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CGE686

Topic 2: Pollution prevention, waste


minimisation and waste management

Learning outcomes

1. Explain the concepts of pollution prevention,


waste minimisation and waste management.
2. Discuss generally the application of the
concepts in oil and gas industry.

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Contents

1. Costs associated with waste


2. Pollution prevention
3. Waste minimisation

4. Waste management

5. Regulatory framework

Costs associated
with wastes
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Costs associated with wastes


Environment

Production

Costs of waste
Future
Waste
disposal
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Production

Depletion of natural
resources
Plant utilisation
inefficiencies

Raw material
inefficiencies

Higher production
cost

Late shipment
Less competitive
pricing

Poor customer
relations

Energy
inefficiencies
Production
By-product
generation

Loss of business
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Waste disposal

Containers

Waste
disposal

Transport
Increased costs
of disposal
Loss of business

Incineration

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Environment

Environment
Emissions

Health and safety


issues

Pollution
Clean-up costs
Fines

Attitude of
neighbours
Public relation
Increased costs of
technology to stay
in business

Recruitment
difficulties
Attitude of
workforce

Local planning
restrictions
Tougher
legislation
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Future

Containers

Future

Transport
Increased costs of
technology to stay
in business

Increased costs of raw


materials through
depletion

Recall
Production

Environment
Costs of waste
Future

Waste
disposal
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Pollution
Prevention
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Pollution Prevention

Definition (EPA)

Pollution prevention is reducing or eliminating


waste at the source by (1) modifying production
processes, (2) promoting the use of nontoxic or
less toxic substances, (3) implementing
conservation techniques, and (4) reusing
materials rather than putting them into the waste
stream.

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Pollution Prevention

Pollution prevention is about reducing or


eliminating hazardous waste at the point of
generation.
Which includes:

Managing chemicals to reduce risk

Identifying and estimating all releases


Waste minimisation

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Waste
Minimisation
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Waste Minimisation

Waste minimisation aims to :

1. Eliminate waste before it is produced


2. Reduce its quantity
3. Reduce its toxicity

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How?

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Details

Waste
minimisation
Reduction at
source

Product
modification
Ecodesign of new
or improvement
of existing

Recycling at
source
Process
modification

Good practices
Implement good
environmental
practices

Substitution of
materials
Less pollutant
ones

Technological
changes
More efficient
technologies
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Benefits of waste minimisation


Environment

Benefits of waste
minimisation

Production

Waste disposal

Public relations

Gain of business
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Production

Production

Resources conserved
Costs reduced
Cheaper products
More competitive
Increased sales

Increased profits
Higher share price
More investment in
productive capacity

Gain of business

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Waste disposal
Waste
disposal

Less waste
Cheaper fees
Cheaper transport
Increased profits
Higher share price
More investment in
productive capacity

Gain of business

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Environment
Environment
Cleaner ecosystem
Less emissions
No pollution
Public relations

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Public relations

Public relations

Better local PR
More satisfied work force
Easier recruitment

Future
More secure
Competitive
Quality enhancement
Gain of business
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Waste
Management
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Waste Management

Waste management is important


Environmental performance
Corporate reputation

Benefits

Minimise environmental impacts


Reduce operational expenditures
Reduce capital expenditures
Minimise risk to corporate reputation
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Development of oil and gas


activities

O & G activities are expanding to new areas that


have a poor
Waste management infrastructure
Regulatory apparatus
Proper guidelines and best practices is shared to
gain the benefits of waste management.

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Definitions

Waste any material (hazardous or nonhazardous) that is surplus to requirement.


Management:
E&P project definition
Selection of technology
Design of facilities
Waste collection
Waste transport
Waste treatment
Waste disposal
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Waste management across


the oil and gas life cycle

Waste management should be addressed at all


stages of project development.

Incorporation of waste management in early


stages will likely deliver improved performance
and cost benefits.

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Key O&G life-cycle phases

1. Business Case Evaluation


Identify the high level waste management
issues
May influence project viability in terms of
capital and operational expenditure
May influence community relations
Issues (examples)
Condensates containing mercury
Limited local waste infrastructures
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Key O&G life-cycle phases

2. Identify and Appraise


During this phase, generation of sufficient
information is important so that waste
management is a factor in the decision-making
process.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can be
used as a tool

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Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA)

An EIA may contain a Waste Management Plan


(WMP).

Contains record of waste management principles


and policies to be developed and implemented
throughout the project development.

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Key elements of WMP

1. Selection: During project selection, significant


decisions are made such as process design and
location
2. Define: During Front End Engineering Design
(FEED) and Detailed Design, waste
management are clearly identified.
3. Execute: Construction phase design plans are
realized and facilities are put in place.
Everything are managed consistent with waste
management hierarchy.
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Key elements of WMP

4. Operate:
Waste collection handling, treatment and
disposal.
Periodic review of the waste management
plan
Implementation of opportunities for
improvement

5. Retire: To close the waste facility. Depends on


the size and wastes associated with a facility
For details please refer to reference no.2 (Fig 1)
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Principles of Waste Management:


Hierarchy of Waste Management
Practices

For details please refer to reference no.2 (Appendix 1)

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Practices of Waste Management:


Risk-Based Waste Management

1. Risk assessment

2. Risk-based decision making

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Risk assessment

It provides the means to recognize management


and disposal options for waste.

Manage the risk to human and environment to a


predetermined level.
It considers the
Severity of possible consequences
Probability or likelihood of the consequences

Risk = (Probability of Accident) x (losses per accident)


Risk = Likelihood x Severity

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Risk assessment

Potential of adverse effect (consequences) includes the


following factors at a sufficient quantity/concentration/dose
to create potential effect.
1. A hazard
Toxicity
Reactivity
Carcinogenicity

2. Exposure route
Inhalation (Respiratory tract)
Ingestion (Gastrointestinal tract)
Dermal contact (Skin)
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Risk-Based Decision Making

Decisions are made once risks associated with


waste management choices have been assessed.
The comparison on the choices permits
The identification of waste management
options achieving acceptable risks.
For those exceeding the acceptable risks
mitigations measures are required to achieve
and acceptable risks

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Waste Management Capacity


Building

Evaluate the technical capacity of local waste


management infrastructure
To assess the ability to handle the projected waste
to be generated
Gaps and shortcoming should be identified as early
as possible

Evaluation of third-party waste management facilities


Waste collection, segregation and temporary storage
Waste transfer and tracking

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Capacity building ideas

Education and training in waste management techniques


and operations
Facilitating development of re-use and recycling
operations for the local communities
Running pilot-plant scale projects

Building a facility that local populations can use or operate


that can be integrated into local municipal infrastructure
Building a separate facility that is used only by o&g
operations
Establishing independent sustainable projects

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Waste Treatment and Disposal


Methods

Biological treatment
land-farming
land treatment
composting
Thermal treatment
Incineration
Fuel blending

Chemical treatment
Neutralisation
Solidification/Stabilisation
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Waste Treatment and Disposal


Methods

Physical treatment
Evaporation
Gravity separation
Centrifugation
Waste-specific treatment
Non-incineration treatment of medical waste
Wastewater
Waste disposal options
Underground injection
Landfill
On-site burial

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Waste Measurement and


Reporting

Reasons for collecting information on waste


Improving internal environmental performance
Fulfilling regulatory reporting requirements
Providing environmental information to externa
stakeholders such as communities and project
funding entities
Cost control

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Regulatory
Framework
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International Environmental
Convention

Montreal Protocol of the Vienna Convention Phase


out of ozone depleting substances
Basel Convention trans boundary movement of
hazardous waste

Framework Convention on Climate Change stabilize


greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at
a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system
Kyoto Protocol reduce greenhouse gases emissions

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Malaysia: Law and Regulation

The Environmental Quality Act 1974 relates to


the
prevention
abatement
control of pollution and enhancement of the
environment

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EQA 1974

Licences are required from the Department of


Environment (DOE), MNRE, for activities that
give rise to pollutions (atmosphere, water, or
land).
It is compulsory to conduct an Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) for any proposed
project to assess its potential impact on the
environment, and subsequently propose
measures to control such impact.

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Regulations related to oil and


gas

1. Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulations

2. Environmental Quality (Control of Lead


Concentration in Motor Gasoline) Regulations
3. Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities)
(Environmental Impact Assessment) Order
4. Environmental Quality (Prescribed
Premises)(Scheduled Wastes Treatment And
Disposal Facilities) Order 1989

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Regulations related to oil and


gas

5. Environmental Quality (Prescribed


Premises)(Scheduled Wastes Treatment And
Disposal Facilities) Regulations

6. Environmental Quality (Delegation of Powers


on Marine Pollution Control) Order

7. Environmental Quality (Prohibition on the use


of Chlorofluoro-carbons and other Gases as
Propellants and Blowing Agents) Order
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Regulations related to oil and


gas

8. Environmental Quality (Control of Emission


from Diesel Engines) Regulations
9. Environmental Quality (Control of Emission
from Petrol Engines) Regulations
10. Environmental Quality (Dioxin and Furan)
Regulations

11. Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes)


Regulations 2005
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Regulations related to oil and


gas

12. Environmental Quality (Control of Petrol And


Diesel Properties) Regulations
13. Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent)
Regulations 2009

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Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA)

Petrochemical: All industry related to (all sizes)


Petroleum
Oil and gas fields development.
Construction of off-shore and on-shore pipelines in excess of
50 kilometres in length.
Construction of oil and gas separation, processing, handling,
and storage facilities.
Construction of oil refineries.
Construction of product depots for the storage of petrol, gas
or diesel (excluding service stations) which are located
within 3 kilometres of any commercial, industrial or
residential areas and which have a combined storage
capacity of 60,000 barrels or more.
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EIA Guidelines

EIA Guidelines for Toxic and Hazardous Waste


Treatment and Disposal Projects (latest edition
2007).
EIA Guidelines for Petroleum Industries (latest
edition 2008).

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References

1. Waste Minimisation Guide: A Practical Guide,


Crittenden b., Kolaczkowski S., Inst of Chemical
Engineers, UK, 1995

2. OGP
Exploration
and
Production
Waste
Management Guidelines, Paper no.: SPE112861,
Garland E et al., Society of Petroleum Engineers,
2008
3. Environmental Requirements: A Guide for Investors,
Department of Environment, Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment, Malaysia, 2010
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Do you know

1. The costs associated with generating waste.


2. The concept of pollution prevention.

3. The concept of waste minimization and its


benefits.
4. The framework of waste management.

5. The regulations related to oil and gas in


Malaysia.

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