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Quantum Mechanics Summary

Ivor Allan Jake Denham-Dyson: 737213 June 2, 2016

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Wave Mechanics

The state of a system is speciﬁed by a wave function. From the de-Broglie hypothesis matter can be described as a wave, the wavefunction is a mathematical description of this wave written,

Ψ( r, t) = Ψ(x, y, z, t)

The wavefunction satisﬁes the Schrodinger Equation

ih Ψ( r, t) ∂t

=

2m ¯h 2 Ψ( r, t) + V ( r, t)Ψ( r, t)

2 =

2

2

∂x 2 + ∂y 2 +

2

z 2

(1)

(2)

(3)

The Born rule staes the probability for a paticle to be in a volume centered around r,

Ψ( r, t) 2 dV = Ψ( r, t)Ψ(x, t) dx = ρ( r, t) dx

Probability Amplitude: Ψ( r, t) Probability Density: Ψ( r, t) 2

(4)

Observables become operators that act on wave functions and are hermitian . The expectation value is therefore,

< A > Ψ AΨ dV

ˆ

(5)

Hermitian operators are self adjoint corresponding to inner products expectation all real

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Important Consequences

Normalisation dV Ψ( r, t) 2 = 1

Continuity/Conservation of Probability

Shrodinger Equation and its complex conjugate

ih Ψ ∂t

=

2

2m ¯h 2 Ψ + V Ψ

ih Ψ ∂t

=

2
¯h
2m ∇ 2 Ψ + V Ψ

Multiply by Ψ on left and Ψ on right

ihΨ Ψ ∂t

Take the diﬀerence

=

2
2
¯h
¯h
2m Ψ∇ 2 Ψ + ΨV Ψ
−ih ∂Ψ ∂t Ψ = − 2m (∇ 2 Ψ)Ψ + V ΨΨ
2
∂Ψ
i¯h(Ψ ∂Ψ ∂t
+
Ψ) = − −¯h
2m (Ψ∇ 2 Ψ − (∇ 2 Ψ)Ψ)
∂t
2
∂Ψ
i¯h(Ψ ∂Ψ ∂t
+
Ψ) = − −¯h
2m ∇ · (Ψ∇Ψ − (∇Ψ)Ψ)
∂t

t

r, t) + ∇ · j = 0

ρ(

where j =

time per unit corss sectional area) One can write

2mi Ψ (ΨΨ) j is called the probability current density (probability ﬂowing per unit

t ρ( r, t) = −∇ · j

rR

dV

t ∂ ρ( r, t)

=

rR

dV

∇ · j =

rR

j ·

d A =

t rR

dV ρ( r, t)

t rR dV ρ( r, t)

t rR

dV

ρ( r, t)

As R → ∞

t rR dV ρ( r, t = 0

rR dV ρ( r, t = C

If the wave function is normalised C = 1

Operators dont always commute; This can be show shown using the expectation of the momentum operator.

The energy operator is given by E = i¯h

ˆ

∂t

ih

ih Ψ ∂t

(

2m

2

2m ¯h 2 Ψ + V Ψ

1

=

Ψ

¯h

) · ( ¯h )Ψ + V Ψ

i

∂t

i

=

ˆ 1

HΨ =

2m pˆ· pˆΨ + V Ψ

HΨ = 2m pˆ 2 + V Ψ

ˆ

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1.1

How to describe a particle in QM: Wave Packets

A particle can be described by the matter wave associated with the particle which vanishes everywhere except in the neighbourhood of the particle. This is termed a wave packet.

A wave packet is a group of waves that when summed interfere constructively in the neigbourhood of the particle and adestructively everywhere else.

Quantum Mechanics - Zettili pg. 40 More treatment

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Fundemental postulates: Born Statistical Interpretation Borns rule

Quantum states are represented by wave functions, which are vectors in a mathematical space called Hilbert space.

Wave functions evolve in time according to the Schrdinger equation.

The act of measuring a quantum system returns a number, known as the eigenvalue of the quantity being measured.

The probability of getting any particular eigenvalue is equal to the square of the amplitude for that eigenvalue.

After the measurement is performed, the wave function collapses to a new state in which the wave function is localized precisely on the observed eigenvalue (as opposed to being in a superposition of many diﬀerent possibilities).

Dirac Von Neumann axioms

The observables of a quantum system are deﬁned to be the (possibly unbounded) self-adjoint operators A on H .

A state Ψ of the quantum system is a unit vector of H , up to scalar multiples.

The expectation value of an observable A for a system in a state Ψ is given by the inner product (Ψ, AΨ).

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Mathematical Tools

2.1 Hilbert Space

A Hilbert space generalizes the idea of a euclidean space to n-dimensions. Below are a list of properties associated with a Hilbert space.

1. H is a linear space.

 (a) Vector Addition i. Commutivity A + B = B + A ii. Associativity ( A + B) + C = A + ( B + C) iii. Existence of neutral vector A + 0 = A iv. Existence of inverse A + (− A) = 0 (b) Scalar Multiplication i. Distributivity a( A + B) = a A + a B (a + b) A = a A + b A ii. Associativity a(b A) = (ab) A

iii. Unity and Zero scalar

I A = A

0 A = 0

2. H has a deﬁned scalar product this is strictly positive

(a)

(b)

3. H is complete

( A, B) = ( B, A)

( A, A) = A 2 0

2.2 Dimension and basis vector

1. Linear Independence

N

i=1

a

i

A i = 0

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

2. Dimension (Maximun number of linealy independent vectors describing a vector space)

N

i=1

a i

ψ i = Ψ

(16)

3. Basis (The set of vectors of linealy independent vectors describing a vector space)

4. Inner Product of Functions

N

i=1

a

i

ψ i = Ψ

, Φ) = ΨΦ dx

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(17)

(18)

2.3

Dirac Notation

The physical state of a system is represented by elements of a hilbert space H - called state vectors. Through function expansion these state vectors can be represented in diﬀerence basis (simiarily to changing a coordinate system). The state of a microscopic system has a meaning independent of the basis (just as a coordinate sytem does not aﬀect the position being described). Dirac notation takes full advantage of this and gives baseless representation of a state.

Kets

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