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Overview of Computers and Nursing Curriculum

E-mail for improved communication

Nursing Informatics

Cost analysis and finding trends for budget purposes

2001 American Nurses Association (ANA) defined Nursing


Informatics as:

Quality assurance and outcomes analysis

Nursing Informatics is a specialty that integrates nursing


science, computer science, and information science to manage
and communicate data, information, and knowledge in nursing
practice. Nursing informatics facilitates the integration of data,
information, and knowledge to support patients, nurses, and
other providers in their decision-making in all roles and settings.
This support is accomplished through the use of information
structures, information processes, and information technology.

Nursing Education

Computerized record-keeping

Computerized-assisted instruction

Interactive video technology

Data, Information and Knowledge


The framework for nursing informatics relies on the central
concepts of data, information and knowledge:

Distance Learning-Web based courses and


programs

Internet resources-CEU's and formal nursing courses


and degree programs

Data is defined as discrete entities that are described objectively


without interpretation

Presentation software for preparing


handouts-PowerPoint and MS Word

degree

slides

and

Information as data that is interpreted, organized or structured


Knowledge as information that has been synthesized so that
interrelationships are identified and formalized

Nursing Research

Resulting in decisions that guide practice


- Computerized literature searching-CINAHL, Medline and Web
sources
The management and processing components
considered the functional components of informatics.

may

be

Application of Nursing Informatics


Nursing Informatics can be applied to all areas of nursing
practice, which
include; clinical practice, administration,
education, and research.Following are some examples of how
nursing informatics, information technology and computers , are
used to support various areas of nursing practice.
Nursing Clinical Practice (Point-of-Care Systems and Clinical
Information Systems)

Work lists to
interventions

Computer generated client documentation

Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and ComputerBased Patient Record (CPR)

remind

staff of planned nursing

The adoption of standardized language related to


nursing terms-NANDA, etc.

The ability to find trends in aggregate data, that is data


derived from large population
groups-Statistical
Software, SPSS

Computerized literature searching-CINAHL,


and Web sources

The adoption of standardized language related to


nursing terms-NANDA, etc.

The ability to find trends in aggregate data, that is data


derived from large population
groups-Statistical
Software, SPSS

Medline

Many of these benefits have come about with the development of


the electronic medical record, which is the electronic version of
the client data found in the traditional paper record. EMR benefits
include:

Monitoring devices that record vital signs and other


measurements directly into the client record (electronic
medical record)

Improved access to the medical record. The Medical


Record can be accessed from several different
locations simultaneously, as well as by different levels
of providers.

Decreased redundancy of data entry. For example,


allergies and vital signs need only be entered once .

Computer - generated nursing care plans and critical


pathways

Automatic billing for supplies or procedures with


nursing documentation

Decreased time spent in documentation. Automation


allows direct entry from monitoring equipment, as well
as point-of-care data entry.

Reminders and prompts that appear during


documentation to ensure comprehensive charting

Nursing Administration (Health Care Information Systems)

Automated staff scheduling

Increased time for client care. More time is available


for client care because less time is required for
documentation and transcription of physician orders.
Facilitation of data collection for research.
Electronically stored client records provide quick
access to clinical data for a large number of clients.

Improved communication and decreased potential for


error. Improved legibility of clinician documentation and
orders is seen with computerized information systems.

Creation of a lifetime clinical record facilitated by


information systems.

The Role of Nursing Information Specialist (NIS)

Theory development. The NIS contributes to the


scientific knowledge base of nursing informatics.

Analysis of information needs. The identification of


information that nurses' need to in order to accomplish
their work; client care, education, administration, and
research
Selection of computer systems. The NIS, guides the
user in making informed decisions related to the
purchase of computer systems.

Theory development. The NIS contributes to the


scientific knowledge base of nursing informatics.

Analysis of information needs. The identification of


information that nurses' need to in order to accomplish
their work; client care, education, administration, and
research

Selection of computer systems. The NIS, guides the


user in making informed decisions related to the
purchase of computer systems
Evaluation of the effectiveness of computer systems.
The unique role of the NIS makes them the ideal
person to evaluate the effectiveness of computer
systems.
Ongoing maintenance and enhancements. The NIS
makes sure the computerized system functions
properly and explores possible enhancements to the
system that will better serve the users and the patients.
Identification of computer technologies that can benefit
nursing. The NIS must keep abreast of the changes in
the fields of computers and information technology,
including new hardware and software that will benefit
the nurse and patient.

NI Specialists

1981 approximately 15 nurses.

1990 increased 500% to approximately


nurses.

2000 increased another 500%.

2010 anticipated that majority of nurses entering the


profession will be computer
literate. It is also
anticipated that every healthcare settings will employ
at least one NI specialist and will implement some
type of CIS (clinical information system).

5,000

The Canadian Nursing Informatics Association has put out a


survey to all Canadian nursing schools with undergraduate
programs in regards to how nursing informatics could better
inform their practice.
The survey states that

Faculty has more access than students

Basic use of computers is more common than use of


computers for nursing purposes

>1/2 of schools offer NI courses

Informatics and The Nursing Program


Recommendations:

Start in year one

Integrate throughout all 4 years of study

Lab

Class

Clinical

Ensure maximum understanding of the need for NI

Hands on knowledge

Create subconscious use of technologies

Show NIs relation to all areas of the nursing discipline

Barriers include:

Lack of competence and confidence from faculty

Lack of money

Lack of educators and programs

Lack of curriculum space

Lack of infrastructure support, funding, and training

Lack of training for nurses in remote areas

Strategies include:

Campaigns for the general public

Traveling nursing informaticians to spread the word

Fight for reallocation of the budget

Simply, inform people and help them to understand


the importance of nursing informatics