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CemNet Training - Course CKPC01

Module 1 Session 3

Cement Kiln
Process Chemistry
Module 1. Cement kiln energy efficiency and
productivity.
1.3 Variability.

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

Cement companies invest a significant amount of capital and effort


to reduce or minimise the range of variation of their kiln feed.
Characterisation of raw material
deposits by geological surveys and
core drilling.

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

Cement companies invest a significant amount of capital and effort


to reduce or minimise the range of variation of their kilns feed.
Capture of the core drilling and
geological information in block
models of raw materials and
quarries..

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course CKPC01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd
http://Training.CemNet.com

CemNet Training - Course CKPC01

Cement Kiln Chemistry

Module 1 Session 3

1.3 Variability

Cement companies invest a significant amount of capital and effort


to reduce or minimise the range of variation of their kilns feed.

Shale

Taking the correct proportions of the different


materials through a common or separate
crushers.

Limestone
Crusher

Passing the material through a


PGNAA analyser to monitor
the composition.
PGNAA

Homogenising the material


on a blending bed.

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

Cement companies invest a significant amount of capital and effort


to reduce or minimise the range of variation of their kilns feed.

Correcting individual oxide


compositions with additives.

Shale
Limestone
Crusher

PGNAA

Grinding these together into kiln


feed in a raw mill.
Homogenising the material in a
blending silo.

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

Cement companies invest a significant amount of capital and effort


to reduce or minimise the range of variation of their kilns feed.
Clinker quality control and minimising variation in quality are a
major justification for these efforts.
Shale
Limestone
Crusher

However, it is difficult to quantify


the quality benefits which these
efforts deliver.
PGNAA

The FLS methodology for determining


heat of clinker formation provides a
method of quantifying the benefits in
terms of kiln thermal energy
consumption.

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course CKPC01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd
http://Training.CemNet.com

CemNet Training - Course CKPC01

Cement Kiln Chemistry

Module 1 Session 3

1.3 Variability

In my example clinker the heat of formation was calculated to be


1735 kJ/kg clinker.
Step 1 decomposition of raw minerals

= 2187 kJ/kg

Step 2 formation of clinker minerals

= -452 kJ/kg
1735 kJ/kg

This is not the thermal energy consumption of a cement kiln.


Even the most thermally efficient, modern cement kilns consume
2900 kJ/kg clinker.
The thermal efficiency with respect to clinker formation using my
example would be:
1735/2900 = 59.8%

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

In my example clinker the heat of formation was calculated to be


1735 kJ/kg clinker.
Step 1 decomposition of raw minerals

= 2187 kJ/kg

Step 2 formation of clinker minerals

= -452 kJ/kg
1735 kJ/kg

At least 40% of the thermal energy consumption of a cement kiln


is consumed by the losses from the kiln.. ..in the
preheater exhaust, cooler excess air, the hot clinker and the
radiation from the shell of the preheater, kiln and cooler.
The thermal efficiency with respect to clinker formation using my
example would be:
1735/2900 = 59.8%

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

In my example clinker the heat of formation was calculated to be


1735 kJ/kg clinker.
Step 1 decomposition of raw minerals

= 2187 kJ/kg

Step 2 formation of clinker minerals

= -452 kJ/kg
1735 kJ/kg

Statistical process control (SPC) tells us that variation in the


cement manufacturing process is inevitable....the
process involves mixing variable raw materials, firing the kilns
with fuels which themselves exhibit variability, etc..
The thermal efficiency with respect to clinker formation using my
example would be:
1735/2900 = 59.8%

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course CKPC01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd
http://Training.CemNet.com

CemNet Training - Course CKPC01

Cement Kiln Chemistry

Module 1 Session 3

1.3 Variability

In my example clinker the heat of formation was calculated to be


1735 kJ/kg clinker.
Step 1 decomposition of raw minerals

= 2187 kJ/kg

Step 2 formation of clinker minerals

= -452 kJ/kg
1735 kJ/kg

Minimising this variability is the reason for all the proportioning,


blending and on-line analysis investments.. ..best
practice for kiln feed variability is to reduce the standard
deviation of kiln feed LSF to less than 1%.
The thermal efficiency with respect to clinker formation using my
example would be:
1735/2900 = 59.8%

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

If in my example the clinker LSF was 1% higher then the heat of


clinker formation is calculated to rise by 15 kJ/kg clinker to 1750
kJ/kg clinker.
Step 1 decomposition of raw minerals

= 2200 kJ/kg

Step 2 formation of clinker minerals

= -450 kJ/kg
1750 kJ/kg

As a cement kiln is at best 60% thermally efficient this must be


multiplied by 1.67 to estimate the impact on kiln thermal energy
consumption.
1750 * 1.67 = 2926 kJ/kg clinker
I.e. an increase in thermal energy consumption of 26
kJ/kg clinker.

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

Returning to the principles of statistical process control this tells us


that the results for kiln feed LSF will be normally distributed about
the target over time.
The bell-shaped normal
Kiln Feed LSF Target
distribution is a statistical model
comprising rigid characteristics
which describe variation:

Kiln Feed LSF

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course CKPC01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd
http://Training.CemNet.com

CemNet Training - Course CKPC01

Cement Kiln Chemistry

Module 1 Session 3

1.3 Variability

Returning to the principles of statistical process control this tells us


that the results for kiln feed LSF will be normally distributed about
the target over time.
Mean = Median = Mode.
Kiln Feed LSF Target
68.26% of results lie within 1
standard deviation of the mean.
95.46% of results lie within 2
standard deviations of the mean.
99.73% of results lie within 3
standard deviations of the mean.
Feed LSF
Kiln
2

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

All kiln feed LSF results which lie within 3 standard deviations, ,
either side of the target are within the normal range of expected
variation.
Based on our previous
Kiln Feed LSF Target
calculations a 1% increase in
LSF will lead to a rise in thermal
energy consumption of 26 kJ/kg
clinker.

If the standard deviation is 1% in


LSF then the normal range will
be +/-3%.......
..and
thermal energy consumption may
rise by 78 kJ/kg clinker at the
maximum.

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

Of course as the kiln feed LSF results are normally distributed the
will be balanced by low results.
high results
Kiln Feed LSF Target

2
3

2
3

Therefore it might be expected


that the kiln thermal energy
consumption will be centred
about the mean which
corresponds with the target LSF.
However, kiln burning zone
temperature, and therefore
thermal energy consumption, is
one of a number of examples in
cement manufacturing where the
minimum is the key control
rather than the target.

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course CKPC01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd
http://Training.CemNet.com

CemNet Training - Course CKPC01

Cement Kiln Chemistry

Module 1 Session 3

1.3 Variability

The kiln operators must keep the burning zone temperature above
the minimum required for C3S formation..
Thermal energy consumption must
be higher than that which would be
required with no variation in kiln
feed LSF
by an
amount equivalent to the extra
energy required when the LSF is 3
standard deviations above target.
In my example with a standard
deviation of 1% this equates to 78
kJ/kg clinker.

Cement Kiln Chemistry

1.3 Variability

The kiln operators must keep the burning zone temperature above
the minimum required for C3S formation..
Reducing the cost of that additional
energy is the value of the investments
made to reduce kiln feed variability
by proportioning, mixing and
analysing the raw materials and kiln
..a significant onfeed..
going manufacturing cost.
In my example with a standard
deviation of 1% this equates to 78
kJ/kg clinker.

Cement Kiln
Process Chemistry
Module 1. Cement kiln energy efficiency and
productivity.
1.3 Variability.

This document is for the sole use of students enrolled on course CKPC01 and cannot be reprinted, reproduced or distributed without prior written consent from Tradeship Publications Ltd
http://Training.CemNet.com