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Adaptive Amplitude Modulation

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www.elsevier.de/aeue

amplitude demodulator for sensors and instrumentation applications

Santanu Sarma

ISRO Satellite Centre, Control Systems Group, Vimanapura Po, Airport Road, Bangalore 560017, India

Received 15 March 2007; accepted 19 June 2007

Abstract

An adaptive technique is presented that performs synchronous amplitude demodulation while adaptively canceling systematic disturbancesfrequently encountered in sensors and instrumentation applications. The method is effective in jointly

estimating and tracking the signal amplitude along with additive DC bias, interfering sinusoids, or exponentially decaying transients. Lyapunov method is used to study the stability and convergence of the proposed technique. In addition, the extension

of the algorithm for multiple sinusoid case is also presented. Computer simulations and the experimental results are included

to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed scheme in applications like resolver, synchros, and power

system relays. It can easily be implemented in cost effective manner requiring minimal computation effort and hardware.

2007 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Amplitude demodulation; Amplitude estimation and tracking; Disturbance cancellation; Adaptive algorithms

1. Introduction

Amplitude demodulation nds many practical applications in elds like communication systems [1], sensor

instrumentation [24], signal processing, and system identication. Different approaches [1] are found in literature for

demodulation of amplitude modulated (AM) ordinary, single side band (SSB), and double side band (DSB) signals.

The lter method [1] is commonly used when the delay introduced by the ltering is tolerable. On the contrary, when

such delay becomes detrimental, synchronous techniques

are employed [2,3,8,9]. The technique in [2] is faster in

settling time when compared to the lter method, which,

however, is at the cost of precise clock timing relations. It is

also more susceptible to noise and systematic disturbances

at the input signal resulting in substantial distortion of the

demodulated signal. The closed loop techniques in [3] is,

Tel.: +91 080 25082316; fax: +91 080 25082321.

1434-8411/$ - see front matter 2007 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2007.06.006

it has a better noise suppression capability. In [4] a visionbased navigational sensor (VISNAV) is presented that demodulates the multiple position dependent signals from the

position sensitive diodes (PSD) to obtain their magnitudes.

The calculated magnitudes are further used in the attitude

estimation algorithm for navigation solution. However, it is

observed that the complete system was constrained by the

computation complexity of amplitude demodulation, which

could only be tackled using multirate processing techniques

in a high performance DSP. Another interesting example

is presented in [5] where a phase-locked loop (PLL) based

real-time approach is proposed to measure particle velocity

using laser Doppler velocimeter data. The electrical signal

from the photo-detector has time varying amplitude modulated over a carrier and DC bias [4]. The analog PLL will

cause degraded tracking and estimation performance of the

particle velocity, as the DC bias and the time varying amplitude severely affects the stability and the range of operation

of the analog PLL [12]. However, with adaptive cancellation

an automatic gain tuning (AGC) circuit, performance of the

laser Doppler velocimetry can be improved. Besides, in application like relays that protects the power systems, the input modulated signal can also have a DC bias [6], or an

exponentially decaying transient [7], which severely effects

the estimation of the relay parameters for protecting the

transmission lines. To solve this, computationally intensive

DFT-based techniques are used to remove the additive DC

bias and the exponential transient from the modulated input

sinusoid signal. Moreover, these methods that are generally

ofine, do not work when even order harmonics are present

at the input signal [6]. Further, it has been observed in many

situations, such disturbances are time varying, and the techniques having the capability to adapt to such changes are

more effective.

In this paper, a simple computationally efcient, online

technique is presented that performs synchronous amplitude

demodulation, with the capability to adaptively cancel systematic disturbances like DC bias, decaying transient, and

low frequency interfering sinusoids. The method is effective in estimating and tracking the magnitude of an additive

DC bias, interfering sinusoid, and exponentially decaying

transient signal. The stability and convergence of the proposed algorithm is studied using Lyapunov methods and it is

showed that the proposed demodulator is globally exponentially convergent. Further, an extension of the algorithm is

also provided for multiple sinusoids. Computer simulation

and experimental results are included to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the method in many practical

scenarios.

The paper is organized in six sections. Section 2 describes

the structure of the algorithm and the basic assumptions.

The stability and convergence study is included in Section 3;

whereas extension of the algorithm for multiple sinusoidal

cases is included in Section 4. Section 5 includes the simulation result and different case studies. Finally, the conclusion

is drawn in Section 6.

x (t)

439

g0 s

m0

d(t )

x(t)

e(t)

2g1 s

Cos(1(t))

m1

x(t) = m0 + m1 cos(1 (t)),

(1)

magnitude and the phase of the sinusoid respectively. It is

assumed that the phase (or the frequency) 1 (t) = 1 t is

known and the disturbances and the magnitude of the sinusoid are constants. The problem considered here is to nd

the estimates of the amplitude and the disturbance in the

sinusoid, which is represented by m

0 and m

1 , respectively.

The block diagram of the algorithm is shown in Fig. 1

where an estimate of the incoming signal x(t)

given by

1 (t) cos(1 (t))

x(t)

=m

0 (t) + m

(2)

d(t) = x(t) x(t).

a sinusoid of the same phase and integrated to obtain magnitude of the sinusoid. Similarly, the integration of the difference signal gives the estimate of the DC bias. Thus the

equations describing the algorithm are as follows:

d

m

0 (t) = g0 d(t),

dt

d

m

1 (t) = 2g1 d(t) cos(1 (t)).

dt

(3)

(4)

3. Analysis

2. Adaptive synchronous amplitude

demodulator

The proposed algorithm is similar to least mean square

(LMS) adaptive algorithm which takes the advantage of

gradient techniques. Adaptive techniques have been classically used in applications where stationary and time invariant systems are assumed and the convergence properties

have been veried for a wide range of applications. However, they have also been used for non-stationary and time

varying systems with appreciable performance. The proposed demodulator has these advantages making it widely

applicable.

The block diagram representation of the proposed demodulator is shown in Fig. 1. Let us consider a sinusoid signal

out using similar approach as that of the LMS algorithm.

It can be shown to have unbiased global convergence by

using Lyapunovs method [11]. For this we consider the

error dynamics representation of the algorithm as described

in (8). When difference signal d(t) is expanded, we get

d(t) = (m0 m

0 (t)) + (m1 m

1 (t)) cos(1 (t)),

(5)

d

0 (t))

m

0 (t) = g0 (m0 m

dt

+ g0 (m1 m

1 (t)) cos(1 (t)),

(6)

d

m

1 (t) = 2g1 (m0 m

0 (t)) cos(1 (t))

dt

1 (t))cos2 (1 (t)).

+ 2g1 (m1 m

(7)

440

0 (t) =

m0 m

0 (t) and m

1 (t) = m1 m

1 (t), we get

function such that

0 (t) = g0 m

m

0 (t) g0 cos(1 (t))m

1 (t),

1 ) = 2g1 [m

0 +m

1 cos 1 (t)]2 < 0,

V (m

0, m

m

0 (t) 2g1 cos2 (1 (t))m

1 (t).

that the system (8) is globally asymptotically stable if (13)

is satised, for all values of 1 . In other words, the estimator

described by (3) and (4) converges globally when both the

gains are positive. However, the convergence time of the

estimator is related to the initial condition of the states as it is

a closed loop parameter estimator. In similar approach, it can

be shown that the estimator converges for additive sinusoidal

disturbance and exponentially decaying transients.

(8)

where

T

X(t) = [m

0 m

1 ] , we get

A(t) =

g0

g0 cos(1 (t))

.

(9)

point of this error system can be found by setting the righthand sides of (8) to zero. It can be noted that the error

system (8) has only one equilibrium point at (0,0) for any

value of 1 (t). In other words, the system described by (3)

and (4) has innite equilibrium points and the estimator

provides an unbiased estimate of the magnitudes, which is

very important for the estimation of the DC bias and the

magnitude of the sinusoid to converge to the actual values.

The characteristic equation at a particular value of 1 (t) is

given by

|(sI A)| = s[s + (g0 + 2g1 cos2 1 )],

(10)

where I represent an unity matrix of order 2, |.| the determinant, and s the Laplace operator. From (10) it is evident

that this type 1 system is stable for positive values of g0 and

g1 that makes the root negative.

To determine the global convergence, we nd the stability

of the error system (8) using Lyapunovs method. Let us

dene a Lyapunov function [11] give by

V (m

0, m

1) =

m

20

m

2

+ 1,

2

2

The basic block diagram presented in Fig. 1 can be extended for multiple sinusoids with known frequencies as illustrated in Fig. 2. It can be noted that a special case of

the above extension is the case of periodic signals with harmonic contents, in which the extended portions to the basic

building block can be obtained by suitably multiplying the

phase component 1 of the cosine carrier. This simplies

the knowledge of the each frequency components and can

be obtained by using techniques like phase locked loop. In

other words, the proposed extension to the basic algorithm

can work like an online Fourier series analyzer and nd applications in many signal processing applications like speech

tone detection [13]. The extended version of the algorithm,

the output of each extended portions are added to produce

reconstructed signal. The difference between the input and

the reconstructed signal is used as the error signal for the

extended portions. The stability of the extended system can

also be arrived using similar method as in Section 3. Additionally, the estimation of the frequencies can be combined

with it making it a useful estimator and demodulator for FM

and PM signals.

(11)

x(t)

show the convergence of the system described by (3) and

(4) by showing the negative deniteness of the derivative

of the Lyapunov function. The derivative of the Lyapunov

function, given by

jV dm

0

1

jV dm

V (m

0, m

+

,

1) =

jm

0 dt

jm

1 dt

g0 s

x(t )

Cos(1(t))

2g1 s

2g2 s

Cos( n(t))

m1

m2

Cos(2 (t))

(12)

m0

d (t )

= [g0 m

0 + 2g1 m

1 cos 1 (t)]

[m

0 +m

1 cos 1 (t)]

(14)

2 gn s

mn

0, m

1 ) < 0 for the condition,

g0 = 2g1 , g0 > 0, g1 > 0.

(13)

Input Signal Tracking

3

xcap

x

Magnitude

Magnitude

0

-2

x1cap

x1

2

1

0

-1

10

10

20

30

Magnitude

Magnitude

m0cap

m0

0.5

60

70

80

90

100

m0

m0cap

1

0.5

0

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

m1

m1cap

Magnitude

Magnitude

50

1.5

1.5

1

0

40

441

0

-1

-2

10

time

m1

m1cap

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

time

and synchros.

Input Signal Tracking

Magnitude

-5

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

80

90

100

Magnitude

0.02

0.01

0

-0.01

-0.02

-0.03

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

6

Magnitude

for few practical scenarios are presented. Different interesting cases of the proposed algorithm is considered and simulation results showing the tracking of the desired input,

additive disturbance, and the estimation and tracking of the

magnitude of the input sinusoid is plotted.

The cases considered are practically encountered in many

elds as described in Section 1. The most common case is

shown in Fig. 3 that illustrates the estimation of the magnitude of the sinusoid, and the additive DC bias in presence

of noise. As seen from Fig. 3, the estimator gives an unbiased estimate and its convergence time can be reduced by

adjusting the gains.

Fig. 4 shows its use as an amplitude demodulator. Though

the demodulation of the SSB [10] modulated signal is performed with a DC bias of 1, the technique can demodulate

the ordinary amplitude modulated signal with modulation

index [10] greater than one, i.e. the case of over-modulated

signal. The ordinary AM signal has the form xAM (t) = [A +

m(t)] cos(c t) for which the modulation index is dened as

= | min{m(t)}|/A [10]. It is interesting to note that even

though the estimator has not been developed for the ordinary

amplitude modulator, but it effectively demodulates the signal while adjusting the effect to the disturbance estimation

as seen in Fig. 5.

4

2

0

-2

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

time

greater than one (over modulation).

442

Input Signal Tracking

4

xcap

x

2

0

Magnitude

Magnitude

-2

-4

2

0

-2

-4

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

20

1

0

Magnitude

Magnitude

m0

m0cap

80

100

-1

1

0

m0

m0ap

-1

-2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

20

40

60

80

100

3

m1

m1cap

2

0

Magnitude

4

Magnitude

60

-2

40

2

1

m1

m1cap

-2

-4

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

time

20

40

60

80

100

time

Magnitude

6

xcap

x

4

2

0

-2

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Magnitude

6

m0cap

m0

4

2

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Magnitude

4

2

0

m1

m1cap

-2

-4

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

time

Fig. 7. Amplitude demodulation in presence of exponentially decaying transients for relay applications.

The synchronous demodulation of the amplitude in presence of a sinusoidal disturbance is shown in Fig. 6. Both the

disturbance and the demodulated amplitude are of similar

magnitude and frequency.

One practical signal that is encounter in relays [6,7]

during short circuits is effectively tracked while estimating the transient involved in the input as shown in Fig. 7.

Many FFT-based techniques [7] which are computationally intensive are practically used to solve and estimate the

same.

Unlike the common amplitude demodulators, this demodulator does not introduce extra delay in the demodulated

signal, which is quite often an important requirement in

sensor processing and control applications. Such an example is the processing of the resolver amplitude modulated

signals in resolver-to-digital (R/D) converter [8,9]. In nonideal resolver due to the harmonic distortion, an additive DC

bias and harmonics contents is present in the output, which

degrades the performance of many R/D converters. In such

situations, the use of the proposed demodulator and its extension can signicantly improve the performance of the

R/D converters. In addition to that, it can also be used for

disturbance cancellations.

The amplitude estimation in presence of sinusoidal disturbance and exponentially decaying transients are shown in

Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. As seen for, the estimator has

work wells for both disturbance and magnitude decaying

Input Signal Tracking

Magnitude

10

xcap

x

5

0

10

20

30

40

50

Magnitude

6

m0cap

m0

xcap

x

5

0

-5

-10

Magnitude

Magnitude

10

-5

443

10

15

20

25

30

35

Disturbance Signal Tracking

40

m0cap

m0

1

0

-1

-2

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

10

20

30

40

50

Magnitude

8

0

m1cap

m1

6

4

2

0

m1cap

m1

6

4

2

0

10

20

30

40

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

50

time

transients.

Magnitude

Magnitude

50

45

3.5

3

m2cap

m2

2.5

2

1.5

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

time

of sinusoidal disturbance.

algorithm can nd multiple applications.

Its usefulness is also observed for amplitude-modulated

signals with multiple components as shown in Fig. 10. The

input signal consists of two components: one having constant amplitude sinusoid of frequencies 6 Hz and the other

a decaying exponential having frequencies of 5 Hz. A sinusoidal disturbance was also added to form the input signal.

The tracking of all the components are illustrated in Fig. 10

showing its broader area of applicability.

Further, experimental result obtained using an ADSP20262 kit for a modulated resolver output at 4 KHz is presented in Fig. 11, to validate the digital implementation of

the algorithm using bilinear transform. Both the input and

the output signals are suitably scaled to meet the ADC and

DAC ranges of the DSP board.

6. Conclusions

In this paper an adaptive technique has been proposed to

jointly estimate and track the amplitude of a sinusoid along

with the estimation and tracking of a DC bias, lightly damped

exponentially decaying transients, and low frequency sinusoidal disturbances. The algorithm is very simple and easy

to implement. The unbiased global convergence of the estimator has been shown using Lyapunov method. Its extension

Kit using the proposed method.

cases of practical importance have been simulated showing

its usefulness and applicability. Experimental result of DSP

implementation using bilinear transforms in demodulating a

resolver sensor output at 4 kHz is also provided to show its

effectiveness.

444

References

[1] Yam Y-O, Wong K-H. Innovative demodulation method

for SSB technique. IEE Proc-Circuits Devices Syst

1999;146(3):14852.

[2] Koukourlis CS, Trigonidis VK, Sahalos JN. Differential

synchronous demodulation for small signal amplitude

estimation. IEEE Trans Instrum Measure 1993;42(5):92631.

[3] Talbot D.B. Closed loop amplitude demodulator, United

States Patent, Patent no. 4404194, September 6, 1983.

[4] Gunnam KK, Hughes DC, Junkins JL, Kehtarnavaz N. A

vision-based DSP embedded navigation sensor. IEEE Sensors

J 2002;2(5):42842.

[5] Duff AL, Plantier G, Valire J-C, Bosch T. Analog sensor

design proposal for laser doppler velocimetry. IEEE Sensors

J 2004;4(2):25761.

[6] Gu J-C, Yu S-L. Removal of DC offset in current and voltage

signals using a novel Fourier lter algorithm. IEEE Trans

Power Deliv 2000;15(1):739.

[7] Guo Y, Kezunovic M, Chen D. Simplied algorithms

for removal of the effect of exponentially decaying DCoffset on the Fourier algorithm. IEEE Trans Power Deliv

2003;18(3):7117.

[8] Bnte A, Beineke S. High-performance speed measurement

by suppression of systematic resolver and encoder errors.

IEEE Trans Ind Elect 2004;51(1):4953.

[9] Benammar M, Ben-Brahim L, Alhamadi MA. A novel

resolver-to-360 linearized converter. IEEE Sensors J 2004;

4(1):96101.

[10] Hsu HP. Theory and problems of analog and digital

communications. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International

Editions; 1993.

and robustness. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1989.

[12] Stensby J. Phase-Locked Loops: theory and applications.

Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press; 1997.

[13] Kilani MT, Chicharo JF. A constrained notch Fourier

transform. IEEE Trans Signal Process . 1995;43(2):205867.

S. Sarma received his Bachelor Degree

in Electrical Engineering from National

Institute of Technology, Agartala, (formerly, Tripura Engineering College) in

1999 and his M.Tech in Electronics and

Communication Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

(IITG) in 2002. Since 2002, he has been

with the Control System Group of ISRO

Satellite Centre as a researcher. He has

been involved in design and development of Attitude & Orbit

Control System, ASIC based design of Bus Management Unit for

different class of satellites, UML modeling of large software systems, and DSP based system design. His research interests include

modeling and analysis of control systems, embedded computing

systems, and VLSI signal processing. He has been the recipient of

the national talent scholarship, GATE scholarship, and the winner

of the gold medal of Tripura University. He is a member of IEEE

and IETE, India.

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