin it?
areas

USING

186

FORMULAS

Fonnulas

Used

in

SOLVING

PROBLEM

IN

Volumes

Computing

Rectangular prisms.
where
h, I, and w represent
Y=:hxlXw,
height,length,and width.
(1) What does the formula become when I
and w are equal?
(2) Write the formula for the cube.
2. Cylinders.
F=J5xa, where B represents the area of the base, and
1.

the altitude.

(1) Write the formula


and

the altitude

and

the diameter

of the base

given.

are

(2) Write
base

when

the formula

the altitude

the radius of the

when

given.

are

would
find the altitude of
(3) How
you
cylinder,
knowing the volume and the radius?

3. Cones.

^^^^^

( )^

BXa

V='Tr

is the difference between

(1) What

cylinder?
(2) Construct out of heavy paper a
cylinderand a cone with equal altitudes
and diameters. Observe by actual measurement
this formula

with the
the
4.

cone

of sand

three times with

Spheres.

V=-^iy^

use

and

or

that of the

the contents

This formula

says

sphere is a littlemore
of the diameter.

fill
that you can
of the cylinder..

sawdust

that the volume


than

of

of the cube

PROBLEMS

Read

the

then write the statement


problem carefully,
with the help of the preceding fortell the answer
mulas.

or

1. How

bushels of wheat

many

ft. long,8 ft. wide, and

boy built
ft. high. How
2. A

187

3. John

36 ft. and

was

based

on

cu.

12

.8 bushel?

ft.

long, 10 ft. wide, and

of soft coal will it hold

tons

many

rectangularbin

if it

foot of the

top?
silo whose height,he thought,
cylindrical

saw

7 ft. high if 1

coal bin 15 ft.

be filledto within

can

in

diameter

whose

was

15 ft. Find

the volume

his estimates.
much

4. How

is 18 ft. and

air space

in

conical tent whose

diameter

whose

heightis 12 ft.?
6. This battery jar is 6 inches in diameter
and 8 inches high. Dick thought it w^ould
hold a gallon. Was
he too high or too low?
How

much?

6. The

bodies
are

as

dimensions

of these three

equal. Their volumes

are

1 :2:3. What

7. Jennie

^^i^^

\3^ ^^

does this mean?

said,"I

jtf

^^

placethe sphere into

the

cylinder
she right?
Was
and then add one
full of water."
cone
be made by a pump,
8. How
strokes must
having
many
a
cyUnder 16 in. long and 4 in. in diameter,to throw a
barrel of water
(31| gal.)if each stroke empties the full
volume
of the cylinder?
9. The

foot per
if

can

rate of flow out

second.

7| gal.=l

cu.

What
ft.?

of

two-inch

is the flow in

artesian well is

gallonsin

24

one

hours

USING

188

10. Find

10 ft. and

FORMULAS

the

IN

surface of

convex

the diameter

11. Find

the

PROBLEM

of whose

of

area

altitude is

whose

cone

base is 12 ft.
whose

sector

SOLVING

and

radius is 10 inches

whose

is 10 inches.

arc

12. The

accompanying
figure represents a garden
in the form of a rectangle,
40 ft. long and 30 ft. wide,
with a walk extendingacross
it. The

and AE

at FC
are

(1) Find

the

(2) What
(3) What

is the

gates, located

two

respectively,

6 ft. wide.

length CE] also the perimeter of the

walk.

of the walk?

area

of the entire figure is the

of the

area

walk?
13. One

altitude.

side of
Find

14. The

equal sides

the

base
is 15.

of

12 ft.

is
triangle
equilateral

an

Find the

area.

an

Find

isosceles

triangleis 18,

the altitude and


15. A

the

corner

area.

wished

contractor

if the foundation
square.

the

of the

one

to know

buildingwas
He took a point 6 ft.from
wall and a point
on
one

8 ft. from

other wall.

the

of

same

What

the distance between


the foundation

was

corner

must

on

have

the
been

pointsif
square?
these

USING

190

FORMULAS

MODERN

IN

FILTERING

PLANT

PROBLEM

AND

SOLVING

SETTLING

BASIN

each residence has its own


well or cistern;
villages
in others there is a well at the publicsquare or elsewhere
for all the people;in others there is a largereservoir from
business place.
is piped to each home
which the water
or
The last method
is the one used by villagesand cities with
In

some

modern

conveniences.

by modern conveniences?
State several reasons
why the last method

1. What
2.

is meant

is most

desirable?
Some

cities

are

so

situated that they must

draw

their

supply from a nearby stream or lake. This requires


that the impurities
be removed
or
by settlingor filtering,
by both, before the water is fit for use.
Name
several impuritiesthat should be removed.
water

SUPPLY

WATER

1. A

PROBLEMS

certain villagein Ohio

has

191

in round

numbers

population of 500. The reservoir for the town supply is a


What
tank 36 ft. long with a 9-foot diameter.
cylindrical
is the capacityof the reservoir?
Count 7 J gal.to the cu. ft.
which supphes the tank in the firstproblem
2. The pump
23 strokes to the
throws 2.7 gal.to the stroke and makes
minute.
How
long,with steady pumping, will it requireto
fill the tank?
3. If the pump

is driven

on

an

average

of 8 hours

daily,

itant
gallonsof water are allowed dailyto each inhabin the village
of problem one?
4. In a city whose
population is 750,000, the cost of
$7.37 per miUion gallons.
purifyingits water in 1918 was

how

How

many

much

that per

was

gallon? At this

rate

how

many

gallons were

purifiedfor one cent?


6. In the same
daily consumption for
city the average
1917 was
104.3 million gallons. How
that daily
much
was
much
the total consumption for
was
person? How
per
1917?
in miUions.
Express your answer
6. Using the data in 4 and 5, determine
the average
cost
in a year.
of purifyingthe water used by each person
7. St. Louis

yearly purifies36 billion gallonsof water


grains of lime, .68 grains of iron sulphate

by adding 5.35
(copperas),and
each gallon. How
used

yearly?

.58

grains aluminum

many

tons

sulphate (alum)

of each of these materials

to

are

CHAPTER

have

other

an

opportunity

words, in monetary

things which

to learn

about

more

You

will

thus

far

cents,

or,

have

now

itself and

money

those

materials

some

and

which

of

medium

used

were

as

exchange.
in

money

past.
$10 gold piece is called

2. A

3.

half

eagle?
The

half

4.

Gold

in each
6.

eagle, of
coins

of

6. The

7.

not

which

258

grains. The

90%

Find

other

the

weight

eagle.
gold and

pure

alloy. How

10%

copper,

many

grains of

412.5

grains. It

pure

gold

the

silver coins.

silver

dollar

10%

weighs

How

copper.

many

grains

is 90%
of silver

silver dollar?
The

nickel

call it

8. What
9.

double

coins?

silver and

pure

double

are
an

our

Name

is

quarter eagle?

proportionate weight.

is called

which

eagle. What

an

gold piece weighs

$10

eagle?

gold coins have

in

units.

of value

standard

1. Name

of

solved

represent money.

is

Money

have

you

expressed in dollars and

values

with

in

the

problems which

of the

dealt

BANKING

AND

MONEY

Many

How
are

is 75%

copper

and

25%

nickel.

Why

copper?

is bullion?
does

acquire the gold and silver

the Government

coined

into

money?
192

MONEY

10. Bar

193

York
November
(bullion)sold in New
(437|grains). What was the
23, 1920, at 99^j4an ounce
silver in a silver dollar worth on that day?
11. Consult
the newspaper
the day you
on
are
ing
studythis page for the priceof silver and compute the value
of the

silver

silver in

silver dollar.

when
the silver
priceof silver per ounce
in a dollar is worth exactlylOOff?
13. The
the pricesof silver per ounce
following were
in New
York City on the dates named:
ll/10/'08,(Read
Nov.
10, 1908), 49|ji;
10/17/'13,61jff;
10/21/'12,63jff;
82|ff
92|ff
10/25/15, 48|ff
; 10/20/'19,
; 10/25/'17,
; 3/23/'18,
$1.18f; ll/23/'20,99jif.
Make
line graph showing the fluctuation (change in
a
price)from 1908 to 1920.
12. What

14.

What

16.

The

is the

is

mint?

is found

letter D

beneath

the feet of the

does D stand
gold coins. What
Examine
dimes, quarters, and other

certain

on
'

16.

letter D

other letter and

which

have

tellwhat

letter

no

on

for?
coins

for the

each represents.

them

are

made

in

Philadelphiamint.
Mills

18.
as

at

some

Coins

17.

the

or

eagle

in the

$.033 per
19.

What
20.

are

The

problem, "Find

They

are

used

in computing,

the cost of 10 lb. of potatoes

lb."

paper

money

gives value
Name

coined.

not

to

of
paper

country is called its currency.

money?

the different kinds

circi^tionin

this country.

of paper

money

in

mon
com-

MONEY

194
21.

Read

United

youngest

read

money).

paper

BANKING

States

money); then

paper

AND

(greenback

note

our

"

Federal

How

are

Reserve

oldest

(our

note

alike?

the two

How

they different?

are

22.

Read

silver certificate

certificate. How

Why
23.

does

not

one

What

are
see

is meant

and, if possible,a gold


do they differ?
they alike? How
much
gold coin in circulation?
when

we

say,

"A

credit is

man's

good'7

24.

How

may

before the bank


25.

work

Is

which

on

check

which

money?

you

it is drawn

How

several debts

sign pay
marks

does

it

paid?

it accompUsh

the

of money?

26.

Does

27.

The

in 1919

round

check

check

represent money?

total amount

was

numbers

of money

$7,662,893,238. The
in the

same

year

in the

United

total bank
were

States

depositsin

$22,000,000,000.

DOING

BUSINESS

Banks

they buy and

money;

of credit easy.

are

banks

The

banker

must

write your

you

wish

to

you

checks.

on

and

book

is

small

deposit and
condition

the

this

For
a

the

reason

depositis made

pass

and when

on

the

$500

or

banks

allow

on

checking account
more.

the

Other

daily balance.
deposits. Other banks
on

small

account.

should

you

wish your

Checking
rate

Some
make

banks
a

it is balanced.

presentedwhen
balanced.

account

of interest

allow

of

statement

be

writes your

Accounts

whenever

banks

bank

contains

book

low

the

at the time

account

Interest

Some

in which

It also

of your

banker

Book

Pass

book

its date.

The

exactly as
then gives

name

your

which

on

book.

check

The

This

signaturecard

and

to

tion.
of identifica-

other form
a

address

sign it

bank, it is customary

some

gives you

you

pass

or

the transfer

Account

an

the

to

stranger

they make

also issue money.

Open

to

introduction

requirean

Banking

sell notes;

Some

How

If you

195

deals in money
and credit.
credit for deposit;they loan

and

receive money

Banks

and

BANK

institution which

is an

A bank

THE

AT

the
a

low
pay

(2%

or

3%)

daily balance
rate
no

is

of interest

interest

on

slightcharge for keeping

MONEY

196

How

Fill out

AND

BANKING

Make

to

deposit
taining
slip(seeform) cona

your

Merchants

total.

this sUp,the

Bank

Deposited to

the Credit

192_
of

Hand

deposit,

Coins

Currency

and

your

book

pass

the banker.

to

National
Cleveland,O.J

name,

of
date, nature
whether coins,
items,
currency, or checks,
and

Deposit

He

Checks
List

"

separately

verifies the amounts


the

on

the

sUp, places

total

to

your
Total

credit

in the

book, and
it to

pass
Checks

returns

In

you.

received for collection.

are

case

forgottenyour

pass

book, make

time you

have

the pass

depositslips
marks
one
"duplicate"and
exactly alike. The banker
it to you.
This duplicateshould be presentedfor
returns
you

have

entry the

next

How

to

Draw

on

Your

properly a blank check.


to cash, or
payable to yourself,

other person
A

draw

the

or

check
money

check, fillout

firm to whom

you

should be made
in person.

the stub

to

book

check

This

wish

to

to cash when

the time

keep track of

make

of
your

be

may

to the order of

payable
At

with you.
Account

Checking

Fill out
made

two

some

ment.
payyou

writingthe
account.

MONEY

AND

Everyone

Should

198
What
1. A

check

BANKING

Know

given in payment

about

of

Checks

debt

becomes

receipt.
2. A

check

should

stolen,the finder
3. A

check may
collect such

or

not

thief

be made

be
can

made

to

If lost

bearer.

or

collect it.

to read

"Pay

to Cash."

(Who

check?)
4. Signaturesin lead pencilare
good.
6. Checks
should be presented for payment
without
unreasonable
delay.
6. It is not permissible
to overdraw
one's account.
can

7. Partial

payment

is either "all
8. Checks
9. Checks

good

can

be

not

made

good.''
dated on Sunday are good.
postdated are charged to the
or

on

check.

It

no

their arrival at the bank

proper

accoimt

they are drawn.


For this reason
checks should not be postdated.
10. A postdated check is commonly treated by bankers
demand
as
a
promissory note.
11. Payment
be stopped on a check prior to its
may
arrival at the bank
which it is drawn
on
by notifying
this bank by telephone,in person, or in writing.
upon

12. A

What
such

check

indorsed

danger is there
an

indorsement

13. When

checks

on

bearer

indorsement?

When

in blank
in such

which

becomes

check.
may-

safelymade?
deposited,
they are usuallycredited

be
are

subject to collection. In such case what will


the bank, receivingthe check for deposit,do if the check
is not good?

as

cash

SOLVING

PROBLEMS

BANKING

199

Problems

depositslipusingthe form shown on page 196.


in No. 1 in your name
for the
2. Fill out the slipmade
followingitems: two checks,one for $25.00 and the other
for $18.75; one
2 one-dollar
$20 bill;3 five-dollar bills;
7 quarters;
5 half-dollars;
$10 in gold;4 silver dollars;
bills;
15 dimes; 21 nickels;and 13 pennies.
1. Make

3. Write

check

favor of John

on

in

account

your

Domer.
in full the check

4. Indorse
6. Under

for $7.50 drawn

what

drawn

in No.

3.

to indorse

condition is it proper

check

in blank?
6. When

may

properlywrite

one

Why should a
depositedcheck?
7.

8. On

balance

the
of

person

draw

not

first of November

"Pay

at once

Mr.

During the

$242.75.

check

to Cash"?

check

had

Mann

he

month

against
a

bank

made

the
,

followingdeposits:Nov. 8, $45.90; Nov. 14, $162.80;


Nov.
he issued checks
22, $296.40. During the month
for these amounts:
$2.87,$52.60, $18.02, $15.42, $63.25,
What

$14.22.

his balance

was

on

December

1?

According to the figuresgiven out by the Comptroller


of the Currency the resources
of the national banks

9.

of the United

States in 1918

which

growth of $1,268,207,000in

What
10.

was

was

the

In 1918

Only
What

was

there

to

$19,821,404,000,
a

single year.

growth?

were

of these

one

the

of

amounted

7754 national banks


banks

of failure?

failed

in this

during the

try.
coun-

year.

AND

MONEY

200
11. The

total amount

BANKING

named

depositsin the banks

of

problem 10 was $15,051,000,000in 1918. What were


the average
depositsper bank?
12. The
followingtable shows the growth of American
savingsbanks since 1820.

in

Growth

of American

Savings

Banks
Av.

Due
Each

Av.

per

Capita

Depositor in U. S.

Deposits

1,138,576

43,431,130

549,874,358

14.26

1,524,844,506

24.35

2,449,547,885
4,070,486,246
5,471,579,949

31.78

45.05

52.05

.12

1.87

(1) Compute the value of each questionmark.


(2) Construct a line graph showing the relative growth
in the

number

of banks

from

1820

1918.

to

(3) Construct bar graphs showing the growth in average


per capitadeposits.
(4) Find the populationof the United States in 1918.
there were
13. In 1919
18,140,300 depositorsin the
national

banks

of the

United

capitadepositin these banks


deposits.

was

States.

The

$878.87.

average

Find

per

the total

CHAPTER

The
he

TRANSPORTATION

AND

TRADE

fanner

consiime

cannot

produce, neither

can

needs.

clothing he

VI

he

can

coal

The

portion of the coal he digs.


which

wheat

civilized

Among
produce

to

and

to

the

these

needs

it to

another
the

1.

who
2.

you

sell

directly

Do

Do

business
4.

must

than

to

man

6.

and

and

Why

Write
a

and

consimier

consume

produce.

cannot

and

transportation.

it is to

often

sends

get this surplus

it.

producers

any

business

sell

to

the
the

can

men

in

community

your

men

who

from

buy

ducers
pro-

consumers?

know

men

they

for

disposing of the surplus

need

business

any

sell to

you

of the

consumers?

to

know

you

small

any

thing

surplus and

the

who

any

only

grow

they

business

those

know

Do

and
3.

of

not

than

trade

to

buys
whose

profitably all the

common

people and

of

man

man

hands

commodity

one

meat

bread.

for

give rise

business

does

He

and

wheat

needs

miner

things which

many

producer

The

into

of

more

the

produce

people it is

need

Meeting
of

needs

he

all

who

men

buy

to

more

pay

other

"

consumers?

consimier

from

the

business

producer?
solve
in

your

problem

about

community.
201

business

man

TRADE

202

AND

How

TRANSPORTATION

Business

Is

Done

computing his profitthe merchant adds


of the goods the expense
of doing business.

Before
cost

varies from

expense

items of expense

10%

charge,

article and

an

Total

cost

of

its total

The

last two

doing business, or
Business

men

cost.

Such

is actuallyreceived

what

cost, also called gross

cost.

+transportation (freight,drayage, etc.)

cost

+ overhead.

of the

This

overhead.

or

Profit is the difference between


for

J%

the

etc.,
rent, tax, clerk hire,advertising,

as

called overhead

are

33

to

to

addends

are

called the expense

expense.

often compute

their rate

of

profiton

the

sellingprice.
Problems

about

Business

bought goods for $1800 and sold them


Find his profit
if the expense
of doing business
for $2500.
his rate of profiton the
was
was
25% of the cost. What
sellingprice?
2. A merchant
bought men's shirts at $15 per dozen.
His selling
33^% of the
includingoverhead was
expense
1. A

He

marked

slow

season

cost.
to

merchant

the shirts to sell at $2.50 each, but


he

actually received only

an

due

average

profiton the selling


price.
sells his product at $10 per bbl.
3. A
manufacturer
to
The cost of materials and of manufacturing amounts
$8 per bbl. The overhead is 12|% of the sellingprice.
Find the rate of profiton
the total cost.*

priceof $2.25.

on
on

his rate of

profitmay be computed on
business
the sellingprice. Among
this point.
Rate

of

Find

the net
men

cost, on

there

is

no

the total cost, or


uniform
practice

HOW

IS

BUSINESS

DONE

203

problem about a grocery


business in your community, using cost, overhead,selling
price,and profit.
6. A dealer bought 30 bu. of apples at $1.25 per bu.
time he piu*and sold them at 40{ia peck. At the same
chased 100 lb. of English walnuts at 15{ia lb.,which he
retailed at 24jfa lb. Which
able
profitpurchase was the more
in money
and how much?
Which
yieldedthe greater
the sellingprice?
rate of profiton
and
6. A grocer buys peaches at $2.00 per dozen cans
It costs him 2jfa can
sells them at 25jfper can.
to sell
is his rate of profit
them.
Find the gross cost.
What
the selUng price?
on
of cantaloupesreceived $1.20'
Oklahoma
7. An
grower
The cratingcost lOfiper crate;the express from
per crate.
Oklahoma
The con35 jfper crate.
to Denver, Colo.,was
sumer
at Boulder (nearDenver) paid $3.50 per crate for his
4. Construct

and

cantaloupes. Who

solve

got the difference between

the other items named


What

Ohio farmer

the year
of

average

for which
per

above?

% is it of what

8. An

hen?

809 dozen

43jfper doz.

He

he received $38.70.
How

broker

would

had

of eggs.

you

is this difference?

received?

the farmer
in 1918

much

How

$3.50 and

100 hens which

These

sold

eggs

What

was

find the net

sold at

were

during the

laid during

year

an

poultry

the gross income


income?

goods for which he paid


He received 3%
$1200.
brokerage. Freight and other
to $20.
Advertisingcost $10.
deliverycharges amounted
Find the selling
price to gain 30% on the entire cost.
9. A

bought

for his firm

TRADE

204

How

Much

trade and

TRANSPORTATION

AND

TransportationArises
arise also
transportation

in the process

convertingraw materials into the finished products and


in getting
these productsinto the consumer's hands. Cotton
in the field is taken to the gin (what is done to it
grown
here?),then to the compress
(what happens here?),then it
of it goes to
is sent to the cotton mill (why?),then some
of these shirts may
and finally
be
the shirt factory,
some
of

found

in the home

To

of the

get commodities

who

man

from

grew

the cotton.

dantly
regionwhich can very abunregion whose people want to

produce them, to a
buy them, because they can do other work with greater
such as,
profit,requiressome
system of transportation,
or
good roads,railroads,
steamship lines.
Good

Good

roads

may

be

Roads

built

(crushedrock),brick,or

of

concrete.

dirt,gravel,macadam
Some
good roads are

prvrp)
Tig. I

Loose

Fig. II

Gravel

Earth

with Dust

Top

Fig, III

Packed

Gravel

Fig. IV

Waterbound

Macadam

TRADE

206

TRANSPORTATION

AND

Using
1. Concrete

Concrete

is a mixture of cement

sand, and gravelor crushed


2. It is used

and

sand;or of cement;

stone.

tions,
in the construction of walks, roads,founda-

floors,
walls,curbs,fence posts, trolleyposts, water
troughs,etc. How else have you seen concrete used?
3. Cement
is bought by the sack, or by the barrel. A
sack contains 1 cu. ft.,
and a barrel contains 4 cu. ft.
4. Sand, gravel,and crushed stone
are
bought by the
cubic yard in many
places. In largecitiessand and gravel
are
commonly sold by the ton; crushed stone by the hundred
cubic feet. A cu. yd. of sand or gravelweighs approximately
2700
6. Since
go

has various uses, the materials which

concrete

into it are

mixture

lb.

mixed

is 1:2:3

in different ratios. A

(read one

two

Table

common

three) for outside work.


This

Concrete

rather

that for every

means

cubic

yard of

be used

concrete

to

certain amount

cement^say 1.75 bbl.),


2 times as much sand,and
3 times as much gravel
or
stone are required. For
of

foundations
may

ture
1 : 3 : 6 mix-

be used.

What

does this mean?


6. A

requiresabout 1.45
practicean additional 10%

space

cu.

cubic

yd. of material.

is allowed.

yard of
In actual

PROBLEMS

1. Find

ABOUT

the value of all the

CONCRETE

207

in the table.

questionmarks

Using the values found in the table determine the


amount
of each material requiredfor 12 eu. yd. of concrete
2.

of

mixture.*

1:2:3

much

3. How

containing8

coat

4. How

for

of each material will be

many

top

yd. of concrete of a 1:1 mixture?


cubic yards of materials will be required
cu.

base 6 inches thick in

concrete

requiredfor

basement

ft.X

36

25 ft.?
Hint.

Use

"

6. A

base

each

top
kind

1 : 2 : 3 mixture.

60 ft. long and

walk

concrete

and

coat

3 ft. wide

is to be built with

(bottom) 5 inches thick of


2 in. thick of

of material

is

1:2:3

How

1:1 mixture.

Find the cost of the materials needed

waste?

mixture,
much

is allowed

required if 10%

for this

of
for

walk,

prices.
6. If cement
costs 75)ia sack, sand $2.50 a cu. yd., and
crushed stone $2.16 a cu. yd.,find the cost of the materials
in a 1:2:3 mixture sufficient to make
200 cu. yd. of concrete.
using

current

7. The

foundation

wall for

building120 ft. long and

80

ft.

wide, outside measurements, is to be 3 ft. wide and 9


ft. high. The concrete is to be a 1 : 3 : 6 mixture.
Find the
cost of the materials if the cement
is worth 75jfa sack,and
ifthe sand and gravelare each worth $2.70 a load (1 cu. yd.),
(1919 St. Louis price). Add 10% to each kind of material
for waste.
"

or

Note.

"

^Any part of

stone, should

sack

be considered

or

bbl. of cement,

full sack,bbl.,or

or

cu.

of

yd.

cu.

yd. of sand

TRADE

208

TRANSPORTATION

AND

Railroads

In 1917 there

in this country 253,000 miles of rail-

were

roady representingan investment


this largemileage was
Even
not
needs

in 1917

How

over

enough

$17,000,000,000.
to

meet

actual

1918.

the average investment per mile?


It is 3190 miles from New
York
to San Francisco.

1. What
2

and

of

many

was

tracks between

these cities would

our

railroad

mileage make?
3. The

total

lengthof the railroads of the world in

was

729,800mi.

of the world's

The

United

States had 253,000 mi.

railwaymileage was

1917

What

that of the United

States?
Methods

Merchandise

may

of

be

Shipping

Goods

shipped by freight,
by

express,

or

by parcelpost.
is shipment by parcelpost preferable?Do you
1. When
know the maximum
weight which can be shippedby parcel
post? If not, see page 214.
from Texas to Chicago
2. Would
you ship watermelons
by freightor by express? Why?
3. Would
you shipcoal from the Illinoismines to Chicago
by freightor by express? Why?
4. The freight
chargeon a car of tomatoes containing500
$237.56.
crates,shipped from Miami, Fla.,to Chicago,was
The cost of refrigeration
$80 and the drayage charge
was
cost per
3jfper crate. Find the total transportation
was
crate

PROBLEMS

FREIGHT

209

freightcharge at 45f(per 100 lb. on a car


load of books weighing 39,200 lb.,shippedfrom Chicago,
to Louisville,
111.,
Ky.
the freightrate per 100 lb. when
6. What
$14.04
was
was
paid on a shipment weighing 520 lb.?
7. The
freightrate, first class,from Chicago, HI., to
Oklahoma
City,Okla.,was $1.87J. Find the freighton a
shipment of 3520 lb.
is the total freighton fom* shipments of books
8. What
whose weights and rate per 100 lb. are as follows: 220 lb.
@ $3.31i 200 lb. @ $2.67i 340 lb. @ 72jf,1060 lb. @
6. Find

the

$1.19|?
9. In 1919

rate of $35 per ton

from

shipping wheat
How

much

10.

was

Buenos

of 2240

Aires

to

lb. was

New

niade for

York

City.

that per bushel?

In 1919 the

fixed the minimum

ArgentineGovernment

pricefor export wheat at $1.55 per bushel. At this rate,


York if
what did a bushel of Argentinewheat cost in New
there was
no
import duty?
11. Can the farmers of our
tine
country compete with Argenwheat
without an import duty, as long as
growers
Argentine maintains an export price of $1.55 per bushel,
and the shippingcharge is $35 per ton of 2240 lb.?
12. The
freightrate on wheat from Buenos Aires to
ernment
Liverpool,in 1919, was 34jfper bushel. The British Govin the
wheat

at

same

$2.40 per

year

fixed the sale

bushel.

Which

was

priceof imported
more
prpfitable

Argentine exporter, to have sold his wheat in New


York, at $2.48,or in Liverpoolat $2.40? How much?
to the

TRADE

210
13.

14.

22400
24000

TRANSPORTATION

ditions
profitby the condescribed in problems 10, 11, and 12?
Why?
A Chicago firm had a shipment of books weighing
load is
lb. for Louisville,
car
Ky. The minimum
lb. The car load rate per 100 lb. was
45ft;the rate

the American

Does

lb. in less than

100

per

AND

wheat

car

grower

load lots

66"}t.Which

was

firm, to pay for a full car load,or


much
the L. C. L. (less
than car load)rate? How

is

better for the

to

at

better?

Texas

16. A

planterin

1919

grew

40 bales of cotton

ship
(500

bale)for which he received 34|ffa lb. at Houston.


and handling charge'at Houston
The selling
$1.00 per
was
bale. The freightrate from his shipping point was
20^^
lb. to

per 100 lb.

How

did he get for his cotton

much

crop

after

paying the freightand chargesat Houston?


of

Advantages
1. In a recent

by
was

Transportation

100,000,000bu. of wheat

were

carried

from

Duluth, Minn., to Buffalo,N. Y., at a


of 2ffper bu. The freightby rail between these points
5jfper bu. What was the saving in freighton these

steamer

cost

year

Water

shipments?
2. It costs

$2.50 per thousand

feet to

lumber

move

from

Michigan and Wisconsin to Buffalo by boat. To


distance by train costs $5 per thousand feet.
ship the same
If 1,500,000,000board feet are shipped each year between
the pointsnamed, what is the savingin freight?
3. In a recent
100,000,000 tons of freightwere
year
northern

carried

over

this make

the Cireat Lakes.


if 20 tons

were

How

allowed

many

car

to each car?

loads would

ADVANTAGES

Superior and

Lake
One

WATER

TRANSPORTATION

St.

Mary's

of these is called the Poe

wide, and

22

ft.

deep.

by this lock during the


if it averages
for

the

211

largestinland canal locks in the world

4. The

ft.

OF

River

Lock.

How

below

It is 800

many

boats

between

are

the

rapids.
ft. long,100
handled

are

(8 months)
14 minutes
boat every
day and night
(Omit December, January, February,

one

season.

of navigation

season

March.)
6. On

Buffalo
draw

United

center, and

States and

Canada, using

radius

representing500 miles,
circle. This circle contains 60% of the population
as

of the United

conamercial
Lakes

of the

map

States and

centers

have

been

Canada.

Name

within this circle. Show


an

at least 12

how

great

the Great

important factor in building these

great cities.
6. Will the

become

shippingon the Great Lakes in the

than
greater,or less,

it is at

near

present? Why?

future

TRADE

212

7. When

New

York

TRANSPORTATION

AND

the L. C. L. rate
to

certam

on

commodity from

$.63 by rail and water,

Chicago was

or

$.788

by all rail,the rate from Chicago by rail to Portland,


Oregon, was $2.00. The same
commodity could have been
shipped from New York to Portland by an all water route
$1.25 per

at

100

lb.

What

comparative cost of

the

was

shippingby the three routes?


Schedule

of

Express

Rates

Chicago by Scale

from

Numbers

(FirstClass in Effect Jan.,1920)


Scale
Pounds

100

13

1.26

16

1.43

18

Numbers

23

1.54

28

1.81

43

2.09

124

2.91

7.37

179

10.39

Shipping by Express
CJonmiodities shipped by express

quickly,but at a
higher rate, than those shipped by freight.Express charges
include free deliverywithin certain limits. Such shipments are
classifiedas first,
second,or third class. The rate on a given
commodity varies with the weight of the shipment,and with the
distance between the shipping points. The
rates charged are
determined by the Interstate Commerce
Commission.
This
made

commission

divided

the

by the intersections of

go

United
the

more

States

meridians

into 826

blocks

of longitude and

TRADE

214

TRANSPORTATION

AND

chargesout of Chicago on these


packages: 10 lb. to Fruitvale,CaL; 100 lb. to Chillicothe,
Ohio; 50 lb. to Milford,Ind.
3. On a certain day in April,1920, a Chicago firm sent
hill,
packages of books by express as follows: 50 lb. to HaverMass.; 20 lb. to Boulder,Mont.; 100 lb. to Columbus,
Ohio; 15 lb. to Prairie du Sac, Wis.; 20 lb. to Nashville,
Tenn.; 25 lb. to Louisville,
Ky.; and 1 lb. to San Francisco.
Find the total express charges for the day.
2. Find

the total express

Shipping by

Parcel

Post

ages
1920, provides that pack-

The parcelpost law in effect Dec,

be sent through the postweighing more than 4 ounces


may
office department,at rates which vary for the different distances
of transportation.See the table.
and the next three is
The Umit oi weight for the local zone
the Umit is 50 lb.
70 lb.;for all other zones
A fraction of a pound is counted
1 lb. Parcels weighing 4
without regardto distance.
oz. or less go at Ic an
ounce

Table

showing

rates
50 mi.

To 60
mi.

Wt.

Local

1 lb. $0.05

The
each

1st

$0.05

to

150 mi.

is reached.

150 mi.
to

300

300

mi.

600

600

mi.

mi.

1000

weights to
1000

mi.

to

to

to

mi.

on

zones

mi.

1400

1400

mi.

to

mi.

1800

mi.

6 lb.
1800 mi.
and
over

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

$0.05

$0.06

$0.07

$0.08

$0.09

$0.11

$0.12

rate of increase shown


zone

for all the

in the table holds until the

largestweight for

SHIPPING

followingformulas

The

postage.
Zone

No.

are

Test the accuracy


Postage

PARCEL

BY

POST

useful in

computing the parcel

of each with
Zone

215

No.

the table.

Postage

Wt
Local
3.

Wt.

6.

Wt.

7.

Wt.

"^

+6 =no.j!5

and

2.

Wt.

+4 =no.|4

4.

Wt.

x4 +3 =no.|4

x6 +2 =no.^

6.

Wt.

x8 +1 =no.|4

xlO +1 =no.^

8.

Wt.

xl2

x2 +4 =no.^

=no.^

Chicago to Pittsburgh is a littleless


than 500 mi.
What
is the postage on an 8 lb. parcel?
distance from St. Louis to Chicago is 292 mi.
2. The
Find the postage on a package weighing 20 lb.
3. From
Chicago to Salt Lake City is 1489 mi. What is
the postage on a 4 lb. parcel?
4. Using the formulas on this page, compute the postage
each of these parcelpost packages,.
on
1. The

distance from

Solve these with the

help of the parcelpost and express


rates found on pages
212, 213, and 214.
1. Which
is cheaper and how
much, to send a 10 lb.
package from Chicago to Colimibus,Ohio,by express or byparcelpost? Colimibus is in the 4th zone from Chicago.
2. A Chicago firm wishes to send a 15 lb. package of
books to Nashville,
Tenn., distance about 450 mi. Which
is cheaper,and how much, express or parcelpost?

TRADE

216

AND

TRANSPORTATION

package described in problem 2 had weighed


only 3 lb.,which would have been the cheaper method of
shipment? Which if it had weighed 10 lb.?
3. If the

Paying

Debts

at

Distance

its
In the processes of trade,money
or
often be sent from one
city to another.

equivalentmust
Instead

of the

a check,a draft,or
a money
order,may be
itself,
used.
Why is this better than to send the money?
of Chicago, 111.,
1. D. B. Stewart
bought for cash an
invoice of goods amounting to $125 from J. B. Olmstead,

money

Moines, Iowa.

Des

This

is the

check

which

he

sent

to

Olmstead.

miuACO.

/,y^^=L^JlK^."r?A

%jl/?rii^^y^^^.
f

J^

/J^.t/7"

^^^^^7"tye"^..fs//^^^,
ZofA^..^.^-^l^A~^^A'^"

.c/h:^^^^
(1) What will Olmstead do with the check?
(2) It is said that a canceled check is as good as a
receipt.What is meant by this statement?
firms do not wish to accept personalchecks. In
2. Some
such a case
order (postalor express),
a money
or
a bank
draft (banker'scheck),may
be sent.

for
Application
Spaces below

MONEY

POSTAL

THE

LEARNING

^^es

Money Order

Domestic

by

another

for him

person

Amt.

to

OrSer
of I
(Name

of person

for whom

firm

or

la intended)

order

for Domestic

^^01

Add?^

$60.01 to
$60.01 to

"

Street

JNo

...

"

Scents
6 cents
Scents
$20.00 10 cents
$30.00 12 centS
$40!00
16 cents
$60.00 18 cents
$60.00 20 cents
$76.00 26 cents
$100.00 30 cents

to

$76.01 to

)
Post
Office }

Fee

$2.60
$6.00
$10.00

$20.01 tO
$30.01 to

"^"^o'"i
is

Orders

of Order

$0.01 to
$2.61 to
$6.01 to
$10.01 to

Cents

Dollars

217

Money

be fiUed in by purchaner.or. if neccBsary.

to

^^^*

p.-

ORDER

NoTTB.
^The maximuin
for which a single
order
money
oe
may
issuea is $100.
When
a
Jarser sum
is to be sent
additional orders must be
obtained.
Any number
^j Orders may
be drawn
order office
on
any money
"

Q.

^^^^

Sent

amount

by
of Sender)

(Name

Taa
Address

i
1

Sender

J No

Street

on

Purchaser

tend

most

Order

and

Coupon

to

any

one

day.

Payee

Roy Brown, Benton, Ohio, bought for cash a baseball


glove from SpaldingBros.,Cleveland,Ohio,for $2.00. He
in the form of a postalmoney
order.
sent the money
1. Before the Benton
postmaster issued the money
order,
Brown
wrote an application
here*
on
a form such as isshown
did he pay the postmaster?
much
2. How
3. What

did Brown

postmaster? See
the receipt.
4. What

value

should

page

do with the order received from


218

Brown

for

do

forin of money

with

the

the

order and

receipt? Of

what

is it?

6. How
6. Write

did
in

for the glove?


SpaldingBros, get the money
good form Brown's letter to Spalding Bros-

TRADE

218

10277

AND

TRANSPORTATION

Sta. 124, in.


Chicago,

The

91830

chaser
purmust

statesPostalMoneyQnkr

send both

the

order and the


to person

coupon

named

in

the coupon

as

payee.

Express Money
Orders

The

fee for

these orders
isthe
sta,126, N.

91830

91830

money

be

rom

MOM*

INDICATCD
or
TION

THK
OR

THAN
ON

ORDBR
CIIA9UM

LAnacrr
LKFI^NAND
AND

ANY

RBNDBII*

amount

AT

TM"

e"nm

or

imwk

as

that for postal

RECEIPT

same

tl"

ders.
or-

No

gle
sin-

order

will

issued

for

more

than

$50.

The

number

of indorseme

MANOtN

is

ALTBIA*
IT VOIO

not limited to
one.

PAYING

Business

WITH

find it

men

BANK

THE

DRAFT

Economical

more

219

to remit

by

bank

order,if they cannot send their personal


for exchange.
check without adding an extra 15ff
or 25ff
A draft is an order by one bank on another bank to pay

draft

than

certain

by

money

of money

sum

to

BANK

John

Gibbs

is a farmer

party named

in the draft.

DRAFT

Millersburg,
Ohio, who owes
the Cleveland MillingCo. a bill for mill feed,amounting to
$125. Since he has an account with the Millersburgbank,
he is not charged a fee for drafts which he may wish to buy
near

at this bank.
1. Of

what

2. Who

bank

is ordered

is Louis
to pay

Miley cashier?
$125?

Millersburgbank?
3. Why
the Millersburgbank
can
bank

to

4. To
5. What

Cleveland

pay

Who

pays

order

$125 to the

the Cleveland

$125?

whom
must

is this draft
Gibbs

Milling Co.?

payable?
do before sending the draft

to the

TRADE

220

AND

TRANSPORTATION

Commercial

A commercial

draft is a written request

firm to pay to a
at a stated time.
or

Adam

Drafts

bank, or

Miller of Mt.

person,

a person
directing

certain

Liberty,O., owes

sum

Brown

of money

"

Co.

of

If Miller is not prompt in


Columbus, O., $140 on accoimt.
paying the account when it is due, Brown " Co. may draw
on
him, using the followingcommercial draft.

Brown

"

Co.

deposit this

draft with

their bank

(New First

National)for collection. After endorsingit this bank sends the


draft to a bank at Mt. Liberty,which presents it to Miller for
acceptance. If he accepts the draft by writingthe word "Acceptthe face of it,the draft
ed,*'the date,and his signatureacross
is good, and being a sightdraft it becomes
due at once.
Miller
give his check for $140 in favor of the Mt. Liberty bank.
may
This bank in turn remits to the Columbus
bank, which places
the amount, less a small fee for collection (usuallyJ%), to the
credit of Brown

Sight drafts
Time
or

after

" Co.

due when

accepted.
drafts are due a stated number
of days after date
when
acceptance. The draft must state definitely
are

they

are

VII

CHAPTER
TRAVEL
How

Jack's

When
home

at

York

were

Time

father returned

hour

one

faster than

tell how

different time

have

at

that

The

places

Time

long does

earth

tion?
a

in New

different

why

1. How

the

clocks

the

to his

moment.

same

and

Longitude

City

of Cincinnati.

those

the

York

New

learned

Jack

Travel

We

from

Cincinnati, he told Jack

followingpages
may

When

Changes

make

to

far in

How

1 hr.?

In

what

rota^

one

degrees does
the earth

given point on
in

it take

How

tate
ro-

far in

min.?
2.

the

earth

3.
noon

the

when

direction

sun

does

is

on

the

meridian

shadow

the

point

direction

rotate?

Any place is said

to have

(12 o'clock, sun


of that
at

does

place.

noon

in

the

time)
In

what

United

States?
4. When

all
What
For

places

it is
on

at

noon

the

is the time
all places west

same

for all

Cincinnati, O., what


meridian

as

that

is the

222

Why?

of

of Cincinnati?

places east of Cincinnati?

of Cincinnati?

time

Why?

STANDARD

223

it is 12 o'clock at

6. When

of all places15" east


this

TIME

Cincinnati,what is the time


of this city? Of all places15" west of

city? Why?
it is 12 o'clock

by the sun at your town, what


places have 10 a.m.? What placeshave 2 p.m.? Why?
it is 6 a.m. at Chicago, how far in degreesand
7. When
in what direction must
time
go to find a place whose
you
far to a placewhose time is 8 a.m.?
How
is 5 A.M.?
Why?
it is 9 a.m. at St. Paul, what is the time of a
8. When
Of a place45" west of St. Paul?
place 45" east of St. Paul?
6. When

know

If you

9.

places,how
10.

can

If you

the

time

between

two

find the difference in

longitude?
the difference in longitudebetween two

you

know

places,how
11.

difference in

do you
know
If you

find the difference in time?


difference of time

the

between

two

places,their direction (eastor west) from each other,and


the

time

12.

how

If you

at

how

from

degreesaway

many

lunch

do you find the time of the other?


eat breakfast at 7 a.m., in what direction and

of one,

12 o'clock

at your

noon

would

you

people be eating

breakfast time?

people be eating supper at 6 p.m. at


San Francisco children begin school at 9 a.m.?
the moment
14. Events
occurringat 9 a.m. in London, Eng., may
in time to be read
in the Chicago morning papers
appear
is this possible?
How
at a 7 o'clock breakfast.
13.

would

Where

Standard
You

have

travels east

observed
or

west.

or

that
To

Railroad

solar

avoid

Time

time

changes as one
confusion caused by this fact,
or

sun

TRAVEL

224
the railroads of

our

country in 1883 adopted

given belt

plan of giving

time, called standard or


States
In accordance with this plan the United
railroad time.
called Eastern, Central,
divided into four great divisions,
was
Mountain, and Pacific time belts.
all placeswithin

the

STANDARD

time

Eastern

Mountain

time

Pacific time
then

by

belt

time

is the

or

hour from
belts because

(alsocalled local)time

solar time

time

of the

of

1, 1919, standard Eastern


railroads from the Atlantic Ocean
west
Ste.

meridian;

meridian; and

meridian.

It follows

given belt differs


places in the adjoining

governingmeridians

Since Jan.

to

105th

of all places in
time

of the 75th

of the 90th

of the 120th

the standard
the

BELTS

is the solar time

is the solar time

that the standard

one

TIME

is the solar

meridian; Central

same

are

Time
to

15*^apart.
has been

Une

used by

through

Sault

Marie, Mich.; Toledo, Ohio; Ashland, Ky.; Atlanta, Ga.;


Fla.
See the map.
Apalachicola,
What
is the western
boundary of the Central Time belt? Of

the Mountain

Time

belt?

See the map.

PROBLEMS

LOCAL

ABOUT

STANDARD

AND

TIME

225

ridians.
marking the boundaries of time belts are not meThey are irregularnorth and south Hnes connecting
stations (usuallydivision points)on important railroads.

lines

The

about

Problems

1. In

faster

your

belt do you

time

which

slower than

or

longitudeand

time

local time

Is your

time?

is the difference between

2. What

of

live?

standard

your

(Local)Time

Solar

knowledge
solve these problems.

help you

to

and

the map

Use

and

Standard

Central

placeson the 90th meridian?


said, "My local time is 20

time

and

the

local time of
3. Frank

Central

time."

What

his

was

said,"Central

4. James

local time."

What

was

faster than

longitude?

time

slower than

is 20 min.

my

his

longitude?
in problems
If the boys mentioned

5.

places100 miles apart, what

3 and

4 live in

be the direction of each

must

the other?

from

time."

Where

7. When

standard

it is 1
time

a.m.

9. If you

know

you

your

p.m.

at

standard
York

Does

as

Eastern

time at Denver, what

is the

City?

standard

the

time

at

Boston, what

is the

difference between

your

local

time?

Chicago have
Why?
Memphis, Tenn.?
10.

same

Portland,Ore.?
longitudein degreesand minutes,
your

compute

standard

is the

she live?

time at New

standard

can

does

it is 9

8. When

how

local time

said,"My

Mary

6.

and

min.

noon

(sun time) before

or

after

TRAVEL

226

"X
-^
^ ^j^

SoMlo

Colorado

.^,-"^^*
^^^'^
I ANoetes
^N

Note.

"

DIEGO

^Bold face type is P. M.

Light face is A. M.

TO

LEARNING

READ

RAILROAD

TIME

TABLES

227

MINMEAPOLM,

X?X

..V^
ST.

JOSEPtf

KANSAS

FROM

DOWN

READ

CITY

AND

Miles
from
St.
(One day
for eaeample) Louis

TO

LOmS

ST.

No. 17

No.

Daily

9.01

12.06

Tu

3.20

Tu

9.50

Tu

11.59

for example)
Lv

St. Louis.

.Ar

120

Lv

Hannibal.

.Ar

3.45

224

Lv

Brookfield

Ar

12.35

Tu

326

Lv

674

Lv

1.30

Lv

9.00
8.00

Mt.

The

problems
many

hours and

Los

From

Angeles?

2. What

From

Chicago
Denver
From

to

Th

Time
Lv
Timo

6.40

8.40

Cent.
Mt.

to

on

Travel

based

are

pages

minutes
Denver?

Ogden
Los

to San

the raih'oad

on

and

226

is the

227.

accordingto

run

From

to Salt Lake?

is the distance

St. Louis

5.00

in this exercise

1. How

Denver?

Th

.Ar

about

tables shown

table from

Th

6.10

Time

time

the

8.45

Denver

and

map

Ar
.Ar

Time

Problems

City

McCook.

Ar

7.19

St. Joseph.

Kansas

Cent.
928

16

Daily
(One day

Burlington Route

From

St. Louis

to

Salt Lake

to

Francisco?

from

Chicago to Los Angeles?


Angeles? From
Chicago to San

Francisco?
3. John

arrive

at

Angeles?

leaves Chicago
Salt Lake

Monday
City? When

at 11

p.m.

will he

When

will he

arrive at

Los

TRAVEL

228
4. What

At Salt
change m time is made at Denver?
Lake City? At Ogden?
Does the table show the actual
of hours traveled between Chicago and Los Angeles?
number
cisco
5. A person leavingSt. Louis at 9:01 p.m. for San Franwishes to go by the quickestroute.
Which
is it,the
Pacific out of Salt Lake
Western
City or the Southern
Pacific out of Ogden? How
hours will be saved by
many
the rightroute?
selecting
often and in which cities is the time changed in
6. How
From
travelingfrom Chicago to San Francisco?
Chicago
to Los Angeles?
7. Excursion

have

been

St. Louis to Denver

sold at $25 each.

At

this

and return

pricewhat

was

the

mile?

fare per
8. If

tickets from

tourist leaves

Saturday,
when should he arrive at San Francisco if there is no delay?
should leave Chicago on
9. If you
Saturday for Los
Angelesand should spend a day at Denver, one at Colorado
Springs,and should leave Salt Lake City on No. 7 (seethe
time tables),
when would you arrive at Los Angeles? Why
should one
to stop at these points?
want
10. Estimating the railroad fare at Sjif
per mi. and the
Pullman
fare at $23 for a lower berth,find the cost of a full
ticket from
Los Angeles to
fare railroad and Pullman
Chicago if there is an 8% war tax on railroad and Pullman
transportation.
a

11. The

of

Pullman

lower.

What

Chicago

fare for
would

an

have

at

upper

been

11

p.m.

on

berth is 80%

of that

the total fare from

Chicago to Los Angeles if you had paid for

an

upper?

How

PROBLEMS

TRAVEL

230

minutes.

How

many

miles per

his rate of travel with that of


19.

On

hour

was

that?

Compare

fast passenger train.


in problem 18
Feb, 6, 1919, the pilotmentioned
a

flew from

stop
Cleveland,O., to Washington, D.C., in a nonin 2 hom^ 58 minutes, distance 450 miles. Compare
flight
the average
speed on this tripwith that in problem 18.
G. Kihier flew in a
20. On Feb. 21, 1919, Col. Walter
DeHaviland
machine
from Riverside,Cal., to Rockwell
What
the
was
Field,distance 115 miles, in 38 minutes.
speed per hour?
average
21. In June, 1919, Capt. John Alcock and Lieut. Arthur
made
the first non-stop transBrown, two British officers,
Atlantic ffight.They flew from Newfoundland
to Clifden,
Ireland,in 16 hr. 12 min., distance 1960 mi. Compute

their average
Hint."

hourly rate

Think

of travel.

16 hr. 12 min.

16.2 hr.

Belvin

Maynard drove an airplane in


Oct. 1919, from Mineola, Long Island,to San Francisco,
His
Cal., distance 2700 miles,in 24 hr. 59 min. 48^ sec.
22.

Lieutenant

as

closest

competitor.Major Carl Spatz, made

in 26 hr. 13 min.

14

the

same

trip

sec.

(1) How much did Maynard lack of requiring25 hours


for his trip?
(2) How much did he beat Major Spatz?
speed per hour of each,
(3) Compute the average
callingthe time of one 25 hours and that of the other 26
hr. 13

min.

CHAPTER

VIII

ECONOMY

This

chapter contains

pay?'' or "Did

enables

helping

thrift,by

it

THRIFT

problems intended

of arithmetic

knowledge
and

AND

to

pay?"

"Which

or

the

answer

show

how

practice economy

to

one

to

question, "Will
of action

course

it

is most

economical?"
Thrift

The

1.

children

months

two

and

for old

children

The

collected
of old

The

3.

at the

value

lb. for the

old

magazines.

lb.; magazines

named

the

to

in the

Jan.

What

in the

1, 1920, 17975

If the

children

would

probably

several

ways

had

have

in which

per
not

were

100

received

of St. Louis

priced
lb.

collected

happened

to

collectingand

thrift?
231

lb.

previous problem?

lb. of old newspapers

$2.75

was

previous problem

amount

average

public schools

Newspapers
at

papers
news-

paper?

price named

of 267450

in

lb. of

2550

lb. for the magazines.

was

of the

and

100

per

collected

April, 1920, collected,weighed, and

the

4.

What

children

and

March

$1.26

Sept. 1, 1919,

from

School

newspapers

of the school

magazines.

month

per

100

per

School

Mullanphy

received

They
$2.75

the

lb. of old

the total received


2.

the

of

11325

magazines.

in

Find

and
at

computed
lb. of

28514

$1.25

the

during

per

total value.

this old paper,


most

of

sellingold

100

it?
paper

what
Name
motes
pro-

PROBLEMS

232

ABOUT

ECONOMY

Food

Knowing

THRIFT

Values

iJ" LB. CABBAGC

2 LB. CHICKEN

of the above

Each

AND

ORANGES

equals1 qt. of milk

amounts

(WL2K"-"

in energy

value.
Table
Milk

Eggs
Cabbage
.

Tomatoes

75^

Bananas

use

is the

oranges

or

2. Which

doz.
lb.

the cost

cheaper food
or

Oranges

bananas?

fish? eggs

or

4ffa

1. If you

which

Jan., 1921,

16^aqt.

of

eggs

of

SOffalb.
8f^a lb.

00^ a

Eng.

lb.

40fia lb.

walnuts
as

2S^

the

lb.

basis,

pricesstated in the table;


walnuts

fish?

is the

most

of energy

expensive food?

value

foods in the figure.


*

Sirloin steak

sirloin steak? EngUsh

cheapest?
3. Callingthe energy*value of
find the

doz.

Fish (haUbut) 35^

quart of milk

at the
or

Prices

to do work.
Energy is ability

qt. of milk

in 1 lb. of each

Which

one,

is the

or

100%,

of the other

THRIFT

IN

THE

HOME

233

36jia dozen, what could you afford to


for a quart of milk to get an equivalentenergy value?
pay
What
with oranges at 40jia dozen?
What
with bananas at
loin
5fia lb.? What with cabbage at 2jia lb.? What with sirsteak at 35^ a lb.?
and solve other problems based on
5. Make
the foods
shown
in the chart on page 232, using current prices.
6. A pound of crackers equals 1^ lb. of bread in energy
value.
Why is this true? Compare their costs.
value equals a pound of
7. A pound of rice in energy
macaroni.
Compare their costs.
8. When
a certain varietyof appleswas
retailingat lOff
the same
a lb.,
variety at a specialsale cost only $2.85 per
box of 42 lb. net. What
the % of savingwhen bought
was
by the box?
9. In Oct., 1919, potatoes sold in a largecity at $2.00
In March, 1920, they sold at lOjlf
What
a lb.
%
per bu.
saved on every pound, used in March, but bought in
was
4. If eggs

were

October?
for potatoes and
People who have storage room
Do
applesusuallybuy their winter supply in the autumn.
you see why?
11. Canned
which retails at 15jiper can
is usually
com
sold at $1.50 per dozen.
If a family needs 3 dozen cans,
what is the % of savingby [buying
^t wholesale?
12. In May, 1920, the price of old potatoes was
lOjfa
it was
ones
lb.;of new
20ffa lb. If the largerwastp in.
peeling old potatoes is offset by their higher food value,
what is the % of savingin buying old potatoes?
10.

ECONOMY

234

Home
1. When

sweet

AND

and

THRIFT

School

potatoes

potatoes sold at lOjfa lb.

Problems
at lljf
selling
per lb.,Irish

were

In energy

value

1 lb. of sweet

potatoes equals 1 J lb. of Irish potatoes. What

is saved

for each

pound of sweet potatoes bought?


2. In May, 1920, a 48-lb. sack of flour sold at $4.10, and
What
the % of
12-oz. loaf of bread sold at lOff.was
a
saving by baking at home if it requires9 oz. of flour,^^
and |fiworth of fuel for each
worth of other ingredients,
loaf? Carry results to tenths of a mill.
3. At the pricesstated in the previousproblem how much
does the housewife save by baking at home for each
money
48-lb. sack of flour used?
in

Allow

1%

making the dough.


4. In a largecity during 4 months

children collected 682002

of the flour

of 1919

lb. of newspapers

as

waste

the school

and 78345

lb. of

magazines.
there in the total?
tons were
(1) How many
papers
(2) If during this periodthe average priceof old newsthe value of the
$1.15 per 100 lb.,what was
was
monthly collection?
(3) The average pricefor old magazines was $2.45 per
lb. Find the value of the average
monthly collection.

average

100

(4) Find

the total value

of old paper

collections for

the four months.

(5) At the

rate

for the first four months

be the value for the next

(6) At this
calendar

rate

what

school months?

what

would

five?
would

be the value for the nine

PROFIT

IN

APPLES

GROWING

Missouri teacher bought for $200

an

235

acre

of land

taining
con-

Beauty 14;Arkansas
Black 16; Ben Davis 20. In 1919 the total productionand
value were
as follows: Rome
Beauty 10 bbl. No. 1 @ $3.75,
6 bbl. No. 2 @ $3.00; Arkansas
Blacks 10 bbl. No. 1 @
$3.75, 8 bbl. No. 2 @ $3.00; Ben Davis 12 bbl. No. 1 @
$3.50,6 bbl. No. 2 @ $2.75;8 bbl. of windfalls @ $2.50,
windfalls sold in baskets and sacks for $11.50; 10 gallons
of cider at 35ff;
culls fed to 4 hogs for 2 months, estimated
at $4 per hog.
The
cost of growing and
as
marketing the crop was
follows: pruning,3 days @ $2; spray materials,
$7;spraying,
4 times,requiring
each time 2 men
working 4 hours,at 25ji
and packing,40jia bbl. (omit the
sorting,
per hr. ; picking,
windfalls not in barrels);
49jfeach; drayage
empty barrels,
to freightstation j mile from the orchard,$4.50.
Compute the interest on the cost of the land at 6%.
the

The

tax

1. Find
2.
3.

the

following
appletrees:

$1.60 per $100

was

on

Rome

an

assessed value of $150.

the total

receiptsfrom the orchard.


Find the average
receiptsper tree.
Find the total cost of the crop includinginterest

land and

the tax.

4. Find

the average

5. Find

the net

earnings of the orchard.

6. Find

the net

earnings per

7. What

cost

per

tree.

tree.

of the entire cost is the cost of

pickingand

marketing (3 items)?
8. What

on

net

9. Is it safe to

did the orchard

expect such

crop

earn?
as

this each year?

ECONOMY

g36

AND

Thrift in

THRIFT

Corn

Growing

productionof one
com-club
boy. Find

I. This is the record of the cost and


of

kept by a Missouri
the value of each questionmark.

acre

com

as

Mar.

2 hr.

making

"

18

1 hr.

and testingseed
selecting

*"

18

Cost of seed

"

30

4 hr.

Apr.
"

**

15
10

May
"

28

"

29
.

June

"

15

"

Oct.

Nov.

"

2hr.

"

"

"

"

"

team, plowing @
"

harrowing

"

"

"

and

others

harrowing

?
.

"

"

"

@ 65^

Uhr.

"

"

"

"

"

@65^

"

"

"

@65^

"

"

"

@ 65^

12hr.

husking"

3 hr.
Rent

15^

hauling@ 65ji

on

land

$5.00

Sold 68 bushels

@ $1.20

Net

profiton

record

is made

^The above

growing
.

one

one

acre

?
?

acre

in full to

readingknowledge of scientificcorn
of boys in our
country.
a

"

"

"

?
.

"

"

Note.

$0.65

planting@ 65^

@ 65^
team, cultivating

Total cost of

IJhr.

lihr.

$0.15

1| hr. labor,boy

Nov.

65^

thinning

"

15

and

"

IJhr.

31

2.50

"

25

30

"

labor,boy

"

July

15^

$0.50

Ihr.

1 hr.

fertiUzer

Ihr.

25

'^

"

seed tester

Value

and Cost*

Record of Work

Date

give city children and


sands
growing as practicedby thou-

ECONOMY

238

Sometimes

of

the

com

THRIFT

AND

one

old sprouts

year

grains planted. What

learn from

(germinates)only

lesson

careful

may

experiment described on page 237?


IV. Study the chart, and from
it solve the problems

farmer

the

below.

(1)

POOR

SEED
OF
CAUSE
GREATEST
YIELD
OF
CORN

hills

LOW

an

How

planted

are

acre

many

if an

on

8-ounce

hill
ONE
OF

SMALL.
TO

EACH

26

BU. PER

CORN

EQUALS

yields25 bu. to
the acre?
(A bushel
of ear corn
weighs 70
pounds.)
(2) What is the
weight per
average

8 02. EAR
HILL
,

AVERAGE

-THE

ACRE

OF

YIELD

U. S.

THREE

TO

76

MEAN

EARS
HILL

SMALL

THESE

LIKE

BU

EACH
PER

ACRE

ear

of the small

in the
THREE

THESE
WERE

KERNELS

PLANTED

JN THIS

HILL

ears

picturewhich

yield 76 bu.

to

the

acre?
of Cedarville,0., in a recent
(3) Fred Dobbins
On
to the acre.
a
year averaged 104 bushels of corn
the average weight
basis of 3 ears
to the hill,what
was
per

ear?

(4) The difference between


poor

one,

with

the

same

soil and

largelythe difference between


should

When

tested before
V.

the

If
same

seed

corn

be

good yieldof
climatic

Why

and

conditions,is

good seed and

selected?

com

poor

seed.

should

it be

planting?

sold at $1.50 per bushel on Oct. 1, 1918, and


quaUty sold at $1.80 on July 1, 1919, how much

corn

PIGS

FEEDING

PROFIT

239

by holding until July? Allow 1% a


for shrinkage and other loss in the crib,and 6%

bushel

month
interest
I.

FOR

made

was

on

the money

James

from

McMillen,

October

to

July.

an

pig-clubboy, purchased
on
May 23, 1918, a 37-pound
Poland-China
pig,2 months
old. Later weights were
as
follows: July 8, 112 lb.;Sept.
12, 229 lb.;Nov. 2, 378 lb.;
Dec. 21, 515 lb.
(1) Find the average
dailygain for each period.
(2) During which period
the per cent of gain greatest?
was
(3) Construct a graph showing the growth from May
Ohio

23

to

Dec.

21.

II. Another

Ohio

pig-clubboy raised a pig whose weight


record was
follows: 3 months
as
old,40 lb.;6 months old,
110 lb.;9 months, 220 lb.;12 months
old,300 lb.
(1) During which 3 months^ period did the pig make
the highest% of gain?
(2) During which period the lowest % of gain?
(3) During which period did the pig make the largest
daily gain?
average
and $2.50 worth of
(4) If it required 12 bu. of corn
other feed to raise the above pig until it was
6 months
old,
at the current
priceof hogs and corn did the pig show a
profit,or a loss,at 6 months of age?

PROBLEMS

240

ECONOMY

ABOUT

(5) It required10 bu. of

AND

com

worth

THRIFT

$1.50

bu. and

$2.00 worth

of other feed to feed the

the age

of 6 months

and

or

9 months.

loss if hogs

worth

were

(6) Compare the

rate

Poland-China

in I.

the older

consumed

one

pig between
Did this period show

Both

profit

a lb.?
17jlf

of

growth of this pig with the


and
care
pigs received the same
feed.

more

do you

How

account

for the difference?


III. In

dry lot feeding,7 lb. of shelled corn are allowed


200-lb. pig. On clover pasture only ^ this amount

dailyto

of

is necessary

corn

(1) What

is the

to

get the

same

gain.

daily value of the clover pasture for

each 200-lb.

pig?
(2) If the dailyincrease is 1| lb. in weight,how much
gettingfor the corn fed in the dry
per bushel is the owner
lot,not countinghis labor?
IV. A balanced ration for growing pigs is 6 lb. of shelled
and 1 lb. of oilmeal. Skimmed
milk,or
corn, 3 lb. of shorts,
buttermilk,may replacepartly or wholly the shorts and
oilmeal

how

on

the basis of 3 lb. of milk to 1 lb. of

(1) If

much

corn

(2) How
to

the milk

boy

can

procure

will balance
much

daily24 lb. of skimmed

milk,

this amount?

shorts and

to balance

com.

oilmeal must

daily ration of

the

boy add

12 lb. of

corn

to

get the best results?

pig with ordinary care and proper feed (12 bu. of


and $2.50 of other feed),weighing 115 lb. at 6 months
corn
of age, is a "scrub hog." A thoroughbred at the same
age
and feed weighs on an average
with the same
200 lb.
care
V. A

PROBLEMS

ABOUT

FEEDING

PIGS

241

pricesof,hogs and com, what is the


difference in profitbetween the two types?
when
he says, "My
(2) What does the fanner mean
pigs are eatingtheir heads off"? How may he remedy this
(1) At

current

condition?
.

It is estimated

VI.

that 100 lb. of shelled

fed to

com

hog will increase its weight 20 lb.


(1) If hogs are worth $16 a hundred-weight and com
$1.30 per bu.,would a farmer gain,or lose,by feedinghis
1 bu.
to his hogs? 56 lb. of shelled corn
crop of corn
(2) If his crop is 800 bushels,find the gain or loss.
(3) The above estimate is based on dry lot feeding. If
is fed in clover pasture, only half the amount
the corn
of
=

corn

Use

named

above

the information

is needed

to

make

in this section to

20 lb. of increase.
in the next

help you

one.

In

VII.

July, 1919, good hogs sold

and

corn

(1) What

worth

profitoh his

$1.80 per bushel.


corn

did the farmer

fed 100 bushels of shelled

day, who
hogs in

was

weight
at $22 per hundred-

corn

in 20

make

days

to

each

July

dry lot?

hogs was he feedingif he allowed each


hog 7 lb. of shelled corn daily?
(3) How many
might he have fed in clover pasture
Would
with this amount
of corn?
his profithave been
greater by feedingin clover? Why?
VIII. A hog weighing 650 lb. on foot was
sold in 1919 at
do you think about the size of the hog
What
a lb.
22|ff
and the price per lb.?
(2) How

many

ECONOMY

242

AND

THRIFT

Poultry for

Keeping

Profit

I. Missouri

a
Queen was
Single-Comb White Leghorn
hen at the Missouri Poultry Experiment Station. This remarkable
hen completed her 1000-egg record April 10, 1919.
This is her record: 1914, 222 eggs; 1915, 187 eggs; 1916,
She weighed 4^
217 eggs; 1917, 149 eggs; 1918, 177 eggs.

lb.,and it cost
her each year.

on

an

weight of the

The

(1) Find the number


the 1000-egg record.
(2) If the record up
the year,

find the 1919

(3) Construct

of eggs

to

egg

to feed

the value of 110 eggs

average

eggs

121.8 lb.

was

laid in 1919

to

complete

April 10 was continued


production.

through

graph showing the

egg

record

for 6

years.

(4) Compute
each

year.

the

of

profit earned

for her

owner

THRIFT

II. This table shows

Bertha

Stanford,age
club girl.

IN

POULTRY

one-year

15, an

KEEPING

243

egg record

Atchison

kept by Miss
Co. (Mo.) poultry-

the monthly production? The


total
was
(1) What
daily production?
of eggs laid
(2) Find in two ways the total number
during the year.
(3) Construct a graph showing the relative monthly

yield.

ECONOMY

244

(4) In 1918 the


each

month

year

to have

over

feed cost?

AND

average

THRIFT

priceof

eggs

per

dozen

for

beginningwith Jan. was as follows: 60f5,55}f,


62^. At these
40^,34^, 30^,29^, 27jf,
29^, 31^,35^, 50f5,
pricesfind the value of each month's egg production.
(5) Construct a graph, showing the relative monthly
value of eggs laid. Construct a graph,showing the monthly
fluctuation in the priceper dozen.
(6) Miss Stanford reportedthe cost of the feed for the
been

(7) Study

the

S20.

What

egg

record

was

once

the

excess

more,

the feed cost,then suggest

of egg value

take

into

possiblemethod

sideration
con-

of

increasingthe egg productionduring the winter months.


Why is such an increase desirable?
III. In March, 1918, James Vaughn, age 12, a Monroe
Co. (Mo.) poultry-club
boy, went into the poultrybusiness.
He built two houses,costing $25, and one
coop, costing
S5.00. He paid $1.50 for 5 doz. hatchingeggs, $5.00 for 8
layinghens,and $10.00 for feed. He sold 8 head of market
poultry @ 80f5,10 fowls for breeding purposes
@ $1.00,
and 30 doz. market eggs at an average
of 45^ per doz.
On
Nov.
1, he had on hand his poultry houses, 10 young
roosters,8 hens,and 17 pullets.He valued the roosters at
at $1.25. He allowed
85|z5
each,the hens at $1.00,the pullets
his poultryhouses.
on
20% for depreciation
dition
(1) Make an account showing this boy's financial conNov. 1 with regard to his poultryproject.
on
(2) What in your judgment should the boy have done
with the young

roosters

before Dec.

1?

ECONOMY

246

AND

THRIFT

bolts of cloth contain

exactly50 yards. After


as follows: 3 yd.,
cuttingpieceswhich were said to measure
2| yd.,6f yd., ^ yd., 10 yd.,and 4j yd.,exactly22f yd.
worth $2.40 a yard, how much,
left. If the cloth was
were
did it cost the
due to careless measiuing, on the average
sold? Do you see why some
store each time a piece was
clerks in a large store are .promoted more
rapidly than
6. Some

others?
7. A
a

working

young

6-months'

business

man

course

was

$60, includingall the

Car

fare cost him

at

cents

necessary

his work.

How

The

and

books

hour

an

night school.

In order
a day.
lOjif

dailyfrom

hour

one

earning50

to do

tuition

stationery.
this,he lost

did the

much

took

course

cost him?
8. On

Feb.

at

reading on

Jan. 8 it was

ft.;on

cu.

7 the

95ffper
What

payment.

1000
was

376100

my
cu.

ft.,with
the saving

cu.

meter

gas

ft. The

378300

was

bill was

puted
com-

off for prompt

10%
if the

bill

was

paid

promptly?
9. When

the gross electriclightbillwas

payment, $3.02 settled the bill. What


10. Those

estimated
owner

States

move

who

that

of each

have

was

$3.18,by prompt
the % of saving?

studied the

^ gallon of

problem carefullyhave
gasolineis wasted dailyby the

of 6,000,000 passenger

cars

in the United

of cars, and carelessness.


through useless mileage,overuse
One gallon of gasoline provides the energy
to
15 tons of freightone
mile. The wasted gasolineis

equal to the freighthaul of how

many

tons

for

one

mile?

CHAPTER
MONEY

HOW
1.

Mr.

John

Mr.

Adam

Smith,

months, for the

2.

This

is the

(2) What
(3) On
(4)

How

Interest

The

rate

for the

use

amount

this

interest

paid

is the

of interest

is

$200

lying idle

for

the

in

end

How

his
of 6

mi^t

note?

$200?

note

will be
the

per
one

247

due?

due

on

this

day?

money.

is used.

cent

of the

principal paid

year.

principal plus

settlement.

be

of

use

which

principal for
the

at

crop-

Fry signed.

money
is the

paid

for 6 months.

day will the

of the

his cotton

be

to

is given the

is money

principal

finance

work?

to

which

keep

much

The

$8,

money

name

what

to

of his $200

note

will

(1) Who

The

Smith

put this idle

Smith

$200

neighbor, had

use

MONEY

EARNS

Fry needed

Fry offered

bank.

IX

the

interest

due

at

HOW

248

From

EARNS

MONEY

previouspage a generalrule
written as a formula,thus:

the definitions on

findinginterest

be

may

MONEY

the

for

I=PXRXT
in

which

interest,P

principal,R

in years or part of
Explain and then solve

T =time

(1) Interest =$200


(2) Interest =$200

X"

of

=rate

interest,and

year.

by

cancellation.

X".

100

12

iKO

X-^X^^.
100

360

410

100

360

(3) Interest =$250 x-^ X^^.


Find

the interest and

the amount

due

on

each of these

Rate

5%
6%
4%
3%
8%
7%
8%
6%
6%
6%
Problems
1. A

man

bought

$1000 cash and gave

house

his note

payable annually,for three


paid?

and

lot for $4800.

for the balance at


years.

How

much

He

paid
6% interest,
interest

was

INTEREST

2.

249
I

Harry owned

the interest

PROBLEMS

$100 LibertyLoan

bond

4%

on

which

did he
How
much
paid every 6 months.
get at each interest period? How much interest did he get
in 2 years? How
much
in 3| years?
3. A girlsaid,"The
interest on $150 at 6% for 1 yr. is
$9.00,for 1 month it is $.75,and for 1 day it is $.025."
Was she right? There are 30 days in ai^ interest month and
360 days in an interest year.
4. Find

For

the interest

for 1 yr.

$300 at 5%

on

For

mo.

1 da.

6. How

1 yr. 1

would

days,60
7. Find

find the interest

you

$160 at 6%

on

for

1 da.?

mo.

6. Banks
30

was

preferto loan money


days, or 90 days.

the interest and

for

short time, such

due

amount

on

as

each

of these

you

consider

notes.

Exact
Exact

or

Accurate

Interest

is the interest found

interest

when

in

leap year 366 days, as an interest year.


of computing interest is employed by the
This method
United States Government
and occasionally
by banks and
365

days, or

individuals.

In all

year, the exact

where

cases

number

of

days

the time
must

is less than

be found.

one

MONEY

HOW

250
1. Find

the exact interest from

=63

The exact interest -$320 x

Complete
2. A

man

the

May

7,

"

his note

gave

note

days

"

365

on

June

6, 1921,for $120

Find

1921.

the exact

at

5%

interest and

interest.

common

3. Find

days (April)+7

computation.

due Sept. 20,


interest,

to

rto

100

on

5, 1921,

days (leftin Mar.) +30


days.
ft

the

Mar.

-26

tune

(May)

MONEY

$320 at 6%.

1921, on
The

EARNS

the difference between


of $1000

at

and

exact

common

interest

interest,
running for 73 days in

7%

1920.
Hint.

"

1920 is a

4. Charles

days

in 1920

leapyear.

said the exact


was

36f5. How

interest

great

Promissory

on

an

$400 at 6%

for 55

did he make?

error

Notes

40000000

^J?^iPa^

V 7^
r:^2^X"/"/Z^.W^^^

C^Zf^^^d^(^
''o/i^^aZ-J^
\^^y^^-i^-c-f^2^

'^-^i^^^^^i^^W/i^^

Y'-

"%_
BBC
A

TIME

PROMISSORY

NOTE

PROMISSORY

NOTES

251

one,
promissorynote is a written promise to pay to someof money
or his order,
a certain sum
on
demand, or on
specified
day.
2. Important elements of a promissorynote.

1. A

to someone
(1) A promise to pay money
by someone.
(2) The amount
promised usuallystated in figuresand
(3) Date of note and place given.
(4) Time to run.
(5) If interest bearing,the phrase wiih interest and the

words.

rate

annum.

per

(6) Value received.


(7) The placeat which payment
3. The

signerof the

4. The

person

6. The

sum

Note.

"

You

to whom

named
should

note

is the maker.

the

be careful not

the latter
belongs to interest,
etc.
bonds, stocks,

who

note

holds

payable to bearer
it when

promise is made

is the payee.

is the face.

in the note

former

6. A

is to be made.

to confuse
to

principalwith face. The


promissory notes, checks,drafts,

can

be collected

by

anyone

due.

payable to a certain person or order can be


sold by the payee'sindorsingit (writinghis name
the
on
^
back).
and "or order" promissorynotes are said to
8. "Bearer"
be bought and sold.
be negotiablebecause they can
9. Notes without the words "bearer,"or "or order,"are
non-negotiable. Such notes cannot be bought and sold.
They are payable to the payee or his legalrepresentative.
non-interest bearing note.
10. Write a non-negotiable,
7. A

note

MONEY

HOW

252

Buying
1.

2.

and

MONEY

EARNS

Notes

Selling Promissory

quently
Negotiablepromissory notes are property and consebe bought and sold.
may
If the note contains the phrase "or order,"then the

seller must

write his

the back

across

name

of it. This

is

called indorsingthe note.


3. "Bearer"
4. Write

of your

one

Have

notes

sellthe note

the back
oh

note

Kinds

"

indorsement,as
on

and you are the maker.


to another of your classmates.

classmates is the payee

Indorsements

evidence

indorsement.

ninety day, 6%, promissory note, in which

the payee

1. An

be sold without

can

of

and

Meaning

applied to promissory notes, is


dorseme
note showing transfer. See ina

below.

CV^rY^^^Cf^

^^-iT-T^^KV^rf^

uuuuuuuu

HOW

264
Valuable
1.

MONEY

EARNS

Information

about

MONEY

Notes

Promissory

If no rate is menbear interest only if so stated.


tioned,
then the legalrate of the state in which the note is made

Notes

This rate is commonly 6%.


2. A note made on a Sunday or a legal
holidayis good.

is used.

3.

Signaturesmade

with

4.

"Value received"

lead pencilare

is usually written

legal.

in the

If not

note.

written,it is presumed by the law or may be suppliedby proof.


the
all whose names
were
6. An indorsee has a rightto sue
on
he received it,except those who signed without
note when
course.
reHe
6. If

must

7. A

be

aboUshed

are

grace

10.

A note antedated

11.

All notes, whether

bear interest after

1. If the time

to

the
run

months

or

"

Nov.

note

an

innocent

chaser,
pur-

in most

states.

interest

non-interest

bearingor
paid when

Maturity

due.
of Notes

Date

is stated in years

from
dated

bearing,

or

months,

count

date of issue.

Aug. 10, 1920, due

in three months

10, 1920.

2. If the time

from

by

post dated is good.

or

maturity if not

Finding

matures

was

proven.

Days of

Example.

it

paid.
due on a Sunday or a legalholidayare usually
falling
the last precedingor next succeedingbusiness day.

on

years

the consideration for which

He

be

8. Notes

by

and

or

obtained by fraud,but owned

note
must

9.

or

if the amount

can

collected

all in any order.


it does not release the maker.
stolen,
one

any

is lost

note

pay

given

sue

may

to

riin is stated in

days, count

by days

date of issue.

Example.
in 90

"

^A note

dated

Aug. 10, 1920, due

days from Aug. 10, which

is Nov.

8.

in 90

days

tures
ma-

PROMISSORY

Time

the

Finding

of

the time

year, two

Aug. 10

month,

count

longer than
are

Settlement

the actual

months

and

and

month

shorter

used.
the actual

to Oct. 10 is 2 months.

days for the part

Aug.

10 and

Nov.

Oct. 10 to Nov.

From

3.

3 is 24

days.

24 da.

mo.

II. Count

actual

method

By this

and

^Find the time between

"

time is 2

The

of Issue

month.

Example.
From

is

methods

whole

I. Count
less than

265

days.

2. When

than

Date

the time is part of

1. When

niunber

between

NOTES

days elapsedbetween

the time

from

Aug.

the two

10 to Nov.

dates.

3 is 85

days.

this result

by counting.
more
commonly employed by bankers.
For determiningquicklythe number of days between two dates
bankers use
Such a table is found on page 256.
a
Day Table.
Prove

This is the method

the time is

3. When

longerthan

one

year, two

methods

be used.

may

full years, then full


for part less than one
month.
I. Coimt

Example.

"

Find

the time

months, then actual days

between

Sept. 29, 1919i,and

June

23, 1922.
Sept. 29, 1919,

From
to

May

29, 1922, is 8

This

is

2 yr., 8 mo.,

to

mo.

expressed more
25 da.

full years
less than a year.

II. Coimt
time

count

only and

or

in the

by

problem above,there

the actual

days for the

2 full years, and the time


Sept.29, 1921, to June 23, 1922, is 267 days,found by actual

Thus
from

Sept. 29, 1921, is 2 yr. From Sept. 29, 1921,


From
May 29, 1922, to June 23, 1922, is 25 da.
brieflythus: From 8/29/1919 to 6/23/1922 is

the table

on

page

256.

are

Bankers

usuallyuse method

II.

HOW

256

Table

for

MONEY

to the

(l) How
(2) How

4.

any

two

dates.

Table

to

one

certain

by bankers.

Study the table

Hints,

3.

from

are

days between

Day

corresponding day of
used

2.

Make

table enables

above

days there

many

to

MONEY

of

findingthe number

How
1. The

EARNS

at

see

day

of

month.

a
a

glance how
given month

This table is frequently

Why?

to find out

how

it is constructed.

is the top line obtained?


is the first column
obtained?

Study it to discover
Would
a single
error

if there
in such

in it.

errors

are

table do much

harm?

Why?
How
1. How
Look
is 181.
2. How
In

days

many

for Feb.
There

on

are

many

to

the

Use

from

Feb.

left side and


181

from

Table

10 to

August

days from

days

Day

Aug. 10, 1919?

at the

Feb. 10 to

top.

In the angle

Aug. 10, 1919.

Oct. 5, 1919, to May

5, 1920?

leap year add one day when February is included.


^ng the table as before,we find 212 in the angle.

Why?

USING

1920
and

is

May
May

and

but

is in the

angle July

days from July 8

table shows

to, Nov.

5.

whose

to

days

between

between

Oct. 5

Oct. 5, 1919,

You

to Dec.

8, 1920.

of

difference is 365

days

or

leap year,

table

are

sequently
con-

certain

month,

any

the

use

There

days from

day of

also

is

1920

problem.

same

can

8, 1920?

our

the number
to the

8 to Dec.

December.

included in

is not

given month

dates

is included

213

days from July

many

153

of

are

257

5, 1920.

February

The

TABLE

DAY

February

Therefore there

5.

3. How
153

and

leap year

THE

day

Jan. 6

as

for

any

two

less. See

the

next

problem.
4. How

days from

many

By the table there are


Sept. 5 to Sept. 18 there
Sept. 18, 1921, there are
many

Aug. 29

to Mar.

29

Therefore

6. Oct.

9 to

7.
9.

in

5 to Nov.
15

From

from Jan. 5 to

Using

the

Day

days.

Table

days from

many

3. Mar.

Sept.5.

Therefore

days. See table.


to Apr. 2 =4 days. Actual count.
Aug. 29, 1920, to Apr. 2, 1921 =216

how

1. Jan.

256

Jan. 5 to

29 =212

Practice

Find

are

days from
13 days.
days.

Sept. 18, 1921?

days from Aug. 29, 1920, to Apr. 2, 1921?

6. How

Mar.

243

Jan. 5 to

to

5.

Dec.

Dec.

15.
2.

2. Feb.
4.

Apr.

6. From

2 to
15

to

Sept. 22.
Dec.

Feb. 29 to

3.

July 31.

7/4, 1923, to 3/4, 1924. 8. 3/4, 1924, to 10/12, 1924.


Christmas,1920, to Washington's birthday,1921.

HOW

268
10.

MONEY

EARNS

MONEY

Washington's birthday,1924, to Independence day,

1924.
11. The
12.

the

opening of your school to the close of it.


Labor Day of the current year to Christmas Day of

same

year.

13. Christmas

Day

of the current

birthday of the next year.


14. Your
birthday to the

next

above

much

money

1. The

265

da.

Note.
text

"

your

banks.

was

not

was

Prove
^When

use

Washington's

Notes

paid until June 2,

requiredto

time between

is less than
work

note

to

July 4.

Settling Promissory

The

year

1923.

How

settle it?

9/10, 1919, and 6/2, 1923, is 3

yr.

this result.

the time interval in interest and discount


one

the

year,

Day

count

Table

on

the actual number


page

256.

This

problems in this
of days. To shorten

is the usual

custom

of

SETTLING

interest

2. The

$200 at 6%

on

NOTES

PROMISSORY

259

for 3 yr. 265 da. is $44.83.

this result.

Prove

Find the amount

4.

due?

is the amount

3. What

due at date of settlement

on

each of

the followingnotes.

write the
in your vicinity,
for each of the above settlements.

Using the

6.

check

proper
Note.

In

"

leap

A
!" Name

of

name

years

bank

February has 29 days.

Short Test

on

Promissory Notes

date,the maturity, the face,the maturity


value, the place of payment, the payee, and the maker in
the note

the

on

page

2. Write

250.

time,interest bearing,negotiable,
promissory

note.
8. A

demand
Write

payee.

demand

in blank?

What

Why

due

at

the

option of the

negotiablenote.
is the difference between principal
and face?
is the effect on
dorsed
a
promissory note if it be in-

6. What

rather

becomes

4. What

6.

note

do money

than

3-month

if indorsed

lenders
notes.

without

recourse?

preferto write 90-day

notes

MONEY

HOW

260

This is
wish

an

interest table such

find interest

to

"

the interest
^In the

and
($1,333),
2. Find
Hint.

"

3. Find
Hint."

add

on

interest
int.

on

on

$200 for 45

on

an

find the

when

see

if you

they
can

$900

Interest

Table

days.
interest for 40

days

days ($.166).

$980 for 90
for 90 da.

on

days.
($13.50)
+

the int. on

$120 for 63 days.

$120 for 60 da. ($1.00+$.20)+the int.on

=$1.26.
($.05+$.01)

"

standing
precedingexplanationis given as a help in underthe table. In actual practicethe interest addends
from the table;thus,in problem three
written at once

The

are

to

use

=$14.70.
($1.20)

the

$120 for 3 da.

of

Means

to it the interest for 5

^The interest

The

bankers

by

column

$200

the interest

$80 for 90 da.

as

quickly. Study it

Interest

Computing

Hint.

MONEY

it is made.

discover how

1. Find

EARNS

$1.20 +$.06 =$1.26.

HOW

262

How

MONEY

often and when

EARNS

MONEY

is the interest due in the above note?

Chapin agreed to accept at the interest periodany portion


which Mr. Sands might wish to pay.
of the principal,
On Jan. 15, 1918, the interest due and $50 of the principal
were
paid. On Jai^ 15, 1919, the interest due (how
paid.
much?) and $100 of the principalwere
On Jan. 15, 1920, Mr. Sands found that he owed $150
of the principaland $9 interest. Was
his computation

Mr.

correct?

UOO^Vioo
Three Years
^^^^^.^

Four

"

Blessing,
Tex.,Nov. 18, 1917.
-^-^^^after

--^

"

^-^

.^

"

.^j,

.^"..

Hundred

"

^.

date

Dunn^--'^-^^

"

promise

to pay

-.^"^^-^^-^^-^QY

order,

Dollars
'"^^-^-^^--^^v--^-^-^^-^"-^-^^^-^^-^.^^^.^-^^

with interest at

8%

per annum,

payable annually.

Any unpaid principalat maturity of

this note

and

past due interest shall bear interest at the rate of 10%


amium

until

paid.
John

Roye

all
per

Roye made
Nov.
18,
Nov.
18,
Nov.
18,

Mr.

much

How

ON

INTEREST

PAYING

YOU

OWE

263

these payments:

1918, all interest due;


1919, all interest due and

$100;

1920, $200.
due

was

WHAT

when

settlement

made

was

on

Jan.

18, 1921?
John

for the home?

pay

home

What

pupilsput their work

Some

know

you

$200 every 3
the unpaid balance.

on

to

bought

cash and

$2000

6%

Barr

for $6000,

agreeing to pay
months
plus all interest at
How
long did it take him
the total paid for it?
was
Use it unless

in this form.

better way.

Cash

$2000

In 3

mo.

In 6

mo.

+int. on $4000,which is $60.


200+int. on
3800, which is

In 9

mo.

200 -fint.on

200

..

which
,

is
.

etc.
Note.

"

^A

indorsements

days

oommon
are

for any

practicein findingthe time between two dates when


is to count full years, full months, and the actual
made

part less than

full month.

Problems
1. The

June

1,

date of
1919.

certain $3750 note, due in 2 years, was


The interest was
6% per annum,
payable
a

semi-annually. A payment of $112.50 was made on each


of the followingdates: Dec. 1, 1919; Jime 1, 1920; Dec. 1,
due June 1, 1921?
What
1920.
was
held a note for $600, dated
2. A Pittsburg merchant
Nov. 1, 1919, bearinginterest at 5%.
Indorsements were
made
follows: Feb. 1, 1920, $250; June 1, 1920, $180.
as
Find the balance due on Sept.3, 1920.

HOW

264

MONEY

Discounting
A

good business

the bank
note

on

his

is due.

man

Notes

sometimes

borrow

money

at

the interest when

the

can

note, and pay

own

Banks

MONEY

EARNS

call this transaction

lending

money.

they collect the interest in advance (thatis,at the


time the note is made), they call such a transaction discounting
When

notes.

1. Does

note

Why?

number
Answer

1 below

the

represent a

loan

question for

same

NOTE

NO.

NOTE

NO.

or

note

No.

count?
dis-

2.

DISCOUNTING

is the interest

(1) When
(2) How
(3) When
note

No.

much

is the

to settle his note?

discount

1?

in

(interest
paid

money

1?

long time

in No.

much

banks

why

in

2?

time

to

rather

the note

It is

discount

or

notes

in

case

than

of

each half year.

or

The

rate of discount

always computed

on

the

of the note.

value

If the note

bears

of the note

he sold

the

Smith

Mr.

sum

is due

of each year

time.

The

from

proceeds.
would

paid when

at the end

maturity?
Smith actuallyget

the maturity value is the


interest,

when

due.

If the

note

its maturity value is the face.


interest,
5. If Mr. Smith owns
a good note, he
instead of giving his own
bank
note.
which

advance) paid

at

is collected in advance.

Discount

varies from

Mr.

2 is called

No.

is

note

does

How

see

2. Interest

amount

pay

much

(6) Do you
lend money?

4.

Smith

will settle this note

in No.

maturity

No.

much

receives in note

3.

note

2?

(4) How
(5) How
bank

265

paid in

Mr.

must

NOTES

on

Jan.

does not

may

This

24 to the First National

that day the bank's rate of discount

was

8%.

bear

sell it to the
is the note
Bank.

On

HOW

266

(1) On

MONEY

day

what

was

EARNS

MONEY

the note

the

on

previous page

due?

(2) What
(3) How
due?

it was

is used in

its

maturity value?
days did the bank

was

many

periodis called the


computing the discount.
This

(4) How

much

the note

own

before
and

of discount

tenn

the discoimt?

was

68

Discount

-Maturity

value

x8%

360

(6) Mr. Smith received from the bank on Jan.


much
was
maturity value less the discoimt. How
This

24

the

that?

is called the proceeds.

siun

(6) How much did the bank receive for the note at
matiuity? From whom?
(7) Who must pay the note in case the maker refuses
to do so?
To whom?
Why?
6. Read
the previousdiscussion once
then do the
more,
followingwork.
(1) Write an interest bearing note which you might
own.

(2) Sell it to a bank in your community.


(3) Compute the discount at 7% and find the proceeds.
(4) Write the check which should be given when the
note

is settled.

7. John
notes

Find

Adams

which

owned

he sold to

the

followingnon-interest bearing
his bank at 7% discount:

$500 due in 6 months

$400 due in 8 months

$150 due in 2 months

$300 due in 1 month

the

sum

of money

he received from

the bank.

NOTES

DISCOUNTING

8. A

30-day

Find

date at 6%.
9. A

note

for $300

discounted 12 days after

was

the

proceeds.
for $400, bearing6%

60-day note
42 days before due

Hint.

267

counted
diswas
interest,
Find the proceeds.

5%.

at

^What is the maturity value of this note?

"

90-day note for $2500, (fatedSept.15, bearing6%


Find the proceeds.
discounted Oct. 12 at 7%.
was
interest,
A

10.

Hint.

Maturity

certain Ohio

11.

Proceeds

"

bank

-Discount.

value

in

month

recent

bought (discounted

following6% interest bearing notes. Find


the date of maturity,the proceeds,the discount of each,
the

and

the

Hint.

of the discounts of all of them.

sum
"

^Use the interest table

on

page

260 to

help you

in your

computations.

On

12.

Nov.

15, 1919, Adam

Crane

sold his house and lot

Snyder for $8000. He received $2000 cash and


due in
took Snyder'snotes, each for $2000, at 6% interest,

to

one

John

two

year,

sale. Write
13.

Mr.

and

three

years

from

date

the

of

the check and the three notes.

Crane

sold the last

years,

one

held the notes


to the bank

at

exactlytwo
7%

years

discount.

did he get for the note sold if all interest due

was

and then

How

much

paid?

CHAPTER

X
ACCOUNTS

SAVINGS

banks

Many
rate

of interest

(3%

account

may

Such
is

have

an

savings department in which

be

and

1 of each

July

paid

opened with

and

generallycomputed

is

4%)

or

added
The

year.

savings deposits,followed

by

savings deposits.

on

dollar.

one

to the

low

account

Interest
Jan.

on

rules governing interest


many

banks,

on

these:

are

depositsmade during the first ten days of January and


July, and during the first five days of any other month, interest
in which
such
will be allowed from the first day of the month
after the above
On depositsmade
named
deposit is made.
days
1. On

month, interest will be


following the deposit.

of each
month
2.

will not

Interest

be

allowed

allowed

on

from

the

the

first

day of

balances, nor

average

for parts of dollars,nor


on
months, nor
between
January 1 and June 30, or between July
In computing interest,
withdrawals
between
31.

for parts of
withdrawn
December

periods will
Example.
June

be
A

"

man

15 he withdraws

interest

on

July

from

deducted

on

the

Under

$100 for

sums

1 and

these

deposits.

January 2, also $100

deposits $100
$100.

first

the

the rule stated

above

June

on

this

1.

On

receives

man

month.

one

Problems
1. This

On
bank

problem shows

Jan. 6, 1920, James


which

paid 4%
On

deposited$25.
was

due

On

Nov.

the above

Baker

rules

deposited $100

annum,

per

Mar.

Jan.

how

24

he withdrew

1, 1921?
268

in

savings

interest payable semiannually.

deposited $50.

he

used.

are

On

$35.

Aug.
What

he
ance
bal-

SAVINGS

270

$10; Mar.
balance

3, $15; May

on

July

ACCOUNTS

What

1, $20; June 1, $5.

1 if mterest

at

4%

per

annum,

was

her

payable

is allowed?
semi-annually^
He put all
LibertyBonds.
the interest from them into his savingsaccount
at 4% per
payableJan. 1 and July 1. These were the amounts
annum,
6. A

man

young

owns

of interest he collected in
Mar.

Apr.
May
June

How

15,
15,
15,
15,

much

for him

that

some

certain year:
$ 8.50

Sept.15,
Oct. 15,
Nov. 15,
Dec. 15,

$ 8.50
4.25
17.00
4.00

interest did his

4.25
17.00
4.00

Liberty Bond

interest

earn

year?
Compound

Interest

study of savingsaccounts you found that banks


added the interest at certain periods,usuallyJan. 1 and
July 1, to the balance of the account at those periods.
In
Interest for the next periodwas
computed on this sum.
other words, interest was
allowed on the principal
and on
In your

the interest due.


ing
compound interest. Addand
the interest due at a certain periodto the principal
is called compounding
computing interest on this sum
be compounded annually (oncea
interest. Interest may
year),semi-annually(everysix months),or quarterly(every
three months). Banks which allow interest on the checking
This kind of interest is called

account

add

to

interest earned

the account

at the end

during the month.

interest monthly.

of the month

This

is

the

compounding

HOW

INTEREST

EARNS

MONEY

271

interest is

Compound

legalin several states* if specified


In the rest of the states compound interest
in the contract.
be collected,
if called for in the contract.
cannot
even
There is no penalty attached to paying compound interest
If savings
by those who wish to do so for business reasons.
banks did not allow compound interest,
depositorsmight
draw

their interest when


would

which

amount

due and with it start


the

to

thing as

same

accoimt,

a new

pound
gettingcom-

interest.
Interest

Compound
table shows

1. This

how

Problems

increases if

money

compoimd

interest is allowed.
At

interest added

3%,

duringthe

$100

(How did
The

$103

The

The

did

the

second

The

$106.09.

get $106.09?)

we

we

third

year

becomes

$109.27.

get $109.27?)

during the

(1) Find the values

sixth year

$112.55.

becomes

at the end

of the fifth and

sixth

in the table.

(2) The

compound interest

on

$100 for 6 years

at

3%

less $100.

is $

(3) How

much

greater is the compound interest which

foimd in the previousproblem than the simple interest

for the
*

becomes

year

$109.27 during the fourth year becomes


$112.56 during the fifth year becomes

The

you

$103.

get $103?)

we

$106.09 during the


(How

years

becomes

first year

during

(How did

annually.

same

time and

rate?

Cal.,Iowa, Mo., Mont., Neb., Tenn.

ACCOUNTS

SAVINGS

272

compound interest for 2


payable aemi-annually.

2. Find

the

annum

per

Hint.

"

^At the end of the

years

first 6 months, the

S200 at 4%

on

At the end of the first year the $204 would


At the end of IJ years the $208.08 would be

year

at the end

amount

etc.

The

of the second

less $200.

Persons
so

yr. -the

be

be $208.08.

$204.

compound interest for 2

would

$200

by

who

must

of

means

compute

table,a part of which is shown

Compound

How
1. The

amount

compound interest often do

to

for each

Table

Interest

Construct

here.

the

Table

succeeding period is found

by

computing the interest at the given rate on the last known


and adding the interest found to this amount.
amount
The

amount

for the next


The

amount

2. Make

for the 9th periodat 1%

is $1.0937.

The

interest

period (10th) is 1% of this amount, which is $.0109.


for the 10th period=$1.0937 +$.0109 =$1.1046.
the table for the 11th

period;for the

12th.

USING

THE

COMPOUND

How
1. If the

to

interest is

INTEREST

Use

the

TABLE

273

Table

compounded

annually at 6% the
due at the end of 5 years is found by looking in
amount
the 6% column oppositethe figure5 in the periodcolumn.
This amount
(S1.3382)-$I.OO is $.3382, the compound
interest

for 5 years*

SI at 6%

on

would

How

you

find the

compound interest for S500 at 6% for 5 years?


take half
2. If the interest is compounded semi-annually,
of years and proceed
of the givenrate and twice the number
if the interest were
as
compounded annually.
.

Find

the

compound
semi-annually. Look
column.

The

amount

interest
in the

$1 at 4% for 5 years compounded

on

column

2%

is $1.2190.

in the

period

$1.2190 -$1.00 =$.2190,

interest of $1 for 5 yr. at 4%


3. If the number

opposite10

pound
com-

compounded semi-annually.

of

periodsis greater than 10, the largest


shown in the table,find the amount
of $1.00 for 10 periods
for the remaining
at the given rate; then find the amount
time at the same
rate and multiply these two
amounts
of $1.00 for the entire
together. The product is the amount
time.
The

amount

is $1.5580.

amoimt) by

of $1 at 3%
Prove
1.1593

4. If the time

add

to the amount

for 15 years

compounded annually
this result by multiplying1.3439 (10 period
(5 period amoimt).

contains

fraction

of

an

interest

period,

for the last full

period,such a part of
the interest for the next full period as is indicated by the
fraction of the time period.
The
for

2i

compound
years

of $1

6%, compounded
is $1.1236 +i of ($1.1910-$1.1236),which
amount

at

annually,
is $1.1573.

ACCOUNTS

SAVINGS

274
in

Practice

the

Using

Interest

Compound

Table

boy saved $100 during 1909. On Jan. 1, 1910, he


at 3%, compounded annually. What
invested this money
!" A

of his investment

the amount

was

2. Some

8th

grade pupils bought

Savings Stamps

at $4.12 each.

States Government
Some

time

Jan. 1, 1920?

on

will pay

On

in

Jan. 1, 1925, the United

$5.00 for each of these stamps.

later the teacher said to the

receiving on

stamp

your

annually for
test the accuracy

Jan., 1920, War

investment

pupils,"You

are

pounded
interest,com-

4%

years." Use the interest table

to

of this statement.

in the
of the pupils mentioned
July, 1920, some
previousproblem bought War SavingsStamps at $4.19 each.
3. In

These

stamps

are

worth

the table to find out

$5.00 each

on

Jan. 1, 1925.

if this investment

pays

4%

Use

intereist,

compounded annually.
4. Can you solve the previousproblem without using the
table? Try it. Compare the two solutions.
6. A teacher in Nov., 1920,bought 5 War Savings Stamps
at

$4.22 each.

These

stamps

are

worth

$5.00 each

on

buyer made a 4% interest


investment,compoimded annually.
6. Which
will pay more, and how much, $100 at 3% for
20 years at simple interest or $100 at 2J% for 20 years,
compounded annually?
invested on Jan. 1, 1916, $300
7. A thrifty
man
young
in a business paying 4%
interest,compounded annually.
Jan.

At

1, 1925.

the

added

time
$300

Find

of each

out

if the

interest payment

to his investment.

What

except the last he


was

due

1/1, 1921?

CHAPTER

XI

INVESTMENTS

While

is

person

accumulating savings, he

studying the problem of how


more

earn

how
about

give

To

money.

how

correctly,and

them

perfectly safe

Do

interest.

you

States. Government
A

class

the

bonds

the

of

drainage bonds; and

mortgage,

or

by deed

chapter

judge

to

wisely.
earns

low

rate

of interest

rate

element

of risk is

cities,counties, and
promissory

of trust,

to

of

this class.

to

yields a higher

The

know

Savings Stamps and United

belong

just mentioned, but

greater.
district

bonds

them

usually

War

why?

investment

good

make

to

of this

to

learning

must

one

be

made

be

investments, how

investment

see

be

may

wisely

purpose

of

knowledge

some

you

this

do

is the

It

investments.

savings

words, he should

in other

money;

invest

to

his

should

than
what
some-

states;

secured

notes

by

examples of this type of

are

investment.
which

Investments

12%)

or

with
and
more

In

to

are

small

be

offer

high

regarded with

savings. Examples

mining stocks.

rate

of interest

(say 10%.

suspicion by the

of this type

Transactions

in

such

person

oil stocks

are

stocks

should

properly be called speculations.


general

risk;a low
investment

rate
can

high

of interest

rate

of interest
also

be

means

usually means

small

readily converted

of emergency.
275

risk.

large

first class,

into cash

in

case;

INVESTMENTS

276

Judging
Which
think
next

Investments

of the followinginvestment

offers the safest


safest?

Which

"Thrift

1.

your

the least safe?

is

Keep

place for

advertisements

Power."

on

"Save

Buying War

do you
Which
the

money?
Why?

and

Succeed."

Savings Stamps.

Series of 1920
will pay S5.00 for
January 1, 1925, the United States Government
in
sold
the
1920
at
Savings Stamp
followingprices: Jan.,$4.12,
Feb., $4.13;March, $4.14;April,$4.15;etc.
On

each

War

"Nothing Venture, Nothing

2.

Oil has made

The
Stock

fortunes

many

Money-back
Get

only lOfia share.

now

3. "Bonds

as

over

Safe

as

Our

in

Gain.*'

night,why

not

yours?

Oil Co.

early before the priceadvances.

Cities."

Municipal bonds 3delding4% to 5% fulfillthese tests for successful


investing. These bonds are
(1) Safe. ^Payment of principaland interest are assured when
they
"

are

due.

(2) Marketable.
(3) Productive.

"

"

be

readilysold at any time.


^The interest yieldis as high as is consistent with safety.
^They can

4. Individual

loans

secured

by residences,
apartments,
and
small business propertiesin Chicago, in amounts
from $2000 to $20,000. Interest yield,5% to 6%.
1st Mort$1000 denomination
6. 6 percent $500 and
gage
Serial Gold notes.
Interest payable semi-annually.
Secured
by First Mortgage on Cleveland, Ohio, real
estate

Consult

of

more

than

double

the newspapers

value.

and

magazines for investment

and bring to class what you think


opportunities
of poor, good, and excellent investments.

are

examples

INVESTMENTS

278

Problems
1. A
on

house

Olive

owned

man

Street;and

interest income
2. When

$2700 mortgage, bearing6%

on

$3000 5%

interest,

mortgage

on

$8000 mortgage, earning5"% interest


HoW

much

was

his average

monthly-

these three investments?

old,he had saved


for five years at 6% interest per
$500. He lent this sum
payable annually,to John Smith, a young fanner,
annum,
who
owned
60 acres
of land, free from debt, valued
at
$4000.
on

James

an

Loans

Mortgage

LafayetteAvenue;

on

Julian Avenue.

on

about

Mr.

Smith

Stewart

as

gave

was

21 years

securityfor his

note

mortgage

this land.

(1) Who was the borrower in this transaction?


(2) Who was the lender? Who signed the mortgage?
(3) Who kept the note? Who kept the mortgage?
the face of the note?
was
(4) What
How
much?
the interest due?
was
(5) When
(6) Write the note described in the problem.
(7) Do you think this was a good investment for Mr.
Stewart?
Why?
described in
the note
3. After owning for 3 months
problem 2, Mr. Stewart sold it to Levi Miller for $540.
much
of the seUing price of the note was
(1) How
much
earned interest? How
was
premium?
(2) When
(3) Did

did Mr.
Mr.

Miller get his firstinterest?

Miller

realize 6%

on

his investment?

Why?
(4) What
the

legalowner

did Stewart
of the note?

do before Miller could become

STOCKS

and
probably observed in your newspaper
magazine readingthat the business of manufacturing,minand merchandisingiscarried on chiefly
panies
ing,shipping,
by comFind the names
of several companies
or corporations.
(1)in your community, (2)in your magazine or newspaper.
Corporations are authorized by the state to transact
business justas individuals. The rights,
duties,and privileges
stated in a document, called a charter,which is
are
granted by the state to the corporation.
elect from their nimiber
of the corporation
The members
several persons
(oftenfive),called a board of hirectors..
You

27"

This

the
a

have

poration.
important business of the corThe less important business is transacted by
of a president,,
oflicersof the board,usuallyconsisting

body

the

transacts

secretary,and

treasurer.

capitalused in the business is called

The

of the stock

owners

is divided

are

stock.

called the stockholders.

certain nimiber

The

The
stock

equal parts, called


The face value of a share, called par value, is
shares.
usually$100, althoughmining and oil companies often issue
shares of $1 each.
(Do you see any reason
why?)
stock is $25,000,divided into shares of $100^
If the capital
into

each, there
The

called
next

250

are

instrument
stock

page

of

shares.
is

which

of stock is
given the owner
or stock.
Study the form on the
certificate,

and find out how

such

certificatediBFers from

promissorynote.
The
of

amount
a

of money

company

among

to be

the

distributed from
owners

of

conmion

the

ings
earn-

stock is

INVESTMENTS

280

(tiM"B
Qlfii

thmt.

/"i ^"f^

shorts tf One Hundred


DeUars each, in the tapitalstock of the Acme
Manu/aeturing Company, fiUfypaid and noH-assessaUe, transferable
only on the books t^ the
Corporation
by the hoider hereofin person or by attorney upon surrender eftkiscertificate
propeiiy
is etiHtUd

endorsed.

1" MteM
to
hflscaused this certificate
wdipnA the said corporation
and to be^uaUd
with the ^at of
signedby itsdufy authorioed officers,

be

^"^8^ Ms
at'j^^^r^^^,

the

Corporation,

"/

yn^ry

A. D. t9-=z^

CERTIFICATE

determined

always computed

of the par

6%

$1 per
The

on

"o

^-.

dividend.

the par

STOCK

of directors.

by the board

distributed is called

means

OP

J,

P^^.^^^day

The

value.

value,whether

The

of dividend

rate

Thus

so

money

6%

is

dividend

this be $100, $50,

or

share.
market

purchase,or
the market

value
as

value

of

sale. If

priceit bringsas a
$80 for a $100 share,

stock is the

a
a

is $80.

man

This

pays

value may

fluctuate from

day. Newspapers
day to day or even
during thesame
always quote the market value.
issue two
kinds of stock, called
Companies sometimes
common

rate

preferred. Preferred stock has the dividend


be
fixed in the stock certificate. This dividend must
and

set aside from


on

the

the earnings of the company

common

stock

can

before

be distributed.

dend
divi-

STOCK

INVESTMENTS

281

Brokerage
broker

is

agent who

an

buys

sells for the

or

owners*

compensation which he receives is called brokerage.


This is usuallya certain sum
for each share of stock bought
The

sold.

or

It is the custom

of the New

York

Stock Exchange, followed by-

others,to allow the broker 12^^ per share for buying or


selling
any stock which brings$10 or more
per share and 6i^ per
share for stock whose market value is less than $10.

many

Pacific R. R. stock
100 shares of Mo.
Thus, the brokerage for selling
(par value $100) at $25} per share is 100X12iff,and for selling100 shares
of M. K. " T. R. R. stock (par value $100) at $9} per share is 100X6iff.

When
on

brokerage is expressedin

the par

it is

computed

value.
Problems

1. On

cent

per

about

Stocks

certain stock certificate is found

"Capital1000 shares of $100 each."

this statement

Express the capitalin

dollars.
2. How

of

many

shares of $100 each in

company's capital

$1,000,000?
3. A

man

10 shares of bank

owns

stock.

On

his stock

certificate is the statement:

"Capital $60000; shares $100


each."
What
% of the capitalstock does he own?
4. How
much
must
you pay, includingbrokerage,for 10
shares of United Railway stock when it is quoted at $8.25?
6. How

value

much

is $100?

6. What

the market

is the

in money

$50?

is

when

the par

$1?

probableeffect

value?

dividend

6%

Why?

of

high dividend

rate

on

INVESTMENTS

282
How

Table

Read

to

I shows

the

Stock

Market

pricesof certain stocks duringthe day,


the precedingday, the last quotationsat
the change over
the net change, and the number
the close,
of shares sold
York City on Aug. 5, 1918.
the Stock Exchange at New
on

Sales
400
200

200
500
300
600
100

the

Prev.
Close
54
57
45

Name
of Stock
Bait, and O.
do*
preferred
Colo. Fuel " Iron
Mo. Pacific
Norfolk " Western
Wabash
Woolworth
.

23i
103

9i
112J

....

first line of this table is to be read

The

sold
August 5, 1918, there were
Exchange 400 shares of common
Ohio
was

Railroad.
made

at

the New

stock

follows: On
York

share; the highest pricewas

per

the lowest price was

$54, which

was

Stock

of Baltimore

firstsale (called"Open" in the

The

$54|

on

as

and

table)

$54|;

also the price of the

last sale of the

change
of the

means

more
day and the last sale of the previousday. In Baltiand Ohio there was
net change, although the price
no

fluctuated

*The
of

day (called"Close" in the table). Net


the difference in price between
the last sale

during

second

Baltimore

the

line
and

day.

means

this: There

were

sold 200

Ohio

shares

preferredstock (*do means


same) at $57 per share,there being neither net change
fluctuation during the day.
Tell the meaning

of the rest of Table

I.

the
nor

STOCK

Table II shows

QUOTATIONS

the sales and

the stocks listed in Table


as

Table

I.

283

Dec. 24, 1919, of

priceson

It is to be

interpreted
exactly

interpreted.

was

Name
of Stock

Sales

Bait, and Ohio.


do
preferred
Colo. Fuel " Iron
Mo. Pacific
Wabash
Woolworth

6400
1200
200
1000
1400
100

1. Find

of net

the amount

2. Tell the
3. Look

change for each stock.

meaning of Table II for each stock.


the market

on

of your

page

for the

newspaper

quotationson the stocks listed in this table.


Problems

(belowpar). Name
par).
2. Which

II

sold at

sold at

premium

in Table

premium

discount

(above

I and is not

II?

the stocks which

3. Name

made

plus

net

change in

II.

4. Find

the total sales in shares in Table

Compute

Table

II and

6. A

stock at
he

I and

I which

those which

stock sold at

listed in Table

6.

Tables

on

the stocks in Table

1. Name

Table

Based

the

those sold in Table


invested

man

the

ratio between

$5000

total shares sold in

I.

in Missouri

25f plus 12|j4


brokerage. How
,

buy and how

much

money

I.

had

Pacific Railroad
many

he left?

shares did

INVESTMENTS

284

much

?" How

broker who

sold 1000

stock at
8. What

sent

was

money

the

to

shares of Norfolk

and

by the

owner

Western

road
Rail-

98j?
the total cost to the

was

shares of Bait, and

0. stock at 54

who

man

bought

200

Aug. 5, 1918, plus

on

brokerageat 12|j!f
per share?
9. If the buyer in problem 8 sold his stock on
1919, at 32f less brokerage,find his total loss.
dividend for
10. If Bait, and 0. stock paid no

Dec.

24,

1919, what

additional

loss did the

of such

owner

and

1918

stock

sustain?
11.

Compute the loss of

of Wabash

in each
12.

at

omit

who

bought 300 shares


8f brokerage 6j^ per share

man

sold it at

transaction.
the

Compute

gain of the

stock if it

Woolworth
Table

9^ and

the

I and

sold at the

was

owner

bought

at

of

100

shares

its lowest

highestpricein Table

II.

of

price in
Do

not

brokerage.

13. Some

be classed

persons

think

that stock transactions

should

rather than as investments.


Do
speculations
see why they think so?
you now
14. Select five stocks from your dailypaper and keep a
dailyrecord for a week of the net change of each. At the
close of the week express your results in 5 suitable graphs.
as

How

In the
share
The

case

to

Compute

of stocks the amount

is also the income


dividend

the

par

on

value

Rate

of Income

of the dividend

share.

X rate

of dividend.

on

each

INVESTMENTS

286

COUPON

BOND

m^mw^'^^mwmmw^miu^.

^^^
'"^^==^
A

UNDER
nRATlON'

Tuc

N;;^i"=

LAWS OF
CORPOP^'jj,jtgj,^jj",^^.^"E
.

"^:UOJ^e^iz:z.
tawr^^sjas

.;;^fel^':j!;;^
^M'* Aa4 j/
tmMa,^*^^A*"mium.
^yfoiU^""!""tei//
^^/^4ifj/^ffJtu^Jtf"i
mJ*/t^^^rm.
Jlt*'/M,/"m//te4-4mmmi;/i0y^
mMfj^u/^ryf-^
4mu^M^HM^/^
,

.^^^f^lf^

./^h

Zi^^/lftj^Mit^Jm^^n*

i^;/A

ii^f:^
l'!!!;dMi"JP*

cJ3^_

'^S^^'tf'te:;

Note.

"

^The above

form

attached.
This
originally
fallingdue each year.

shows
is

only the last

ten

25-year bond, with

of the
two

fiftycoupons

interest coupons

LEARNING

BONDS

ABOUT

287

Bonds

National,state, county, and city government, and


borrow money
sometimes
to meet
other corporations
cerbe done by selling
This may
bonds.
tain expenditiu-es.
is a promise under seal by a corporationto
2. A bond
of money
time.
at a specified
pay a certain sum
bond on page 286 to
of the coupon
3. Study the pictiu-e
discover (1)in how many
sory
ways it is like an ordinarypromisit is different.
note; (2)in how many
ways
1.

and

the resemblances

4. Write
5. Bonds

differences.

be issued in any

may

denomination,but the

usual size is $1000, $500, or $100.


6. Bonds

usuallyhave

long

time

such

to run,

as

15,

20, or 30 years.
7. Turn

to page

once
280, and read carefully

more

stock

certificate.
8. Write

bond

on

at

the

the stock certificatejustread.

286 differsfrom

page

in which

least three important ways

pupilsfind five importantdifferences. Can you?


this page.
(coupon) on
Study the interest note
these questions.
answer
The
United
States
op

9. Some
10.

Then

(1) How

often is the interest due?

America
on

is the

(2) What
from

which

(3) If

this coupon

coupon,

how

for it?

When?

coupon

were

you

(4) What

face of the

would

the
you

was
owner

bond

will pay

March

15, 1922,

or

get payment

at

bonds?

must

be

taken

of

the

designated

agency,

$1.06, being

months'

interest

on

4i%

then

six
due

$50 Coupon Bond

of the Third
care

at

ington,
TreasuryDepartment,Wash-

cut?

of this

to bearer

Liberty Loan.

1379535
of the Treasury.
llegister

INVESTMENTS

288

Buying
1. Bonds

banker
2.

bonds

bought and sold through brokers.

are

Your

also obtain them

can

Why

Bonds

for you.
it be better for the small investor to buy his

may

his banker?

from

Young investors should earlymake the acquaintance


of the local banker.
Why?
4. The brokerage,premium, and discount are
computed
the par value (facevalue).
on
3.

6. Interest

bonds

6. When

buyer
This
owner

is called accrued
of the bonds

from

$88.50.

at

$88.50 for

4i%

at the next

This

it

means

day of purchase.

comes

payment
Third

in the bond.

interest dates, the

the

to

and

interest

27, 1920, 4j%

Nov.

quoted

pay

bought between

are

the interest earned

pays

7. On
were

bonds isdue at intervals named

on

back

the

of interest.

Liberty Loan bonds


that the buyer must

$100 bond, also the interest

Sept. 15, 1920, to Nov.

to

on

$100

at

27.

Counting the actual days how much is the accrued


interest in problem 7? Why is it rightfor the buyer to pay
8.

this accrued
9. How

bonds

interest?

much

based

on

money

the

did I pay

on

Nov.

27 for three $100

quotationin problem 7, omitting the

brokerage?
10. Find

the cost

of ten

one

thousand

dollar U.

S. 2's

quoted at 98, allowing |% brokerage,if bought,


immediately after the interest is due.
and solve five problems based on the priceof
11. Make
LibertyLoan bonds at the time you are studyingthis page*
when

BUYING

12.

On

BONDS

LIBERTY

24, 1919, 4^% Fourth

Dec.

289

Liberty Loan

bonds

quoted at $91.40. The last interest payment on these


bonds was
Oct. 15, 1919.
age
How
many
$10Q bonds, broker1%, could have been bought with $5050 and how
were

much
Hint.
a

left?

was

money

Remember

"

that the total amount

paid for

one

bond

is

of three addends.

sum

13. With

the money

remaining in problem 12, how

many

LibertyLoan bonds could have been bought on


Dec. 24?
remained?
How
How
much
might the
money
left have been safelyinvested?
money
$50 Fourth

14. Consult

and

find out

which

newspaper

how

many

$50 Liberty Loan

in

problems 12 and 13 you


you study bonds at school.
Finding the

1. The

rate

of interest

that

the

bonds

that

the

face

bond

contains

can

buy

bonds

earn

are

value

held
is

the bond

bonds

for $5000

market

described

at the time

for the

until

paid

ing
buyer, assummaturity and

at that

interest is the interest named

time.

in the bond.

buyer'sinterest is the interest earned by the bond.


It may
be equal to, less,or greater than the bond interest,
accordinglyas the bond is purchased at par, at a premium,
2. The

at

or

3. If a

the

discount.

$100 bond,'due in 6 years, is sellingat 104,

5%

total bond

interest for 6 yr.

interest

is

6x$5,

whereas

the

(income)actuallyearned by the investment is $30


less $4 (premium), or $26, because the bond at maturity is

paid

at par

value.

INVESTMENTS

290

in 3 yr. is bought at 98, the


interest is 3 X$5, but the total interest (income)

4. If a

$100 bond

5%

total bond

due

$17.
or
actuallyearned is $15 and $2 (discount),
for its buyer is based
6. The rate of interest a bond earns
the amount
on
paid for the bond, exclusive of accrued
is returned

interest which

the

to

at

owner

^thetime

he

receives his firstinterest.


6. In

3 the actual interest earned

problem

investment

of $104 is $26.

The

interest earned

$4^. Consequently the


buyer actuallygets is $4^ h-$104 =4.16
$26-^6,

in

rate

or

7. If the

in 6 yr.

rate

an

in 1 yr. is

of interest the

+ %.

reasoningin problem 6 is employed

problem 4, the

by

of interest to the

the bond

on

buyer

$17^3
=

$98
-5.78

+ %.

$98
8. The

bond

formula

next

will be foimd

convenient

in solving

problems.

Par

value + Bond

9. What

interest

Market

of interest do

rate

6%

value +

Buyer's interest.

bonds

yield,due

in 7

years, if bought at 108?


$100+$42=$108+$x(Buyer*s

interest).See

fonnula

in

number

$x-$34.
of interest

Rate

Note.
use

^In the

with
small.

the method

-^rrT^=4i%nearly.

computation simple interest is used. Bankers


the principleof compound interest is employed. On

short time
For

above

tables in which

bonds
very

"

to buyer
jrielded

all

to run, the difference between

practicalpurposes

indicated above.

the

the two

methods

ordinarybond buyer

may

is
use

PROBLEMS

ABOUT

BUYING

BONDS

291

Liberty Loan 4j% bonds had exactly


9 years to run until due,they were
ting
quoted at 93.20. Omitbrokerage,find the buyer's rate of interest.
at 112 have exactly15^ years to
11. If 6% bonds selling
run, determine the buyer'srate of interest.
U. S. 4's were
12. When
sellingat 106, 7 years and 3
the rate of interest to
months
before maturity,what was
the buyer?
cate,
13. On Nov. 29, 1919, a United States Treasury certifiworth $100 on Jan. 1, 1924, was
purchased for $84.40.
Some
people said that at this price the investment was
earning 4.27% compound interest,compounded yearly;
others said the rate of interest earned was
pounded
only 4j% comyearly. Use your knowledge of compound interest
10. When

to

see

which

Third

statement

is correct.

compound interest table on page 272,


cate
determine whether a $1000 United States Treasury certifidue Jan. 1, 1925, purchased Jan. 1, 1920, for $824,
earns
as 4%
compounded yearly.
as much
interest,
rate of simpleinterest are Third Liberty Loan
16. What
bonds earningthe buyer on the day you are studyingthis
page?
the rate of interest earned
16. Compute
by Fourth
LibertyLoan bonds if they are bought at the current price.
14.

By

Why
1.
are

of the

use

We

Should

Want

to

Own

be others

justas safe,but

Bonds

and many
municipalbonds
that can be made.
There may

United States Government

the safest investment

Good

none

safer.

INVESTMENTS

292

interest is paid promptly at the time it is due.

2. The
3.
4.

They
They

to borrow

bought in small denominations.


good securityat banks if the owner
be

can

axe

for

money

is

6. There

the

6. In
to

the

case

for them.

market

This

buyer and seller.


bonds the interest is
of registered

is

to

are

the person with a


free from all tax.

income, United

small

depreciation(lossin market

8. Their

that of most

be less than

How
1. Bonds
a

cash

sent

owner.

7. To

bonds

short time.

always

advantageousboth

needs

other

Bonds

and

promisesto

are

Stock

definite time.

States

value) is likelyto

property.
Stocks

of money
merely evidence

certain

pay

Differ

certificates are

sum

at

of

ownership.
2. The

of interest and

amount

fixed. Dividends
definitely

are

3. The

security. There
Why

of bonds

payment

Persons

is

with

are

not

Small

of its payment

certain.

guaranteedby

guarantee of

no

is

the time

any

Should

Income

form

some

kind
not

in

Buy

of

stock.
Stocks

for Investment
1. The

market

2. Dividends
3. The

stocks.
4. The

rate

Even

value of most
are

not

stocks fluctuates

widely.

certain.

of dividend

is not

in this

it is not

case

factor
speculative

is too

fixed except in

guaranteed.
large.

preferred

INVESTMENTS

294

About

Problems
1. If you

have

Estate

which
$7200 to invest,

lendingit
proposition,

at

property which

business

Real

will be the better

or
interest,
buying

6%

for $55

rents

small

month?

Allow

and $70 for taxes.


$40 for insiu^ance,
repairs,
which he rented
2. A man
bought for $7000 a storehouse,
He paid annually $65 for repairs,
for $40.00 a month.

$125

year for

$35.00 for insurance.

$50.00 for taxes, and


two

At the end
Did

he sold the property for $7500.

years

of

he make

less,than he would have made by putting his


into a savingsbank, which pays 4% interest,
compounded
semi-annually?
I paid $4000 for a house and lot. The taxes are $45
or

more,

money

3.

per year, and

What

rent must

the cost of my

8|%
4. A

yearlyexpenses
chargeper month

other
I

are

estimated

to make

$60.

at

6% interest on

property, if the house is vacant

on

an

age
aver-

of the time?

paying $60

man

savingsbank.

The

bank

month
pays

house rent has $4000 in

him

interest per annum,

4%

compounded semi-annually.Will he save, or lose money


by buying a house for $10,000 with the $4000 cash and a
6% note for the balance,if taxes on the house are $115 a
and other expenses are $100? How
much?
year and repairs
6. James

Wood

for

one

has

Forest

year at

$1250.

6%,

mortgage running 3 years


What

would

investment?
of

why

be Mr.

or

he

He

lend it to Alfred

purchasewith it a farm
and bearing 5j% per annum.
can

Forest's income

State in writingall the

he should

can

in each
reasons

preferthe farm mortgage.

case

you

from
can

his

think

MIXED

How

is 6%.
rate?

much

What

greater is the Texas

2. In the window

statement, "We

of

pay

bank

4%

statement, "We

25%

pay

of

per

the street in another

Across

it

In Ohio

rate than

the Ohio

greater?

cent

per

295

legalrate of interest is 8%.

the

1. In Texas

PROBLEMS

INVESTMENT

large cityis found this

annum

on

savings."
this

is found

window

bank's

does this mean?

What

more."

your

July 10, 1912, bought 10 shares of


bank stock (parvalue $100) at $115 per share,no brokerage.
This stock paid a 10% dividend each year, ^ paid Jan. 1
and ^ paid July 1. He owned
this stock Jan. 15, 1920.
(1) What rate of income was realized by the owner?
in dividends was
(2) What amount
paid to the owner?
of this stock placedeach dividend,as
(3) The owner
3. A

soon

it was

as

manner

Hint.

"

on

much

had

the dividends

at

earned

4%

simple
in

for him

Jan. 1, 1920?

^The first

The

second

was

depositedon

was

on

into the savingsbank


received,

How

interest.

this

man

young

was

dividend,$50, was
depositedJan. 2, 1913.
depositedbefore July 5, 1913. Each dividend
or

before the 4th

of the month

in which

it

due.

(4) On Jan. 20, 1920, this stock was sold at $140 per
share. What
the rate of profit?
was
owner?
(5) What was the rate of income to the new
4. In July,1899, a teacher bought a $1000 5% Florence,
much
Ala.,bond, interest payable semi-annually. How
interest had
bond

was

this investment

paid,Jan., 1919,

interest coupon

earned for the


if the

of $25.00 at 4%

owner

the

day

owner

when

re-invested
it

was

due?

the
each

INVESTMENTS

296

Investing
Federal

The

in

Bureau

High

School

of Education

Education
at

Washington has

boys leavingschool at 14 receive an average


weekly wage of $4; at 18 these boys receive an average of
$7 a week; at 20 they get an average of $9.50 per week; at
of $12.75 per week.
25 they get an average
The average
at 25 for such boys are $5,112.50.
total wages
The boys who stop school at 18 to begin work get on an
$10 per week; at 20 they get $15; and at 25 they
average
are
getting $31. The average total earned for such boys
found

at

25

that

out

is $7,337.50.

1. Construct

the two

groups

quit at

at the ages

average

weekly wage

of

named.

the ratio of the total wages

2. Find

remained

graphs showing the

at 25 of the

in school till18 to the total wages

of the

boy who
one

who

14.

the additional time spent in school

3. Was

4. Which

of these groups

will first reach

ment?
good invest-

the limit of

their earning

power? Why?
the high school boy have at
6. What
opportunities
may
which probablywould never
25 years of age, or older,
come
to the boy who
quit school at 14?
for a young
it be a good investment
6. Would
person
without

6%

means

to borrow

from

some

friend $100

for four years in order


simple interest,

school?

to go

year,
to

at

high

CHAPTER

XII

TESTS

is the Rice

This
The

achievement

average

91.7%;
the

classes
to

Find

If

3.

lent
then

of the

had

parts, and

pounds

Steel

and

7. A

The

dn

in square

area

away

4^of

the books

sold

is

composed

in his

of what

left.

was

had

many

library,
He

he at first?

of nitre 15 parts, charcoal


How

much

of

each

in

360

f of

on

rate

the value

being 70

cents

of
on

hotel and

$100, what

furnitiu'e
was

the

property?

was

total
man

long is made

is the

remaining. How

insiu-ance

of the

6.

16 inches

powder?

$420.

value

gave

sulphiu* 2 parts.

of

6. The

to evaporate

represents?

books

420

pure

of salt?

the inch, what

to

bottom

weight of

it necessary

was

and

wide

the

from

of its

0.08

water

the average.

below

or

obtained

was

remainder, and

Gunpowder

4.

cost

miles

gentleman

above

3,896 pounds

10 inches

the map

that
A

obtain

to

niap

scale of 50

miles

which

weight of salt

in order

for all

average

minutes.

salt contained

of rock

What

2.

50

class stands

salt water

mine

salt.

right in

if your

out

the

11.3%;

was

49.4%.

was

solve

1. The

of

poorest class it

for the

Try

given in 1902 to 689 8th grade children.


(right answers) for the best class was

test

sold at $27.60

profitof $184.50.
sold

50

horses

ton, with
How

at
297

$126

much
each.

profitof 15%,

was

On

sold?
one-half

of

TESTS

298

he made

them

20

per

of the cost, and

cent

half he lost 10 per cent of the cost.


8. A
a

fruit dealer

cent, and

bought

at 4 for

300

of 8 for 5 cents.

rate

300

How

much

did he gain?

applesat the

rate of 5 for

sold them

cent.. He

What

the other

on

did he

cent

per

all at the

gain on

his

investment?
A
An

8th

rightin

in

Test

problem solvingshould

After the test solve those you


missed.

30 minutes.
you

1. I went

my

Reasoning

grade pupil good

those

also

1920

to

purchasewas
8. An

store with

the average
speed per day?
8. John's growth last year

2i inches.

How

tall is he

did not

try,

five dollar bill. If the amount

change did

$3.69,how much
liner traveled

ocean

have

2012

was

now

miles in 8

2J

inches.

if 2 years

of

I receive?

days.
This

ago

What

year

his

was

he grew

height was

4 feet 9 inches?
4. A grocer

buys peachesat 16J cents per can.


at $2.40 per dozen,what is his profit
per can?
carrier carries 24 brick,weighing
6. A hod
Find the weight of a single
brick.
a load.
6. When

baseball uniforms

$3.25 per pair,what


with uniforms and shoes?

worth

7. A

fruit dealer

are

worth

If he sells them

120

$7.50 each and

will it cost to

equip a

pounds,
shoes

baseball

at

are

nine

ens,
bought a stalk of bananas,containing21 dozfor $7.77. What
pricedid he pay per dozen?
8. A dealer bought 75 bushels of applesat $1.65 per bushel and
At the same
time he purchased
sold them at $1.75 per bushel.
20 bushels of nuts which he sold at a profit
of 15 cents per peck.
and how much?
Which purchaseproved to be the more
profitable,
9. A grocer received a bill of ladingfor 300 pounds of sugar
allowed a profitof 10%, what
was
costing $37.50. If he was
the selling
price per pound?

TESTS

IN

THE

299

PROCESSES

FUNDAMENTAL

He sold them for $2. 10,


boy spent $1.40 for papers.
How
making a profitof one cent on each paper.
papers
many
did he purchase?
10.

11.

news

paid $6000 for

house

and

lot.

If the taxes

$60 and

are

other expenses
$48 per year, what rent must I charge per month
to make
6% interest on the cost of my property?

drying,a pound of apples is reduced to 3.20 ounces


by
the evaporationof the water in the apples. How
pounds
many
be prepared for drying in order to have 25 pounds of the
must
In

12.

dried fruit?

Reavis

The

Problem

Test without

Figuring

8th grade pupil good in problem solvingshould write 7


in 15 minutes.
After the test solve those you did
correct answers
An

missed.

try, also those you

not

1.

going a certain
of the distance

traveled

the surface.

on

received

the cost of

how

would

of

How

git^ennumber
water

would

and

you

you

of sugar.
find the cost of the

If you know
loaf of bread,how
prepare

bill givingthe number

order

an

would

to make

A fruit dealer

number

of dozens

cost per

dozen?

the remainder

find the distance

of

pounds shipped
If you were
given this bill,
sugar per pound?

given number

bought
for

find the

you

weight of

the

certain price. How

containinga
would

If you know
the cost of my
purchase at a
I had when
I left the store, how
would
amount

of money

I had

when

I went

dough

single

baker

of similar loaves?

stalk of bananas

6.

amount

of miles,

the weight of dough requiredto make

8.

4.

voyage

of miles under

number

and

must

the surface?

on

A grocer

2.

made

submarine

you

store

to the store?

you

certain
find the

and

the

find the

300

TESTS

If you

6.

IN

know

PROCESSES

FUNDAMENTAL

THE

of bricks carried by

the number

weight of the load


find the weight of a singlebrick?
at

load and

7.

the

bought

man

paid a certain
How

would

and

in cash and

amount

you

house

in

hod

pounds, how

lot for
gave

carrier

would

you

certain price. He
mortgage for the rest.
a

of the mortgage?

find the amount

the number
of hours requiredby a train to
If you know
cityto another and the speed of the train per hour,
go from one
how would you find the distance between the cities?
8.

school picnicthe patrons gave a treat of ice cream


to
each child present. If you knew the number
of children a gallon
At

9.

of ice
how

would

cream

would

10.

He

gave

you

boy
a

serve

and

find the number


earned

of children present,

the number

given sum

of gallonsrequired?
last week

sellingnewspapers.

certain part of his earnings to his mother

the rest in thrift stamps.


mvested in thrift stamps?

How

would

you

and

find the

invested
amount

TABLES

302
A Table of

"

REFERENCE

Impexfect Squares,showingthe Square Roots


Two

Note.

FOR

^For the square

table,multiplythe

root

root of 2700. is 61.9.

by

For

Decimal

to

Places

in the
100 times any number
root of any number
Since the square root of 27 is 6.19,the square
10.
the

approximate

square

root

times any number


in the table,multiplythe root by 3i.
33 is 5.74. The square root of 330 is about 3i X 5.74 or

of any number
10
The square root of

nearly18.17.

FOR

TABLES

303

SIZE)

(ACTUAL

DECIMETER

ONE

REFERENCE

ITTTmTT

100

I
10 mm.

Icm.

4cm.

3cm.

2cm.

lin.

7cm

10cm

9cm.

m.

iin.

2iii.

of

Measures

English
=1 foot (ft.)
12 inches (in.)
=1 yard (yd.)
3 feet
5 J yards,or 16i ft. 1 rod (rd.)
=

1 mile (mi.)
==1 mile
=lmile
^=1 mile

320 rods
5280 feet
1760 yards
6360mches

6cm.

6cm.

"

Length
Metric

(mm.)

10 millimeters

1 centimeter

10 centimeters
10 decimeters
10
10
10
1

(cm.)

(dm.)
(m.)

decimeter

=1

1 meter

dekameter

(Dm.)

meters

=1

dekameters
hektometers

1 hektometer
(Hm.)
1 kilometer (ICm.)
=^40 in. (more accurately
=

meter

39.37

of

Measures

English (Avoirdupois)
(oz.)
437} grains(gr.) =1 ounce
16
100

(oz.)
ounces
pounds (lb.)

2000poimds
pounds
pounds

2240
196

1
(lb.)
1 hundredwt

pound

(cwt.)
ton (T.)

grains

poimd

Measures

of

Weight
Metric

10

milligrams(mg.)
1 centigram (eg.)
10 centigrams=1 decigram (dg.)
I gram
10 decigrams
(g.)
I dekagram (Dg.)
10 grams
10 dekagrams =1 hektogram (Hg.)
10 hektograms
1 kilogram (Kg.)
=2.2 pounds.
1 kilogram
=

1
1 long ton
1 barrel (bbl.)

of flour
7000

in.)

Capacity

or

Volume
Metric

English
LiquidMeasure

10

milliliters (ml.)
1 centiliter (cl.)
1 deciliter (dl.)
centiliters
deciliters
lUter(l.)
Uters
1 dekaliter (Dl.)
1 hektoliter (HI.)
dekaliters
nektoUters =1 kiloliter (Kl.)
=

pints(pt.) =1 quart (qt.)


4 quarts (qt.)=1 gallon(gal.)
~1 gallon(gal.)
231 cu. in.
2

Dry Measure

10
10

10
10
10

1 quart (qt.)
2 pints (pt.)
8 quarts (qt.)=1
(pk.)
4 pecks (pk.) =1 bushel (bu.)

2150.42

cu.in. =1

peck

inter

bushel

1 hektoliter

(bu.)

about

liquidqt.
(1.1
dry qt.
.9

l64cu.
=

about

2.8 bu.

in.

TABLES

304

FOR

Measures
144 square

inches (sq.in.)
"1

9 square

feet
1 square

30}

sq.

sq. ft.
rod
1 square

Surface
rods

160 square

yard (sq.yd.)

of

(sq.ft.)

foot

square

REFERENCE

640 acres
36 sq. mi.

"a

township (tp.)

inile (8q.mL)

square

(sq.rd.)
of Volume

Measures

or

1728 cubic inches (cu.in.)


1 cubic foot (cu.ft.)

Capacity

34} cubic feet

1 cubic

cu.

cu.

cu.

ft.
ft.
ft.

of Time

Measures

60 seconds
60 minutes

90

360

B66dayB

360 days
too years
10 years

"1

Table
3

(yr.)
leapyear

1
1 interest year
1 century

of

"1

Century
other

leap

years

=38

Used

(')

years
years

400
divisible by
divisible by 4 are

in

Recipes

"

"

1 lb.
1 lb.

Enough

cu.

ft.

7} gal.

=.8 bu. level full


^
1 heaped bushel
=
1 bu. of ear com
=
1 cu. ft.

-8} lb.
barrel (bbl.)
=lbbl.
of flour
=1

minute

1 quadrant
1 circumference
3.1416 or 3}

Accurate

soft coal
1 cu. ft.
2747.07 cu. in.
4000 cu. in.

Arcs

=1

degrees(")

and

or

2 cups

for

ear

"

(')
degrees("")

x(pi)

Equivalents

hard coal ==34} cu. ft.

'St-

(')

=1 tablespoonful
(tbsp.)
teaspoonfuls(tsp.)
tablespoonfuls
=} cup or } gill.
(tbsp.)
1 cup
2 tbsp.sug"Cr 1 oz.
gills
1 lb.
2 cups granulatedsugar
cups

flour
3 cups meal

gal.water

Angles

decade

2
2
4 cups

Values

of

Measures

60 seconds (sec.)b1 minute (min.)


60 minutes (min.) 1 hour (hr.)
24 hours (hi,)
1 day (da.)
7 days (oa.)
1 week (wk.)
365 days
1 common
year

(approximately)

1 ton

soft coal

hard coal
".8 bushel
".63 heaped bushel
in
43 bu. of com
a.

yard (cu.yd.)

128 cubic feet


1 cord of 4 ft. wood

1 ton

feet
cubi";
=

(approximately)

38 cubic feet

"

1 ton
1 ton

acre

yd. or 272}
"

27

(A.)

"1
"1

solid butter

"

lib.

1 lb.

Ordinary Computation

SOMETIMES

FACTS

NEEDED

Weights

IN

per

SOLVING

PROBLEM

30p

Bushel

estimatingcrop production and values,the United States Bureau of


Crop Estimates regards the bushel as a definite weight instead of a definite
voliune.
These are the bushel weights used for 16 crops:
In

Wheat,

potatoes,clover and alfalfa seed,60 lb.

Shelledcom,

rye, kafir

com

Sweet

potatoes,turnips
Barley,buckwheat, api^es,peaches

Condensed

and
Multiplication

123466789
2
8
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Vs

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
2's

56 lb.
65 lb.
48 lb.

Division

Com
in
Onions
Oats

70
57
seed. .45
32

Tables

to

Timothy

10
To
9
12
16
18
21
24
27
30
33
86
3's

use

16
20
24
28
82
86

40
44
48
4's

as

ear

lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.

12's

12

11

multiplication
table,read to the right to the

end of the line and then down; thus,3 X2 "6, 3 X3 "9


end of line: then down
3X4
12, 3X5='15,
25
To use as a division table,read up
etc.
30
36
to the top of the column; 4's in 48, 12;
42
49
4's in 44, 11; and so on to 4's
36
in 16; then to the left
40
64
48
66
72
81
4's in 12, 3; 4's
46
64
63
in 8,2.
60
60
70
90
90
100
121
66
110
65
77
88
99
144
72
132
60
84
96
108
120
5's
6's
8*8
9's 10*s ll's 12's
T^s
=

ANSWERS
omitted
from
this book.
Answers
to all examples and to certain problems are
Page 14. 4. (1)$19,506;(2) $2.59 leas; (3)45.2%, 51.2%. 6. (1) 1.884- lb.;
(2) 22.5 lb.,3.214- lb.
Page 15. 6. (1) Last ? 3,360,213,000bu.; (4)45.02%; (6) 38.4%.
Page 17. 6. $137.76. 7. 110 lb. 8. Total balance, $924.94.

Page 19.

1.

(1) $89.65;(2) $3.70.

6. $51. 7. 94-%.
8. 10^. 9. 25%.
rem.
10. 80 mi.
48.5%, 5.24-%.
13. 1620.
14. $2980.53.
15. 29.3-%.
16. 180%.
17. 35.6%.
Page 25.
19. 2212.455 mi.
18. 13.434- mi.
20. 119.84- mi.
Page 26. 1.934,562,3001b. 2. 1918 was 86.3% of 1917 and 79.9-% of 1916.
3. $56,073,738. 4. 1,246,083,066.
12. $471,795.
Page 27.
^. 15. 2 mi. 16. 8.4%. 17. $1000. 18. 45 in. 19.
Page 28! 14."

Page 24.

4. $14.50. 5. 100, 16^


11. $.009. 12. 46.24-%,

37.07*4-

3| yd. 20. $212.50.


is 12.819% better than N. Y.; (5)
Page 29. 21. (2) 15.984-%; (4) Boston
Dallas is 2.463% better than Atlanta, Kansas
City is .235% better than St. Louis.
Page 30. 22. 9.6^. 23. 10.24-%. 24. (1) Total for the week, $12,834.70;

(3) $755.52.
Page 64.

Page 65.

26. $4165.20.
25. 32.
4. $111.18.
5. Disct. $20.66. 6. Disct. $46.58.
1. 14.44%.
2. (2) 8.84-%.

8.

(3) 58}^; (4) $3392.

Page 70.
Page 71. (3) 11.24, 11244-%.
(5) 65.74-%. 3. (1) 17.1-%; (2) 20.64-%.
5. 1.4-%
too high. 6. .994-% too high. 7. 26%.
4. 16.64-%.
9. $650,097,380.50. 10. (2) 12.64-%; (3) 16.44-%;
Page 72. 8. 7.54-%.
(4) $1,288,500,000 nearly.
Page 73. 12, (1) 12.17^;(2) 12; (3) 3.044-fi.13. .084- yd. 100 yd. dash is

1.244-% faster.
2. 62i%.
3. Woodland
Page 74. 1. 120 A.
8i%, wheat 16f%, oats 16|%,
15f %, timothy 6i%, red clover 10A%, pasture 16i%, alfalfa 3 J%. 4. 4 J%.
5. 2A%.
com

12. 12J%.
10. 10%.
11. .434- ton.
Page 77. 8. $750 loss. 9. 42"%,30%.
15. 12i%.
16. $64.29.
17. $5.25. 18. 144-%.
46f%.
3. 5%.
4. $19,260.
Page 78. 1. $18,961.25. 2. $890.90.
8. 52.44-fi. 9.
Page 79. 5. 23.3-^. 6. $37,370.58. 7. $19.30, $1241.37.
74.44-fi.
9. $805 gain.
8. 940.
Page 80. 7. 800.
8. 25.74-%.
9.
6. The
latter, $2. 7. $200.
Page 83. 4. $4. 5. $342.
11. $300.98.
56-%,
35.875%. 10. 50%.
8. 43.5%, 50.7-%,
5.84-%.
Page 91. 6.2224,872. 7.29.1%.
11. 285, 1254.
12. $1,246,000,000. 13. (1) 40,000;
Page 92. 9. 84.2%.
(2)40.
14.

Page 93. 15. 81i%.


Page 95. 19. Germany
.76,England
13. 52,800; 39,600.
Page 100.

17.14, ratio 22.54-.

306

22. 1,200,000.

ANSWERS

Page 101.

14.

15.

96-%.

307

(1) $52.04;(2) $1302.58.

16.

(1) $77.29;(2)

1.48+.

Page 103.

2. $5,603 state,$27,153 school, $66,374

city,$99.13 total. 3.

$8000.

Page 104. 4. 12i mills. 1. B $250, D $225, S $175. 2. 70%, 77i%.


Page 105. 3. $214.38. 4. $88.50,$84, $79.50.
Page 108. 1. $2,664,865. 2. $14,208. 3. $754,400. 4. $14,400,5.3-%.
5. $4801.25,$6401.67.
8. $42.13. 9. $50.75.
3. 42 A. 4. 275 A.
5. 15 A.
6. 9 A.
1. 28i sq. ft. 2. 25 A.
1. 72 sq. in. 2. 16t sq. ft. (Answers often may be expressedin
this form for the sake of convenience.) 3. 10.2994 sq. ft. 4. 54ir sq. ft. 5. $218.17.
7.7256 sq. in. 8. 420.2- ft. 9. 22ir ft. 10. 11204-. 116. 2t ft. 7. Waste

Page 111.

Page 127.
Page 133.

27.3-|-%.

Page'l38.
10.
tons, 521.7+

bu.

bu.,counting 1

cu.

$809.99,counting 2150.42
13. 1000
ft.

cu.

ft. 14. 200

cu.

cu.

ft.

in. to

bushel.

15. 3216

cu.

ft.

11. 20.869-{16. 1416.3-

.8 bu.

9. ^tr cu. in. 10. 80ir cu. in. 11. 28.03- cu. in. 12. 9.18 gal.
Page 141. 8. $7.54. 9. 35.95+ sq, ft. 1. 13.571+. 2. $10.86. 3. 13.5+
6. 9.5+ in. 7. 424.1+ gal. 8. 2.45 gal.
sq. ft. 5. $27.54.
sq. ft. 4. 31.756. 25.6+%.
5. 38.9-%.
2.
143.
1.
32.7-%.
Page
33i%. 3. 30.7+%.
7. $8.10. 8. $5. 9. 80%, 44t%.
14. $171.53. 15.
Page 144. 10. $400. 11. 16J%. 12. 33J%. 13. 34+%.
16. $45.75. 17. $210.33.
$800.
Page 145. 18. $1274.40. 19.12.17%. 20. $63. 21. $158.67,4.41-%.
14. 25 mi.
Page 176. 12. 117.16 mi. 13. 4.9+ mi.
Page 177. 15. 75.6- ft. 17. (1)15 ft.;(2) 16i ft.;(3) 1617 sq. ft. 18. 2525

Page 140.

bd. ft.

Page 180. 2. 440. 3. 25%. 4. $4.25. 5. $1.00. 6. 172. 7. $8,738,138.43.


Page 184. 3. 160 rd. 4. 192 sq. ft. 5. 16 ft. 6. 144 sq. ft. 7. 60 sq. in.,
9. 201,062,400sq. mi.
34.3 in. 8. 6,283,200sq. mi.
bu.
2.
187.
1.
537.6
21.7+ tons. 3. 6361.7+ cu. ft. 4. 324ir cu. ft
Page
5. Lack 4.81 cu. in. of 1 gal. 8. 37. 9. 4500ir gal.
Page 188. 10. 218.6+ sq. ft. 11. 50 sq. in. 12. (1) 45.3 ft.,102.6 ft.;(2)
13. 10.3+ ft.,61.8+ sq. ft. 14. 12,108. 15. 10 ft.
180 sq. ft.;(3) 15%.
Page 189. 1. 21.2+ tons. 2. 172- days. 3. 20. 4. 30.
Page 191. 1. 17,176.7gal. 2. 4.6+ hr. 3. 60- gal. 4. .00737 mill,1356+
gal. 5. 139+ gal.,38069.5 million. 6. 37.4+^. 7. 13,757+ tons, 1748+ tons.
1491+

tons.

10. .01+%.
Page 199. 8. $581.47. 9. 6.8+%.
Page 200. 11. $1,941,062+. 13. $15,924,825,161.
2.25.9+%.
Page 202. 1.10%.
3.8.1+%.
Page 203. 5. Apples $1.50 better. The walnuts yielded32% greater rate of
7. 154+%.
8. $3,865+.
9. $1645.80.
profit. 6. ISU per can, 25.3+%.
Page 205. 1. $20.83.
Page 207. 2. 21 bbl.,7 cu. yd., 10 cu. yd. 3. 38 bbl.,6 cu. yd. 4. 117 sacks,
9 cu. yd., 13 cu. yd. 5. 45 sacks,3 cu. yd., 3 cu. yd. 6. $1050, $260, $336.96.
7. $1336.50,$534.60,$1069.20.
4. $.665+.
Page 208. 1. $66,018- per mi. 2. 79. 3. 34.7-%.
10.
8.
9. $.937+.
7.
6.
209.
$63.88.
5.
$176.40.
$27.76.
27fi.
Page
$2,487.

11. Yes.

12. $.597+

per

bu.

ANSWERS

308

14. FuU car rate is $40.96 better. 15. S6S20. 1. $3,000,000.2.


3.
$3,750,000. 6,000,000.
Page 211. 4. 25,097.
All
Page 212. 7. All water route $1.38 per 100 lb. cheaper than part water.
route $.158 per
water
route $1,538 per 100 lb. cheaper than all rail. Part water
100 lb. cheaper than all rail.
Page 213. 1. $5.87.
Page 214. 2. $3.87. 3. $7.14.
Page 215. 1. 35f^.2. 44f(.3.41^. 1. No difference. 2. Express,8^.
Page 229. 13. $5.13,171 mi. 14. $15.76,526 mi. 15. $10.40,289 mi.
Page 230. 18. 172 mi. 19. Speed was about 21 mi. per hr. less. 20. 181 -r
22. (1) llj sec; (2) 1 hr. 13 min. 25i sec; (3) 108 mi,
mi. 21. 120.9+ mi.

Page 210.

102.94- mi.

Page 231.
Page 233.

1. $211.69.

2. $123.58.

3. $4127.27.

9.200%.
11.20%.
12.100%.
8.47.4-%.
2. 81.5-H%. 3. $3.31. 4. (1)380.1735;(2)$1960.76;
Page 234. 1. 33.7-%.
(3)$479.86: (4)$9762.47;(5)$12,203.10;(6)$21,965.57.

Page 235. 1. $226.50. 2. $4.53.


$2.77. 7. 59.74-%. 8. 157.54-%.

3. $87.96.

4. $1,759.

5. $138.54.

G.

Page 237. II. (1)$585; (3)$31. III. 33-%.


Page 238. IV. (1)3640: (3)lOJ oz.
Page 239. V. $.0705. I. (1) .97 lb.,1.58 lb.,3.63 lb.,4.83 lb. II. (1) firsi;
(2)last;(3)second.
Page 240. (5) $1.70 profit,not counting labor cost. IV. (2) 2 lb. shorts,

I lb. oilmeal.
Page 241.
(2)40.

VI.

(1)Gain 49fion

each

bu.

fed;(2) Gain

$392.

VII. (1) $3.32;

I. (1)48; (2)175; (4)102-%, 70%, etc.


III. (1) $45 15.
IV."
(1) 8
in.;(2) 492 bd. ft.;(4) $8.20. 1. 19. 2. $700. 3.
75^,$1.25. 4. 34%. 5. Lacked li oz. on each pieceof being accurate.
60f^,
10. 45,000,000.
Page 246. 6. 10^. 7. $132. 8. 21ff. 9. 5.3-%.
Page 288. 7. $1310.33.
Page 287. 8. $299.10. 9. $401.64. 10. $2506.42. 11. (1) $2.15,$300.85.
(2)$13.40,$1204.60;(3)$14.53,$2005.47;(4)$2.45,$99.55;(5)$59.55,$4000.45
13. $1971.60.
Page 289. 2. $138.36.
Page 270. 4. $103.52. 5. $2.71.
Page 272. 2. $16.48.
7. $1689.89.
Page 274. 1. $134.39. 8. Latter,$3.86 more.
9.
11.
8.
7.
$375. 12. $1075.
284.
$4325.
$98,125.
$10,825.
Page
Page 285. 2. $80. 3. 8.69%. 4. 6f%. 5. $200.
Page 288. 8. 86^. 9. $268.08. 10. $9812.50.
13. 1, $18.29 over.
Page 289. 12. 54, $64.45 over.
12.2.99%.
Page 291. 10.6.37%. 11.4.66%.
Page 293. 1.9.874-%. 2. $21.71. 4. $78.90,$347.35.
3. $31.38. 4. Lose $16.60
Page 294. 1. First,$7 better. 2. $582.97 more.
5. 1st,$75;2nd, $68.75 yearly.
Page 295. 1. 2%, 33i%. 3. (1)8.69%; (2)$750; (3)$91; (4) 21.76%; (.5
^Wo' 4. $1338.60.

Page 242.
Page 244.
Page 245.

ft.'7i