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MDB 3073 Manufacturing Technology II Manufacturing Technology II (Lesson Plan) 3 4 6 5 Bulk

MDB 3073Manufacturing Technology II Manufacturing Technology II (Lesson Plan) 3 4 6 5 Bulk deformation process

Manufacturing Technology II

Manufacturing Technology II (Lesson Plan)

3

Technology II Manufacturing Technology II (Lesson Plan) 3 4 6 5 Bulk deformation process  Rolling

4

Technology II Manufacturing Technology II (Lesson Plan) 3 4 6 5 Bulk deformation process  Rolling

6

5
5

Bulk deformation process

Rolling of metals

Forging of metals WEEK 5: 13-17/06/16

of metals  Forging of metals WEEK 5: 13-17/06/16 1 Introduction 2 7 Surface Technology 
1
1

Introduction

2

 Forging of metals WEEK 5: 13-17/06/16 1 Introduction 2 7 Surface Technology  Surface Roughness

7

Forging of metals WEEK 5: 13-17/06/16 1 Introduction 2 7 Surface Technology  Surface Roughness 

Surface Technology

Surface Roughness

Surface Coating

WEEK 7: 27/0601/07/16

8 - 14

Manufacturing Operation

Manufacturing industries and products

Product

/ production

relationships

Strengthening and

Production concepts and

Cellular Manufacturing

WEEK 8-14: 04/07

Forming and Shaping of Ceramic and Glasses

Fundamental of materials:

Behaviour and manufacturing properties WEEK 1: 16-21 /05/16

Behaviour and manufacturing properties WEEK 1: 16-21 /05/16  Shaping ceramics  Forming and shaping of

Shaping ceramics

Forming and shaping of glasses

Strengthening

glasses WEEK 3: 30/0503/06/16

 18/08/16 Sheet metal process
18/08/16
Sheet metal process

mathematical models

and

annealing

Sheet metal process mathematical models and annealing Powder Metal Process and Equipment  Production of Metal

Powder Metal Process and Equipment

Production of Metal Powders

Metal Process and Equipment  Production of Metal Powders Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

Forming and Shaping of

Plastics and Composite Materials

Injection molding

Extrusion

Processing

matrix composites WEEK 4: 06-10/06/16

of

metal

Compaction of Metal Powder

Sintering

WEEK 2: 23-28/05/16

Shearing

Bending and drawing

WEEK 6: 20-24/06/16

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

WEEK 2: 23-28/05/16  Shearing  Bending and drawing WEEK 6: 20-24/06/16 Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13

13 June 2016

Page 1

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

What is a Polymer?

repeat

unit

H H H H H H C C C C C C H H H
H H
H H
H H
C
C
C
C
C
C
H H
H H
H H

Polyethylene (PE)

Poly

many

mer

repeat unit

repeat

unit

H H H H H H C C C C C C H Cl H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
C
C
H Cl
H Cl
H Cl

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)

repeat

unit

H H H H H H C C C C C C H CH 3
H
H
H
H
H H
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
CH 3 H
CH 3
H CH 3

Polypropylene (PP)

Polymer Composition

Most polymers are hydrocarbons i.e., made up of H and C

Saturated hydrocarbons

Each carbon singly bonded to four other atoms

Example:

carbon singly bonded to four other atoms – Example: • Ethane, C 2 H 6 4.

Ethane, C 2 H 6

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

6 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Adapted from Fig. 14.2, Callister &
6 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Adapted from Fig. 14.2, Callister &

Adapted from Fig. 14.2, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 2

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

MOLECULAR WEIGHT

Molecular weight, M: Mass of a mole of chains.

Not all chains in a polymer are of the same length i.e., there is a distribution of molecular weights

— i.e., there is a distribution of molecular weights L o w M high M 4.
— i.e., there is a distribution of molecular weights L o w M high M 4.

Low M

there is a distribution of molecular weights L o w M high M 4. Forming and

high M

is a distribution of molecular weights L o w M high M 4. Forming and Shaping

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 3

L o w M high M 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr.
Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER

Polymer

Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic
Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic
Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic

Thermosetting

II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic Acrylics
II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic Acrylics

Polyesters

Phenolic

OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes

Epoxy resins

Thermoplastic

Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes Rubbers (Natural)
Thermosetting Polyesters Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes Rubbers (Natural)

Acrylics

Elastomers

Phenolic Epoxy resins Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes Rubbers (Natural) Silicones (Synthetic) 13

Polyurethanes

Epoxy resins Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes Rubbers (Natural) Silicones (Synthetic) 13 June 2016 Nylons

Rubbers (Natural)

Silicones (Synthetic)

Polyurethanes Rubbers (Natural) Silicones (Synthetic) 13 June 2016 Nylons 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

13 June 2016

Rubbers (Natural) Silicones (Synthetic) 13 June 2016 Nylons 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

Nylons

Rubbers (Natural) Silicones (Synthetic) 13 June 2016 Nylons 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Page 4

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Undergo a curing

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER

Polymer

Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Undergo a curing process
Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Undergo a curing process
Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Undergo a curing process

Thermosetting

II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMER Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Undergo a curing process during heating

Polyesters

Undergo a curing process during heating and shaping, causing a permanent change (called cross-linking) in molecular structure

Once cured, they cannot be re-melted

Thermoplastic Acrylics
Thermoplastic
Acrylics

Elastomers

they cannot be re-melted Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes  Chemical structure remains unchanged

Polyurethanes

re-melted Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes  Chemical structure remains unchanged during heating and

Chemical structure remains unchanged during heating and shaping

More important commercially, comprising more than 70% of total plastics tonnage

Rubbers

High Extensibility

of total plastics tonnage Rubbers  High Extensibility 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 5

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 Polymer Properties of Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Irreversible hardening

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Polymer

Properties of Polymer

Technology II MDB 3073 Polymer Properties of Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Irreversible hardening
Technology II MDB 3073 Polymer Properties of Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Irreversible hardening
Technology II MDB 3073 Polymer Properties of Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Irreversible hardening

Thermosetting

II MDB 3073 Polymer Properties of Polymer Thermosetting Polyesters  Irreversible hardening reaction  Strong

Polyesters

Irreversible hardening reaction

Strong bonds between molecules (cross-

linking)

Compared with Thermoplastics:

Stronger

Rigid

Heat resistant

Brittle

Low impact toughness

Lower ductility

Thermoplastic Acrylics
Thermoplastic
Acrylics

Elastomers

 Lower ductility Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes  Reversible softening & hardening 

Polyurethanes

ductility Thermoplastic Acrylics Elastomers Polyurethanes  Reversible softening & hardening  Softening

Reversible softening & hardening

Softening range (not melting point)

Weak bonds between molecules

Properties inverse with temperature:

Rubbers

Stiffness

Hardness

Ductility

Solvent resistance

Exceptional elastic deformation

Near-complete* recovery

Viscous deformation is permanent

Twisted/coiled molecular chains

Can be cross-linked (vulcanization)

Degradable

Insulative

13 June 2016

 Degradable  Insulative 13 June 2016 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Page 6

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Polymer Additives

Improve mechanical properties, processability, durability, etc.

Fillers

properties, processability, durability, etc. • Fillers • Added to improve tensile strength & abrasion

Added to improve tensile strength & abrasion resistance, toughness & decrease cost

ex: carbon black, silica gel, wood flour, glass, limestone, talc, etc.

Plasticizers

Added to reduce the glass transition temperature T g below room temperature

Presence of plasticizer transforms brittle polymer to a ductile one

Commonly added to PVC - otherwise it is brittle

Stabilizers

Antioxidants

UV protectants

Colorants

Dyes and pigments

Lubricants

Added to allow easier processing

polymer “slides” through dies easier

ex: sodium stearate

Flame Retardants

Substances containing chlorine, fluorine, and boron

– Substances containing chlorine, fluorine, and boron 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 7

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes:

Almost unlimited variety of part geometries

 

Plastic molding is a net shape process; further shaping is not needed

 

Less energy is required than for metals because processing temperatures are

much lower

 

Handling

of

product is

simplified

during

production

because

of lower

 

temperatures

 

Painting or plating is usually not required

 

Table 19.1 shows the general characteristics of forming and shaping processes for plastics and composite materials.

Plastics usually are shipped to manufacturing plants as pellets, granules, or powders and are melted (for thermoplastics) just before the shaping

process.

With increasing awareness of our environment, raw materials also may consist of reground or chopped plastics obtained from recycling centers.

or chopped plastics obtained from recycling centers. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

from recycling centers. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13
from recycling centers. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 8

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 Plastic Shaping Processes: • Fig 19.1 shows the outline of

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes:

Fig 19.1 shows the outline of forming and shaping processes for plastics, elastomers, and composite materials.

processes for plastics, elastomers, and composite materials. Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June 2016 4. Forming and

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

and composite materials. Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June 2016 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Page 9

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding:

Thermoplastics and some thermosets

when ram retracts, plastic pellets drop from hopper into barrel

ram forces plastic into the heating chamber (around the spreader) where the plastic melts as it moves forward

molten plastic is forced under pressure (injected) into the mold cavity where it assumes the shape of the mold

into the mold cavity where it assumes the shape of the mold Fig. 15.24, Callister &
Fig. 15.24, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 15.24 is from F.W. Billmeyer, Jr., Textbook of
Fig. 15.24, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
(Fig. 15.24 is from F.W. Billmeyer, Jr.,
Textbook of Polymer Science, 2nd
edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1971.)

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 10

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding:

Injection molding is similar to hot-chamber die casting.

The pellets or granules are fed into the heated cylinder, and the melt is forced into the mold either by a hydraulic plunger or by the rotating screw system of an extruder.

Fig 19.7 shows the schematic illustration of injection molding with (a) plunger and (b) reciprocating rotating screw.

with (a) plunger and (b) reciprocating rotating screw. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite
with (a) plunger and (b) reciprocating rotating screw. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

rotating screw. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

rotating screw. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June

Page 11

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding:

Polymer is heated to a highly plastic state and forced to flow under high pressure into a mold cavity where it solidifies; molded part is then removed from cavity

where it solidifies; molded part is then removed from cavity • Produces discrete components almost always

Produces discrete components almost always to net shape

Typical cycle time 10 to 30 sec, but cycles of one minute or more are not uncommon

Mold may contain multiple cavities, so multiple moldings are produced each cycle

Complex and intricate shapes are possible

Shape limitations:

Capability to fabricate a mold whose cavity is the same geometry as part

Shape must allow for part removal from mold

Part size from 50 g (2 oz) up to 25 kg (more than 50 lb), e.g., automobile bumpers

Injection molding is economical only for large production quantities due to high cost of mold

Injection molding is the most widely used molding process for thermoplastics

Some thermosets, elastomers, metals and ceramics are also injection molded

elastomers, metals and ceramics are also injection molded • Modifications in equipment and operating parameters

Modifications in equipment and operating parameters must be made

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 12

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine:

Two principal components:

Injection Molding Machine: • Two principal components: • Injection unit – melts and delivers polymer melt,

Injection unit melts and delivers polymer melt, operates much like an extruder

Clamping unit opens and closes mold each injection cycle

unit – opens and closes mold each injection cycle 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and
unit – opens and closes mold each injection cycle 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and
unit – opens and closes mold each injection cycle 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 13

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine: Injection Molding Cycle: Stage

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine:

Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 1 (mold is closed)

Machine: Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 1 (mold is closed) Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 3 (screw is

Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 3 (screw is retracted)

Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 3 (screw is retracted) 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 2 (melt is injected into cavity)

Molding Cycle: Stage 2 (melt is injected into cavity) Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 4 (mold opens

Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 4 (mold opens and part is ejected)

into cavity) Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 4 (mold opens and part is ejected) Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

into cavity) Injection Molding Cycle: Stage 4 (mold opens and part is ejected) Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Page 14

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine:

3073 Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine: 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials
3073 Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine: 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Molding Machine: 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June

Page 15

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine (The Mold):

After the part has cooled sufficiently (for thermoplastics) or cured (for thermosets), the molds are opened and the part is removed from the mold using ejectors.

Fig 19.10 shows the Illustration of mold features for injection molding. (a) Two-plate mold with important features identified. (b) Schematic illustration of the features in a mold.

(b) Schematic illustration of the features in a mold . • • Custom-designed and fabricated for
• •

Custom-designed and fabricated for the part to be

produced

Various types of mold for injection molding:

Two-plate mold

Three-plate mold

Hot-runner mold

Two-plate mold • Three-plate mold • Hot-runner mold 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 16

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine (The Mold): • There

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding Machine (The Mold):

There are three basic types of molds:

1. Cold-runner, two-plate mold: this design is the simplest and most common, as shown in Fig. 19.11a.

2. Cold-runner, three-plate mold (Fig. 19.11b): the runner system is separated from the part when the mold is opened.

3. Hot-runner mold (Fig. 19.11c), also called runnerless mold: the molten plastic is kept hot in a heated runner plate.

the molten plastic is kept hot in a heated runner plate. 4. Forming and Shaping of
the molten plastic is kept hot in a heated runner plate. 4. Forming and Shaping of

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 17

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding: Shrinkage

Reduction in linear size during cooling from molding to room temperature

Polymers have high thermal expansion coefficients, so significant shrinkage occurs

during cooling in mold

Typical shrinkage values for selected polymers:

Plastic

Shrinkage, mm/mm (in/in)

Nylon-6,6

0.020

Polyethylene

0.025

Polystyrene

0.004

PVC

0.005

0.025 Polystyrene 0.004 PVC 0.005 Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding: Compensation

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding: Compensation for Shrinkage

Dimensions of mold cavity must be larger than specified part dimensions:

mold cavity must be larger than specified part dimensions: D c = D p + D

D c = D p + D p S + D p S 2

where D c = dimension of cavity; D p = molded part dimension, and S = shrinkage value

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 18

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Injection Molding: Shrinkage Compensation Factors

Fillers in the plastic tend to reduce shrinkage

Injection pressure as pressure is increased, it forces more material into the mold cavity, and shrinkage is reduced

Compaction time - similar effect - forces more material into cavity during shrinkage

Molding temperature - higher temperature lowers the polymer melt viscosity, allowing more material to be packed into mold and reducing shrinkage

more material to be packed into mold and reducing shrinkage 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

and reducing shrinkage 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13

Page 19

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Extrusion

In extrusion, which constitutes the largest volume of plastics produced, raw materials in the form of thermoplastic pellets, granules, or powder are placed into a hopper and fed into the barrel of a screw extruder.

Fig 19.2(a) shows the schematic illustration of a typical screw extruder. (b) Geometry of an extruder screw. Complex

screw extruder. (b) Geometry of an extruder screw. Complex shapes can be extruded with relatively simple

shapes can be extruded with relatively simple and inexpensive dies.

can be extruded with relatively simple and inexpensive dies. • Screws have three distinct sections: 1.
can be extruded with relatively simple and inexpensive dies. • Screws have three distinct sections: 1.
can be extruded with relatively simple and inexpensive dies. • Screws have three distinct sections: 1.

Screws have three distinct sections:

1.

Feed section: Conveys the material from the hopper into the central region of the barrel.

2.

Melt section (also called compression or transition section): Where the heat generated by the viscous shearing of the plastic pellets and by the external heaters causes melting to begin.

3.

Metering or pumping section: Where additional shearing (at a high rate) and melting occur

with pressure building up at the die.

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 20

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Extrusion

The control of processing parameters such as extruder-screw rotational speed, barrel-wall temperatures,

die design, and rate of cooling and drawing speeds are important in order to ensure product integrity and

uniform dimensional accuracy.

ensure product integrity and uniform dimensional accuracy. • Die shape is important, as it can induce

Die shape is important, as it can induce high stresses in the product, causing it to develop surface fractures (as also occur in metals).

The molten plastic is in the shape of a helical ribbon, with thickness H and width W, and is conveyed toward the extruder outlet by rotating screw flights.

The shape, pitch, and flight of angle of the helical screw

are important parameters, as they affect the flow of

polymer through the extruder.

The ratio of barrel length, L, to its diameter D is also important.

of barrel length, L, to its diameter D is also important. 4. Forming and Shaping of

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

D is also important. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 21

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Extrusion

thermoplastics

plastic pellets drop from hopper onto the turning screw

plastic pellets melt as the turning screw pushes them forward by the heaters

molten polymer is forced under pressure through the shaping die to form the final product (extrudate)

the shaping die to form the final product (extrudate) Divided into sections to serve several functions:
the shaping die to form the final product (extrudate) Divided into sections to serve several functions:

Divided into sections to serve several functions:

Feed section - feedstock is moved from hopper and preheated

Melt Compression section - polymer is transformed into fluid, air mixed with pellets is extracted from melt, and material is compressed

Metering section - melt is homogenized and sufficient pressure developed to pump it through die opening

Fig. 15.25, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 15.25 is from Encyclopædia Britannica, 1997.)

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 22

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Extrusion: Dies and Extruded Products

Fig. 15.25, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 15.25 is from Encyclopædia Britannica, 1997.)
Fig. 15.25, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig.
15.25 is from Encyclopædia Britannica, 1997.)

The shape of the die orifice determines the cross-sectional shape of the extrudate

Common die profiles and corresponding extruded shapes:

Solid profiles

Hollow profiles, such as tubes

Wire and cable coating

Sheet and film

Filaments

Wire and cable coating • Sheet and film • Filaments • Fig 19.3 shows the common

Fig 19.3 shows the common extrusion die geometries: (a) coat- hanger die for extruding sheet; (b) round die for producing rods; and (c) and (d) nonuniform recovery of the part after it exits the die.

The control of processing parameters such as extruder-screw rotational speed, barrel-wall temperatures, die design, and rate of cooling and drawing speeds are important in order to ensure product integrity and uniform dimensional accuracy.

Die shape is important, as it can induce high stresses in the product, causing it to develop surface fractures (as also occur in metals).

it to develop surface fractures (as also occur in metals). 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 23

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Extrusion

Plastic-coated electrical wire

Electrical wire cable, and strips also are extruded and coated

with plastic by this process.

The wire is fed into the die opening at a controlled rate with the extruded plastic in order to produce a uniform coating.

Plastic coated paper clips also are made by coextrusion.

To ensure proper insulation, extruded electrical wires are

checked continuously for their resistance as they exit the die; they also are marked automatically with a roller to identify the specific type of wire.

with a roller to identify the specific type of wire. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Side view cross-section of die for coating
4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Side view cross-section of die for coating

Side view cross-section of die for coating of wire by extrusion

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 24

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Blown-Film Extrusion

II MDB 3073 Plastic Shaping Processes: Blown-Film Extrusion Thin polymer films • Common plastic bags and

Thin polymer films

Shaping Processes: Blown-Film Extrusion Thin polymer films • Common plastic bags and other thin polymer film
Shaping Processes: Blown-Film Extrusion Thin polymer films • Common plastic bags and other thin polymer film
Shaping Processes: Blown-Film Extrusion Thin polymer films • Common plastic bags and other thin polymer film
Shaping Processes: Blown-Film Extrusion Thin polymer films • Common plastic bags and other thin polymer film

Common plastic bags and other thin polymer film products are made from blown film, which is made from a thin-walled tube produced by an extruder.

In this process, a tube is extruded continuously vertically upward and then expanded into a balloon shape by blowing air through the center of the extrusion die until the desired film thickness is reached.

This process is well developed, producing inexpensive and very large quantities of plastic film and shopping bags.

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 25

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Thermoforming

Thermoforming is a process for forming thermoplastic sheets or films over a mold by means of the application of heat and pressure.

In this process, a sheet is (a) clamped and heated to the sag point (above the glass-transition temperature, of the polymer),

(above the glass-transition temperature , of the polymer), usually by radiant heating, and (b) forced against

usually by radiant heating, and (b) forced against the mold surfaces through the application of a vacuum or air pressure.

Fig 19.18 shows the various thermoforming processes for a thermoplastic sheet. These processes commonly are used in making advertising signs, cookie and candy trays, panels for shower stalls, and packaging.

and candy trays, panels for shower stalls, and packaging. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and
and candy trays, panels for shower stalls, and packaging. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

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Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Thermoforming

Flat thermoplastic sheet or film is heated and deformed into desired shape using a mold

Heating usually accomplished by radiant electric heaters located on one or both sides of starting plastic sheet or film

Widely used in packaging of products and to fabricate large items such as bathtubs, contoured skylights, and internal door liners for

refrigerators

skylights , and internal door liners for refrigerators Vacuum thermoforming: (1) a flat plastic sheet is

Vacuum thermoforming: (1) a flat plastic sheet is softened

Vacuum thermoforming: (1) a flat plastic sheet is softened Vacuum thermoforming: (3) vacuum draws sheet into

Vacuum thermoforming: (3) vacuum draws sheet into the cavity

Vacuum thermoforming: (2) sheet is placed over mold cavity

Vacuum thermoforming: (2) sheet is placed over mold cavity 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and
Vacuum thermoforming: (2) sheet is placed over mold cavity 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and
Vacuum thermoforming: (2) sheet is placed over mold cavity 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

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Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Compressing Molding

In compression molding, the workpiece (pre-shaped part, volume of powder, mixture of liquid resin and fillers) is placed in the heated mold and is formed under pressure.

is placed in the heated mold and is formed under pressure. • Compression molding is used

Compression molding is used mainly with thermosetting plastics with the original material being in a partially polymerized state

the original material being in a partially polymerized state Process Capabilities • Three types of compression

Process Capabilities

Three types of compression molds are available:

1. Flash type: for shallow or flat parts

2. Positive type: for high-density parts

3. Semipositive type: for quality production

Compression molding of thermosets: (1) charge is loaded, (2) charge is

molding of thermosets: (1) charge is loaded, (2) charge is compressed and cured, and (3) part

compressed and cured, and (3) part is ejected and removed.

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 28

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Compressing Molding

In compression molding, a preshaped charge of material, premeasured volume of powder, or viscous mixture of liquid-resin and filler material is placed directly into a heated mold cavity that typically is around 200°C but can be much higher.

Fig 19.19 shows the types of compression moldinga process similar to forging: (a) positive, (b) semipositive, and (c) flash, which is

(a) positive, (b) semipositive, and (c) flash, which is later trimmed off. (d) Die design for

later trimmed off. (d) Die design for making a compression-molded part with external undercuts.

making a compression-molded part with external undercuts. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

external undercuts. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 29

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Transfer Molding

Transfer molding represents a further development of the process of compression molding.

The uncured thermosetting resin is placed in a heated transfer pot or chamber and after the material is heated, it is injected

into heated closed molds.

material is heated, it is injected into heated closed molds. • Fig 19.20 shows the sequence

Fig 19.20 shows the sequence of operations in transfer molding for thermosetting plastics. This process is suitable particularly for intricate parts with varying wall thickness.

• • •

Transfer molding is a similar to compression molding process, but the charge is placed not in the die cavity but into a chamber next to the die cavity. Pressure is then applied to force the material to flow into the heated mold where curing occurs.

Process capabilities

Typical parts made by transfer molding are electrical connectors and electronic components, rubber and silicone parts, and the encapsulation of microelectronic devices.

The process is suitable particularly for intricate shapes with varying wall thicknesses.

The molds tend to be more expensive than those for compression molding, and some excess material is left in the channels of the mold during filling, which is later removed.

channels of the mold during filling, which is later removed. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 30

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Blow Molding

Blow molding is a modified extrusion- and injection-molding process.

In extrusion blow molding, a tube or preform (usually oriented so that it is vertical) is first extruded.

Fig 19.16(a) shows the schematic illustrations of (a) the extrusion blow-molding process for making plastic beverage bottles; (b) the injection blow-molding process; and (c) a three-station injection blow-molding machine for making plastic bottles.

injection blow-molding machine for making plastic bottles. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials
injection blow-molding machine for making plastic bottles. 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 31

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Plastic Shaping Processes: Blow Molding

II MDB 3073 Plastic Shaping Processes: Blow Molding 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite
II MDB 3073 Plastic Shaping Processes: Blow Molding 4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

4. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials • In some operations, the extrusion is

In some operations, the extrusion is continuous, and the

molds move with the tubing.

In injection blow molding, a short tubular piece (parison) first is injection molded into cool dies (parisons may be made and stored for later use).

A related process is stretch blow molding, where the parison is expanded and elongated simultaneously, subjecting the polymer to biaxial stretching and thus enhancing its properties.

Multilayer blow molding involves the use of coextruded tubes or parisons and thus permits the production of a multilayer structure.

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

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Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Terminology/Classification of Composites

Composite:

Multiphase material that is artificially made.

Phase types:

-- Matrix - is continuous -- Dispersed - is discontinuous and surrounded by matrix

-- Dispersed - is discontinuous and surrounded by matrix Adapted from Fig. 16.1(a), Callister & Rethwisch

Adapted from Fig. 16.1(a), Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Adapted from Fig. 16.1(a), Callister & Rethwisch 8e . 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Matrix phase:

-- Purposes are to:

- transfer stress to dispersed phase

- protect dispersed phase from

environment

-- Types: MMC,
-- Types:
MMC,
CMC, PMC
CMC,
PMC

metal

ceramic

polymer

Dispersed phase:

-- Purpose:

MMC: increase s y , TS, creep resist. CMC: increase K Ic PMC: increase E, s y , TS, creep resist. -- Types: particle, fiber, structural

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Types: particle , fiber , structural Dr. Mazli Mustapha Reprinted with permission from D. Hull and
Types: particle , fiber , structural Dr. Mazli Mustapha Reprinted with permission from D. Hull and
Types: particle , fiber , structural Dr. Mazli Mustapha Reprinted with permission from D. Hull and

Reprinted with permission from D. Hull and T.W. Clyne, An Introduction to Composite Materials, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996, Fig. 3.6, p. 47.

13 June 2016

Page 33

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composites Fibre reinforced Continuous (aligned)

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES

Composites

II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composites Fibre reinforced Continuous (aligned) Discontinuous
II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composites Fibre reinforced Continuous (aligned) Discontinuous
II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composites Fibre reinforced Continuous (aligned) Discontinuous

Fibre reinforced

Continuous

(aligned)

Composites Fibre reinforced Continuous (aligned) Discontinuous Aligned R a n d o m Particle-reinforced

Discontinuous

Fibre reinforced Continuous (aligned) Discontinuous Aligned R a n d o m Particle-reinforced Spheroidite

Aligned

Random

Particle-reinforced Spheroidite steel Matrix ferrite (a) ductile Particle cementite (Fe 3 C) brittle
Particle-reinforced
Spheroidite steel
Matrix ferrite
(a) ductile
Particle
cementite
(Fe 3 C)
brittle

WC/Co cemented carbide

cobalt

(ductile, tough)

matrix:

particles: WC

(brittle, hard)

(ductile, tough) matrix: particles: WC (brittle, hard) Automobile tire rubber matrix: rubber (compliant)

Automobile tire rubber

matrix: rubber

(compliant)

particles:carbon

black (stiff)

matrix: rubber (compliant) particles:carbon black (stiff) Structural L a m i n a t e s
matrix: rubber (compliant) particles:carbon black (stiff) Structural L a m i n a t e s

Structural

Laminates

Sandwich panels

(stiff) Structural L a m i n a t e s Sandwich panels Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Page 34

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Composite Benefits

CMCs: Increased toughness

Force particle-reinf fiber-reinf un-reinf
Force
particle-reinf
fiber-reinf
un-reinf

Bend displacement

• PMCs: Increased E/r

ceramics 10 3 E(GPa) PMCs 10 2 10 metal/ metal alloys 1 0.1 polymers 0.01
ceramics
10 3
E(GPa)
PMCs
10 2
10
metal/
metal alloys
1
0.1
polymers
0.01
0.1
0.3
1
3
10
30

Density, r [mg/m 3 ]

0.01 0.1 0.3 1 3 10 30 Density, r [mg/m 3 ] • MMCs: Increased creep

MMCs: Increased creep resistance

r [mg/m 3 ] • MMCs: Increased creep resistance Adapted from T.G. Nieh, "Creep rupture of

Adapted from T.G. Nieh, "Creep rupture of a silicon- carbide reinforced aluminum composite", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 15(1), pp. 139-146, 1984. Used with

permission.

A Vol. 15(1), pp. 139-146, 1984. Used with permission. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 35

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES

Composites

II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composites Fibre reinforced • Fibers very strong in tension –
II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composites Fibre reinforced • Fibers very strong in tension –

Fibre reinforced

Fibers very strong in tension

Provide significant strength improvement to the composite

Ex: fiber-glass - continuous glass filaments

composite – Ex: fiber-glass - continuous glass filaments in a polymer matrix • Glass fibers –

in a polymer matrix

Glass fibers

strength and stiffness

Polymer matrix

holds fibers in place

protects fiber surfaces

transfers load to fibers

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Fiber Types

Whiskers - thin single crystals - large length to diameter ratios

graphite, silicon nitride, silicon carbide

high crystal perfection extremely strong, strongest

known

very expensive and difficult to disperse

Fibers

polycrystalline or amorphous

generally polymers or ceramics

Ex: alumina, aramid, E-glass, boron, UHMWPE

Wires

metals steel, molybdenum, tungsten

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 36

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

FIBER ALIGNMENT-FIBRE REINFORCED

Composites

II MDB 3073 FIBER ALIGNMENT-FIBRE REINFORCED Composites • Aligned Continuous fibers • Examples: -- Metal :

Aligned Continuous fibers

• Examples:

-- Metal: g'(Ni 3 Al)-a(Mo) by eutectic solidification.

matrix: a (Mo) (ductile)

(Mo) by eutectic solidification. matrix: a (Mo) (ductile) ’ (Ni 3 Al) (brittle) fibers: g From
(Mo) by eutectic solidification. matrix: a (Mo) (ductile) ’ (Ni 3 Al) (brittle) fibers: g From

’ (Ni 3 Al) (brittle)

matrix: a (Mo) (ductile) ’ (Ni 3 Al) (brittle) fibers: g From W. Funk and E.

fibers: g

From W. Funk and E. Blank, “Creep deformation of Ni 3 Al-Mo in-situ composites", Metall. Trans. A Vol. 19(4), pp. 987-998, 1988. Used with permission.

Fibre reinforced

Continuous

(aligned)

Used with permission. Fibre reinforced Continuous (aligned) -- Ceramic : Glass w/SiC fibers formed by glass

-- Ceramic: Glass w/SiC fibers

formed by glass slurry E glass = 76 GPa; E SiC = 400 GPa.

E g l a s s = 76 GPa; E S i C = 400 GPa.
E g l a s s = 76 GPa; E S i C = 400 GPa.
E g l a s s = 76 GPa; E S i C = 400 GPa.

fracture

surface

(a)

From F.L. Matthews and R.L. Rawlings, Composite Materials; Engineering and

Science, Reprint ed., CRC Press, Boca

Raton, FL, 2000. (a) Fig. 4.22, p. 145 (photo by J. Davies); (b) Fig. 11.20, p. 349 (micrograph by H.S. Kim, P.S. Rodgers, and R.D. Rawlings). Used with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

(b)

Used with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (b) 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Boca Raton, FL. (b) 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Page 37

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

FIBER ALIGNMENT-FIBRE REINFORCED

Composites

II MDB 3073 FIBER ALIGNMENT-FIBRE REINFORCED Composites • Discontinuous fibers, random in 2 dimensions •

Discontinuous fibers, random in 2 dimensions

Example: Carbon-Carbon

-- fabrication process:

- carbon fibers embedded

in polymer resin matrix,

(b)

- polymer resin pyrolyzed at up to 2500ºC.

-- uses: disk brakes, gas

turbine exhaust flaps,

missile nose cones.

Other possibilities:

-- Discontinuous, random 3D

-- Discontinuous, aligned

Fibre reinforced

Discontinuous

Aligned Random
Aligned
Random
aligned Fibre reinforced Discontinuous Aligned Random 500 m view onto plane C fibers: very stiff very
500 m
500 m
Fibre reinforced Discontinuous Aligned Random 500 m view onto plane C fibers: very stiff very strong
Fibre reinforced Discontinuous Aligned Random 500 m view onto plane C fibers: very stiff very strong

view onto plane

C fibers:

very stiff very strong

C matrix:

less stiff less strong

very stiff very strong C matrix: less stiff less strong (a) fibers lie in plane Adapted
very stiff very strong C matrix: less stiff less strong (a) fibers lie in plane Adapted

(a)

fibers lie

in plane

Adapted from F.L. Matthews and R.L. Rawlings, Composite Materials; Engineering and Science, Reprint ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000. (a) Fig. 4.24(a), p. 151; (b) Fig. 4.24(b) p. 151. (Courtesy I.J. Davies) Reproduced with permission of CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Press, Boca Raton, FL. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha

Page 38

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

THE INFLUENCE OF FIBER LENGTH

Composites

II MDB 3073 THE INFLUENCE OF FIBER LENGTH Composites • Critical fiber length for effective stiffening

Critical fiber length for effective stiffening & strengthening:

fiber ultimate tensile strength fiber diameter s fiber length f d  2  c
fiber ultimate tensile strength
fiber diameter
s
fiber length
f d
 2 
c
shear strength of
fiber-matrix interface

Fibre reinforced

Continuous

(aligned)

fiber-matrix interface Fibre reinforced Continuous (aligned) • Ex: For fiberglass, common fiber length > 15 mm

• Ex: For fiberglass, common fiber length > 15 mm needed

• For longer fibers, stress transference from matrix is more efficient

Short, thick fibers: s fiber length f d  2  c
Short, thick fibers:
s
fiber length
f d
 2 
c

Low fiber efficiency

Long, thin fibers: s fiber length f d  2  c
Long, thin fibers:
s
fiber length
f d
 2 
c

High fiber efficiency

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

 c High fiber efficiency Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June 2016 3. Forming and Shaping of

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

c High fiber efficiency Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June 2016 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics

Page 39

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 THE INFLUENCE OF FIBER LENGTH Critical fibre length is necessary

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

THE INFLUENCE OF FIBER LENGTH

Critical fibre length is necessary for effective strengthening and stiffening of the composite material .

strengthening and stiffening of the composite material . fiber ultimate tensile strength fiber diameter * s

fiber ultimate tensile strength

of the composite material . fiber ultimate tensile strength fiber diameter * s d f l

fiber diameter

* s d f l  shear strength of fiber-matrix interface c 2  c
*
s
d
f
l
shear strength of fiber-matrix interface
c
2
c
 shear strength of fiber-matrix interface c 2  c As fibre length increase l increase,

As fibre length increase l increase, the fibre reinforcement becomes more effective, where fibre length is greater than critical length .

*

s

When a stress equal to is applied

f

to a fibre having just the critical the

maximum fibre load is only achieved at

the axial centre of fibre.

fibre load is only achieved at the axial centre of fibre. Stress- position profile where fibre
fibre load is only achieved at the axial centre of fibre. Stress- position profile where fibre

Stress- position profile where fibre length is

less than critical length .

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 40

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

TENSILE STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR-LONGITUDINAL LOADING

Elastic behavior of a continuous and oriented fibrous composite that is loaded in the direction of fibre alignment .

It is assumed that the fibre -matrix interfacial bond is very good, such that the deformation of both matrix and fibre is the same (an isostrain situation)

both matrix and fibre is the same (an isostrain situation) E cl or E cl 

E

cl

or

E

cl

E V E V

m m

f f

E (1 V ) E V

m

f

f f

Because the composite consists of only matrix and fibre

phases: that is

V

m

V

f

1

of only matrix and fibre phases: that is V m  V f  1 3.

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

is V m  V f  1 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 41

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composites • Sandwich panels Structural L a

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES

Composites

II MDB 3073 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES Composites • Sandwich panels Structural L a m i n

Sandwich panels

Structural

Laminates

-- low density, honeycomb core

-- benefit: light weight, large bending stiffness

Sandwich panels

light weight, large bending stiffness Sandwich panels face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb • Stacked and bonded

face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb

Sandwich panels face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb • Stacked and bonded fiber -reinforced sheets -- stacking
Sandwich panels face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb • Stacked and bonded fiber -reinforced sheets -- stacking
Sandwich panels face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb • Stacked and bonded fiber -reinforced sheets -- stacking
Sandwich panels face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb • Stacked and bonded fiber -reinforced sheets -- stacking
Sandwich panels face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb • Stacked and bonded fiber -reinforced sheets -- stacking
Sandwich panels face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb • Stacked and bonded fiber -reinforced sheets -- stacking

• Stacked and bonded fiber-reinforced sheets -- stacking sequence: e.g., 0º/90º or 0/45/90º -- benefit: balanced, in-plane stiffness

Adapted from Fig. 16.18, Callister 7e. (Fig. 16.18 is from Engineered Materials

Handbook, Vol. 1, Composites, ASM

International, Materials Park, OH, 1987.)

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 42

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 COMPOSITES MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Polymer Matrix Composites Processes Pultrusion

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

COMPOSITES MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

Polymer Matrix Composites Processes

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Polymer Matrix Composites Processes Pultrusion Open faced moulding H a n d l a

Pultrusion

PROCESSES Polymer Matrix Composites Processes Pultrusion Open faced moulding H a n d l a y

Open faced moulding

Hand lay up

Pultrusion Open faced moulding H a n d l a y u p Automated lay up

Automated lay up

Tape lay up

Spray Moulding

Matched Die Moulding

Fibre preform

Prepreg

Sheet Moulding Compound
Sheet Moulding
Compound
Filament Winding Transfer Moulding
Filament Winding
Transfer
Moulding

Structural reaction injection moulding

Transfer Moulding Structural reaction injection moulding 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials
Transfer Moulding Structural reaction injection moulding 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 43

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Open Mold Processes

Only one mold (male or female) is needed and may be made of any material such as wood, reinforced plastic or , for longer runs, sheet metal or electroformed nickel. The final part is usually very smooth.

Shaping. Steps that may be taken for high quality

1. Mold release agent (silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, fluorocarbon, or first applied.

sometimes, plastic film) is

fluorocarbon, or first applied. sometimes, plastic film) is 2. Unreinforced surface layer (gel coat) may be

2. Unreinforced surface layer (gel coat) may be deposited for best surface quality.

layer (gel coat) may be deposited for best surface quality. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics
layer (gel coat) may be deposited for best surface quality. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics
layer (gel coat) may be deposited for best surface quality. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

best surface quality. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 44

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Hand Lay-Up:

The resin and fiber (or pieces cut from prepreg) are placed manually, air is expelled with squeegees and if

necessary, multiple layers are built up.

· Hardening is at room temperature but may be improved by heating.

· Void volume is typically 1%.

· Foam cores may be incorporated (and left in the part) for greater shape complexity. Thus essentially all shapes can be produced.

· Process is slow (deposition rate around 1 kg/h) and labor-intensive

· Quality is highly dependent on operator skill.

· Extensively used for products such as airframe components, boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts.

boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite
boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite
boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Hand layup, or contact molding, is the oldest and simplest way of making fiberglassresin composites. Applications are standard wind turbine blades, boats, etc.)

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 45

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

SPRAY-UP MOLDING

A spray gun supplying resin in two converging streams into which roving is chopped

· Automation with robots results in highly reproducible production

· Labor costs are lower

in highly reproducible production · Labor costs are lower In Spray – up process, chopped fibers
in highly reproducible production · Labor costs are lower In Spray – up process, chopped fibers
in highly reproducible production · Labor costs are lower In Spray – up process, chopped fibers

In Sprayup process, chopped fibers and resins are sprayed simultaneously into or onto the mold. Applications are lightly loaded structural panels, e.g. caravan bodies, truck fairings, bathtubes, small boats, etc.

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 46

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Tape-Laying Machines (Automated Lay-Up)

Cut and lay the ply or prepreg under computer control and without tension; may allow reentrant shapes to be made.

· Cost is about half of hand lay-up

· Extensively used for products such as airframe components, boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts.

boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite
boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite
boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite
boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite
boats, truck bodies, tanks, swimming pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

pools, and ducts. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 47

Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 Filament Winding  Continuous reinforcing fibers are accurately positioned in
Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 Filament Winding  Continuous reinforcing fibers are accurately positioned in

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Filament Winding

Continuous reinforcing fibers are accurately positioned in a predetermined pattern to form a hollow (usually cylindrical) shape

Fibers are fed through a resin bath to impregnate with thermosetting resin

Impregnated fibers are continuously wound (typically automatically) onto a mandrel

After appropriate number of layers added, curing is carried out either in an oven or at room temperature

The mandrel is removed to give the final product

Filament Winding Characteristics

Because of the tension, reentrant shapes cannot be produced.

CNC winding machines with several degrees of freedom (sometimes 7) are frequently employed.

The filament (or tape, tow, or band) is either precoated with the polymer or is drawn through a polymer bath so that it picks up polymer on its way to the winder.

Void volume can be higher (3%)

The cost is about half that of tape laying

Productivity is high (50 kg/h).

Applications include: fabrication of composite pipes, tanks, and pressure vessels. Carbon fiber reinforced rocket motor cases used for Space Shuttle and other rockets are made this way.

used for Space Shuttle and other rockets are made this way. Adapted from Fig. 16.15, Callister

Adapted from Fig. 16.15, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. [Fig. 16.15 is from N. L. Hancox, (Editor), Fibre Composite Hybrid Materials, The

Macmillan Company, New York, 1981.]

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

Page 48

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Vacuum-Bag Molding

The vacuumbag process was developed for making a variety of components, including relatively large parts with complex shapes. Applications are large cruising boats, racecar components, etc.

Pressure-Bag Molding

Pressurebag process is virtually a mirror image of vacuumbag molding. Applications are sonar domes, antenna housings, aircraft fairings, etc.

are sonar domes, antenna housings, aircraft fairings, etc. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

aircraft fairings, etc. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13
aircraft fairings, etc. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

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Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

Pultrusion

Continuous fibers pulled through resin tank, then preforming die & oven to cure

Continuous fibers pulled through resin tank to impregnate fibers with thermosetting resin

Impregnated fibers pass through steel die that preforms to the desired shape

Preformed stock passes through a curing die that is

precision machined to impart final shape

heated to initiate curing of the resin matrix

shape  heated to initiate curing of the resin matrix  Production rates around 1 m/min.


Production rates around 1 m/min.

Applications are to sporting goods (golf club shafts), vehicle drive shafts (because of the high damping capacity), nonconductive ladder rails for electrical service, and structural members for vehicle and aerospace applications.

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

and aerospace applications. Dr. Mazli Mustapha 13 June 2016 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

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Manufacturing Technology II MDB 3073 PREPREG PRODUCTION PROCESSES  Prepreg is the composite industry’s term

Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

PREPREG PRODUCTION PROCESSES

Prepreg is the composite industry’s term for continuous fiber reinforcement pre-impregnated with a polymer resin that is only partially cured.

Prepreg is delivered in tape form to the manufacturer who then molds and fully cures the product without having to add any resin.

This is the composite form most widely used for structural applications

composite form most widely used for structural applications  Manufacturing begins by collimating a series of

Manufacturing begins by collimating a series of spool-wound continuous fiber tows.

Tows are then sandwiched and pressed between sheets of release and carrier paper using heated rollers (calendering).

The release paper sheet has been coated with a thin film of heated resin solution to provide for its thorough impregnation of the fibers.

to provide for its thorough impregnation of the fibers. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

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Manufacturing Technology II

MDB 3073

PREPREG PRODUCTION PROCESSES

۰ The final prepreg product is a thin tape consisting of continuous

and aligned fibers embedded in a partially cured resin

۰ Prepared for packaging by winding onto a cardboard core.

۰ Typical tape thicknesses range between 0.08 and 0.25 mm

۰ Tape widths range between 25 and 1525 mm.

۰ Resin content lies between about 35 and 45 vol%

1525 mm. ۰ Resin content lies between about 35 and 45 vol%  The prepreg is
1525 mm. ۰ Resin content lies between about 35 and 45 vol%  The prepreg is

The prepreg is stored at 0C (32 F) or lower because thermoset matrix undergoes curing reactions at room

temperature. Also the time in use at room temperature must be minimized. Life time is about 6 months if properly handled.

Both thermoplastic and thermosetting resins are utilized: carbon, glass, and aramid fibers are the common reinforcements.

Actual fabrication begins with the lay-up. Normally a number of plies are laid up to provide the desired thickness.

The lay-up can be by hand or automated.

 The lay-up can be by hand or automated. 3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and

3. Forming and Shaping of Plastics and Composite Materials

Dr. Mazli Mustapha

13 June 2016

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