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You are on page 1of 8

2010 Korea Concrete Institute, ISBN 978-89-5708-182-2

slabs

J. H. Chung & J. H. Park

H. K. Choi

S. C. LEE

C. S. CHOI

ABSTRACT: This paper presents optimal hollow sphere shapes in a biaxial hollow slab. To derive optimal hollow shapes, numerical simulations using nonlinear Finite Element Methods were executed by the nonlinear finite element program LUSAS. Recently, various types of slab systems which can reduce self-weight of slabs

have been studied as the height and width of building structures rapidly increase. A biaxial hollow slab system

is widely known as one of the effective slab system which can reduce self-weight of slab. A biaxial hollow slab

has hollow spheres within slab in order to reduce self-weight of slab. Because of reducing self-weight of slab

by hollow spheres, size of vertical elements like walls and columns can be smaller and slabs span can be longer.

A capacity of biaxial hollow slabs is influenced by the shape and volume of hollow spheres. Therefore, in this

study, several biaxial hollow slabs which have different shapes of hollow spheres were analyzed by using the finite element method program in order to derive optimal hollow sphere shapes.

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Preface

In building, the slab is very important structural

member to make a space. And Slab is one of the

largest member consuming concrete. In a general

way, the slab was designed only to resist vertical

load. However, deflection and vibration of slab are

also considered recently because people are getting

more interest of residential environment. In addition,

when span of the building is increasing, deflection of

slab is more important. Therefore, the slab thickness

is on the increase. The increasing of slab thickness

makes slab heavier, and it leads to increase column

and base size. Thus, it makes building consume more

materials such as concrete and steel. Moreover, the

increasing of weight is harmful for building when

earthquake occur.

To avoid these disadvantages which were caused

by increasing of self-weight of slabs, the biaxial hollow slab system, also known as void slab, was suggested. This slab system could optimize the size of

vertical members like walls and columns by lightening the weight of slabs. Therefore, it got attention

because it made efficient and economical building design possible. A capacity of biaxial hollow slab is influenced by hollow sphere shapes. However, the researches about hollow sphere shape have been

insufficient. So, in this study, several kinds of hollow

slabs which have different hollow sphere shapes were

analyzed by using finite element method program in

order to derive the optimal hollow sphere shapes and

to verify the impact of hollow shapes in biaxial hollow slabs.

1.2 Literature review

A biaxial hollow slab system was developed in 1990s.

In 21C, hollow slab systems which have same concept and different hollow shapes were invented over

USA, Europe and Japan. (See Table 1.)

According to existing hollow slab systems, selfweight reduction ratio of slab was 25~30%. And

their flexural strength was similar to solid slab.

1.3 Research objective

The aims of this research were to grasp the relationship between hollow sphere shapes and slabs

J = 1.

D (The

h, T )existing

h Hollow slab systems.

Table

(1)

Weight Strength

Void

SysName

reductem Materialcoefficient

FlexureShear

Shape

The proportionality

tion D(h,T) is called

moisture

permeability and

it is a30%

nonlinear

function

Sphere

100% 50%

Europe

of the Cobiax

relative humidity hEllipse

and temperature

T (Baant

U-Boot

35%balance

100% requires

45%

& Najjar

1972). The moisture mass

Plastic

Filithat thegreevariation in timeCuboid

of the water mass per unit

Void (water content

25%

USA

volumewide

of concrete

w) be100%

equal65%

to the

Slab

divergence

of

the

moisture

flux

J

slab

Mom30% 100% 50%

Styro- Sphere

slab

w

Japan

(2)

=EJ

J

foam

Ellipse

30% 100% 50%

t Void

* Compared to Solid slab

water,hollow

water

of

the evaporable

water we (capillary

capacities.

And development

of the optimal

vapor, shape

and adsorbed

water)

the research.

non-evaporable

sphere

was another

aimand

of this

(Mills 1966,

(chemically

bound)

water

w

n

To do these, 3 stages of analytical research

procPantazopoulo

&

Mills

1995).

It

is

reasonable

to

ess were performed by using finite element

method

assume

that

the

evaporable

water

is

a

function

of

program named LUSAS.

relative humidity, h, degree of hydration, c, and

=we(h,c,s)

degree

of silica

fume

reaction,ofhollow

s, i.e. weshape.

1) Finding

out the

parameters

=

age-dependent

sorption/desorption

isotherm

2) Grasping the impact of hollow sphere shapes

in

(Norling

Mjonell

1997).

Under

this

assumption

and

biaxial hollow slabs.

byDeveloping

substitutingtheEquation

1 intosphere

Equation

3)

optimal hollow

shape.2 one

obtains

w

we hPARAMETERSwOF

2 THE

e &HOLLOW

e & +SPHERE

w&n

+ ( D h ) =

SHAPE

(3)

c +

s

h

h t

the slope

ofcompared

the sorption/desorption

where whollow

e/h isshapes

existing

were

and analyzed

isotherm

moisture

capacity).

each

other.(also

As a called

result, three

parameters

were The

degoverning

equation

(Equation

3)

must

be

completed

rived such as typical shapes, corner radius and hole

by appropriate

boundary and initial conditions.

diameter.

(Fig. 1)

water and relative humidity is called adsorption

isotherm if measured with increasing relativity

humidity and desorption isotherm in the opposite

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al. 1994), in

a ) Typical shapes

of hollow

sphere (Hollow

the following,

sorption

isotherm

will bevolume)

used with

reference to both sorption and desorption conditions.

By the way, if the hysteresis of the moisture

isotherm would be taken into account, two different

relation, evaporable

vshollow

relative

humidity, must

b) Corner water

radius of

sphere

be used according to the sign of the variation of the

relativity humidity. The shape of the sorption

isotherm for HPC is influenced by many parameters,

especially those that influence extent and rate of the

chemical reactions and, in turn, determine pore

Hole diameter

of hollow sphere

structure andc) pore

size distribution

(water-to-cement

Figure 1. The Parameters of hollow sphere shape.

ratio, cement chemical composition, SF content,

curing

time and method, temperature, mix additives,

The section geometries of hollow spheres were

etc.).

In

the literature various formulations can be

studied to limit the field of the three-dimensional holfound

to

the sorption

isothermof of

low spheredescribe

shapes, before

the derivation

thenormal

threeconcrete (Xihollow

et al. 1994).

thethis,

present

dimensional

sphere However,

shapes. Toindo

the

paper the

expression

proposed

by

hollow

slabssemi-empirical

were modeled in

two-dimensional

plane,

Norling

Mjornell

(1997)

is

adopted

because

changing 3 parameters such as typical shapes, cornerit

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

explicitly

for the

hydration

radius

and accounts

hole diameter.

Andevolution

numericalofsimulations

reaction

and SF content.

isotherm

of

two-dimensional

hollow This

slab sorption

model were

perreads It is meaningless to perform quantitative

formed.

analysis of two-dimensional hollow slab model about

above parameters. Because

it cannot consider change

1

of hollow shapes and concrete

web

parts between

we (h, cspheres.

, ) = G ( , ) 1

+

meaningful

s

c its is

hollow

to

qualitative

1But

10(g

c )h about

analysis of two-dimensional

e 1 cslab model

hollow

(4)

the parameters to find qualitative effects on hollow

10(g )h

or concentration.

c

1 c

K ( c s ) e

physically bound (adsorbed) water and the second

term (capillary isotherm) represents the capillary

water. This expression is valid only for low content

of SF. The coefficient G1 represents the amount of

water per unit volume held in the gel pores at 100%

a )Typical

shape : Load-Deflection

(Flexural/Shear)

relative

humidity,

and it can beCurve

expressed

(Norling

Mjornell 1997) as

c c+ ks s

G ( c s ) = k vg

c vg s

(5)

maximum amount of water per unit volume that can

fill all pores (both capillary pores and gel pores), one

one obtains Curve (Flexural/Shear)

can

K1 :asLoad-Deflection

b ) calculate

Corner radius

w

1

1

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

K ( c s ) =

,

10

10

g c c h

g c c h

1

(6)

bec )calibrated

by fitting experimental data relevant to

Hole diameter : Load-Deflection Curve (Flexural/Shear)

free 2.(evaporable)

water content

Figure

2D FEM Load-Deflection

Curve. in concrete at

various ages (Di Luzio & Cusatis 2009b).

2.2 Temperature evolution

Note that,a)at0 early

mm age, since the chemical

e) 40 mmreactions

associated with cement hydration and SF reaction

are exothermic, the temperature field is not uniform

for non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental

temperature

ismm

constant. Heat conduction

b) 10

f) 50 mm can be

described in concrete, at least for temperature not

exceeding 100C (Baant & Kaplan 1996), by

Fouriers law, which reads

q

= T

c) 20 mm

g) 60 mm

(7)

d) 30and

mm is the heat conductivity;

h) 70 mm in this

temperature,

a) 0 mm

e) 40 mm

b) 20 mm

f) 50 mm

J = the

D (h,flexural

T )h strength. Concrete

method of estimating

section is based on the compatibility of strains and

equilibrium of forces

on the section

at the D(h,T)

Theacting

proportionality

coefficient

stage of failure such

as

reinforced

bar

strain

reaches

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea

0.002 or concreteofstrain

reaches humidity

0.003. Strain

conthe relative

h andoftemperature

crete and reinforced

bar

could

be

derived

by

using

& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc

equations (1) ~ (4).

that the variation in time of the water mas

s =

c) 30 mm

Figure 4. Crack pattern by hole diameter.

Figure 2, 3 and 4.

As shown Figure 2, the parameters of twodimensional hollow slab model does not affect bending strength and stiffness of slab.

However, Figure 2 shows that the parameters affect shear strength and stiffness. And Figure 3 shows

that the corner radius becomes smaller, the cracks

are concentrated more. Because of that, the early destruction occurs by the progress of cracks in shear

failure mode. And Figure 4 shows that the hole diameter becomes larger, the shear cracks are prevented.

3 SETTING UP THE HOLLOW SPHERE SHAPE

3.1 Target structure

The hollow slab system is effective when self-weight

of slab is a high rate. In other words, this system is

most effective when it is applied to thick flat plate

slabs. Therefore, target structure system was set up

wall + flat plate slab system which had 250mm

thick slab. (See Fig. 5.)

The height of hollow sphere was set up, according to

height of compressive stress block in target structure

slab. As assuming hollow shape was pipe type, the

height of compressive stress block derived by using

strain compatibility method.

The strain compatibility method is the rigorous

dp

c

divergence of the moisture flux J

(0.003) 0.003

= J

(1)

fs = s E

s

(2)

wa

of

the evaporable water we (capillary

T = As fu

(3)

vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-e

(chemically bound) water wn (Mil

'

It is reas

C = 0.85 fc 1cb Pantazopoulo & Mills 1995). (4)

assume that the evaporable water is a fu

relative humidity, h, degree of hydration

In target structure,

thesilica

height

compressive

degree of

fumeofreaction,

s, i.e. we=w

stress block was changed

by

location.

As

shown Fig= age-dependent sorption/desorption

ure 6, the height of

hollow Mjonell

sphere had

to beUnder

less than

(Norling

1997).

this assum

160mm to avoid by

development

of

compressive

stress

substituting Equation 1 into Equati

block in hollow parts.

obtainsHowever, as considered an-

height of hollow sphere

in 250mm thick

flat plate

w

w

w h

e

e & + w

e + ( D module,

slabs. Considered architectural

adequate

&

h ) =

c +

s

h

h

t

width of hollow sphere was 270mm.

c

s

isotherm (also called moisture capac

governing equation (Equation 3) must be

by appropriate boundary and initial conditi

The relation between the amount of e

water and relative humidity is called

isotherm if measured with increasing

humidity and desorption isotherm in th

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.

the following, sorption isotherm will be

reference to both sorption and desorption c

By the way, if the hysteresis of the

Figure 6. The heightisotherm

of compressive

stress

would

beblock.

taken into account, two

relation, evaporable water vs relative humi

be used according to the sign of the varia

3.3 Hollow sphere shape

relativity humidity. The shape of the

The hollow sphere

shapes for

varied

the limitation

isotherm

HPCwith

is influenced

by many p

of size. And the range

of hollow

was setextent

up and

especially

those volume

that influence

20% to 45% of one

slab module

volume

chemical

reactions

and,(300mm

in turn,x determ

300mm x 250mm).

Considered

the height

of hollow (waterstructure

and pore

size distribution

sphere, a range ofratio,

cornercement

radius ofchemical

hollow sphere

was

composition,

SF

set up 0mm to 70mm.

range

of holetemperature,

diameter mix

curingAnd

timea and

method,

was set up more etc.).

than 30mm,

considered

concrete

In the asliterature

various

formulatio

construction.

found to describe the sorption isotherm

As compared the

3 parameters

of hollow

8 in th

concrete

(Xi et al.

1994). shape,

However,

types of hollow spheres

which

were dividedexpression

into 3

paper the

semi-empirical

pro

classes. The first group

with the(1997)

typicalissphere

Norlingvaried

Mjornell

adopted b

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

J = 2.

D (The

h, T )properties

h

Table

of hollow spheres.

Solid

Sphere

Mushroom Ellipse

(1)

Rectreaction

Donuts Rect

Round RectThis

Round

Rect

andDonuts

SF content.

sorption

isotherm

Square

(D=50mm)

(D=30mm)

(R=70mm)

(R=50mm)

reads

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinear function

Shape

+

c

s

c

s

e

Volume(cm

) 6300

7650

7785

8910

10125

that the variation

in 1436

time of the5625

water mass

per unit 7380

(g

c )h

Diameter(cm)

14

27 w) be equal

27 to the 27

27

27 e 27 c

27

volume of concrete

(water

content

(4)

divergence of- the moisture

flux14J

Height(cm)

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

)h

(g

1

10

20%

25%

28%

(2)

The water

content w can

expressed

as thevaried

sum

Round

Rect(R=70mm).

Thebesecond

group

(capillary

water,

water

of

the

evaporable

water

w

with the corner radius such

as Square, Round

e

vapor, and adsorbed

water) and

the non-evaporable

Rect(R=50mm)

and Round

Rect(R=70mm).

And

(Mills such

1966,

(chemically

bound)withwater

wn diameter

the

last group varied

the hole

as

Pantazopoulo

& Mills Rect

1995).Donuts(D=50mm)

It is reasonableand

to

Round

Rect(R=70mm),

assume

that

the

evaporable

water

is

a

function

of

Rect Donuts(D=30mm). Further information and

and

relative humidity,

h, degree

hydration,

c, 2.

properties

of the hollow

spheresofare

shown Table

= age-dependent sorption/desorption isotherm

Mjonell

1997). OF

Under

this assumption

4(Norling

3D FEM

ANALYSIS

HOLLOW

SLAB and

by substituting Equation 1 into Equation 2 one

obtains

4.1

Modeling

To derive the optimal hollow shape, numerical simuw

w

w h

lations

using

nonlinear Finite

were

e &Element

e &Methods

&program

+ ( D h ) =

e

(3)

c +

s + wn

h nonlinear

performed

finite

element

h t by the

c

s

LUSAS. To perform numerical simulations of the

slabs by using finite element method, two dimenis theoften

slopeused

of the

sorption/desorption

where model

we/hwas

sional

when

slabs were uniisotherm

(also

called

moisture

capacity).

The

form in transverse axis. However, in the

case of biaxgoverning

equation

(Equation

3)

must

be

completed

ial hollow slabs, it was impossible to use twoby appropriate

boundary

andofinitial

conditions.section

dimensional

model

because

the unequally

The relation

between

the amount

of evaporable

geometry

along the

longitudinal

and transverse

axis

water

and

relative

humidity

is

called

by extraordinary hollow sphere shape. adsorption

So, it was

isothermusing

if measured

with increasing

relativity

modeled

three-dimensional

model which

could

humidity

and

desorption

isotherm

in

the

opposite

be considered concrete web parts between hollow

case. Neglecting

their

(Xi et al.

1994),elein

spheres

like Figure

7. difference

And to generate

a finite

the

following,

sorption

isotherm

will

be

used

with

ment mesh of the hollow slab which has extraordireference

to of

both

sorption

and inside,

desorption

conditions.

nary

shapes

hollow

sphere

tetrahedral

eleBy

the

way,

if

the

hysteresis

of

the

moisture

ments which have four nodes were used because

isotherm

would

be taken

account, two

different

other

mesh

elements

such into

as Pentahedral

or Hexaherelation,

evaporable

water

vs

relative

humidity,

dral were not able to generate the geometry ofmust

the

be usedslab.

according to the sign of the variation of the

hollow

relativity

humidity.

The

of perform

the sorption

Two material

models

wereshape

used to

nonliisotherm

HPC ismethod

influenced

by many

near

finitefor

element

analysis.

The parameters,

one, which

especially

those that influence

and rate

of the

was

used reinforced

steel bar, extent

is bi-linear

model

of

chemical

reactions

and,

in

turn,

determine

pore

steel. It is assumed that steel behavior will be totally

structure and inpore

size and

distribution

(water-to-cement

elasto-plastic

tensile

compressive

loading conratio, cement

SF content,

dition.

(See Fig.chemical

8-a) Andcomposition,

another material

model,

curing

time

and

method,

temperature,

mix

additives,

which was used concrete, is LUSAS concrete

model

etc.).ItIncan

the consider

literaturemulti-cracks

various formulations

canand

be

94.

of concrete

found

to

describe

the

sorption

isotherm

of

normal

strength softening of concrete.(Fig. 8-b)

concrete

(Xi et al. 1994).

in the present

The convergence

studyHowever,

was performed

about

paper

the

semi-empirical

expression

proposed

by

mesh size ranged 20mm~150mm to verify

the nuNorling

Mjornell

(1997)

is

adopted

because

merical simulation result. The result converged whenit

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

32.8%

K (34.6%

c s )e

34%

c 45%

39.6%

mesh

was

30mm

27.1kN.

Thisrepresents

is theoretical

wheresize

the

firstequations

term into

(gel

isotherm)

the

value

by

using

(5),

(6).

physically bound (adsorbed) water and the second

a

' '

' ' for low

'

water.

As f yexpression

A f )( d is

valid

) + Aonly

M n = (This

f ( d d ) content

(5)

s

s

s

s

of SF. The coefficient G12 represents the amount of

water per unit volume held in the gel pores at 100%

2 Mhumidity,

relative

and it can be expressed (Norling

n

Pn =

(6)

Mjornell

1997)

as

l

c the hollow

s slab model was generated

this study,

( ) = k c + k s

G In

(5)

c s vg c vg s

,

maximum amount of water per unit volume that can

fill all pores (both capillary pores and gel pores), one

can calculate K1 as one obtains

w

1

1

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

10

g c c h

(6)

=

Figure

element mesh

modeling

(In the view of the

10 g

h

cross-section).

c

1 c

e

be calibrated by fitting experimental data relevant to

free (evaporable) water content in concrete at

various ages (Di Luzio & Cusatis 2009b).

2.2 Temperature

evolution

a) Bi-linear model

b) LUSAS Concrete Model 94

Figure

8. Nonlinear

model. the chemical reactions

Note that,

at earlymaterial

age, since

associated with cement hydration and SF reaction

are exothermic, the temperature field is not uniform

for non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental

temperature is constant. Heat conduction can be

described in concrete, at least for temperature not

exceeding 100C (Baant & Kaplan 1996), by

Fouriers law, which reads

40

39

38

37

36

35

34

Load (kN)

Weight reduc0%

tionw(%)

= J

10

33

32

31

30

= T

(7)

29

28

Pn 27

26

temperature, and is the heat conductivity; in this

25

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

= D (h, T )were

h fixed. Because, In

The conditions ofJ support

FEM Analysis, simple supported condition might

bring about error such

stress concentration.

The D(h,T)

The asproportionality

coefficient

reason of using distributed

load

was

the

same.

Loads

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea

were imposed onof slabs

in order

likes self-weight,

the relative

humidity

h and temperature

dead load and live&load

until

the

slab

was

destroyed.

Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc

Further information

properties

that the and

variation

in timeofof hollow

the water mas

sphere is shown Table

3.

volume of concrete (water content w) be eq

divergence of the moisture flux J

use of small mesh size less than 30mm did not change

the results significantly, but led to an increased computation time. The relationship between mesh size

and convergent tendency in this hollow slab model is

shown Figure 9.

4.2 Hollow slab analysis model

To perform 3D nonlinear FEM analysis, the properties of hollow slab model was idealized. It had 8.9m

length, 300mm width. The reasons of performing

idealize process are like this

It was possible to estimate the whole capacity of

slab with the capacity of one module slab model because hollow spheres were located with uniform gap

toward width direction of slab.

So, to compare the impact of hollow shapes on

flexural capacity of slabs, it was enough to perform

FEM analysis with one module model of slab. And

this way was time-efficient than using whole slab

model.

5 RESULTS ANDANALYSIS

w

fck

Fy

185kg/m2

Live load

200kg/m2 ~

24 MPa

400 MPa

28.2% 25.1%

24.6%

23.6%

Deflection at

2.16

1.86

1.72

1.68

D.L (mm)

Deflection at

22.42 21.32

22.60

23.71

U.L (mm)

Failure mode

F

F

F

F

at Design Load

Failure mode

F

F

F

F

at U.L

* F : Flexural Crack Occur, S : Shear Crack Occur

= J

water applied

content above

w can be

expressed a

The 3D hollow slabThe

models,

hollow

(capillary

wa

of

the

evaporable

water

w

spheres (Table 2), were analyzed by numerical

e simuvapor, Finite

and adsorbed

andprothe non-e

lations using nonlinear

Element water)

Method

(chemically bound) water wn (Mil

gram.

Pantazopoulo

& Mills

1995). It is reas

Table 4 is shown

that results

of computation

evaporable

water is a fu

about 8 cases ofassume

hollow that

slabsthe

which

can be distinhydration

guished by hollowrelative

sphere humidity,

shapes andh,1 degree

case of of

solid

degree of silica fume reaction, s, i.e. we=w

slab.

age-dependent

sorption/desorption

In the results =

of computation,

8 cases

of hollow

Mjonellload.

1997).

slabs were judged(Norling

safe in design

AndUnder

somethis

of assum

substituting

Equation

1 into

hollow slabs showbya good

load bearing

capacity

and Equati

obtains

stiffness, compared

with solid slab,

The results, analyzed more concretely, are as follows:

w

w

w h

e ultimate

e & + w

&

) = and

+ design

(D

e

h

As compared difference

load

c +

s

h

h t

load, hollow slab applied 'Rect Donuts(D=50mm)'

c

s

was shown the largest difference, 26.24kN. It means

additional load bearing

capacity

dead

theslab

slopeafter

of the

sorption/

where w

e/h is of

load. Because a isotherm

dead load (also

varied called

with hollow

vol- capac

moisture

ume, it was reasonable

to compare

capacity

governing

equation real

(Equation

3) of

must be

hollow slab.

by appropriate boundary and initial conditi

The deflections inThe

design

loadbetween

were varied

with of e

relation

the amount

weight reductionwater

of slabs.

Round Rect(R=50mm)

and relative

humidity is called

Rect

Rect

Donuts

Solid Sphere

Mushroom Ellipse

Donuts

(D=30)

(D=50)

Self-weight

5.9

4.7

4.4

4.2

3.9

3.9

(kN/m2)

Dead Load

9.7

8.5

8.2

8

7.7

7.7

(kN/m2)

Ultimate Load

34.36 33.80

33.35

33.97

33.94

33.50

(kN/m2)

Dead Load

Ultimate Load

Width

300 mm

Height

250 mm

Length

8900 mm

Upper D10 x 2

Reinforced bar

Lower D13 x 2

Boundary condition

Fixed end

Self-weight

330~600kg/m2

Load

Dead load

22.7%

23.0%

1.57

1.58

23.33

24.02

humidity and desorption isotherm in th

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.

theRound

following,Round

sorptionSquare

isotherm will be

Rect(R=70)

Rect(R=50)

reference to both

sorption and desorption c

By3.8the way,3.5if the hysteresis

of the

3.2

isotherm would be taken into account, two

relation,

evaporable

water vs relative humi

7.3

be7.6

used according

to the7 sign of the varia

relativity

humidity.

The

shape of the

33.12

32.08

28.50

isotherm for HPC is influenced by many p

especially

those

that influence

extent and

22.9%

22.8%

chemical

reactions

and,24.6%

in turn, determ

structure

and 1.56

pore size distribution

(water1.61

1.61

ratio, cement chemical composition, SF

curing

method,22.30

temperature, mix

24.23time and

24.68

etc.). In the literature various formulatio

found

to describe

the sorption

isotherm

F

F

F

concrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in th

paper

the semi-empirical

F

F

F+S expression pro

Norling Mjornell (1997) is adopted b

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

Load(kN/mm )

Dead Load(Solid)

c c+ ks s

G (5c s ) = k vg

c vg s

,

(5)

0

0

Deflection(mm)

10

15

20

25

where kcvg and ksvg areDeflection(mm)

a

)Typical

shape

: Load-Deflection

Curve that can

maximum

amount of water

per unit volume

35

fill all poresSolid

(both capillary pores and gel pores), one

one obtains

can 30calculateRound

K1 as

Rect(r=70mm)

Round Rect(r=50mm)

Square

25

20

K ( c s ) =

15

,

10

1

1

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

10

g c c h

10

g c c h

e

Dead Load(Solid)

10

(6)

Load

The

materialDead

parameters

kcvg and ksvg and g1 can

(Round

Rect(r=50mm)

5

Rect(r=70mm)

be calibrated by(Round

fitting

experimental data relevant to

(Square)

free 0 (evaporable) water content in concrete at

0

10

25

various

ages (Di5 Luzio &

Cusatis152009b). 20

5

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.2

3.4

3.6

3.8

4.0

Deflection(mm)

Deflection(mm)

Solid

Note30 that, atRound

early

age, since the chemical reactions

Rect(r=70mm)

Rect Donut(D=30mm)

associated with

cement

hydration and SF reaction

Rect Donut(D=50mm)

are 25exothermic,

the temperature field is not uniform

for 20non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental

temperature is constant. Heat conduction can be

described

in concrete, at least for temperature not

15

exceeding 100C

(Baant & Kaplan 1996), by

Dead Load(Solid)

10

Fouriers law, which

reads

Dead Load

10.0

9.5

L o ad (k N /m m 2 )

By theImpact

way,ofifcorner

the radius

hysteresis of the moisture

5.2.2

isotherm

would

be taken

into radius,

account,4-types

two different

To

compare

impact

of corner

hollow

relation,

evaporable

water

vs

relative

humidity,

must

spheres having different corner radius were used.

be

used

according

to

the

sign

of

the

variation

of

Figure 10-b) was shown the load-deflection curvethe

of

relativity

humidity.

The

shape

of

the

sorption

the having different corner radius such as Solid,

isothermRect(R=70mm),

for HPC is influenced

many parameters,

Round

Round by

Rect(R=50mm)

especially

those

that

influence

extent

rate ofand

the

Square. It showed as following. Like and

a tendency

of

chemical

reactions

and,

in

turn,

determine

pore

2D FEM analysis, when corner radius was increased,

structure

and pore

size distribution

slab

stiffness

and strength

tended (water-to-cement

to be increased.

ratio, cement

chemical

composition,

content,

However,

as seeing

the deflection

at deadSFload,

stiffcuring

time

and

method,

temperature,

mix

additives,

ness was not only according to changing of corner

etc.). In

formulations

be

radius

butthe

alsoliterature

changingvarious

of hollow

volume by can

corner

found

to

describe

the

sorption

isotherm

of

normal

radius.

concrete

(Xi when

et al. corner

1994). radius

However,

in the present

Therefore,

was increasing

and

paper

the

semi-empirical

expression

by

the other conditions were same, stiffnessproposed

and strength

Norling

Mjornell

(1997)

is

adopted

because

of slab tended to increasing. At ultimate load, anit

10

w h

we

Mushroom,

Ellipse andwRound

e & + Rect(R=70mm).

&s + dead

w&n load.

+ ( D h ) =

e

(3)It

c

showed

of slab

at

h t differenth behaviors

c

s

When volume of hollow sphere was increased, slab

stiffness and deflection tended to be decreased.

/h is the of

slope

of thewas

sorption/desorption

where wereduction

However,

stiffness

not according to

isotherm

(also

called

moisture

The

changing of hollow shape. As seeingcapacity).

the crack patgoverning

equation

(Equation

3)

must

be

completed

tern, it was according to reduction of section by holby appropriate

low

volume. boundary and initial conditions.

The relationwhen

between

amount

Therefore,

cornerthe

radius

and of

holeevaporable

diameter

water

and

relative

humidity

is

called

adsorption

were same and hollow volume was increasing,

stiffisotherm

if

measured

with

increasing

relativity

ness and deflection of slab tended to decrease at dead

humidity

and desorption

the opposite

load.

At ultimate

load, an isotherm

amount ofin influence

by

case. Neglecting

theirwas

difference

et al. 1994),

in

typical

hollow shape

about (Xi

1.6~3.6%

of solid

the

following,

sorption

isotherm

will

be

used

with

slab, with the aspect of strength.

where

the Solid

first term (gel isotherm) represents the

30

Sphere

physically

bound

(adsorbed) water and the second

Mushroom

term25 (capillary

isotherm)

represents the capillary

Ellipse

Rect

water. ThisRound

expression

is valid only for low content

20

of SF.

The(r=70mm)

coefficient G1 represents the amount of

water

per

unit

volume held in the gel pores at 100%

15

relative

humidity, and it can be expressed (Norling

Mjornell

1997) as

10

Load(kN/mm )

Pantazopoulo

& Mills hollow

1995).shape

It is reasonable to

5.2.1

Impact

of typical

assume

that

the

evaporable

water

is shape,

a function

of

To

compare

impact

of

typical

hollow

5-types

relativespheres

humidity,

h, degree of hydration, c, and

hollow

having

difference

shape and volume

degree

of

silica

fume

reaction,

s, i.e. we=we(h,c,s)

were

used because a typical

hollow shape correlates

= age-dependent

sorption/desorption

isotherma

with

a

hollow

volume.

The

relationship

betweenand

(Norling

Mjonell

1997).

Under

this

assumption

typical

hollow shape

and hollow

volume

was not

linby but

substituting

Equation

1 into

Equation

2 one

ear

staircase

type.

obtains

Figure 10-a) was shown the load-deflection curve

To The

find water

out the

impactw of

sphere as

shape,

the

content

canhollow

be were

expressed

the

sum

results

of

each

group

which

divided

into

3

(capillary

water,

water

of the evaporable

water 3wewere

classes

in

above

chapter

analyzed.

And

the

vapor, of

andeach

adsorbed

water)

and the non-evaporable

impact

parameterwater

is as following.

(chemically

bound)

w (Mills 1966,

35

Load(kN/mm )

(2)

Load(kN/mm )

reads

To compare impact of hole

diameter, 4-types

hollow

1

spheres having different hole diameter

were

used.

we (h, 10-c)

G1 (shown

1

+

curve of

c , s ) =was

c , s )the

Figure

load-deflection

10(g

c )has

e 1 c such

diameter

Solid,

(4)

Round Rect(R=70mm), Rect Donuts(D=50 mm) and

)h following.

as

Rect Donuts(D=30mm). 10

It (gshowed

c

1 c

K1 ( c , was

1strength

When hole diameter

s )e increased, slab

= J

5.2 Impact of hollow sphere shape

explicitlyofaccounts

evolution

hydration

amount

influenceforbythe

corner

radiusofwas

about

reactionofand

isotherm

4~17%

solidSF

slab,content.

with theThis

aspectsorption

of strength.

Load(kN/mm )

J = Rect

D (h,Donuts(D=30mm)

T ) h

and

were the smallest deflec(1)

tion at dead load about 72% of solid slab. And the

deflections

in ultimate load

were varied

with isits called

loadThe proportionality

coefficient

D(h,T)

bearing

capacity

and

stiffness.

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinear function

at the

failurehmode,

all slabs were

shown

of Looking

the relative

humidity

and temperature

T (Baant

flexural

crack

in

design

load.

When

load

reaches

ul& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balance requires

timate

load,

the

failure

mode

was

shown

flexural

failthat the variation in time of the water mass per unit

ure

behavior

except (water

Squarecontent

shape. The

volume

of concrete

w) beSquare

equal shape

to the

had

flexuralofand

shear failure

divergence

the moisture

flux Jbehavior by judging

with strain of reinforced bar.

9.0

8.5

8.0

= 5 T

(Round Rect(r=70mm)

(Rect Donut(D=30mm)

(Rect Donut(D=50mm)

7.5

2.2

2.4

2.6

Deflection(mm)

2.8

3.0

(7)

25

where0 q is 5the heat10 flux, 15

T is the20 absolute

temperature,

and is Deflection(mm)

the heat conductivity; in this

c ) Hole diameter : Load-Deflection Curve

= D ( h , T ) h

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea

of the relative humidity h and temperature

& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc

that the variation in time of the water mas

volume of concrete (water content w) be eq

divergence of the moisture flux J

= J

c ) Typical shape : Cuboid

w

Figure 10. Parametric analysis.

However, as seeing the deflection and stiffness,

hollow slabs, applied Rect Donuts(D=50mm) and

Rect Donuts(D=30mm), showed bigger stiffness and

smaller deflection than hollow slab, applied Round

Rect(R=70mm) which had no hole. In addition, volume of Round Rect(R=70mm) was more than volume of Rect Donuts(D=50mm) and Rect Donuts

(D=30mm). Therefore, the hole of hollow sphere

functions as preventing a deflection of slab.

5.3 Parametric analysis

Based on the results of impact of hollow shape

(chapter 5.2), parametric analysis was performed.

The unknown results, which were not performed

numerical simulations, were assumed by linear interpolation.

A parametric analysis was performed as following

conditions. The typical shape parameters were fix

and the other parameters such as corner radius and

hole diameter were changing. As compared the ultimate load-bearing capacity, the effects of corner radius and hole diameter were evaluated in combination. Figure 10 was shown the tendency of the each

parameter in combination as following.

1) When the typical hollow shape is same, and the

corner radius or the hole diameter is increasing, the

capacities of hollow slab is increasing.

2) When the typical hollow shape is cuboid type, the

increase by corner radius or hole diameter will be

larger than the other typical hollow shape.

6 DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPTIMAL

HOLLOW SPHEAR SHAPE

Based on the results of numerical simulation, the optimal hollow sphere shape was derived. To derive the

optimal hollow sphere shape, three aspects of criterions which were safety, strength (additional load

bearing capacity of slab after dead load) and deflec-

of

evaporable

we (capillary wa

tion (at same loadingthe

condition)

werewater

considered.

vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-e

1) Safety

(chemically

bound)

watersafewinn (Mil

Judged from safety,

all hollow

slabs were

Pantazopoulo

&

Mills

1995).type

It is reas

design load. However, failure mode of square

assume

that

the

evaporable

water

hollow slab was shear in ultimate load. The shear is a fu

relative humidity,

of hydration

failure mode is dangerous

because ith,is degree

very sudden

degree

of

silica

fume

reaction,

s, isi.e. we=w

and brittle. Therefore square shape hollow sphere

=

age-dependent

sorption/desorption

not suitable for the hollow slab system.

2) Strength (Norling Mjonell 1997). Under this assum

substituting

Equation

As Compared by

to solid

slab, merely

3 cases1ofinto

hol- Equati

obtains

low sphere shapes, 'Rect Donuts(D=50mm)', 'Rect

w

we

w h without decreasing

good load-bearing capacity

e & + of

&s + w

+

( D11-a)

h ) =

e (See

c

weight reduction ratio.

Fig.

h

h t

c

s

3) Deflection

The hollow slab stiffness tended to decrease beis the

of the sorption/

we/harea.

cause of reductionwhere

of section

So,slope

as comparing

governing equation (Equation 3) must be

by appropriate boundary and initial conditi

The relation between the amount of e

water and relative humidity is called

isotherm if measured with increasing

humidity and desorption isotherm in th

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.

the following, sorption isotherm will be

reference to both sorption and desorption c

By the way, if the hysteresis of the

isotherm would be taken into account, two

a ) Ultimate

Load-Dead

Load capacity

relation,

evaporable

water vs relative humi

be used according to the sign of the varia

relativity humidity. The shape of the

isotherm for HPC is influenced by many p

especially those that influence extent and

chemical reactions and, in turn, determ

structure and pore size distribution (waterratio, cement chemical composition, SF

curing time and method, temperature, mix

etc.). In the literature various formulatio

found to describe the sorption isotherm

concrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in th

paper the semi-empirical expression pro

b )Norling

Deflection Mjornell

at same load(1997) is adopted b

Figure 11. Derivation of the optimal hollow sphere shape.

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

J = deflection

D (h, T )h at same load, the optimal hollow

the

(1)

sphere shape was derived. (See Fig. 11-b)

After all

the analysis,

moisture

permeability

and it'Rect

is a Donuts(D=50mm)'

nonlinear function

shape

hole inside

judged asTthe

optiof the which

relativehad

humidity

h andwas

temperature

(Baant

mal

hollow

sphere

shape.

& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balance requires

that the variation in time of the water mass per unit

volume of concrete (water content w) be equal to the

7divergence

CONCLUSION

of the moisture flux J

In this

study, several hollow slabs which had different

(2)

w = sphere

J shapes were analyzed to compare with

hollow

t

structure capacity and failure mode by using finite

element

method

program.

on the as

results

of

The water

content

w canBased

be expressed

the

sum

numerical

simulation,

the

impacts

of

hollow

sphere

of the

evaporable

water sphere

we (capillary water, water

and

the

optimal

hollow

could be devapor,There

and adsorbed

water) about

and shape

the

non-evaporable

rived.

are

conclusions

this

study.

(chemically

bound)

water

wn (Mills 1966,

1) Capacity &

of hollow

slab and

failure

mode was

Pantazopoulo

Mills

1995).

It

is reasonable

to

related

with

hollow

sphere

shape.

Especially,

these

assume

that

the

evaporable

water

is

a

function

of

are

proved

that corner

radius, hole

diameter and

, voland

relative

humidity,

h, degree

of hydration,

cthem.

ume

of

hollow

sphere

were

closely

related

with

degree

of

silica

fume

reaction,

s, i.e. we=we(h,c,s)

As corner radiussorption/desorption

of hollow sphere wasisotherm

smaller,

= 2)age-dependent

crack

caused

by

concentrated

stress

was

developed

(NorlingThe

Mjonell

1997).

Under

thishaving

assumption

and

earlier.

hollow

sphere

shapes

corner

raby substituting

Equation

1 appropriate

into Equation

2 one

dius

more

than

50mm

was

in

250mm

obtains

thick hollow slab.

3) The hole of hollow sphere functions as preventw

w h

we as hole

ing

a deflection

of slab. And

of hole diameter

&

&s +ofw&nslab

+ ( D h ) =

e

(3)

c +

lowhsphere

was hsmaller,

was

the deflection

t

c

s

bigger.

4) The hollow slab having optimal hollow sphere,

of the

sorption/desorption

where

we/h is the slopethat

Rect

donuts(D=50mm),

demonstrated

in this

isotherm

(also

called

moisture

The

study showed more than 99% of load capacity).

resisting capacgoverning

equation

(Equation

3)

must

be

completed

ity and less than 72% deflection at design load which

by appropriate

boundary

and initial itconditions.

compared

normal

slab. Therefore,

that

between theis optimal

amount ishollow

ofproved

evaporable

the The

Rectrelation

donuts(D=50mm)

sphere

water inand

relative

is called adsorption

shape

250mm

thickhumidity

hollow slab.

humidity and desorption isotherm in the opposite

case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al. 1994), in

the following, sorption isotherm will be used with

reference to both sorption and desorption conditions.

By the way, if the hysteresis of the moisture

isotherm would be taken into account, two different

relation, evaporable water vs relative humidity, must

be used according to the sign of the variation of the

relativity humidity. The shape of the sorption

isotherm for HPC is influenced by many parameters,

especially those that influence extent and rate of the

chemical reactions and, in turn, determine pore

structure and pore size distribution (water-to-cement

ratio, cement chemical composition, SF content,

curing time and method, temperature, mix additives,

etc.). In the literature various formulations can be

found to describe the sorption isotherm of normal

concrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in the present

paper the semi-empirical expression proposed by

Norling Mjornell (1997) is adopted because it

Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

evolution of hydration

reaction and SF content. This sorption isotherm

readswork was supported by Samsung Construction

This

and Trade Inc, 2009

we (h, c , s ) = G1 ( c , s )1

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w

K ( c s ) =

,

1

1

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

10

10

g c c h

g c c h

1

(6)

be calibrated by fitting experimental data relevant to

free (evaporable) water content in concrete at

various ages (Di Luzio & Cusatis 2009b).

2.2 Temperature evolution

Note that, at early age, since the chemical reactions

associated with cement hydration and SF reaction

are exothermic, the temperature field is not uniform

for non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental

temperature is constant. Heat conduction can be

described in concrete, at least for temperature not

exceeding 100C (Baant & Kaplan 1996), by

Fouriers law, which reads

q

= T

(7)

temperature, and is the heat conductivity; in this

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