Spillways
General
Spillway is a safety valve provided in the dam to
dispose of surplus flood waters from a reservoir
The importance of safe spillways needs no overemphasis as many failures of dams have been
caused by improper design of spillways
Earth and rockfill dams are especially susceptible to
breaching, if overtopped.
Concrete/Masonry dams can withstand moderate
overtopping, but this should be avoided.
Spillways
Selection Of Inflow Design Flood
IS : 11223 1985 provides guidelines for fixing
spillway capacity
Inflow design flood for the safety of the dam is
guided by the criterion of dam classification
The dams may be classified according to size by
using the hydraulic head and the gross storage
behind the dam
The overall size classification for the dam would be
the greater of that indicated by either of the two
parameters
Spillways
Classification of Dam
Classification
Gross Storage
Hydraulic Head
Small
0.5 to 10 Mm
7.5 to 12 m
Intermediate
10 to 60 Mm
12 to 30m
Large
Above 60 Mm
Above 30 m
Spillways
Inflow Design Flood
Size of dam
Small
Intermediate
Large
Spillways
Inflow Design Flood
Floods of larger or smaller magnitude may be used if
the hazard involved in the eventuality of a failure is
high or low
The relevant parameters to be considered in judging
The hazard in addition to the size are:

Spillways
Standard Project Flood (SPF)
It is the flood that may be expected from:
the most severe combination of hydrological and
meteorological factors, and
is computed by using the Standard Project Storm
(SPS)
Transposition of storms from outside the basin is
permissible
Very rare storms which are not characteristic of
the region concerned are excluded in arriving at
the SPS rainfall of the basin.
Spillways
Probable Maximum Flood (PMF)
It is the flood that may be expected from:
the most severe combination of critical
meteorological and hydrological condition, and
is computed by using the Probable Maximum
Storm (PMP)
PMP is an estimate of the physical upper limit of
maximum precipitation for the basin
This is obtained from the transposition studies of
the storms that have occurred over the region and
maximizing them for the most critical atmospheric
conditions.
Spillways
Flood Routing
Flood Routing is the process of computing the
reservoir storage volumes and outflow rates
corresponding to a particular hydrograph of inflow
It is used for arriving at the MWL for the project
Over any interval of time the volume of inflow must
equal the volume of outflow plus the change in
storage during the period
If reservoir is rising, there is increase in storage
If reservoir is falling, there is decrease in storage
Spillways
Flood Routing
For an interval of time t, the relationship can be
expressed by the following expression:
I .t O.t = S
where,
S =
I =
O =
Spillways
Flood Routing
The curves required for carrying out computations
are:
Inflow flood hydrograph
Reservoir capacityelevation curve
Spillway rating curve
For gated spillways the flood is assumed to
impinge at FRL
For ungated spillways this would correspond to
the spillway crest
Spillways
Flood Routing
Inflow
Elevation
Basic Inputs
Capacity
Time
Elevation
Outflow
Spillways
Flood Routing
Flood Routing Methods are:
Trial and Error Method
Modified Puls Method
Spillways
Flood Routing
Trial and Error Method
This method gives quite reliable results, provided the
chosen time interval is sufficiently small
This method arranges the basic routing equation as
follows:
I1 + I 2
O1 + O2
.t =
.t + (S 2 S1 )
2
2
Spillways
Flood Routing
Trial and Error Method
Procedure
Assume a particular level in the reservoir at the time
interval t
Compute the values on the right side of the above
equation, corresponding to the assumed reservoir level
Compare with the known value on the left side of the
equation.
If they do not tally, assume a new reservoir level
and repeat the process till the matching is obtained.
Spillways
Flood Routing
Modified Puls Method
This method arranges the basic routing equation as
below so that the knowns are placed on the left side
and unknowns are placed on the right side.
I1 + I 2
S1 O1 S 2 O2
+
+ =
2
t 2 t
Spillways
Flood Routing
Modified Puls Method
In the modified Puls method, a storageindication curve
viz. outflow O versus the quantity (S/t+O/2) is
constructed for the purpose.
S/t + O/2
Spillways
Flood Routing
Modified Puls Method
It may be noted that subtracting O2 from (S2/t+O2/2)
gives (S2/tO2/2).
This expression is identical to (S1/tO1/2) on the left side
of the equation except for the subscripts.
The subscript 1 denotes values at the beginning of
a time increment and subscript 2 denotes values at the
end of a time increment
It is apparent that (S2/tO2/2) at the end of one time
increment is numerically equal to (S1/tO1/2) for the
beginning of the succeeding time increment.
Spillways
Modified Puls Method
Procedure
i) Compute the numerical value of left side of the
equation for given values of I1, I2, S1 and O1 for the first
time increment.
ii)
Spillways
Types of Spillway
Controlled or gated
Uncontrolled or ungated
Spillways
Overfall or Ogee Spillway
Spillways
Overfall or Ogee Spillway
Spillways
Overflow or Ogee Spillway
Examples are
Bhakra dam
Rihand dam
Sriram Sagar dam
Nagarjunasagar dam
Jawahar Sagar dam
Tenughat dam
Srisailam dam
Tawa dam, Ukai dam etc.
Spillways
Orifice Spillway
Spillways
Orifice
Orificespillway
spillwaybreast
breastwall
walltype
type
Spillways
Orifice spillway sluice type
Spillways
Orifice Spillway
The orifice spillways have the advantage of having high
discharging capacity due to the high water head.
At sites where only a limited area and relatively short length of
suitable foundation material are available for the spillway
structure, the orifice spillway offers the most economic means
of passing the design flood.
However, the orifice spillways result in high flow concentration,
which increases the size and cost of energy dissipation work
below.
Spillways
Orifice Spillway
Spillways
Chute or trough spillway
Spillways
Chute or trough spillway
Spillways
Chute Spillway
Spillways
Side Channel Spillway
Spillways
Side Channel Spillway
Spillways
Tunnel/Shaft or Morning Glory Spillway
Spillways
Tunnel/Shaft or Morning Glory Spillway
Spillways
Tunnel/Shaft or Morning Glory Spillway
Spillways
Siphon Spillway
They prime rapidly and bring into action their full capacity.
They are especially useful at the power house end of long power channels with
limited forebay capacity order to avoid overflow of the channel banks.
Spillways
Siphon Spillway
Siphon spillways are not very common because :
 Possibility of clogging of the siphon passage way with debris,
leaves etc.
 The occurrence of sudden surges and stoppages of outflow as
a result of the erratic action of the siphon, thus causing
fluctuations in the downstream river stage.
 The release of outflows in excess of reservoir inflows
whenever the siphon operates.
 Vibration disturbances are more pronounced than in other
types of spillways.
Spillways
Siphon Spillway
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Shape of Ogee Profile Spillways with vertical upstream face
Upstream Quadrant
The upstream quadrant of the crest may conform to the ellipse:
2
X1
Y
+ 1
A1
B1
=1
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Shape of Ogee Profile Spillways with vertical upstream face
Downstream Quadrant
The downstream profile of the crest may conform to the equation:
X2
1.85
= K 2 .H d
0.85
.Y2
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Spillways with sloping upstream face
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Overflow Spillway
Spillways with crest offsets and risers
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Spillways with crest offsets and risers
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Overflow Spillway
Discharge Computations
The discharge over the spillway is generally computed by the
equation
2
Q=
2 g C.L.H 3 / 2
3
where,
C
L
H
=
=
=
Coefficient of Discharge
Effective length of crest
Head over crest
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Effective Length of Overflow Crest
L = L' 2 H ( N .K p + K a )
where,
L = Overall length of the crest excluding piers
H = Head over crest
N = Number of piers
Kp = End contraction coefficient of piers
Ka = End contraction coefficient of abutment
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Pier contraction coefficient, Kp
Kp
0.02
Roundnosed piers
0.01
Pointednosed piers
0.0
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Spillway
Abutment contraction coefficient, Ka
The abutment contraction coefficient, Ka is affected by the shape of
the abutment, the angle between the upstream approach wall and
the axis of flow, the actual head in relation to the design head and
the approach velocity.
The average abutment coefficient may be taken as follows:
Type
Ka
0.2
0.1
Rounded abutments where R > 0.5Hd and head wall not more
than 45o to direction of flow
0.0
Spillways
Hydraulic Design of Ogee Overflow Spillway
Coefficient of Discharge (C)
The value of coefficient of discharge depends on the
following:
Shape of the crest
Depth of overflow in relation to design head
Depth of approach
Extent of submergence due to tail water
Inclination of the upstream face
Spillways
C Vs P/Hd
Spillways
C vs P/Hd
Spillways
C Vs H/Hd
Spillways
C vs H/Hd
Spillways
C Vs h/H
is
reduced
due
to
Spillways
C vs H/Hd
Spillways
C vs h/(H+d)
Spillways
Design Head
A design head grater than the actual head will push the
crest surface into the theoretical nappe and result in
greater pressure along the curved surfaces and in lower
discharge capacities.
A design head lower than the actual head pulls the crest
surface below the theoretical nappe, resulting in subatmospheric pressures over some portion of the crest
curve and in higher discharge capacities.
Spillways
Design Head
Spillways
Minimum pressure on crest as a function of design head
Spillways
Design Head
Designing the crest shape to fit the nappe for a head less
than maximum head expected often results in economies
in construction.
Spillways
Design Head
Spillways
Subatmospheric pressure on crest
Spillways
Design Head
THANK YOU
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.