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# Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures High Performance, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Special Loadings and Structural

## Applications- B. H. Oh, et al. (eds)

2010 Korea Concrete Institute, ISBN 978-89-5708-182-2

## An analytical study on the impact of hollow shapes in bi-axial hollow

slabs
J. H. Chung & J. H. Park

H. K. Choi

S. C. LEE

C. S. CHOI

## Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea

ABSTRACT: This paper presents optimal hollow sphere shapes in a biaxial hollow slab. To derive optimal hollow shapes, numerical simulations using nonlinear Finite Element Methods were executed by the nonlinear finite element program LUSAS. Recently, various types of slab systems which can reduce self-weight of slabs
have been studied as the height and width of building structures rapidly increase. A biaxial hollow slab system
is widely known as one of the effective slab system which can reduce self-weight of slab. A biaxial hollow slab
has hollow spheres within slab in order to reduce self-weight of slab. Because of reducing self-weight of slab
by hollow spheres, size of vertical elements like walls and columns can be smaller and slabs span can be longer.
A capacity of biaxial hollow slabs is influenced by the shape and volume of hollow spheres. Therefore, in this
study, several biaxial hollow slabs which have different shapes of hollow spheres were analyzed by using the finite element method program in order to derive optimal hollow sphere shapes.
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preface
In building, the slab is very important structural
member to make a space. And Slab is one of the
largest member consuming concrete. In a general
way, the slab was designed only to resist vertical
load. However, deflection and vibration of slab are
also considered recently because people are getting
more interest of residential environment. In addition,
when span of the building is increasing, deflection of
slab is more important. Therefore, the slab thickness
is on the increase. The increasing of slab thickness
makes slab heavier, and it leads to increase column
and base size. Thus, it makes building consume more
materials such as concrete and steel. Moreover, the
increasing of weight is harmful for building when
earthquake occur.
To avoid these disadvantages which were caused
by increasing of self-weight of slabs, the biaxial hollow slab system, also known as void slab, was suggested. This slab system could optimize the size of
vertical members like walls and columns by lightening the weight of slabs. Therefore, it got attention

because it made efficient and economical building design possible. A capacity of biaxial hollow slab is influenced by hollow sphere shapes. However, the researches about hollow sphere shape have been
insufficient. So, in this study, several kinds of hollow
slabs which have different hollow sphere shapes were
analyzed by using finite element method program in
order to derive the optimal hollow sphere shapes and
to verify the impact of hollow shapes in biaxial hollow slabs.
1.2 Literature review
A biaxial hollow slab system was developed in 1990s.
In 21C, hollow slab systems which have same concept and different hollow shapes were invented over
USA, Europe and Japan. (See Table 1.)
According to existing hollow slab systems, selfweight reduction ratio of slab was 25~30%. And
their flexural strength was similar to solid slab.
1.3 Research objective
The aims of this research were to grasp the relationship between hollow sphere shapes and slabs

J = 1.
D (The
h, T )existing
h Hollow slab systems.
Table
(1)
Weight Strength
Void
SysName
reductem Materialcoefficient
FlexureShear
Shape
The proportionality
tion D(h,T) is called
moisture
permeability and
it is a30%
nonlinear
function
Sphere
100% 50%
Europe
of the Cobiax
relative humidity hEllipse
and temperature
T (Baant
U-Boot
35%balance
100% requires
45%
& Najjar
1972). The moisture mass
Plastic
Filithat thegreevariation in timeCuboid
of the water mass per unit
Void (water content
25%
USA
volumewide
of concrete
w) be100%
equal65%
to the
Slab
divergence
of
the
moisture
flux
J
slab
Mom30% 100% 50%
Styro- Sphere
slab
w

Japan
(2)
=EJ
J
foam
Ellipse
30% 100% 50%
t Void
* Compared to Solid slab

## The water content w can be expressed as the sum

water,hollow
water
of
the evaporable
water we (capillary
capacities.
And development
of the optimal
vapor, shape
and adsorbed
water)
the research.
non-evaporable
sphere
was another
aimand
of this
(Mills 1966,
(chemically
bound)
water
w
n
To do these, 3 stages of analytical research
procPantazopoulo
&
Mills
1995).
It
is
reasonable
to
ess were performed by using finite element
method
assume
that
the
evaporable
water
is
a
function
of
program named LUSAS.
relative humidity, h, degree of hydration, c, and
=we(h,c,s)
degree
of silica
fume
reaction,ofhollow
s, i.e. weshape.
1) Finding
out the
parameters
=
age-dependent
sorption/desorption
isotherm
2) Grasping the impact of hollow sphere shapes
in
(Norling
Mjonell
1997).
Under
this
assumption
and
biaxial hollow slabs.
byDeveloping
substitutingtheEquation
1 intosphere
Equation
3)
optimal hollow
shape.2 one
obtains
w
we hPARAMETERSwOF
2 THE
e &HOLLOW
e & +SPHERE
w&n
+ ( D h ) =
SHAPE
(3)
c +
s
h

h t

## For finding out the parameters of hollow shape, the

the slope
ofcompared
the sorption/desorption
where whollow
e/h isshapes
existing
were
and analyzed
isotherm
moisture
capacity).
each
other.(also
As a called
result, three
parameters
were The
degoverning
equation
(Equation
3)
must
be
completed
rived such as typical shapes, corner radius and hole
by appropriate
boundary and initial conditions.
diameter.
(Fig. 1)

## The relation between the amount of evaporable

water and relative humidity is called adsorption
isotherm if measured with increasing relativity
humidity and desorption isotherm in the opposite
case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al. 1994), in
a ) Typical shapes
of hollow
sphere (Hollow
the following,
sorption
isotherm
will bevolume)
used with
reference to both sorption and desorption conditions.
By the way, if the hysteresis of the moisture
isotherm would be taken into account, two different
relation, evaporable
vshollow
relative
humidity, must
b) Corner water
radius of
sphere
be used according to the sign of the variation of the
relativity humidity. The shape of the sorption
isotherm for HPC is influenced by many parameters,
especially those that influence extent and rate of the
chemical reactions and, in turn, determine pore
Hole diameter
of hollow sphere
structure andc) pore
size distribution
(water-to-cement
Figure 1. The Parameters of hollow sphere shape.
ratio, cement chemical composition, SF content,
curing
time and method, temperature, mix additives,
The section geometries of hollow spheres were
etc.).
In
the literature various formulations can be
studied to limit the field of the three-dimensional holfound
to
the sorption
isothermof of
low spheredescribe
shapes, before
the derivation
thenormal
threeconcrete (Xihollow
et al. 1994).
thethis,
present
dimensional
sphere However,
shapes. Toindo
the
paper the
expression
proposed
by
hollow
slabssemi-empirical
were modeled in
two-dimensional
plane,
Norling
Mjornell
(1997)
is
adopted
because
changing 3 parameters such as typical shapes, cornerit
Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

explicitly
for the
hydration
radius
and accounts
hole diameter.
Andevolution
numericalofsimulations
reaction
and SF content.
isotherm
of
two-dimensional
hollow This
slab sorption
model were
perreads It is meaningless to perform quantitative
formed.
analysis of two-dimensional hollow slab model about
above parameters. Because
it cannot consider change
1
of hollow shapes and concrete
web
parts between

we (h, cspheres.
, ) = G ( , ) 1
+
meaningful

s
c its is
hollow
to
qualitative
1But

10(g
c )h about

analysis of two-dimensional
e 1 cslab model
hollow

(4)
the parameters to find qualitative effects on hollow
10(g )h

## slab such as crack propagation

or concentration.
c
1 c

K ( c s ) e

## where the first term (gel isotherm) represents the

physically bound (adsorbed) water and the second
term (capillary isotherm) represents the capillary
water. This expression is valid only for low content
of SF. The coefficient G1 represents the amount of
water per unit volume held in the gel pores at 100%
a )Typical
shape : Load-Deflection
(Flexural/Shear)
relative
humidity,
and it can beCurve
expressed
(Norling
Mjornell 1997) as
c c+ ks s
G ( c s ) = k vg
c vg s

(5)

## where kcvg and ksvg are material parameters. From the

maximum amount of water per unit volume that can
fill all pores (both capillary pores and gel pores), one
one obtains Curve (Flexural/Shear)
can
K1 :asLoad-Deflection
b ) calculate
Corner radius
w

1
1

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

K ( c s ) =
,

10

10

g c c h

g c c h
1

(6)

## The material parameters kcvg and ksvg and g1 can

bec )calibrated
by fitting experimental data relevant to
Hole diameter : Load-Deflection Curve (Flexural/Shear)
free 2.(evaporable)
water content
Figure
2D FEM Load-Deflection
Curve. in concrete at
various ages (Di Luzio & Cusatis 2009b).
2.2 Temperature evolution
Note that,a)at0 early
mm age, since the chemical
e) 40 mmreactions
associated with cement hydration and SF reaction
are exothermic, the temperature field is not uniform
for non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental
temperature
ismm
constant. Heat conduction
b) 10
f) 50 mm can be
described in concrete, at least for temperature not
exceeding 100C (Baant & Kaplan 1996), by
Fouriers law, which reads
q

= T

c) 20 mm

g) 60 mm

(7)

## where q is the heat flux, T is the absolute

d) 30and
mm is the heat conductivity;
h) 70 mm in this
temperature,

## Figure 3. Crack pattern by corner radius.

a) 0 mm

e) 40 mm

b) 20 mm

f) 50 mm

J = the
D (h,flexural
T )h strength. Concrete
method of estimating
section is based on the compatibility of strains and
equilibrium of forces
on the section
at the D(h,T)
Theacting
proportionality
coefficient
stage of failure such
as
reinforced
bar
strain
reaches
moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea
0.002 or concreteofstrain
reaches humidity
0.003. Strain
conthe relative
h andoftemperature
crete and reinforced
bar
could
be
derived
by
using
& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc
equations (1) ~ (4).
that the variation in time of the water mas

s =
c) 30 mm
Figure 4. Crack pattern by hole diameter.

## The results of 2D FEM analysis were shown in

Figure 2, 3 and 4.
As shown Figure 2, the parameters of twodimensional hollow slab model does not affect bending strength and stiffness of slab.
However, Figure 2 shows that the parameters affect shear strength and stiffness. And Figure 3 shows
that the corner radius becomes smaller, the cracks
are concentrated more. Because of that, the early destruction occurs by the progress of cracks in shear
failure mode. And Figure 4 shows that the hole diameter becomes larger, the shear cracks are prevented.
3 SETTING UP THE HOLLOW SPHERE SHAPE
3.1 Target structure
The hollow slab system is effective when self-weight
of slab is a high rate. In other words, this system is
most effective when it is applied to thick flat plate
slabs. Therefore, target structure system was set up
wall + flat plate slab system which had 250mm
thick slab. (See Fig. 5.)

## 3.2 Size of hollow sphere

The height of hollow sphere was set up, according to
height of compressive stress block in target structure
slab. As assuming hollow shape was pipe type, the
height of compressive stress block derived by using
strain compatibility method.
The strain compatibility method is the rigorous

dp
c

## volume of concrete (water content w) be eq

divergence of the moisture flux J

(0.003) 0.003

= J

(1)

fs = s E
s

(2)

## The water content w can be expressed a

wa
of
the evaporable water we (capillary
T = As fu
(3)
vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-e
(chemically bound) water wn (Mil
'
It is reas
C = 0.85 fc 1cb Pantazopoulo & Mills 1995). (4)
assume that the evaporable water is a fu
relative humidity, h, degree of hydration
In target structure,
thesilica
height
compressive
degree of
fumeofreaction,
s, i.e. we=w
stress block was changed
by
location.
As
shown Fig= age-dependent sorption/desorption
ure 6, the height of
hollow Mjonell
sphere had
to beUnder
less than
(Norling
1997).
this assum
160mm to avoid by
development
of
compressive
stress
substituting Equation 1 into Equati
block in hollow parts.
obtainsHowever, as considered an-

## chorage of reinforced bar, 140mm was adequate

height of hollow sphere
in 250mm thick
flat plate
w
w
w h
e
e & + w
e + ( D module,
slabs. Considered architectural
adequate
&

h ) =
c +
s
h

h
t
width of hollow sphere was 270mm.
c
s

## where we/h is the slope of the sorption/

isotherm (also called moisture capac
governing equation (Equation 3) must be
by appropriate boundary and initial conditi
The relation between the amount of e
water and relative humidity is called
isotherm if measured with increasing
humidity and desorption isotherm in th
case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.
the following, sorption isotherm will be
reference to both sorption and desorption c
By the way, if the hysteresis of the
Figure 6. The heightisotherm
of compressive
stress
would
beblock.
taken into account, two
relation, evaporable water vs relative humi
be used according to the sign of the varia
3.3 Hollow sphere shape
relativity humidity. The shape of the
The hollow sphere
shapes for
varied
the limitation
isotherm
HPCwith
is influenced
by many p
of size. And the range
of hollow
was setextent
up and
especially
those volume
that influence
20% to 45% of one
slab module
volume
chemical
reactions
and,(300mm
in turn,x determ
300mm x 250mm).
Considered
the height
of hollow (waterstructure
and pore
size distribution
sphere, a range ofratio,
cornercement
radius ofchemical
hollow sphere
was
composition,
SF
set up 0mm to 70mm.
range
of holetemperature,
diameter mix
curingAnd
timea and
method,
was set up more etc.).
than 30mm,
considered
concrete
In the asliterature
various
formulatio
construction.
found to describe the sorption isotherm
As compared the
3 parameters
of hollow
8 in th
concrete
(Xi et al.
1994). shape,
However,
types of hollow spheres
which
were dividedexpression
into 3
paper the
semi-empirical
pro
classes. The first group
with the(1997)
typicalissphere
Norlingvaried
Mjornell
adopted b
Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

J = 2.
D (The
h, T )properties
h
Table
of hollow spheres.

Solid

Sphere

Mushroom Ellipse

(1)

Rectreaction
Donuts Rect
Round RectThis
Round
Rect
andDonuts
SF content.
sorption
isotherm
Square
(D=50mm)
(D=30mm)
(R=70mm)
(R=50mm)
reads

## The proportionality coefficient D(h,T) is called

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinear function
Shape

## & Najjar 31972). The moisture mass balance requires w (h ) = G ( )

+

c
s
c
s
e

Volume(cm
) 6300
7650
7785
8910
10125
that the variation
in 1436
time of the5625
water mass
per unit 7380
(g
c )h

Diameter(cm)
14
27 w) be equal
27 to the 27
27
27 e 27 c
27
volume of concrete
(water
content
(4)
divergence of- the moisture
flux14J
Height(cm)
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
)h

(g
1

10

20%

25%

28%

(2)

## shapes such as Sphere, Mushroom, Ellipse and

The water
content w can
expressed
as thevaried
sum
Round
Rect(R=70mm).
Thebesecond
group
(capillary
water,
water
of
the
evaporable
water
w
with the corner radius such
as Square, Round
e
vapor, and adsorbed
water) and
the non-evaporable
Rect(R=50mm)
and Round
Rect(R=70mm).
And
(Mills such
1966,
(chemically
bound)withwater
wn diameter
the
last group varied
the hole
as
Pantazopoulo
& Mills Rect
1995).Donuts(D=50mm)
It is reasonableand
to
Round
Rect(R=70mm),
assume
that
the
evaporable
water
is
a
function
of
Rect Donuts(D=30mm). Further information and
and
relative humidity,
h, degree
hydration,
c, 2.
properties
of the hollow
spheresofare
shown Table

## degree of silica fume reaction, s, i.e. we=we(h,c,s)

= age-dependent sorption/desorption isotherm
Mjonell
1997). OF
Under
this assumption
4(Norling
3D FEM
ANALYSIS
HOLLOW
SLAB and
by substituting Equation 1 into Equation 2 one
obtains
4.1
Modeling
To derive the optimal hollow shape, numerical simuw
w
w h
lations
using
nonlinear Finite
were
e &Element
e &Methods
&program
+ ( D h ) =
e
(3)
c +
s + wn
h nonlinear
performed
finite

element
h t by the
c
s
LUSAS. To perform numerical simulations of the
slabs by using finite element method, two dimenis theoften
slopeused
of the
sorption/desorption
where model
we/hwas
sional
when
slabs were uniisotherm
(also
called
moisture
capacity).
The
form in transverse axis. However, in the
case of biaxgoverning
equation
(Equation
3)
must
be
completed
ial hollow slabs, it was impossible to use twoby appropriate
boundary
andofinitial
conditions.section
dimensional
model
because
the unequally
The relation
between
the amount
of evaporable
geometry
along the
longitudinal
and transverse
axis
water
and
relative
humidity
is
called
by extraordinary hollow sphere shape. adsorption
So, it was
isothermusing
if measured
with increasing
relativity
modeled
three-dimensional
model which
could
humidity
and
desorption
isotherm
in
the
opposite
be considered concrete web parts between hollow
case. Neglecting
their
(Xi et al.
1994),elein
spheres
like Figure
7. difference
And to generate
a finite
the
following,
sorption
isotherm
will
be
used
with
ment mesh of the hollow slab which has extraordireference
to of
both
sorption
and inside,
desorption
conditions.
nary
shapes
hollow
sphere
tetrahedral
eleBy
the
way,
if
the
hysteresis
of
the
moisture
ments which have four nodes were used because
isotherm
would
be taken
account, two
different
other
mesh
elements
such into
as Pentahedral
or Hexaherelation,
evaporable
water
vs
relative
humidity,
dral were not able to generate the geometry ofmust
the
be usedslab.
according to the sign of the variation of the
hollow
relativity
humidity.
The
of perform
the sorption
Two material
models
wereshape
used to
nonliisotherm
HPC ismethod
influenced
by many
near
finitefor
element
analysis.
The parameters,
one, which
especially
those that influence
and rate
of the
was
used reinforced
steel bar, extent
is bi-linear
model
of
chemical
reactions
and,
in
turn,
determine
pore
steel. It is assumed that steel behavior will be totally
structure and inpore
size and
distribution
(water-to-cement
elasto-plastic
tensile
compressive
loading conratio, cement
SF content,
dition.
(See Fig.chemical
8-a) Andcomposition,
another material
model,
curing
time
and
method,
temperature,
mix
additives,
which was used concrete, is LUSAS concrete
model
etc.).ItIncan
the consider
literaturemulti-cracks
various formulations
canand
be
94.
of concrete
found
to
describe
the
sorption
isotherm
of
normal
strength softening of concrete.(Fig. 8-b)
concrete
(Xi et al. 1994).
in the present
The convergence
studyHowever,
was performed
about
paper
the
semi-empirical
expression
proposed
by
mesh size ranged 20mm~150mm to verify
the nuNorling
Mjornell
(1997)
is
adopted
because
merical simulation result. The result converged whenit
Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

32.8%

K (34.6%
c s )e

34%

c 45%

39.6%

mesh
was
30mm
27.1kN.
Thisrepresents
is theoretical
wheresize
the
firstequations
term into
(gel
isotherm)
the
value
by
using
(5),
(6).
physically bound (adsorbed) water and the second

## term (capillary isotherm) represents the capillary

a
' '
' ' for low
'
water.
As f yexpression
A f )( d is
valid
) + Aonly
M n = (This
f ( d d ) content
(5)
s
s
s
s
of SF. The coefficient G12 represents the amount of
water per unit volume held in the gel pores at 100%
2 Mhumidity,
relative
and it can be expressed (Norling
n
Pn =
(6)
Mjornell
1997)
as
l
c the hollow
s slab model was generated
this study,
( ) = k c + k s
G In
(5)
c s vg c vg s
,

## where kcvg and ksvg are material parameters. From the

maximum amount of water per unit volume that can
fill all pores (both capillary pores and gel pores), one
can calculate K1 as one obtains
w

1
1

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

10

g c c h

(6)

## K1( c ,7.s ) Finite

=
Figure
element mesh
modeling
(In the view of the

10 g
h
cross-section).
c
1 c
e

## The material parameters kcvg and ksvg and g1 can

be calibrated by fitting experimental data relevant to
free (evaporable) water content in concrete at
various ages (Di Luzio & Cusatis 2009b).

2.2 Temperature
evolution
a) Bi-linear model
b) LUSAS Concrete Model 94
Figure
8. Nonlinear
model. the chemical reactions
Note that,
at earlymaterial
age, since
associated with cement hydration and SF reaction
are exothermic, the temperature field is not uniform
for non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental
temperature is constant. Heat conduction can be
described in concrete, at least for temperature not
exceeding 100C (Baant & Kaplan 1996), by
Fouriers law, which reads
40
39
38
37
36
35
34

Load (kN)

Weight reduc0%
tionw(%)
= J

10

33
32
31
30

= T

(7)

29
28

Pn 27
26

## where q is the heat flux, T is the absolute

temperature, and is the heat conductivity; in this
25

160

140

120

100

80

## Figure 9. Nonlinear material model.

60

40

20

= D (h, T )were
h fixed. Because, In
The conditions ofJ support
FEM Analysis, simple supported condition might
bring about error such
stress concentration.
The D(h,T)
The asproportionality
coefficient
reason of using distributed
load
was
the
same.
Loads
moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea
were imposed onof slabs
in order
likes self-weight,
the relative
humidity
h and temperature
dead load and live&load
until
the
slab
was
destroyed.
Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc
Further information
properties
that the and
variation
in timeofof hollow
the water mas
sphere is shown Table
3.
volume of concrete (water content w) be eq
divergence of the moisture flux J

## a finite element mesh with 30mm-sized. Because the

use of small mesh size less than 30mm did not change
the results significantly, but led to an increased computation time. The relationship between mesh size
and convergent tendency in this hollow slab model is
shown Figure 9.
4.2 Hollow slab analysis model
To perform 3D nonlinear FEM analysis, the properties of hollow slab model was idealized. It had 8.9m
length, 300mm width. The reasons of performing
idealize process are like this
It was possible to estimate the whole capacity of
slab with the capacity of one module slab model because hollow spheres were located with uniform gap
toward width direction of slab.
So, to compare the impact of hollow shapes on
flexural capacity of slabs, it was enough to perform
FEM analysis with one module model of slab. And
this way was time-efficient than using whole slab
model.

5 RESULTS ANDANALYSIS
w

fck
Fy

185kg/m2

Live load

200kg/m2 ~
24 MPa
400 MPa

28.2% 25.1%

24.6%

23.6%

Deflection at
2.16
1.86
1.72
1.68
D.L (mm)
Deflection at
22.42 21.32
22.60
23.71
U.L (mm)
Failure mode
F
F
F
F
at Design Load
Failure mode
F
F
F
F
at U.L
* F : Flexural Crack Occur, S : Shear Crack Occur

= J

water applied
content above
w can be
expressed a
The 3D hollow slabThe
models,
hollow
(capillary
wa
of
the
evaporable
water
w
spheres (Table 2), were analyzed by numerical
e simuvapor, Finite
and adsorbed
andprothe non-e
lations using nonlinear
Element water)
Method
(chemically bound) water wn (Mil
gram.
Pantazopoulo
& Mills
1995). It is reas
Table 4 is shown
that results
of computation
evaporable
water is a fu
about 8 cases ofassume
hollow that
slabsthe
which
can be distinhydration
guished by hollowrelative
sphere humidity,
shapes andh,1 degree
case of of
solid
degree of silica fume reaction, s, i.e. we=w
slab.
age-dependent
sorption/desorption
In the results =
of computation,
8 cases
of hollow
Mjonellload.
1997).
slabs were judged(Norling
safe in design
AndUnder
somethis
of assum
substituting
Equation
1 into
hollow slabs showbya good
load bearing
capacity
and Equati
obtains
stiffness, compared
with solid slab,
The results, analyzed more concretely, are as follows:
w
w
w h
e ultimate
e & + w
&
) = and
+ design
(D
e
h
As compared difference
load
c +
s
h

h t
load, hollow slab applied 'Rect Donuts(D=50mm)'
c
s
was shown the largest difference, 26.24kN. It means
additional load bearing
capacity
dead
theslab
slopeafter
of the
sorption/
where w
e/h is of
load. Because a isotherm
dead load (also
varied called
with hollow
vol- capac
moisture
ume, it was reasonable
to compare
capacity
governing
equation real
(Equation
3) of
must be
hollow slab.
by appropriate boundary and initial conditi
The deflections inThe
design
loadbetween
were varied
with of e
relation
the amount
weight reductionwater
of slabs.
Round Rect(R=50mm)
and relative
humidity is called

Rect
Rect
Donuts
Solid Sphere
Mushroom Ellipse
Donuts
(D=30)
(D=50)
Self-weight
5.9
4.7
4.4
4.2
3.9
3.9
(kN/m2)
Dead Load
9.7
8.5
8.2
8
7.7
7.7
(kN/m2)
Ultimate Load
34.36 33.80
33.35
33.97
33.94
33.50
(kN/m2)
Dead Load
Ultimate Load

## Table 2. Properties of hollow slab model.

Width
300 mm
Height
250 mm
Length
8900 mm
Upper D10 x 2
Reinforced bar
Lower D13 x 2
Boundary condition
Fixed end
Self-weight
330~600kg/m2
Load
Dead load

22.7%

23.0%

1.57

1.58

23.33

24.02

## isotherm if measured with increasing

humidity and desorption isotherm in th
case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.
theRound
following,Round
sorptionSquare
isotherm will be
Rect(R=70)
Rect(R=50)
reference to both
sorption and desorption c
By3.8the way,3.5if the hysteresis
of the
3.2
isotherm would be taken into account, two
relation,
evaporable
water vs relative humi
7.3
be7.6
used according
to the7 sign of the varia
relativity
humidity.
The
shape of the
33.12
32.08
28.50
isotherm for HPC is influenced by many p
especially
those
that influence
extent and
22.9%
22.8%
chemical
reactions
and,24.6%
in turn, determ
structure
and 1.56
pore size distribution
(water1.61
1.61
ratio, cement chemical composition, SF
curing
method,22.30
temperature, mix
24.23time and
24.68
etc.). In the literature various formulatio
found
to describe
the sorption
isotherm
F
F
F
concrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in th
paper
the semi-empirical
F
F
F+S expression pro
Norling Mjornell (1997) is adopted b
Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

Load(kN/mm )

Dead Load(Solid)

c c+ ks s
G (5c s ) = k vg
c vg s
,

(5)

0
0

Deflection(mm)

10

15

20

25

## material parameters. From the

where kcvg and ksvg areDeflection(mm)
a
)Typical
shape
: Load-Deflection
Curve that can
maximum
amount of water
per unit volume
35
fill all poresSolid
(both capillary pores and gel pores), one
one obtains
can 30calculateRound
K1 as
Rect(r=70mm)
Round Rect(r=50mm)
Square

25

20

K ( c s ) =
15
,

10

1
1

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

10

g c c h

10

g c c h

e
Dead Load(Solid)

10

(6)

Load
The
materialDead
parameters
kcvg and ksvg and g1 can
(Round
Rect(r=50mm)
5
Rect(r=70mm)
be calibrated by(Round
fitting
experimental data relevant to
(Square)
free 0 (evaporable) water content in concrete at
0
10
25
various
ages (Di5 Luzio &
Cusatis152009b). 20
5

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.2

3.4

3.6

3.8

4.0

Deflection(mm)

Deflection(mm)

## 2.2 35Temperature evolution

Solid
Note30 that, atRound
early
age, since the chemical reactions
Rect(r=70mm)
Rect Donut(D=30mm)
associated with
cement
hydration and SF reaction
Rect Donut(D=50mm)
are 25exothermic,
the temperature field is not uniform
for 20non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental
temperature is constant. Heat conduction can be
described
in concrete, at least for temperature not
15
exceeding 100C
(Baant & Kaplan 1996), by
Dead Load(Solid)
10
Fouriers law, which
reads
Dead Load
10.0

9.5

L o ad (k N /m m 2 )

## reference to both sorption and desorption conditions.

By theImpact
way,ofifcorner
the radius
hysteresis of the moisture
5.2.2
isotherm
would
be taken
into radius,
account,4-types
two different
To
compare
impact
of corner
hollow
relation,
evaporable
water
vs
relative
humidity,
must
spheres having different corner radius were used.
be
used
according
to
the
sign
of
the
variation
of
Figure 10-b) was shown the load-deflection curvethe
of
relativity
humidity.
The
shape
of
the
sorption
the having different corner radius such as Solid,
isothermRect(R=70mm),
for HPC is influenced
many parameters,
Round
Round by
Rect(R=50mm)
especially
those
that
influence
extent
rate ofand
the
Square. It showed as following. Like and
a tendency
of
chemical
reactions
and,
in
turn,
determine
pore
2D FEM analysis, when corner radius was increased,
structure
and pore
size distribution
slab
stiffness
and strength
tended (water-to-cement
to be increased.
ratio, cement
chemical
composition,
content,
However,
as seeing
the deflection
at deadSFload,
stiffcuring
time
and
method,
temperature,
mix
additives,
ness was not only according to changing of corner
etc.). In
formulations
be
radius
butthe
alsoliterature
changingvarious
of hollow
volume by can
corner
found
to
describe
the
sorption
isotherm
of
normal
radius.
concrete
(Xi when
et al. corner
1994). radius
However,
in the present
Therefore,
was increasing
and
paper
the
semi-empirical
expression
by
the other conditions were same, stiffnessproposed
and strength
Norling
Mjornell
(1997)
is
adopted
because
of slab tended to increasing. At ultimate load, anit

10

## of the typical sphere shapes such as Solid, Sphere,

w h
we
Mushroom,
Ellipse andwRound
e & + Rect(R=70mm).
&s + dead
w&n load.
+ ( D h ) =
e
(3)It
c
showed
of slab

at
h t differenth behaviors
c
s
When volume of hollow sphere was increased, slab
stiffness and deflection tended to be decreased.
/h is the of
slope
of thewas
sorption/desorption
where wereduction
However,
stiffness
not according to
isotherm
(also
called
moisture
The
changing of hollow shape. As seeingcapacity).
the crack patgoverning
equation
(Equation
3)
must
be
completed
tern, it was according to reduction of section by holby appropriate
low
volume. boundary and initial conditions.
The relationwhen
between
amount
Therefore,
cornerthe
radius
and of
holeevaporable
diameter
water
and
relative
humidity
is
called
adsorption
were same and hollow volume was increasing,
stiffisotherm
if
measured
with
increasing
relativity
ness and deflection of slab tended to decrease at dead
humidity
and desorption
the opposite
load.
At ultimate
load, an isotherm
amount ofin influence
by
case. Neglecting
theirwas
difference
et al. 1994),
in
typical
hollow shape
about (Xi
1.6~3.6%
of solid
the
following,
sorption
isotherm
will
be
used
with
slab, with the aspect of strength.

where
the Solid
first term (gel isotherm) represents the
30
Sphere
physically
bound
(adsorbed) water and the second
Mushroom
term25 (capillary
isotherm)
represents the capillary
Ellipse
Rect
water. ThisRound
expression
is valid only for low content
20
of SF.
The(r=70mm)
coefficient G1 represents the amount of
water
per
unit
volume held in the gel pores at 100%
15
relative
humidity, and it can be expressed (Norling
Mjornell
1997) as
10

Load(kN/mm )

Pantazopoulo
& Mills hollow
1995).shape
It is reasonable to
5.2.1
Impact
of typical
assume
that
the
evaporable
water
is shape,
a function
of
To
compare
impact
of
typical
hollow
5-types
relativespheres
humidity,
h, degree of hydration, c, and
hollow
having
difference
shape and volume
degree
of
silica
fume
reaction,

s, i.e. we=we(h,c,s)
were
used because a typical
hollow shape correlates
= age-dependent
sorption/desorption
isotherma
with
a
hollow
volume.
The
relationship
betweenand
(Norling
Mjonell
1997).
Under
this
assumption
typical
hollow shape
and hollow
volume
was not
linby but
substituting
Equation
1 into
Equation
2 one
ear
staircase
type.
obtains
Figure 10-a) was shown the load-deflection curve

To The
find water
out the
impactw of
sphere as
shape,
the
content
canhollow
be were
expressed
the
sum
results
of
each
group
which
divided
into
3
(capillary
water,
water
of the evaporable
water 3wewere
classes
in
above
chapter
analyzed.
And
the
vapor, of
andeach
adsorbed
water)
and the non-evaporable
impact
parameterwater
is as following.
(chemically
bound)
w (Mills 1966,

35

Load(kN/mm )

(2)

Load(kN/mm )

reads

## 5.2.3 Impact of hole diameter

To compare impact of hole
diameter, 4-types
hollow
1
spheres having different hole diameter
were
used.
we (h, 10-c)
G1 (shown
1
+
curve of
c , s ) =was
c , s )the
Figure
load-deflection

10(g
c )has

## the having different hole

e 1 c such
diameter
Solid,
(4)
Round Rect(R=70mm), Rect Donuts(D=50 mm) and

)h following.
as
Rect Donuts(D=30mm). 10
It (gshowed
c
1 c
K1 ( c , was
1strength
When hole diameter
s )e increased, slab

= J
5.2 Impact of hollow sphere shape

explicitlyofaccounts
evolution
hydration
amount
influenceforbythe
corner
radiusofwas
about
reactionofand
isotherm
4~17%
solidSF
slab,content.
with theThis
aspectsorption
of strength.

Load(kN/mm )

J = Rect
D (h,Donuts(D=30mm)
T ) h
and
were the smallest deflec(1)
tion at dead load about 72% of solid slab. And the
deflections
in ultimate load
were varied
with isits called
loadThe proportionality
coefficient
D(h,T)
bearing
capacity
and
stiffness.
moisture permeability and it is a nonlinear function
at the
failurehmode,
all slabs were
shown
of Looking
the relative
humidity
and temperature
T (Baant
flexural
crack
in
design
load.
When
load
reaches
ul& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balance requires
timate
load,
the
failure
mode
was
shown
flexural
failthat the variation in time of the water mass per unit
ure
behavior
except (water
Squarecontent
shape. The
volume
of concrete
w) beSquare
equal shape
to the
had
flexuralofand
shear failure
divergence
the moisture
flux Jbehavior by judging
with strain of reinforced bar.

9.0

8.5

8.0

= 5 T

(Round Rect(r=70mm)
(Rect Donut(D=30mm)
(Rect Donut(D=50mm)

7.5
2.2

2.4

2.6

Deflection(mm)

2.8

3.0

(7)

25
where0 q is 5the heat10 flux, 15
T is the20 absolute
temperature,
and is Deflection(mm)
the heat conductivity; in this
c ) Hole diameter : Load-Deflection Curve

= D ( h , T ) h

## The proportionality coefficient D(h,T)

moisture permeability and it is a nonlinea
of the relative humidity h and temperature
& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balanc
that the variation in time of the water mas
volume of concrete (water content w) be eq
divergence of the moisture flux J
= J
c ) Typical shape : Cuboid
w

## a )Typical shape : Sphere

Figure 10. Parametric analysis.

## tended to be increased a little, 1.3~4% of solid slab.

However, as seeing the deflection and stiffness,
hollow slabs, applied Rect Donuts(D=50mm) and
Rect Donuts(D=30mm), showed bigger stiffness and
smaller deflection than hollow slab, applied Round
Rect(R=70mm) which had no hole. In addition, volume of Round Rect(R=70mm) was more than volume of Rect Donuts(D=50mm) and Rect Donuts
(D=30mm). Therefore, the hole of hollow sphere
functions as preventing a deflection of slab.
5.3 Parametric analysis
Based on the results of impact of hollow shape
(chapter 5.2), parametric analysis was performed.
The unknown results, which were not performed
numerical simulations, were assumed by linear interpolation.
A parametric analysis was performed as following
conditions. The typical shape parameters were fix
and the other parameters such as corner radius and
hole diameter were changing. As compared the ultimate load-bearing capacity, the effects of corner radius and hole diameter were evaluated in combination. Figure 10 was shown the tendency of the each
parameter in combination as following.
1) When the typical hollow shape is same, and the
corner radius or the hole diameter is increasing, the
capacities of hollow slab is increasing.
2) When the typical hollow shape is cuboid type, the
increase by corner radius or hole diameter will be
larger than the other typical hollow shape.
6 DEVELOPMENT OF THE OPTIMAL
HOLLOW SPHEAR SHAPE
Based on the results of numerical simulation, the optimal hollow sphere shape was derived. To derive the
optimal hollow sphere shape, three aspects of criterions which were safety, strength (additional load
bearing capacity of slab after dead load) and deflec-

## The water content w can be expressed a

of
evaporable
we (capillary wa
tion (at same loadingthe
condition)
werewater
considered.
vapor, and adsorbed water) and the non-e
1) Safety
(chemically
bound)
watersafewinn (Mil
Judged from safety,
all hollow
slabs were
Pantazopoulo
&
Mills
1995).type
It is reas
design load. However, failure mode of square
assume
that
the
evaporable
water
hollow slab was shear in ultimate load. The shear is a fu
relative humidity,
of hydration
failure mode is dangerous
because ith,is degree
very sudden
degree
of
silica
fume
reaction,
s, isi.e. we=w
and brittle. Therefore square shape hollow sphere
=
age-dependent
sorption/desorption
not suitable for the hollow slab system.
2) Strength (Norling Mjonell 1997). Under this assum
substituting
Equation
As Compared by
to solid
slab, merely
3 cases1ofinto
hol- Equati
obtains
low sphere shapes, 'Rect Donuts(D=50mm)', 'Rect

## Donuts(D=30mm)' and 'Round Rect(R=70mm)' were

w
we
w h without decreasing
good load-bearing capacity
e & + of
&s + w
+
( D11-a)
h ) =
e (See
c
weight reduction ratio.
Fig.
h

h t
c
s
3) Deflection
The hollow slab stiffness tended to decrease beis the
of the sorption/
we/harea.
cause of reductionwhere
of section
So,slope
as comparing

## isotherm (also called moisture capac

governing equation (Equation 3) must be
by appropriate boundary and initial conditi
The relation between the amount of e
water and relative humidity is called
isotherm if measured with increasing
humidity and desorption isotherm in th
case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al.
the following, sorption isotherm will be
reference to both sorption and desorption c
By the way, if the hysteresis of the
isotherm would be taken into account, two
a ) Ultimate
Load-Dead
Load capacity
relation,
evaporable
water vs relative humi
be used according to the sign of the varia
relativity humidity. The shape of the
isotherm for HPC is influenced by many p
especially those that influence extent and
chemical reactions and, in turn, determ
structure and pore size distribution (waterratio, cement chemical composition, SF
curing time and method, temperature, mix
etc.). In the literature various formulatio
found to describe the sorption isotherm
concrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in th
paper the semi-empirical expression pro
b )Norling
Deflection Mjornell
at same load(1997) is adopted b
Figure 11. Derivation of the optimal hollow sphere shape.
Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

J = deflection
D (h, T )h at same load, the optimal hollow
the
(1)
sphere shape was derived. (See Fig. 11-b)

## The proportionality coefficient D(h,T) is called

After all
the analysis,
moisture
permeability
and it'Rect
is a Donuts(D=50mm)'
nonlinear function
shape
hole inside
judged asTthe
optiof the which
relativehad
humidity
h andwas
temperature
(Baant
mal
hollow
sphere
shape.
& Najjar 1972). The moisture mass balance requires
that the variation in time of the water mass per unit
volume of concrete (water content w) be equal to the
7divergence
CONCLUSION
of the moisture flux J
In this
study, several hollow slabs which had different
(2)
w = sphere
J shapes were analyzed to compare with
hollow
t
structure capacity and failure mode by using finite
element
method
program.
on the as
results
of
The water
content
w canBased
be expressed
the
sum
numerical
simulation,
the
impacts
of
hollow
sphere
of the
evaporable
water sphere
we (capillary water, water
and
the
optimal
hollow
could be devapor,There
and adsorbed
water) about
and shape
the
non-evaporable
rived.
are
conclusions
this
study.
(chemically
bound)
water
wn (Mills 1966,
1) Capacity &
of hollow
slab and
failure
mode was
Pantazopoulo
Mills
1995).
It
is reasonable
to
related
with
hollow
sphere
shape.
Especially,
these
assume
that
the
evaporable
water
is
a
function
of
are
proved
that corner
radius, hole
diameter and
, voland
relative
humidity,
h, degree
of hydration,
cthem.
ume
of
hollow
sphere
were
closely
related
with
degree
of
silica
fume
reaction,

s, i.e. we=we(h,c,s)
As corner radiussorption/desorption
of hollow sphere wasisotherm
smaller,
= 2)age-dependent
crack
caused
by
concentrated
stress
was
developed
(NorlingThe
Mjonell
1997).
Under
thishaving
assumption
and
earlier.
hollow
sphere
shapes
corner
raby substituting
Equation
1 appropriate
into Equation
2 one
dius
more
than
50mm
was
in
250mm
obtains
thick hollow slab.
3) The hole of hollow sphere functions as preventw
w h
we as hole
ing
a deflection
of slab. And
of hole diameter
&

&s +ofw&nslab
+ ( D h ) =
e
(3)
c +
lowhsphere
was hsmaller,
was
the deflection

t
c
s
bigger.
4) The hollow slab having optimal hollow sphere,
of the
sorption/desorption
where
we/h is the slopethat
Rect
donuts(D=50mm),
demonstrated
in this
isotherm
(also
called
moisture
The
study showed more than 99% of load capacity).
resisting capacgoverning
equation
(Equation
3)
must
be
completed
ity and less than 72% deflection at design load which
by appropriate
boundary
and initial itconditions.
compared
normal
slab. Therefore,
that
between theis optimal
amount ishollow
ofproved
evaporable
the The
Rectrelation
donuts(D=50mm)
sphere
water inand
relative
is called adsorption
shape
250mm
thickhumidity
hollow slab.

## isotherm if measured with increasing relativity

humidity and desorption isotherm in the opposite
case. Neglecting their difference (Xi et al. 1994), in
the following, sorption isotherm will be used with
reference to both sorption and desorption conditions.
By the way, if the hysteresis of the moisture
isotherm would be taken into account, two different
relation, evaporable water vs relative humidity, must
be used according to the sign of the variation of the
relativity humidity. The shape of the sorption
isotherm for HPC is influenced by many parameters,
especially those that influence extent and rate of the
chemical reactions and, in turn, determine pore
structure and pore size distribution (water-to-cement
ratio, cement chemical composition, SF content,
curing time and method, temperature, mix additives,
etc.). In the literature various formulations can be
found to describe the sorption isotherm of normal
concrete (Xi et al. 1994). However, in the present
paper the semi-empirical expression proposed by
Norling Mjornell (1997) is adopted because it
Proceedings of FraMCoS-7, May 23-28, 2010

## explicitly accounts for the

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

evolution of hydration
reaction and SF content. This sorption isotherm
readswork was supported by Samsung Construction
This
and Trade Inc, 2009

we (h, c , s ) = G1 ( c , s )1
REFERENCES

c )h

(g
c
e
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(g Hollow
c
c

K ( c Darmstadt
) e Concrete V. 18
sults and Evaluation.
s Building

Code Requirement
for
1

10

10

## Structural Concrete. American Concrete Institute.

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where
the study
first ofterm
(gelhollow
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represents
the
analytical
optimal
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for and
structural
maintephysically
bound
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the second
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J.H. Chung, H.K. CHOI, S.C. LEE, J.K. Oh. & C.S. CHOI.
water.
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amount of
of on
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The Hollow
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the architectural
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475-478
J.H.
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C.S.CHOI. (Norling
2009. An
relative
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andS.C.
it can
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of optimal hollow sphere shapes in hollow
Mjornell
1997)
Slabs. Computational Design in Engineering.
LUSAS Co. 1985. LUSAS : Modeller Reference Manual. LUc
s
Corporation.
( ,
)= k c + k s
G1SAS
(5)
c
s
vg
c
vg
Schnellenbach-Held & KarstensPfeffer. 2002. Punching behavior of biaxial hollow slabs. Cement & Concrete Composites. V.
I. 6.ks551-556
where
kcvg24.and
vg are material parameters. From the
Z. Lounis. & M.Z. Cohn. 1993. Optimization of precast
maximum
amount of water per unit volume that can
prestressed concrete bridge girder systems. PCI J. 123 (3)
fill60
all pores
(both capillary pores and gel pores), one
77.

w

K ( c s ) =
,

1
1

s + 0.22 s G

0.188

10

10

g c c h

g c c h
1

(6)

## The material parameters kcvg and ksvg and g1 can

be calibrated by fitting experimental data relevant to
free (evaporable) water content in concrete at
various ages (Di Luzio & Cusatis 2009b).
2.2 Temperature evolution
Note that, at early age, since the chemical reactions
associated with cement hydration and SF reaction
are exothermic, the temperature field is not uniform
for non-adiabatic systems even if the environmental
temperature is constant. Heat conduction can be
described in concrete, at least for temperature not
exceeding 100C (Baant & Kaplan 1996), by
Fouriers law, which reads
q

= T

(7)

## where q is the heat flux, T is the absolute

temperature, and is the heat conductivity; in this