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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of Deepwater Pipelines

DNV RP-F113
Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference
27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Introduction

R
Requirements
i
t ffor pipeline
i li iinspection:
ti
what,
h t when
h and
dh
how

Pipeline maintenance and routine inspection

Pipeline damage during installation and operation in


deepwater, causes and effects

Understanding the real risks and potential need for repair

Repair systems, tools and techniques

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Requirements for pipeline


inspection: what, when and how

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Typical Characteristics of Deepwater Pipelines

Water depths are beyond diver limits and all activity (IMR) is remote

Wall thickness are typically high } Materials, Welding, buckling

Operating pressures are typically very high or very low

Ambient external pressures are high, commonly similar to internal operational


pressures } Coating and Insulation Degradation

High levels of Insulation are commonly required } Insulation Degradation

All
inspection,
maintenance
and
6C } CP, Flow
Assurance, Materials
Waters are typically
cold
approx 4C-

Pi li
Pipelines
tend
d not to b
be protected
db
by a concrete coating
i
} Damage
D

Geohazards can be significant } Spanning, Buckling, Damage, Bend Stability,


Turbitity and Debris flows

Slugging within produced fluids is common } Spanning, Fatigue

Greater tolerances Survey inaccuracy, installation accuracy

Metocean and environmental conditions tend to be benign } Stability

Seabed mobility is less dominant } Scour, Spanning

Corrosion coatings tend to be of very high quality } Corrosion, Damage

repair is performed remotely

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

BASELINE SURVEY
The ongoing assessment of inspection findings will involve comparison of data
with that recorded during previous inspection campaigns.
This will allow trends to be extrapolated and judgments made regarding the
urgency of remedial action.
This process necessarily commences with the acquisition of the measurement of
internally and externally taken values at the commencement of pipeline service,
known as a Baseline Survey.
On completion
l
off the
h installation
ll
off the
h d
deepwater Pipelines,
l
an as-built
b l survey
will be undertaken by the Installation Contractor to ensure that the
construction is fit for service. Similarly the Subsea Commissioning Team will
undertake
d t k surveys tto establish
t bli h correctt functionality
f
ti
lit and
d initial
i iti l iintegrity
t
it off th
the
system.
Together
g
the As-Built and Commissioning
g surveys
y will fform the Baseline Survey
y
against which future inspection will be measured.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

INSPECTION STRATEGY (1)


Planned inspection campaigns are an integral part of the IMR strategy, the
purpose of the inspections being to monitor pipeline system integrity over time
and to monitor the impact of the subsea and production environments on the
pipeline.
Understanding and confirming design assumptions
Routine inspections may indicate a requirement for more specific investigations
involving detailed or specialist techniques. The normal physical inspection tasks
undertaken on the Deepwater Pipelines can be split into locations internal and
external to the pipeline.
Internal and External locations are typically periodically inspected by Pigging
and
d ROV/AUV methods
th d respectively.
ti l
Permanent monitoring methods also exist and are becoming more
commonplace.
p

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

INSPECTION STRATEGY (2)


With deepwater lateral buckling and walking issues, Inspection strategy needs
to include interaction with the designers.
designers
If your system is anticipated to have multiple start up and shut down scenarios
you will need to understand what the designers anticipated happening and how
to monitor
i
i
it.
In addition there may be need to reconfirm whats happened once the pipeline is
in operation.
p
I.e. the designers
g
have p
probably
yp
planned ffor the worst case,, but iff
things are not that bad and/or the operational approach changes this can result
in very different results to those planned and design for.
The requirement for and frequency of inspection will most commonly be
determined using risk based techniques

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

INSPECTION METHODS
Location

Method

Technique
Magnetic Flux

Defects
Spanning/Burial

Ultrasonic
Pigging

Visual
Calliper

Internal

P
Permanent
Monitoring

Geometry (XYZ)
Corrosion
Probe/Spool
Sand Probe
Visual

Corrosion
Dents
Gouges
leak
CP Failure

Geometry XYZ
Inspection

Burial
ROV

Acoustic

C i D
Coating
Damage
Hydrate

CP Probe
Weld S
Scanner
Tomography
Scanning
Side Scan

External

Movement
Buckle
Vibration

Visual
AUV

G
Geometry
t (XYZ)
Sidescan

Permanent
Monitoring
Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference
27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Cracking
Fatigue

Vibration
Strain

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Protection Integrity (mattresses/


Rock/Covers)

INSPECTION DEFECT MATRIX

Internal

Crracking

Pro
otection
In
ntegrity

Vibration

Buckle
B

Mo
ovement

Hydrate
H

Coating
C
Damage

CP
PFailure

Erosion

leak

Gouges
G

Technique

Dents
D

Method

Co
orrosion

Location

Spaanning/
Buriial/Scour

Defect

MagneticFlux
Ultrasonic
Visual
Pigging
Calliper
Geometry
(XYZ)
Corrosion
Permanent
Probe
Monitoring
SandProbe
Visual
Acoustic
CPProbe
ROV
WeldScanner
Tomography

External
AUV
Permanent
Monitoring

SideScan
Visual
Acoustic
Sidescan
Vibration
Strain

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Risk Based Inspection Concept


Identify
Threats/Hazards
to Pipeline

Assess
Inspection
History

DNV RP-F116 (Sec H1)


The risk assessment comprises the following main
tasks;

Failure Mode

Susceptibility
to Threat
Likelihood of
Failure

Consequence
of Failure

a) Establish equipment scope


Remaining
R
i i
Life or
Inspection
Grade

b) Identify threats
c) Data gathering
d) Data quality review
e) Estimate probability off ffailure (PoF)

Risk Factor

f) Estimate consequences of failure (CoF)


g) Determine risk

Risk
OK?

Mitigation
Measure to
reduce
susceptibility

h) Identify risk mitigating measures


i) All equipment threats have considered
j) Determine aggregated risk
Inspection
Scheme

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

k) Planning of inspection, monitoring and testing


activities

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

10

Targeted Inspections
Design
Dossier

Code
Requirements

Defect Type1

Defect
selected

Defect Type 3
Defect Type 4
Review
design

Review
previous
inspections

Defect Type 5

Inspection R
Records

Defect Type 2

Defect Type 6
Prepare &
Perform
Targeted
I
Inspection
i

Determine
most likely
location

Record
Results
No

Defect
observed?

Yes
Assess Defect &
Determine Correction

Stop

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

11

Deepwater Pig Inspection


Pig Inspection of offshore pipelines tends to look for internal problems.
Generally running pigs in offshore pipelines is very similar to running in onshore
lines, after the wall thickness and higher pressures are taken in to consideration.
The most favoured inspection methods are either ultrasonic or magnetic flux
inspection.
Magnetic flux is limited by magnet strength, ie get enough magnetism in the wall
of the pipe to enable good results to be obtained.
obtained
Ultrasonic can inspect very thick wall pipe but Ultrasonic's have to be run in a
liquid medium.
The main difference between offshore and onshore is the length of run between
pig traps, as Offshore pipelines tend not to have intermediate compression
stations with conveniently located pig traps.
traps The pig must not get stuck in the
pipeline as retrieving it will be much more expensive than from an onshore
pipeline. The pig must stay alive and recording data (battery duration may be an
issue)
Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference
27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

12

Deepwater ROV Inspection

Traditionally, external inspection, of deepwater pipelines is performed using


work ROVs deployed from DP ROV support vessels.
These vessels are expensive, and they may not be available when they are
needed most.
In deep waters, ROVs become heavy to handle from these vessels, because
of long umbilicals; and they become prone to breakdowns.
ROV inspections of long transmission lines can be very slow and may take
many months to complete end to end
Weather downtime is also an issue for ROV support vessels when working
in harsh and hostile environments

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

13

AUV based Inspection


AUV-based Inspection in deepwater fields may provide dramatic improvements in
cost, performance, safety and reliability.

Large DPII vessels with high-end ROV spreads would no longer be required for
simple inspection.

AUVs have demonstrated solid performance requiring simple autonomy for


missions such as bathymetric survey and high resolution sonar imaging

AUVs can be deployed from small utility vessels, be capable of operations in


higher seas,
seas without the operational limitations and equipment hazards imposed
by umbilical and tether management systems.

Reduction in equipment complexity, vessel size and crew size would also result in
i
improved
d safety,
f t reliability,
li bilit and
d llower environmental
i
t l iimpact.
t

In the future AUVs would become field resident, residing in the subsea field for
periods of months. The end state of Vessel Independent Operations will achieve
f h reductions
further
d
in cost while
h l improving performance
f
and
d safety.
f

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

14

Pipeline routine inspection and maintenance

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

15

Optimisation of Routine/Scheduled Inspection

An optimum IMR plan aims to strike an appropriate balance between the


f ll i objectives:
following
bj i
maximising the availability of the pipeline system during its operating life by
maintaining and preserving its integrity, thus maximising revenue;
minimising inspection, intervention and rectification measures through the
life of the pipeline system, thus minimising through-life IMR related costs.
reducing to as low as is reasonably practicable all risks to people
people, the
environment and assets, in accordance with legislative, societal and business
requirements, thus minimising the costs of failures.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

16

Optimisation of Routine Inspection Measures

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Phase 3
Phase 1
Failure rrate

The typical variation of failure rate in an


operating system with time, takes the shape
of the classic 'bath-tub' curve, and can be
divided into three phases:
Phase 1,, early
y failures or damage,
g , due to
defects in materials, incorrect installation,
incorrect operation, unexpected
environmental effects (Scouring etc)
Phase 2, random failures or damage, due
to earthquakes, impacts (dropped objects,
fishing,
g, anchors),
), etc
Phase 3, wear out failures or damage, due
to corrosion, fatigue, internal erosion,
anode depletion
depletion, coating breakdown etc

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Phase 2

Time

17

Minimising through-life IMR-related costs


The implication of the bath-tub curve is that relatively frequent and intensive inspection
is required in the early years, i.e.
Phase 1. As inspection data demonstrating good pipeline system* performance
accumulates, it is rational to adopt a reduced frequency and scope of inspection.
Thus a progressive reduction of inspection effort may be expected towards the end
of Phase 1 and into Phase 2
2.
Phase 2 for a typical subsea pipeline extends to several decades,
Phase 3 may not actually be reached during the operational lifetimes of many
projects.
j t H
However, if inspection
i
ti d
data
t starts
t t tto show
h
th
the onsett off wear-outt
mechanisms then an increased level of maintenance could be reintroduced.
As far as p
possible,, inspection,
p
, maintenance and repair
p
activities should be p
pre-planned
p
to take advantage of tendered contracts, optimum weather conditions and where
necessary co-incidence with planned pipeline shutdowns.

*The
Th

best way to controll some off these


b
h
i with
is
i h the
h designers
d i
h i
having
the
h experience
i
and
d being
b i
allowed the time to investigate/ design a more robust solution CAPEX vrs OPEX

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

18

Code Requirements DNV OS-F101


1. Define equipment scope ( i.e. All equipment that can lead to a failure) (DNVOS-F101, Sec. 11, D304)
2 For each equipment,
2.
equipment identify all threats which can lead to a failure (DNV-OS(DNV OS
F101, Sec. 11, D201)
3. For each threat; estimate risk (DNV-OS-F101, Sec. 11, D202)

Consequence of failure (CoF)

Probability of failure (PoF)

Propose plans for:

Inspection, monitoring and testing (IMT) (DNV-OS-F101, Sec. 11, D103)

Mitigation, intervention and repair (MIR) (DNV-OS-F101, Sec. 11, D700)

Integrity assessment (IA) (DNV-OS-F101, Sec. 11, D600)

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

19

Inspection Planning

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

20

Example Process from RP-F116


Inspection Interval

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

21

Example Process from RP-F116


Schedule Planning

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

22

TypeofInspection

ConsstAsBuiltSurvey
BaselineSurvvey
B
Phase1
""EarlyFailure
e"

Years

Phase21)
"RandomFailure"

Phase33)
"WearOutFailure"

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
IntelligentPig
VisualincludingCP
andSideScan
TowedAcousticSide
ScanSonar 2)
TargetedSpecial
Targeted
Special
Events

1) Reduction in annual inspection applies to remote subsea pipelines only 2) Acoustic side scan sonar is not always cost effective especially in
deepwater or where there are strong currents. An ROV survey with reduced scope could be considered 3) the third phase may not occur within
j
lifetimes, i.e. the Phase 2 (plateau phase) extends for several decades with well designed,
g
operated and maintained facilities.
normal project
Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference
27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

23

Pipeline Maintenance
Preventive maintenance
Because of the high cost and potential delays associated with intervention,
preventive maintenance should be eliminated at the design stage, wherever
possible.
ibl
Routine maintenance
Routine maintenance tasks are required
q
where the elimination off specific
p f
intervention is uneconomic or technically problematic. Normally such
maintenance would be undertaken during repair activity, or combined with
planned inspection
p
p
campaigns.
p g
Corrective Maintenance
Intervention to rectify breakdown or degradation (Corrective Maintenance) is
referred to as Repair
Repair .
Normally Subsea Facilities shall possess sufficient reliability to ensure availability
throughout the field life.
Subsea equipment that is susceptible to failure should be designed to minimize
the effort/cost required for replacement of the failed assembly.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

24

Pipeline damage during installation and


operation
p
in deepwater,
p
, causes and effects
ff

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

25

Installation Damage Scenarios


The potential causes and effects of damage during installation Phase of the pipeline(s) are
summarized as follows:
3rd Party
Objects Dropped from Ships
Material
and
Construction

Defects

Installation
Tension failure
Station Keeping

Coating

Geohazards
Slope Stability
Route Features
Rock Outcrops,
Outcrops Cement Soil,
Soil
Shell and Coral Banks.
Pockmarks

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Damage to pipeline geometry and/or pipe


wall:
Gouges, Grooves and Notches.
Dents
Wet and Dry Buckles.
Overstressing or Excessive Bending.
Fatigue Damage.
Bend Pull Out

Damage

(Corrosion

and

coating):
g)
Lost & Damaged weight coating
Damaged corrosion coating
Lost & Damaged insulation coating
Anode Damage:
g
Lost anode
Disconnected anode

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Weight

26

Operational Damage Scenarios


The potential causes of damage during operational Phase of the pipeline(s) are
summarized as follows:
3rd Party
Trawling
Anchoring
g
Objects Dropped from Ships
Ship sinking
Ship Grounding
Shipwrecks
p
and Debris
Material
and
Construction

Defects
Sabotage
Military
y Action

Environmantal
Wind, Waves and Currents
Scour
Seabed Morphodynamics
p
y

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Geohazards
Earthquakes
Seismic Fault movement
Submarine Landslides
Mass Gravity Flows
Turbidity Currents
Sub-marine Volcanoes
Liquefaction
Tsunamis
Route Features
Rock Outcrops,
p , Cement Soil,, Shell and Coral

Banks.
Shallow Gas and Seepage of Gas and Fluids
Pockmarks
Mud Diapirs
p and Mud Volcanoes
Slope Instability
Mass Movements

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

27

Operational Damage Scenarios (effects)

The effect of damage that could occur during the operational phase of the pipeline(s) are
summarized as follows:
Damage to pipeline geometry and/or pipe wall:
Rupture.
Internal Corrosion.
External Corrosion.
Corrosion
Pinhole Leak.
Gouges, Grooves and Notches.
Cracks and Fracture Propagation.
Dents and Buckles.
Buckles
Overstressing or Excessive Bending.
Fatigue Damage.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


27 - 28 September 2011, Novotel Paris Les Halles

Ian Nash

Coating

Damage

(Corrosion

and

coating):
Lost & Damaged weight coating
Damaged corrosion coating
Lost & Damaged insulation coating
Anode Damage:
Lost anode
Disconnected anode
Over consumption
Anode pasivity
Hydrate Formation:
Pinhole Leak.
Leak
Lost & Damaged insulation coating
Incorrect operation

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Weight

28

Damage Category and Scenario


Phase
Installation

Damage Category

Specific Damage Scenario


Dry Local Buckle
Dry Propagating Buckle
Wet Buckle
Buckle/Stinger impact
Hydrate
Internal/External Corrosion
Gouge/Dent/Buckle
Overstressing
Fatigue Damage
Trawling/Anchoring
Objects Dropped from Ships
Ship Sinking/Ship Grounding
Shipwrecks and Debris
Earthquakes/Tsunami
Mass Gravity Flows and Turbidity Currents

Dry Buckle
Wet Buckle
Loss of Coating
Hydrate

Localized Damage,
No Leak

Operation

Pinhole Leak
Seismic Fault/Submarine Landslips
Liquefaction/Scour
Rupture
p
Earthquakes/Slope Stability

Localized Damage,
Minor Leak
R t
Rupture,
L
Local
l
Rupture, Extensive Length
Extensive Damage, No
Leak
Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference
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Rupture
Internal/External Corrosion

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

29

Based on the damage scenarios and risk assessment it is clear that:


The pipeline installation contractor should have fully developed procedures
and all necessary equipment mobilised and ready for implementation in the
event of dry or wet buckles, prior to the start of deepwater pipelay
operations.
The operator
p
should have fullyy developed
p
procedures and all necessaryy
p

equipment ready for implementation prior to the start of operations, to cater


for the following scenarios:

Hydrate formation.
Localised damage (i.e. dent or pinhole leak).
Local Rupture.
Rupture over extensive pipeline length.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

30

This Recommended Practice (RP) is intended to provide criteria and guidelines for the qualification of
fittings and systems used for pipeline subsea repair and/or modifications and tie-ins.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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31

Understanding the real risks and potential need


for repair
MEIDP Example
E
l

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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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32

MEIDP Example (3500m WD)

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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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33

Intervention Zones
Based on this preliminary information, the route has been divided into five different
intervention requirement zones.
1) Shallow Water Zone (0 to 150m WD)
2) Continental Slope Zone (150m to 2500m WD)
3) Deep Water Section (2500m to 3500m WD)
e ote Sea
Seamount
ou t Sect
Section
o (300
(300m to 3000
3000m WD))
4)) Remote

Middle Indus Fan

Upper Indus Fan

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Sh lf
Shelf

4
3

Abyssal
Plain

Slope

Qualhat
Seamou
nt

Rise

Abyssal
Plain

North Murray
Ridge
Dalrymple
Trough
South Murray
Ridge

Rise

Abyssal
Plain

Slope

5) Indus Fan Section (2500m to 3000m WD)

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

34

Typical QRA for Deepwater Pipelines

MEIDP QRA Risk Contributors and % contribution

Ship sinking (40


(40.24%)
24%)

Objects dropped from ships (19.91%)

Ship grounding (14.07%)

Material and construction defects (11.17%)

External corrosion (10.62%)


(
)

Anchoring (3.23%)

Internal corrosion (0.63%)

Trawling (0.12%)

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

35

Typical QRA for Deepwater Pipelines

6.00E-03
3.00E-03

Most likely
location for
Intervention is the
deepest
p
water

5.00E-03
2.50E-03
4.00E-03
2.00E-03
1 50E 03
1.50E-03
3.00E-03
1.00E-03
2.00E-03
5.00E-04
1.00E-03

Rise

Abyssal
Plain

Qualhat
Seamou
nt

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Abys
sal
Plain
North
Murray
Ridge
Dalrym
ple
Trough
South
Murray
Ridge

Sl
o
p
e

0.00E+00
0.00E+00

Middle Indus Fan

Upper Indus Fan

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


Deepwater Pipelines

Abyssal
Plain

R
is
e
Sl
o
p
e

Material and construction defects


External
corrosion
Material
and construction defects
Internal
corrosion
External
corrosion
ShipInternal
grounding
corrosion
ShipDropped
sinking objects
Dropped
objects
Anchoring
Anchoring
Trawling
Trawling

Shelf

36

Repair Scenarios and Types

Repair Scenario

Repair Type

Dry Buckle

Profiled clamp or Spool and /or External protection


(Rock Dump)

Excessive Plastic Strain


Wet Buckle

Spool (External protection)[[1]]


Spool,

Rupture

Spool, (External protection)

Internal Corrosion

Clamp or Spool

External Corrosion

Clamp or Spool

Coating Damage

Clamp or Spool, (External protection)

Pinhole leak

Clamp

Dents, Gouges,
g
Grooves, Notches

Clamp
p and /or External p
protection

Cracks, Fracture Propagation

Clamp

Hydrate Blockage

Hydrate removal

Excess Unsupported Span

External protection i.e. strakes, mechanical support (frame,


rock ,jetting additional analysis

Anode damage / depletion

Anode replacement

Note: [1]. External protection inside ( ) denotes a secondary measure


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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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Repair systems, tools and techniques

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Emergency Pipeline Repair System


The minimum functional requirements identified for an emergency repair system are
listed as follows:
Operable
p
at water depths
p
up
p to deepest
p
water of the p
pipeline
p
((3500m))
Operable on pipe size(internal diameter) of pipelines (24)
Operable with steel wall thickness up to maximum and relevant coatings
(40.5mm)
Operable
O
bl on soft
ft seabed
b d soils
il (soft
( ft calcareous
l
clay
l and
d silt)
ilt)
Operable on seabed slopes (of up to 28 degrees)
Capable of providing a repair capability extending from minor dents to
replacement
p
of multiple
p p
pipe
p jjoints
While not mandatory, it is advantageous if the system(s) and equipment also exhibit
the following characteristics:
Modular and/or lightweight
Minimum number of components
Incur minimal shut down and/or reduction of operation
Minimum CAPEX investment

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Repair System Components


An overall pipeline repair system to install a clamp or spool requires an
extensive array of equipment to conduct a repair operation.
operation The repair
systems generally perform tasks from the following list:
Metrology of the pipeline damage and repair site
Isolation of the damaged section of pipe with internal plugs if required
Soil excavation
Pipeline lifting, locally at the repair site or completely to the surface
Pipe coating removal
Pipe cutting
Removal of damaged section
Pipe
p end surface p
preparation
p
Metrology of the pipeline for clamp and spool piece preparation
Transport and positioning of clamps, spool pieces and connectors
Closing and sealing clamps and connectors
Testing the repair
Lower the pipeline to the seabed
Removal of repair system equipment
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Why Tooling is Needed


Equipment
DP Support Vessel
Pipelay Vessel

Purpose
Platform from which to operate ROVs and conduct repair operations.
Working platform in the event that an extensive section of damaged
pipeline has to be relaid/replaced.
Flooding/Dewatering/Drying Various purposes including:
Spread
Pressure equalisation prior to cutting (flooding).
Coupling for intelligent pigging (flooding).
Removal of water (dewatering).
Drying prior to returning to service to minimise water content and
risk of hydrates.
Seabed Dredging/Levelling
Exposure of the pipeline, if locally trenched or buried, to allow for survey
Equipment
and/or repair operations.
Pipeline Lifting
f
Frames
Elevation off pipeline off
ff the seabed in the vicinity off any repair, for
f the
purpose of improving access for repair equipment and operations.
Subsea Measurement Tool
Performance of measurements between pipeline ends for accurate spool
piece and connector assembly
assembly.
Pipeline Cutting Tool
Cutting of pipeline (and coatings) to allow removal of any damaged
sections.
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Why Tooling is Needed


Equipment
Pipeline Coating
Removal Tool
External Weld Bead
Removal Tool
End Preparation Tool
Pipeline Recovery
Tool
Pipeline Repair
Clamp
Subsea Pipeline
Connectors
Replacement Spool
piece
Hydrate Blockage
Removal Spread
p

Purpose
Removal of external pipeline coatings in the vicinity of any section that has
been cut (by the Pipeline Cutting Tool). Required in the event that the Pipeline
R
Recovery
T
Tooll grips
i the
h pipeline
i li on iits externall steell surface.
f
Removal of external longitudinal weld seam (SAW linepipe) to prevent
interference on connector seal.
Machining of the end face of the pipeline to prevent interference on connector
seal.
Tool connected to the end of the cut pipeline to allow recovery to surface.
Designed to allow the pipeline be dewatered and isolated prior to recovery.
Permanent clamp installed around the pipeline in the vicinity of minor damage
(i.e. dent) for the purpose of ensuring the structural integrity of the pipeline
without the need for cutting out and replacing an entire section of pipe.
Connector assembly and modular system used for the installation and
connection of a new section of pipeline.
New section of pipeline used to replace area of damage.
Accidental ingress of moisture into the pipeline can cause formation of a
hydrate
y
p
plug.
g Hydrate
y
removal is p
possible byy various p
passive methods but mayy
ultimately require a deepwater hot-tap operation at actual location of the
hydrate where the spread taps a hole into the pipeline and injects hydrate
removal chemicals.

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Example Lifting Frame

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Split
(i..e.

Repair Clamp
Sleeve))

Intellige
ent Pigging Eq
quipment

Hydrate
e Removal Sp
pread

Pipeline
e Recovery T
Tool
(with d/w
w capability)

Connec
ction System a
and
Spoolpiec
ce
d Dredging / Levelling
Seabed
Equipm
ment

Coating
g Removal Too
ol

Weld Be
ead Removal Tool

Pipe Cu
utting Tool

Metrolog
gy Unit

ROV Su
upport Vessel

Deep Water Repair System


Components

Pipelay Vessel
Dry
Local
Buckle
(recoverable)
Dry Local Buckle (nonrecoverable)
Dry Propagating Buckle
(non-recoverable)
Local Wet Buckle (non(non
recoverable)
Hydrate plug
Localised damage, no
leak
Localised damage with
leak
Rupture, local
Rupture,
extensive
length

Flooding/Dewatering / Drying
Spread (Onshore)
Pipe Lifting Device (i.e.
H-frame
es)

Damage Equipment Matrix

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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44

Repair Systems and Clubs


Equipment Name

Main Contractor / Operator


p
Systems
y
Bespoke

Chevron Petronius Repair System

Oil States / Chevron

BP Mardi Gras Pipeline Repair System

Oil States / BP

SIRCOS

ENI / Saipem (Sonsub)

Pipeline Connection and Repair Systems (PCRS)

Oceaneering

Total Girassol Pipeline Repair System

Subsea 7
Repair Clubs

Shell Deepwater Pipeline Repair System

Shell HOLD (there are two version of the Shell club?)

DW RUPE

DW RUPE

Pipeline Repair System Pool

Technip (Norway), Deep Ocean, Statoil


Newly Founded Repair Clubs

Emergency Pipeline Repair Equipment Sharing


(EPRES)
??
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South East Asia Pipeline Operators Group (SEAPOG)


Pipeline Repair Operators Forum Australasia (PROFA)

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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45

Candidate Systems Capability


Pipeline Repair Systems

Up to 3500m

Sonsubs SIRCOS currently can work up to 2200m

Saipem indicates it can be upgraded for higher water depths

Deepwater Pipeline Repair System from Oceaneering and Oil States

Oceaneering indicates depth requirement of 3500m can be

currently rated to about 3000m.

designed and manufactured


Oil States indicates further tests are required to re-qualify their
system for 3500m rating

EPRSCapabilityinTermsofMEIDPRequirements
Oil States
OilStates

Saipem

Oceaneering

210%
200%
190%
180%
170%

PercenttageofRequirements

160%
150%
140%
130%
120%
110%
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

WaterDepth
(m)

ConnectorSize WallThickness
(in)
(mm)

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SeabedSlope
(deg)

SeabedSoil PipelineCoating
Concrete
Strength(kPa)
(mm)
Coating(mm)
<600m

Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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46

Summary of Inspection for Deepwater Pipelines

Intelligent pigging is the primary form of internal inspection


ROV are the primary tool for performing external inspection
The development of AUVs for flypast inspections may give benefits deepwater by

isolating the vehicle from surface influences

Risk Based methods have been established for determining Inspection regimes (DnV

RP116)

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47

Summary of Repair for Deepwater Pipelines


Installation Phase

Damage scenarios during installations and operation pose differing levels of risk.
The most significant potential damage scenarios during the installation phase are

dry and wet buckles.

The technology and methodologies required for rectification of installation phase

damage (i.e.
(i e buckles) are a direct extension of techniques used for similar events in
shallow water, and currently exists with installation contractors and specialist
equipment suppliers.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


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Summary of Repair for Deepwater Pipelines


Operational Phase

Several potential damage scenarios exist during the operational phase. The most

significant are where a damaged section of pipeline needs to be reinforced, replaced


or cleared of a hydrate blockage.
Where a replacement pipeline section is required, the length could vary significantly
d
depending
di on th
the nature
t
off th
the eventt causing
i the
th damage
d
(a
( ffew meters
t
to
t severall
kilometres in the event of a geohazard (i.e. slope instability).
There is a wide range of qualified or nearly qualified equipment for the subsea
repair both currently available and under continual development.
repair,
development The equipment
exists both as individual components (equipment, tools and fittings) and full
systems.
Some repair systems are owned and operated on a club
club basis,
basis by a group or
consortia of pipeline operators. The clubs at present operate in specific
geographical locations.
The need to access the p
pipeline
p
at both ends for the p
purpose
p
of re-commissioning
g
(i.e. flooding, cleaning, dewatering, etc.), is inherent in many of the repair scenarios.
Access facilities and the provision of adequate space for equipment (particularly
dewatering) are significant.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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49

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank South Asia Gas Enterprise PVT Ltd. for giving permission to
publish aspects of this work, and the team in Peritus, for their continued hard work.

Deep and Ultra-deepwater Pipelines Conference


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Inspection Maintenance and Repair of


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50

References

I Nash & P Roberts OPT 2011,


2011 MEIDP The Deepwater Gas Route to India
India, February

23-24,
I Nash & P Roberts DUDPC 2011, Case Study: MEIDP Installation, intervention and
Repair,
p , Sept
p 27-28
Peritus International, 18001.01-REP-IIDP-Y-0014 MEIDP, Emergency Pipeline Repair
Systems, Aug 2011
Peritus International, 18001.01-REP-IIDP-Y-0007 MEIDP Quantified Risk
Assessment Update, Dec 2010
Dan McLeod, Emerging Capabilities for Autonomous Inspection Repair and
Maintenance, OCEANS 2010 (ART)
DNV RP-F116 Integrity Management of Submarine Pipeline Systems
DNV RP-F113 Subsea Pipeline Repair

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