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HmWhpw alm_enbpw

AkpcN{Ihnbmb alm_en aqv temIfpw


ASn hmWncpp. \h\pw kXyk\pamb _en tIcfw
`cnncpp FmWv t\mtSmSnIY.
amthen \mSv hmWoSpw Imew
am\pjscmcpw Hpt]mse
Ihpan NXnbpan
Ftmfanm s]mfnhN\w.....
As\ \h\mb alm_ensb hma\ NXnv _en
`c nnc p aqv temIhpw cv Ime SnI sIm v
kzamnsbpw, aqmas ImeSn shm e
anmXn\m hma\ _enbpsS incn ]mZw shv
]mXmfntev Nhpnmgvn Fpw, Fm hjhpw Xs
{]PIsf ImWphm B{Klapsv _en ]dX\pkcnv
AXn\p A\phmZw hma\ sImSppshpw As\
alm_en Xs {]PIsf ImWphm tIcfntev
Fmhjhpw Nnamkn XncpthmWw \m hcpp
FpamWv \mtSmSnY. alm_en hcptm ]gbXpt]mse
Fmhcpw ktmjambncnphm tIcfob HmWw
BtLmjnpp.
]pcmWfpsS ]npWbnm Cu AkXyamb IY
tIcfn am{Xw Fs\ {]Ncnp? {ioIWv t Tizcw
Pn.]Zv a \m`]n FgpXnbXpw, ]n ZmtamZc \mb
]cnjv cnXpw, kmlnXy{]hI klIcWkwL
mcpsS \mjW _pv m 1996 hsc 17 XhW
{]knoIcnXpamb i_vZXmcmhenbnepw shwamWnbpsS
]pcmW\nLphnepw hma\ alm_ensb ]mXmf
ntev Nhpnmgvn FmWv FgpXn bncnpXv. Hcp
]s `mKhXtam \mcmbWobtam ]cntim[nmsX
tIcfn {] Nmcnep Hcp \mtSmSn YbpsS
ASnm\ nembncnWw Cu {]knoIcW Cs\
`mKhX n ]dncnpXn\v hncpambn Akw_
FgpXnbncnpXv Fphcmw.
tUm .]n. Fkv \mbc psS `mKhXw hmbn m
1

ckIcamWv. Fm AXn hma\mhXmcw `mKv ]e


A]{`wifpw hncnpp FmWv tXmpXv. aqen
\npw hyXykv Xambn Atlw Ihn`mh\bn ]eXpw
FgpXnbnpv.
hcpW]mim _\\mb _en {]lvfmZs\
Xe Ip\nv A`nhmZyw sNpI am{Xta sNppq.
Z\ akv mctam
a p]Nm ctam
ImW nphm
_\\mb _env km[npIbn. AXpt]mse Xs
`qan ]nfv alm_enbpw hma\\pw ]mXmfntev t]mbn
FmWv FgpXnbncnpXv. As\ aqen ]dbpn.
]mXmfhmkw alm_enbpsS Almcn\v \ev I nb
inbmWv Fv ]n,Fkv \mb FgpXnbncnpp. AXpw
aqen C. kpXehmkw A\p{KlambnmWv aqen
]dncn pXv. h jns emcn Nnam kw
XncpthmWw \m Xm `cn \mSv ImWphm hcWsav
alm_en hma\t\mSv At]npIbpw AXn\\phZn
pIbpw sNbvXp Fv ]n.Fkv. \mb FgpXnbncnpp.
Cs\ Hct]sbntbm A\phmZs]ntbm `mKhXw
aqen ]dbpn.
C\n `mKhXn ]dncnpXmb IY Fm
sWv ]cntim[nmw..
ip{ImNmcys D]tZi{]Imcw alm_en hnizPnv
F bmKw \Sn in{]m]np. AXn\ptijw tZhtemIw
]nSnSphm\mbn alm_en ]pdsp. Fm tZhKpcphmb
_rlkv]XnbpsS D]tZi{]Imcw tZth{ bpw sNmsX
_ensb t]Snv Imn t]mbn Hfnp. As\ alm_en
kznsbpw IqSn A[n]Xnbmbn.
tZhamXmhmb AZnXn Xs `mhv Iiy]{]Pm]Xn
bpsS D]tZi{]Imcw ]tbmhrXw A\pjvTnv almhnjvWp
hns\ {]Xyamn. tZhtemIw C{\v XncnsI \IWsa
hcw tNmZnp. almhnjv W p Xm kzbw AZnXnbpsS
]p{X\mbn P\nv Cu Imcyw \nhlnp XcpXmsWv hcw
sImSpp.
As\

Nnam kn
2

Xnc pthm Ww

\ m

al mhnj v W p AZnXnbps S ]p{X\m b hm a\\m bn


AhXmcsaSpp. NXp_mlphmbn Fm Bbp[tfmSpw
IqSnbmWv {iolcn P\nXv. Fmhcpw kvXpXnv hntm
{iolcn hma\\mbn amdn. {_mhpw inh]mhXnbpw av
tZhmcpw IqSn hma\s D]\b\w \Sn.
CtX kabw alm_en \Zm \ZnbpsS Xocv bmKw
\SpIbmbncpp. hma\ `nmwtZlnbmbn AhnsS
Fn. Fv Zm\w tNmZnmepw Xcmsav alm_en hmKvZm\w
sNbvXp. Fm hma\ aqSn ew am{XamWv tNmZnXv.
CXn Ftm NXnbpsv a\nemnb ip{ImNmcy
Zm\w sImSppXn \npw _ensb XSp. ip{ImNmcy
Zm\w sImSpmXncnpXn\v thn ]e \ymbfpw
Dcnsnepw alm_en AsXmpw sNhnsmn.
Zm\ns aptmSnbmbn Pe]pjv]kaWw \Sphm
\mbn _en Innbn shsaSptm shw shfnbn
hcmXncnphm\mbn ip{ImNmcy Hcp hmbn InnbpsS
apcen (hmen)Ibdn Ccpp. Imcyw a\nemnb hma\
Hcp Z`]ppsImv InnbpsS apcen IqSn Ipn.
Z`ap\sImv ip{ImNmcycpsS Hcp Iv s]mntmbn. Cu
IY tIcfn am{Xw {]Nmcw D IYbmWv. `mKhXn
Pe] m{Xn s hsaSpp Fm Wv ] dbp Xv .
Z`sImv IpnbXpw ip{XmNmcys Iv s]mnbXpsamw
Ihn`mh\bn tIcfm FgpXnbXmbncnWw. C{]Imcw
alm_en Zm\kev]w \Sn.
Zm\kev]w Igntm hma\ aqv temIhpw
\nd Hcp cq]w FSpp. HcSnsImv At[mtemIhpw
cmas ASnsImv DuztemIhpw Afp. aqmas
ASn FhnsS shWw Fmbn hma\. hmKv Z m\w
sNbvXXn\v tijw AXv ]mennsn \cIhmkambncnpw
^ew Fpw hma\ _ensb Hmnnp. Cu kabw
KcpU alm_ensb hcpW]miw sImv _np. Xm
\cIstbm hcpW]mittbm intbtbm `bs
Spnm. Rm AkXyw ]dbpIbpan. AXn\m Fs
icocss Atbvv kanpp. Xs incn
]mZw shv aqmas ASn Afmepw Fv alm_en
hma\t\mSv At]np.
3

Cu kabw {_mhpw {]lvfmZ\pw AhnsS Fn.


{_mhv alm_enpthn hmZnp. hma\ ]gb]Sn
sNdpXmbn. Xs `\mb _enbn Xm kwXr]v X
\mbncnpp _enbpsS Almcw iannv A\p{Kln
pXn\p thnbmWv CsXmw \SnbXv.
tijw hma\ tZhtemIw C{\pw tZhmpw
XncnsIsImSpp. tZhm t]mepw sImXnp kpXew
alm_enpw sImSpp. alm_en AhnsS ]nXmal
{]lv f mZt\msSmw hknpp. {iolcn KZm[mcnbmbn
kpXen\ v Im hm c\mb n \n p p. ASp
a\zcn alm_ensb C{\mmsapw Xocpam\np.
CXmWv alm_enbpsS IYbpsS Npcpw. C\n
tIcfn {]Nmcnep BZyw kqNnn \mtSmSn
YbpsS B[nImcnIXsb hniIe\w sNmw.
tIcfapsSbp ]cipcmat{Xw alm_enbpsS
`cWImev Dmbncpn. ]cipcma 21 {]mhiyw
{Xnbsc sImsmSpnbtijw As\ ]nSnsSp
tZisamw Iiy]aljnpw kzsamw {_mWpw
Zm\w sNbv X p. Zm\w sImSp `qanbn hknpXv
ic nbm Xn\ m ] cipc ma\v hkn phm `qan
kap{ZtmSv tNmZnv hmphm Iiy]aljn D]tZinp.
As\ ]cipcmas {]m\bpsS ^eambnmWv
tIcfap sSbp ]cipcmat{Xw kap{Zw amdn Icbmbn
DbphXv. ]cipcmamhXmcw hma\mhXmcn\v tij
amWv kw`hnXv . AXn\m alm_enbpsS Imev
CmXncp tIcftZin _en Fs\ \mSphmgm\mWv?
CXpsImpXs tIcfn {]Nmcnep \mtSmSnY
]pcmWfpsS ]npWbnmXpw bpnv \ncm
Xpamb Hcp IY am{XamWv Fv a\nemmw.
sImSpq Xem\amn `cnncp cmw
tNchwinse tNcam s]cpam Bbvc mPhwimcp
ambp bpn sImw \Kcw ]nSnsSpXns
Hmbvmbn sImhjw 1187 hjw ap]v (F.Un. 825)
Bcw`np. sImhjw Bcw`ntmgmWv Nnamkw Hmw
XobXn ]pXphcndhn Bbn IWmm XpSnbXv.
4

AXphsc Xangv \mnteXpt]mse taSw Hn\v hnjpZn\


nembncpp ]pXphcndhn.
tIcfn agsb B{ibnv s\Irjn \Sn
bncpXn\m NnamktmSpIqSn hbsemw sImbvXv
IrjnmcpsS Adsbmw \ndbpw. ]nSIw Ignv
hcp karnbpsS \mfpIfmWv Nnamkw. Nnn
kqcy kzt{X_ehm\mbXn\m kqcys\ Bkv]Zamn
bp hj \nbn\v Nnamkw taSamkw t]mse
DaamWv . ]pXphjndhnbpw hnfshSppw Hnv
BtLmjnphm thnbmbncnWw s]cpamm
HmWatlmhw XpSnbXv.
`mcXn asmcnSpw CmsX tIcfob am{Xw
sImhjhpw HmWhpw BtLmjnp hcpp. ]cipcma
t{Xns Dc`mKpw HmWw ]Xnhn FXpw
ta]dXns sXfnhmWv. _enbpsS Imev CmXncp
tIcfw _en Fn\v kinWw? As\ _env
B{Kl apmbncppshn _en `cnncp cmPyat
k in tnb ncp Xv ? HmWw Hcp
tZiob
DhamXn\m _en Xs cmPyw kinWsav
B{Klw {]ISn nncpn FXv Xobmb ImcyamWv.
ta]d ImcyfpsS ]men Xmsg
]dbp Imcy a\nemmw.
(1) kXyk\pw \oXam\pw Xs `\pamb
alm_ensb hma\ ]mXmfntev Nhpn Xmgvnbn.
(2) hma\ _ensb A\p{Klnv NncwPohnbmn
tZhm t]mepw sImXnp kpXens A[n]Xnbmn.
av AkpcmtcmSpw {iolcn`\mb ]nXmalt\mSpsamw
_en kpXen hknpp. {iolcn kmbp[\mbn
kpXen hkn v _ensb cn pp. ASp
a\zcn _ensb C{]Zhnbntev Dbm\pw
Xocpam\np.
(3) tZth{sbpw a\phnsbpw k]vXjnIfpsSbpw
Imemh[n Hcp a\zcamWv . Hcn tZth{\mbn
\nbanm ASp a\zcw hsc Abm tZth{\mbn
5

XpScpw. CXv Cuizc\nbaamWv. Almcw sImv _en Cu


\nb aw e wLnv tZhtem Iw ] nSnSn. AXn \m
al mhnj v W p hma\ \mbn AhXcnv
tZhtem Iw
alm_enbn \npw Icmamn tZth{\v XncnsI
sImSpp.
(4) Nnamknse XncpthmWw hma\s Pbn Znhk-am-Wv. hma\aqnsbbmWv HmW\mbn ]qPnpXv.
alm_enbmWv HmWs\v ]epw sXnmcW
bpsv tXmpp. ]gbImev Anv ]qfn
shv AS\nthZyw \Sn HmW\mb hma\aqnsb
]qPnp ]Xnhv Dmbncpp. Ctmgpw Cu ]Xnhv
Nnescnepw \SppmhWw.
(5) alm_enbpsS `cWImev tIcfapsSbp
]cipcmat{Xw Dmbncpn. AXn\m alm_en tIcfw
`cnnpan. Xm `cnnnm tIcfnse {]PIsf
ImWphm alm_en Fn\mWv hcpXv ? alm_en
`cnncp tZiph Hpw Xs HmWw BtLmjn
pn. AXn\m alm_en Xs {]PIsf ImWphm
hjw tXmdpw hcpp Fv ]dbpXv shdpw Ihn`mh\
am{XamWv.
alm_en kXyk\pw ]cm{Ianbpw hoc]pcpj\pamb
Hcp tbmmhv Bbncpp. Fm amyafpw Nm\epIfpw
alm_ensb ISmaoibpw shv HmepSbpw ]nSnv
\Sp IpShbdp Hcp ]cnlmkyIYm]m{Xambn
Nn{XoIcnncnpp. [njvT\pw \oXnam\pw kXyk
\pamb Hcp hoc]pcpjs\ Hcp ]cnlmky IYm]m{Xambn
Nn{XoIcnpXv XnIpw Akw_amWv. A\phZnm
]nSnmXmWv.
cmw tNchwins e tNcam s]c pamf pw
BbvcmPhwimcpw Xn Dmb bpn Bbvhwiw
tXm ev pIbpw tNc am s]cpam sIm w ]Ww
]nSnsSppIbpw sNbvXXns Hm bvmbm Wv
sImhjw Bcw`nXv. ]pXphj pecnpw hnfshSpv
atlmhn\pw sImgpv \Iphm thnbmhmw
HmWmtLmjhpw CtXmsSmw Iqntn cnpXv .
6

BtLmjv B[nImcnIX \ Iphm thn


Ihn`mh\bn Nne IYIfpw Iqntp FpthWw
a\nemphm. Ihn-`m-h-\-bn Nne AXn-i-tbm-n-I
A\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-b-Xn-\m alm-_en tIcfw kin-pp
Fv ]d-bp-Xv a-\-n-em-mw. Fm hma-\s\ hn-\mbn
Nn{Xo-I-cn-p-Xv icn-b-.
tIcfntev \qXncnam IpSntbdnmXv F.Un.
BZyImefnemWv . {_mW F \nebv v Ah
hma\Pbn BtLmjnncpncnWw. ]noSv \qXncnam
tIcfnse PnI Bbtm hma\Pbnbpw hnf
shSppw Iqntv HmWmtLmjw XpSnbncnWw.
alm_en tIcfw ImWm hcpp F IYI P\sf
BIjnm thn ]nImev IqntXmbncnWw.
Cu kev] BtLmjn\v sImgppw hnizkvXXbpw
Iqpw. alm_entbmSv A\pI bpmn hoc]pcpj\mn
Xo phm thnbm bncn Ww ]mXm fntev
Nhpnmgv n Fv XpSnb IYI IqntXv .
\mtSmSn ]mpIfnse Ihn`mh\bn Dmb IYI ]noSv
Ncn{Xambn sXncnp.
HmWn\v ]qhnv ]mw Znhkw Xrmc As\
{]XnjvTnv AS\nthZyw \Sp ]Xnhv ]p apXevt
Dmbncpp. Cu ]Xnhv Ctmgpw ]ecpw XpSp hcpp.
XrmcA Fp]dm hma\aqnbmWv .
FdWmIpfv CSnbn \npw 3 In.an Ingv Xrmc
nXnsNpp. Im\mSv XrmcbpsS `mKamWv .
Xrmct{Xn hma\aqnsbbmWv {]Xnjv T n
ncnpXv. HmWkabmWv Cu t{Xnse Dhw.
hma\PbnZnhkamb Nnamk nse XncpthmWw \m
ChnsS henb BtLmjamWv. B Znhkw AhnsS \Sp
AZm\n BbncWn\v BfpIfpw ]sSppp.
CXn \npw a\nemIpXv HmWw hma\PbnbmbmWv
BtLmjnncpXv FmWv.
]pcmWfn hnizknm\pw hnizknmXncnm\pw
Hc mv kzm X{y apv. Fm ]pcm WIYIsf
hnIrXambn Nn{XoIcnphm Bpw kzmX{yw C.
]pcmW kXyamsWv Nne hnizknptm IYI
7

sFXoly am{XamsWv Nne hnizknpp. XnbpsS


apIfn \bpsS hnPbw Nn{XoIcnncnpXn\pw
a\pjys\ \ hgn v \b nm t{] cnn pXpw
KpW]mT \ndXpamb IYIfmWv ]pcmW.
FpXsbmbmepw AhXmc]pcpjmsc hnIrXambn
Nn{XoIcnpsImpXpw AkXyambXpw ]pcmWfpsS
]npWbnmXpamb IYI {]NcnnpXv icnb. Cu
hnIr-X-amb Nn{Xo-I-cWw a\p-jys Cuiz-c-hn-izmkw Ipdbms\ klm-bn-p-I-bp-f-fq.
Cu sXnmcW Xophm thnbmWv Cu
A ymbw FgpXnbn cnpXv . alm _enb psSb pw
hma\sbpw IY `mKhXn Fs\bmtWm FgpXn
bncnpXv As\XsbmWv Cu ]pkv X Inepw
FgpXnbncnpXv . `mKhXn HcnSpw hma\
alm_ensb ]mXmfnte vNhpnmgvXn Fv ]dbpn.
adnv hma\ alm_ensb A\p{KlnpIbmbncpp.
alm_ensb kpXens A[n]Xnbmn. ASp
a\zcn C{]Zhn sImSpmsapw Xocpam\np.
am\pjnIaqey hfn kXzKpWw hnn
m\mWv ]pcmW {ianpXv . sXpw icnbpw
F msW pw s Xn hoWpt] mIms X Fs\
Pohnmsapw A[ns ta [n\p hnPbw
Fs\ ssIhcnpp FpamWv IYmcqt]W ]pcmW
a\pjys\ a\nemnphm {ianpXv.]pcmWIYI
Ncn{Xkw`hamtWm, CXnse AXnitbmnI icnpw
\SXmtWm Fsmw NnnmsX CXnse aqeyfpw
KpW]mTfpw Dsmv AX\pkcnv Pohnphm
{ianpIbmWv thXv Fv Dthm ]tZin
{ioIrjvW ]dbppv.

AkpcmcptSbpw tZhmcpsSbpw Dev]n


Akpcmcpw tZhmcpw Hc\v ktlmZcnamcmb cv
`mcyamcn ]nd kXnIfmWv. AXpsImpXs Ah
ktlmZcfmWv.
Z{]Pm]XnbpsS ]Xnaqv s]asf Iiy]
{]Pm]Xn hnhmlw sNbvXp. Ahcn AZnXnbpsS ]p{X
mcmWv tZhm. ZnXnbpsS ]p{XmcmWv Akpcm.
ktlm ZcfmsW nepw AkpcmcptSbpw tZhm
cptSbpw kzm`mhn hfsc Acw Dv . aqey
fnep hyXymkamWv Hcmsf Akpc\pw tZh\pamn
ampXv. AYhm AkpcXzhpw tZhXzhpw hynbpsS
a\nemWv nXnsNpXv.
Iiy]s ]Xnaqv `mcyamcn ]{v t]pw
km\ Dmbn. ZnXnv am{Xw B `mKyw knnn.
Hcp Znhkw kym kabv ZnXn aZXm]w sImv
hncfnsb Spv \nhmcWamn\mbn ` mhns\
kao]np. B kymkabv Iiy]aljn An
tlm{Xw apXemb I sNbv X p sImncnpI
bmbncpp.
kymkabw Cuizc`P\n\p kabamWv. av
Imcy Hpw B kabv sNphm ]mSn. hnfv
Inv kymh\hpw Cuizc`P\hpw am{Xta sNm
]mSpq Fv Iiy]aljn ]dp. inh Xs
hml\n Ibdn inh`qXtfmsSmw Fm `h\fnepw
kymkabv kin-p--Xn-\m Cuizc `P\amsX
av Imcy kym-k-a-bv sNpXv ip`a.
Ahk m \w Iiy ]\ v Zn Xnb psS \n _ n\ v
hgtn hp. kym kabv K`w [cnXn\m
ZnXnbpsS ]p{Xm Akpcmcmbn amdn. Iiy] {]mb
9

nw sNbv X v tZmj]cnlmcw \Sn. Xm \Snb


{]hn \nyambn Fv ZnXnbpw a\nemn. Ahcpw
{]mbnw sNbv X p. `mhns\bpw {iocp{Zt\bpw
kev ] nv \akv mcmZnI \Sn Xs ]m]w ian
nWsav {]mnp. X\nv kkm\fpmIW
sapw {]mnp.
kmt\mmZ\kabv \ns a\v tim`\
amXncpXn\mepw \o tZhmsc [ncnXn\mepw
\n\v AawKf kzcq]mcmb cv ]p{Xm P\npw.
Ah aq p t e m I s f b p w h n d n pw. ` Kh m
{io\m cmb W AhXc nv Ahsc kwlc npw. \o
Fs bpw {iocp{Zt\ bpw \akv m cmZnI sIm v
BZcnXn\m \ns Hcp ]u{X {io\mcmbW `\pw
Ionam\pw BIpw Fv Iiy]aljn ]dp.
Zn Xn b ps S K ` in ip tZh m v t{ Zm l w
sNpsav ZnXn Adnncpp. AXn\m ZnXn {]khn
msX K`inipsf \qdv sImw Npav sImv \Sp.
K`inipfpsS tim`ImcWw kqcy{]` antmbn.
ZnpI Xncndnbm hmXmbn. hr hfcmsX
apcSnv \nev m XpSn. tZhm {_mhnt\mSv
BhemXnsp. {_mhv Ahsc BizknnXn\v tijw
PbhnPbmcpsS IY ]dp.

PbhnPbmcpsS IY
tZhmcpsS ]qhnImcmb k\ImZnI \mep
Ejnam BImiamt kcnptm hnjv Wphns
hm k m \ a m b s s hIp W vT n te v h p. B d v
tIm aXn e pw IS v Ggm as tIm hm Xn e n
Fn btm {iol cnbps S Zzm c]meIm Ahsc
XSp. NXp_mlpfpw tZhmsctmse thjw
10

[cnhcpambncpp Cu Zzmc]meIm. {iolcnsbtmse


{ _m W ` n
k a ` m h\
XpS n b
KpW f n
mhcpambncpp. AXn\memWv Ah k\ImZnIsf
XS Xv. Im at { Im [ te m ` D Xpw k a` m h\
bnmXpamb temIv \n aqv {]mhiyw P\nv
Chsbmw A\p`hns Fv k\ImZnI Zzmc]meIsc
i]np.
B kabw {iolcn AhcpsS ASptev hp.
k \ Im Zn I \ m e vt] c pw { iol cn s b \ ak v c np.
{iolcnbpsS Zzmc]meIsc i]nXn ]m]nv
k\ImZnI a tNmZnp. Ah AhcpsS kzmantbmSp
ISaam{XamWv sNbvXsXpw AXn\m R Ahsc
i] n m ] m Sn m X m b n c p p F pw Xf ps S
sXn\p in kzoIcnm XmdmsWpw k\Im
ZnI Adnbnp.
Xs CwKnXw k\ImZnIfn IqsS \SmpI
am{Xambncpp Fv {iolcn ]dp. Zzmc]meI
At[mtemIw {]m]nptm i{Xp`mhn Fs
kv acnpsImncnpw. Rm AhXcnv Ahsc h[nv
tam w \ Ip Xm b n c n p w F n s \ { io l c n
im]tamw sImSpp.
Cu PbhnPbm BZyw lncWym\pw lncWy
Iin]phpw Bbn P\np. lncWyms\ hcmlhpw
lncWy Iin]phns\ \cknwlhpw h[np. ASpXmbn
Ah cmhW\pw Ipw`I\pambn P\np. Chsc
{ io c m a \ n { Kl n p. a q m a Xm b n Pb h n Pb m
inip]me\pw Zh{\pambn P\np. {ioIrjvW\mWv
Chsc h[nXv. Cs\ aqv Pw sImv im]tamw
Innb PbhnPbm sshIpWvTntev aSntmbn
AhnsS hopw Zzmc]meImcmbn XpSp.
11

`Khm kXzmZn KpWImcyfmb cmKtZzjmZn


Ifnm BfmWv . Fmhcnepw kaXzw ]menpIbpw
sNpp. i{Xphpw an{Xhpw Atln\n.`Khms amb
PK k rj vSn n Xn k wl m c e oe Is f \ Sp p.
{]mWnIv Im\pkcWw ^ew e`npIbpw sNpp.
CsXmpw `Khm sImSppX. sNbvX Ins
^ew A\p`hnpp Fp am{Xw.
{ ] IrXn ] pc pj m s c s I m v ` Khm k z w
kev ] s k^eamnopp. AXn\v klmbn
p Xv I m e am W v. { ] IrXn ] pc pj m c pw Im e hpw
`Khm\m \nbnsXmWv. Imein kXzKpWs
hnnptm kXzKpW{][m\nIfmb tZhmsc
`Khm klmbnpp Fv tXmpXmWv. B kabw
kXzKpW{][m\nIfm Akpcmsc t{ZmlnpI
bm sW pw tXmpw. Fm `Khm\ v tZh mc n
{]tXyIkvt\ltam Akpcmcn {]tXyI tZzjtam C.
PohnI `Khms\ \nnpItbm hnpItbm
sNpXv sImv `Khm\v t{Im[tam ktmjtam
DmIpn. `Khm m\m\kzcq] BbXn\m
P\fpsS \nmkv X pXn `Khm\n bmsXmcp amhpw
hcppn.
k m [m c W P\ ic oc s B Xv a m hm sW v
IcpXpp. Fs F Cu `mhns\ A`nam\w Fv
]dbpp. `Khm\v icocanmXncns \nmkv X pXnI
ktmjsbpw km]sbpw Dmpn. {]mWn
IfpsS icocs h[nm A`nam\w ImcWw Ahsc
h[np Fv hnNmcnsSpp. `Khm\v icocanm
Xn\m B amXncn A`nam\w C. h[npXpsS Fm
A\p`hfpw {]mc_v I^eambn hcpXmWv.
12

\nm kv X pXnIfn `Khm\v hnjaanmXn\m


GXphn[sanepw sshcw, `n, kvt\lw, Imaw Chbm
a\v `Khm\n Ddnm a\v `Khbambn Xocpp.
`Khm\n \nv a\v thdnSmXncpm Ah\v kmbqPyw
e`npw. Hcph i{Xphns\ Ftmgpw Nnnpw. Fm
k v t\ l n Xs \ A{ XI v k vac n pI b n . AXm W v
hntZzj`mhns in.
`Khm kmbqPyw sImSpWsav B{Klnp
hsc am{Xta h[npIbpq. `Khm\m h[nsSp
hv Xobmbpw tamw e`npXmWv. AXpt]mse
`Khms XrmeSnI incn shsSpXpw henb
A\p{KlamWv . Cu `mKyw ]pWymmv am{Xta
e`npIbpq.
i{Xp`mhn
`Khm s\
k v a cn pXpw
tamImcWamWv. i{Xp`mhaph Ftmgpw `Khms\
i{Xphmbn k v a cnpp F {]tXy IXbpw Dv .
PbhnPbmcpsS Pfmb lncWym lncWyIin]p,
cmhW Ipw`I, inip]me Zh{ Fnh
`Khms\ i{Xp`mhn Ftmgpw kva cnv `Khm\m
h[n sv im ]tam w Inn sshIpWv T nte v
aSntmbhcmWv.Imam tKm]nI, `bm Iwk,
tZzjm in ip]m e, k_k v t \l `mhm
hrj v W nI, k v t \l m []p{X, `n bm
aljnam Fnhv kmbqPyw e`np.

13

tZhmkpcbpw
AarX]m\n\v tijw tZhmcpsS Pcm\ct]mbn
kpJnIfmbnop. AXpIv Akqb ]q Akpcm
Bbp[fpsaSpv tZhmtcmSv bpn\v ]pdsp.
AarXw Dhnn m th{ X {iaw FSpv
IjvSXI A\p`hnp. Fnpw tZhm AarXw XcmsX
hnp FXmWv bpImcWw.
Zz b p n e m W v H m tc m c pc p w G s X v.
tLmcamb bpw alm_enbpw C{\pw Xnembncpp.
alm_enbpw av Akpcmcpw ]e ambm {]tbmKfpw
\Sn. ImpXobpw Dcpfp ]mdbpw kfpw knwlhpw
ISphbpw \cmb cmknIfpw sImSpmpw {]fbm
n bpw B {Ianp kap{Zhpw Fe mw Ak pc m
krjvSnp. FhnsS \nmWv Cu `bc hkvXp hcp
sXdnbmsX tZhm tinp. Ah {iolcnsb kvacnp.
Fp ssIIfn Fv hn[ambBbp[ Gn {iolcn
Kc p U s ] p d v Cc p v { ] Xy \ m b n . ` Kh m s \
B{Ianm\mbn h Imet\an, amen, kpamen, ameyhm
Fnhsc {iolcn N{Imbp[w sImp \innp.
CXn\v ap]pmb bpn GtXXv Akpcm
tZhmsc tXmnpthm B Akpcmsc Ctm
`Khms A\p{Klw aqew tZhm tXmev]np.
tZth{ AXn] ucpj tms S alm _enb psS
t\ v h { Pm b p[ap b n . C{ a l m _e n s b
[nmctmSp IqSn \nmhmpI sImv thZ\nnp.
alm_n C{t\mSv ]dp: Ctm Pbw \n\mWv.
Ahn thIn B b X ps Im m W v \ o Pf Xz hm p I
]dbpXv. GsXmcp {]hnbpsSbpw Pbhpw A]Pbhpw
14

ImeamWv \nbnpXv . Imew \XmsWn Pbw


Dm Ipw. Im e w No b m s W n ] c m Pb hp w.
AhnthInI BbXn \memWv tZhmv tamZtJZ
DmpXv. \o AhnthIn BbXn\m \ns hmpIsf
Rm \nmcambn IcpXpp. Cs\ ]dv alm_en
C{s t\v _mWw {]tbmKnv apdnsSpn. DSs\
C{ Xs h{Pmbp[ saSpv _enp t\sc {]tbmKnp.
alm_en hml\ tmSp IqSn \new ]Xnp.
Atm _enbpsS kplrmb PwZ C{s
t\v ]mp. PwZ C{t\bpw sFcmhXsbpw
KZsImv ASnp. sFcmhXw ]chi\mbn appIpn.
Atm amXen Bbncw IpXncI ]qnb cYtmsS
C{s klmbns\n. PwZ amXensb ipew sImv
Ipn. Atm C{ h{Pbp[m PwZs Igpv
Adpp.
PwZs acWhm \mcZ\n \ndnv Pw`m
XnI HmSn Fn. C{t\bpw amXentbbpw Akv { Xw
sImv s]mXnp. tZhm C{ \jvSsp Fv Xs
hnNmcnp. Atm icIqmcn \npw C{ tX
sXfnv shfnbnhp. C{ h{Pmbp[w sImv
_esbpw ]mIsbpw incdpp. Fm \apNnsb
s Im m h{ Pm b p[ n \ pw Ign n . At m
DWnbtXm \\tXm Bb hkv X p sImv
\apNnsb sImm km[npIbn Fv Aicocn Dmbn.
Pe\pcsImv \apNnsb h[np.
Ak pc m H s Sp Xv Iv k c ps Sb pw
]nXmal\mb {_mhv Akz\mbn. {_mhv \mcZs\
hnfnv bpw Ahkm\nnphm tZhmtcmSv ]dbphm
]dp.
15

`Khms ImcpW ym \nv AarXhpw


`pP_ehpw Inn. bpn Pbhpw Inn. C\n bpw
Fn\v? bpw \npI Fv \mcZ C{t\mSv ]dp.
tZhm bpn \npw hncanp. \mcZcpsS
D]tZi{]Imcw alm_en XpSnb apdnth Akpc
t\Xmmscbpw tbmmtfbpw ip{ImNmcys ASp
tev sImpt]mbn. ip{ImNmcy Ahsc Fmw kv]inv
kpJsSpn.
al m _e n b p n tXm s n e pw tJZn n .
Pb m ] Pb Im e I n \ v ASn m \ am b Xpw
ssZhZfmbXpw BsWv alm_en Adnncpp.
` Kh m s k l m b w Ds n am { Xta Gs Xm c p
{]hnbpw hnPb{]ZamhpIbpq. FhnsS `Kh
klmbaptm AhnsS am{Xta hnPbw DmhpIbpq.
] c m Pb s al m _e n Ahc ps S Kpc p hm b
ip{ImNmcyt\mSv GsXnepw hn[n c Dmn
cWta Fv A`ynv [mcmfw [\w kanp.
ip{ImNmcy hnizPns HcpbmKw \Sphm Iev]np.
Adnhp {_mWscmw ]sSpp.
tlmamnbn \nv kz\ndap Hcp tXcpw
C{s IpXncItfmSv kmayap IpXncIfpw knwl
ASbmfap sImSnqdbpw hp. Znhyamb hnpw
Hgnbm _mWfpap cv Bh\mgnbpw Znhyamb
IhN hpw h p. ap \ m b { ] l vf m Z hm Sm
]pjv ] amebpw ip{ImNmcy Hcp iwJtbpw _env
kanp. {]lv f mZs kXtmSpw tIaamcmb
ssk\ym[n]amtcmSpw hn Akpctk\tbmSpwIqSn
_en C{]pcnv Xncnp.
16

C{]pcn F kzn At\Iw DZym\


XSm I Ch D v. DZy m \ f n hn tij s
]qsSnIfpw XSmIfn ]e \ndnep XmacIfpw
lwkw apXemb ]nIfpw Dv . `Khms ]mZn
\nsmgpIp KwKm\Zn cmP[m\nbpsS Nppw HgpIpp.
]pcnbn hn sInS, tKm]pc, hoXn IqSnb
cmP]mXI, Ccnm\p k`I, hn{iam\ Ch
Dv. \inm buh\bpcmb iymaI F Hcp
PmXn kv{XoI AhnsSbpv. A]vkckv{XoI kpK
{ Zh y te ] \ w s N b vXv ] pc n s b c ay a m p p.
hmZytaffpw Km\ me m ]\ f pw a\ n e m\ s
P\nnpp.
Akpcssk\ym[n]\mb alm_en C{]pcnsb
ssk\ysfsmv Nppw hfp. tZhkv{XoIsmw
`b apmn sm v ip{ ImNmcy s ImSp Kw` oc
i_vZam iwJv DuXn.
C{ alm_enbpsS B inamb DZyaw Iv
Fm tZhmcpsamv Kpcp _rlkv]XnbpsS ASp
sNv Cs\ Adnbnp.
`Kh, \psS ]qh i{Xphmb alm_env I\
k m l a pv. AXv XSp pI Ak m y s as \ n v
tXmpp. _en Fs\ C{Xbpw in {]m]np. Bcpw
HpsImpw Ctm Abmsf XSpm {]m]vXc. apJw
sImv hnizw apgp-h hngp-p--h-s\-tm-sebpw ]pZn-p-Ifpw \p--h-s\-tm-sebpw Ip-IsImv ZnpIsf Zln- n- p--h -s\-t m-s ebpw {]f-b -Im- es Anv
t]msebpw `b--c-\mbn ]pd-s-n-cn-p-p. Cu tXPpw
a\x-i-nbpw tZl-i-nbpw alm-_-env Fs\ Dmbn. i{Xp-hns\ XSpm Ign-bm nXnv CsXmw
Fs\ Dmbn Fv ]dp Xmepw Fn-s\ C{
Kpcp-hn-t\mSv A`yn-p.
17

Fmw Rm Adn-bp- pv Fv _rl- kv] Xn ]dp. _en-bpsS A`n-hr-nv Imc-Ww -ip-{Im-Nm-cy-\m-Wv.


BNm-cys\ {im-`-n-tbmsS {]km-Zn-n--tm `rKp-Ip-ePm-X-cmb Ahcpw {_m-Wcpw Ah-cpsS tXP-ns\ injy\v
\ev I n. {iol- c n- - msX `hmt\m ampw Xstbm
_ensb XSp-m km[n-p-I-bn-. AXn-\m A\m-h-iyambn cw Nnm CS-h-cp-t-. \n ]pcn Hgnv
Hfn-hn t]mIp--XmWv \-Xv. Ctm _env \ Imehpw
\nv tamiw Ime-hp-am-Wv. Imew \m-Ip--Xp-hsc
\n a-tbm-sS Ccn--Ww. Hcp Imev Ah BNmcysc Ah-K-Wn-m-\n-S-bmbn Fv hcmw. Atm Ahv
\miw hcpw.
C{\pw tZh-mcpw BNm-cys D]-tZiw A\p-k-cnv
tZh- temIw Dt]- nv Hmtcm thjw FSpv Hfnhn
t]mbn.
tZh-m HmSn-tm-b-tXmsS hntcm-N-\-]p-{X-\mb alm_en tZh-]p-c-amb kzs Xs Bm-\-amn aqp
temI-fpw Iog-S-n.
injy-h--e-cmb ip{Im-Zn-I hniz-hn-P-bnbpw Xs
A\p-hn-p--h-\p-amb alm-_-ensb sImv \qdv Aizta-[-bm-K- \S-n-p. alm-_en hn-Xpw {_-m\m-Zn-I km-Znp sImSp--Xp-amb sFiz-cys , Bmhns IrX-Ir-Xy-sap IcpXn A\p-`-hn-p.

18

]memgnaY\w
{_mhns ]u{X\pw acoNnbpsS ]p{X\pamb
Iiy]{]Pm]Xnv ZoXn F `mcybn DmbhwiamWv
Akpcm ZnXnv At\Iw ]p{Xmcpv . Ahcn
lncWy, lncWyIin]p, iqc]mhv, knwlh{,
XmcImkpc, tKmapJ FnhcmWv temI{]kn
cmbnoXv . knwlnIbpw APmapJnbpw AhcpsS
ktlmZcnamcmWv.
lncWyIin]phn\v {]lvfmZ, kw{lmZ, {lmZ,
A\p{lmZ Fo \mev ]p{Xm P\np.
{ ]l vf mZ\ v , hn tc mN\ F ] p{X P\ n p.
hntcmN\\s ]p{X\mWv alm_en. alm_enbn \nv
_mW\pw _mW\n\nv \nhmX IhNm F t]cn
\meptImSn Akpcmcpw Dmbn.
Akpcmcpw tZhmcpw Hc\n cv ktlmZcn
amv ]nd afmWv . Iiy] {]Pm]Xnv ZoXnbn
Akpcmcpmsbn ZoXnbpsS ktlmZcn AZnXnbn
Iiy-]\v tZhm ]ndp. aqeyfnep hyXymkamWv
Ahsc tZhmcpw Akpcmcpambn thXncnXv.
alm_en hfsc {]Xm]imenbmb Hcp AkpccmPmhv
Bbncpp. Hcn alm_en tZth{s [\samw
ssIemn t]mIp hgnv AXv kap{Zn hoWp.
Akpcm kap{ZaY\n\v kXnXv Cu kzw
ssIemm IqSn thnbmWv.
{iolcn Hcn Zpmkmhv aljnsb Itm
Atln\v Hcp ]pjv]ame km\np. aljn B ame
tZth{\v km\np. C{ B ame Xs hml\amb
sFcmhXw F B\bpsS Xebn shp. ]qhns
19

aWtav ]dph hpI sFcmhXs ieysSpn.


aZn B\ ]pj v ] am e \ ne nv Nhpn . ` Khms
{]kmZamb amesb CXpt]mse A\mZcnXn aljnv
AXnbmb tIm]w hp. C{sbpw C{s B[n]Xyap
aqv temIfnepw {io CmsX t]mIs FpwtZhmv
Pcm\c _m[ns Fpw Zpmkmhv C{s\ i]np.
CXns\ XpSv Akpcm tZhmsc B{Ianp.
AkpcKpcphmb ip{ImNmcyv arX kRv Pohn\na{w
Adnbmambncpp. Cu a{w P]nv ip{ImNmcy acn
Akpcmsc PohnnpsImncpp. Fm tZhKpcphn\v
Cu a{w hianmXn\m tZhtk\bpsS in
Ipdphp. Cu {]iv \ n\v ]cnlmcw ImWphm
tZhm {_mhns\ kao]np.
{ _m hv ] d p: R m \ pw in h\ pw\ n f pw
Ak p c m c pw a s m hc pw { io \ m c m b W m w iam W v.
Fmhcpw Atln\nv Dhn km\fmIbm
{iolcnv FmhtcmSpw ka`mh\bmWv. {iolcn Ctm
te m Itan \ m b n k Xz KpW w k z oIc n n c n p
kabamWv . Ctm tZhm temIacymZsb ]menp
hcpw Akpcm temIacymZsb B{IanphcpamWv.
AXn\m {iolcn Zi\n\v Cu kabw ]nbXmWv.
\apv `Khms\ sNv ImWmw. C{Xbpw ]dv {_mhv
tZhmtcmsSmw `Khms\ ImWm sNp.
AhnsSsNbpS `Khms Zi\w Innbn.
{_mhv At m `Khm s\ kv X pXnp. k KpWhpw
\npWhpamb `Khms kzcq]s Imncphm
IcpWbpmhWsav {]mnp. C{]Imcw tZhm
kvXpXntm `Khm AhcpsS apn {]Xy\mbn.
Fmhcpw `Khms\ \akvcnv Ah hXns Dtiw
Adnbnp.
20

Atm `Khm ]dp: Ctm Zm\hssZXy


m v \ Im e am W v. \ n tZh m v Im e w
A\pIqea. Imew \XmhpXphsc \n atbmsS
ImncnWw. AXphsc \n IqSpX D]{Zhw
t\cnSmXncnm ssZXymtcmSv knsNbvX v kam[m\
tmsS CcnWw. AarXw D]mZnntWw. AarXw
Ignm \npw acW apmhpIbn. Atm
Akpcmsc `bstSn hcn.
]mSen Hcuj[hn, CeI Fnh Cv
kzabamb ac]hXs IStImembpw hmkpInsb
IS b m \ p Ib d m b p w D] tb m Kn v Aar XvIS v
FSpWw.
\n Akpcmsc \hmm imsSpn
shWw. t{Im[w hccpXv. t{Im[w sImv Imcyw
km[npIbn. kap{Zw ISbptm ImfIqShnjamWv
BZyw hcpI. AXv Iv \n `bsScpXv . ]ntbpw
]e Xpw hcpw. Akpcm v BhiyapXv tem `w
ImWnmsX sImSpWw. C{Xbpw ]dv {iolcn
A{]Xy\mbn.
tZhm t\sc {XntemIm[n]Xnbmb alm_enbpsS
ASp s N p. tZt h{ Im c y k m y n \ m b n
Nm Xpc y am b n k wk m c n p. al m _e n C{ \ n t iw
kzoIcnp.
Akpcmcpw tZhmcpw ]qsshcyw shSnv
AarXaY\n\p th ]cn{iaw sNbvXp. ac]hXs
IS]ngpXv FSpv IptdZqcw sImphp. ]noSv ]hXw
`mcw sImv hoWpt]mbn. Iptd tZhmcpw Akpcmcpw
]hXn\Snbn s]v NXpt]mbn. Atm {iolcn
KcpUmcqV\mbn AhnsS Fn. `Khm Xs HscmssI
sImv ]hXs FSpv KcpUs ]pdv shv
kap{Zn Fnp.
21

]noSv tZhmkpcm hmkpInsb sNv Ip.


aY\n\p IbdmIm kXw tNmZnp. {]bXv\ns
{]Xn^eambn AarXns Hcp `mKw sImSpmsapw
kXnp. As\ hmkpIn aY\n\p IbdmIm
kXnp.
{iolcnbpw tZhmcpsS `mKambn hmkpInbpsS
Xe`mKw ]nSnp. Akpcm hmkpInbpsS hm`mKw
]nSnm hnkXnp. AXn\m tZhm Xe`mKw
Akpcmv ssIamdn. As\ tZhm hmkpInbpsS
hm`mKw ]nSnp. ISbptm hmkpIn thZ\ sImv
hnjhpw Xobpw Xppp. Xe`mKw ]nSnphscbmWv
AXv hnjannpXv . tZhm Cu hnhcw t\cs
a\ n e m n b Xn \ m e m W v k q{ X n A k pc m s c
hmkpInbpsS Xe`mKw ]nSnm t{]cnnXv.
aY \ w X pSn b t m a c ] hXw s ] s v
kap{Zn XmWpt]mbn. hntLt\izc ]qP sNmXp
sImmWv Cs\ kw`hnsXv a\nemn AXn\p
th ]cnlmcw sNbvXp. DS Xs `Khm Hcp BabpsS
cq]w FSpv ]hXs Dbn Xs L\ap tXmSn
Npav \nn. ]hXw Hcp hitv Nmbm XpSn.
{iolcn `oamImcw FSpv ]hXns apIfn Ibdn
Ncphv \nIn. C{Xbpw ISnpw Hpw hcmXn\m
{iolcn ISbphm klmbnp. ISnens thZ\bn
hmkpInb psS izmkn IqSn hnjhpw Anbpw
shfnbn hp. AXv tZhmkpcmsc Xfn. katbm
PnXamb ag Ahv Bizmkw ]Ip.
ISn XpS t m l e m l e w F hn j w
Dbphp. AXv FmbnSpw hym]nv temIs Xs
\innpsambn. DSs\ Fmhcpw inhs\ kao]nv
\akv cnv Xsfbpw temItbpw cnWsav
22

{]mnp. inh lemlehnjs In FSpv ]m\w


sNbvXp. Cu hnjmemWv inhs IWvTn\v \oe\ndw
DmbXv.{io]ctaizc\v \oeIWvT F t]cpw knnp.
A]w Nnntmb hnjs {KlnXn\memWv hnj
Ppfmb tX, ]mv, hnjhocykky XpSnbh
DmbXv.
AXn\ptijw kap{Zn \npw Imat[\p F
]ip Dbphp. EjnI ]iphns\ GsSpp.
]noSv sh\ndap Dss{ihv F IpXnc
Dbphp. AXns\ Akpcm[n]Xnbmb alm_en
FSpp. ]noSv hXv \mepsImp sh\ndap
sFcmhXambncpp. CXns\ C{ hml\ambn FSpp.
]noSv hXv IukvXp`w F ]cmKcXv\w Bbncpp.
AXn s\ al m hnj vW p FSpp. kz hm k nI v
Cjv St`mK ]Zmsf sImSpp ]mcnPmXhrw
kzKhmknI FSpp. AXn\v tijw h A]v k c
kv{XoIsf kzhmknI kzoIcnp.
A\ cw b uh\b pbpw k p cn bpam b Hc p
kv { XocXv \ w Dbphp. tZhm hntijs Hcp
cXv \ mk\w Ahv kanp. \ZotZhXI s]m
IpSfn ]pWyXow kanp. `qantZhn A`ntjI
n \ p th H u j [n I s f s Im Sp p. hk E Xp
]cnipamb ]Khyhpw ]pjv]mZnItfbpw kanp.
EjnI hn[n{]Imcw A`ntjtImNnXI
\Sn. {_mW kqhmIy Dcnp.
hcpW cv ]oXmw_chpw kap{Zw sshPbn
amebpw, hnizImhv hninjv S m`cWfpw kckzXn
appamebpw, {_mhv Hcp Xmac]pjv ] hpw \mK
Im`cWfpw \evIn. Cu kv{XocXv\amWv kmm
23

evaotZhn. Cu kv{XocXv\w Aemc`qjnXbmbn D]e


amesb InseSpv X\nv A\pcq]\mb ]pcpjs\ tXSn.
HSphn Amcma\mbn Xnfp almhnjv W phns
Igpn lmcaWnbnp.
]ntbpw kap{ZaY\w \Sn. Atm I\yIm
hbnep XmacZft\{Xbmb hmcpWntZhn hp. Ah
aZyns A[njvTm\ tZhXbmWv. Akpcm Ahfn
Imamcmbn Ahsf FSpp. aZy]m\nI AkpcmwiP
cmsWv CXv Adnbnpp.
aY\w XpStm ]noSv DbphXv Hcp
alm]pcpj\mbncpp. iymaf\ndhpw Igpn at\mlc
]pjv ] amebpw apw NpcpXeapSnbpambncpp
thj w. I n AarX Ie ih pam b n B W v h Xv.
almhnjv W phns Awiamb [m\zco tZh\mbncpp
AXv . BbpthZw temIn {]NcnnXv [m\zco
tZh\mWv.
AarXIeiw In Itm Akpcm Fmw
ad v H m b n tN v Aa rXI e iw Xn s b Sp p.
hnjcmb tZhm {iolcnsb icWw {]m]np.
AarXn\p thn Akpcm Xn Ielambn.
in IqSnbh Ielnptm A{Xbvv t]mcmh
tZhmtcmSv tNv \ymbhmZw XpSn. As\ Ielw
hnp htm A[nIw AIsebmsX AXoh
k u c y hX n b m b H c p k vX oc Xv \ s Ip. Cu
kpcnbmWv hnjvWphns AhXmcamb tamln\n.
Akpcm AarXs sNmn Ielnp sImncn
p t m tam l n \ n a w a w \ S v F m htc b pw
tamlkpcamb aZ\hebn DsSpn AhcpsS
kao]sn.
24

kpcmwKo \o BcmWv? \o FhnsS \nv hcpp?


RfpsS a\v \o Cfn hnncnpp. \o Fn\nhnsS
hp? kthizc \ns AbXmsWv tXmpp.
GXmbmepw \o hXv \ kabmWv. Rv \ns
hnizmkamWv. R Cu AarXn\mbn IelnpIbmWv.
RfpsS Inep Cu AarXv \o Rv hn`Pnv
hnfpI Fv Akpcm tamln\ntbmSv ]dp.
almP\sf Rm ZphrbmWv. ]pcpjmsc
At\zjnv \Sp IpeSbmWv . Adnhph Bcpw
Fttmsebphsc hnizknpIbn. IpeSIfpw
sNmbvfpw Hcp t]msebmWv. Ahsc hnizkncpXv
Fv tamln\n AkpcmtcmSmbn ]dp.
CXv tItm Akpcmv tamln\nbn IqSpX
hnizmkambn. Ah ktmjtmsS AarXIeis
Ahsf Gev ] np. AarX]m\w awKfIcambXn\m
Fmhcpw Ipfnv ]pXphkv{Xw DSpv Antlm{Xw sNbvXv
]ippw {_mWpw `Whpw ZnWbpw
sImSpv Z` hncnv Ingtmv Zi\ambn tZhmcpw
Akpcmcpw cv ]nbmbn Ccpp. tamln\n tZhn
]phkv{X DSpv aZmekfmb t\{Xsf Nennv
Ip NIpw ` s f ] m X n { ] Im i n n v ] m Zf n s e
kz]mZkzcsf i_vZnnv AarX]m{Xw InseSpv
aw aw Ccp]nIfn IqsS \Sv BZyambn tZhmv
hnfm XpSn.
Akpcmcn Hcmfmb cmlp tZhthjaWnv
kqcyN{mcpsS CSbn ISncpp. tamln\n cmlphn\v
AarXw hnfn. kqcyN{m cmlphns\ ImnsmSpp.
tamln\n Xs N{Iw sImv cmlphns Xe Adpv amn.
AarXw Igpp hsc sNncpXn\m Xe Poht\msSbpw
icocw Poh\nmsXbpw amdn. B cmlphn\v `Khm Hcp
25

{Klsa m\w sImSpp. cmlphns\ ImnsmSp


Xn\m Cpw cmlphn\v kqcyN{mtcmSv sshcyamWv.
kqcyN{msc CSnSv cmlp {KknpXn\memWv
{KlWw kw`hnpXv.
tZhm AarX]m\w Igntm tamln\n Xs
kzcq]w amn kmm hnjvW p cq]n {]Iminp.
Akpcm hnXcmsbv AtmgmWv Ah a\n
empXv.
ktizc ka`mh\bph\msWnepw Zphr
sc Cjv S sSpIbn. `nbphsc t{]anpIbpw
klmbnpIbpw sNpw. AXmWv Cu IYbpsS KpW]mTw.

26

tZh-am-Xmhv AZnXn A\p-jvTn ]tbm-{hXw


alm-_en kz-temIw I-S-n-b-tm tZh-am-Xmhv
AZnXn ]pcn-bn \nv AIse Hcp B{i-a-n Xma-kam-n. a-fmcpw ASp-n-m--Xn-\m hfsc k-S-n-embn-cp-p.A-ZnXnbpsS -`mhv Iiy-]-a-ljn Iptd-m-e-ambn
kam-[n--\m-bn-cp-p. Iptd-m-e-n\p tijw kam-[n-bn
\npw DWp. AZn-X n-b psS Xma- k- ew At\z- j nv
Is-n. AZnXn `m-hns\ Xs Ctm-gs nXn-\p-k-cnv k-cnp. Atlw AZn-Xn-bpsS apJ-p
ZpJ-ns ImcWw At\z-jn-p.
Krl-m-{i-an-I sNt [s \o icn-bmbn
sNmsX Ccp-pthm? AXn-Yn km-c-n GsX-nepw
hogvN Dmtbm? ImI-gp-Im shhpw Ccn-m Bk\hpw Inm Krl- Ipdp-\v Xma-kn-m-\p--Xm-Wv.
\o An-tlm{Xw \S-m-Xn-cp-pthm? hnjvWp-hns apJamWv Anbpw {_m-W\pw. Ch cp t]tcbpw Bcm[n-m hnjvWp {]kmZw Dm-Ipw. \ns ]p{X-m kpJam-bn-cn-p-pthm? FmWv \n\v ]n-bXv. apJw hmSn-bncn-p-phtm? Fns\ Iiy] Bcmp.
A-bpsS in-bmepw {]`m-h-mepw Ap ]d
Imc y - s m pw b m s Xm c p apS- hpw h n- n - .
Abvv {iol-cn-sb-tmse Fm-h-cnepw ka-`m-h-\-bm-Wv.
Akp-c-mcpw tZh-mcpw A-bpsS km-\--fm-Wtm?
AXp- s Imv Abv v cp Iqcpw Hcp- t]m- s e- b m-W v .
Fm {iolcn Xs `Pn-p--hsc A\p-{K-ln-pw. Akpc-m tZh-m-cpsS sFiz-cys A]-l-cnv tZh-temIw ]nSn-S-n. Fs a A\m-Y-cmbn HmSn Hfn-n-cn-p-I-bmWv.
Fs a-fmb tZh-mv sFizcyw hop Inp-hm-\p
D]mbw Av D]-tZ-in--Ww.
27

AZnXn C{]-I mcw ]d- -t m Iiy- ]\v Bcyw


tXmn. hnjvWpamb `b--c- am-Wv. kIe {]mWn-h -tfbpw kvt\l-]miw sImv sIn-bn-cn-p-p. Cu ico-ckp-J-n\v thnbt Cu {]m-\. Cu ico-c-sa-hnsS ,
Bmhv Fhn-sS, Bv B ]p{X, B `m-hv, icochpw Bmhpw Hm-bn-p--XmWv F `mh-a-tCu kS-n\v Imc-Ww. Fm-bmepw \o `K-hms\ Bcm-[o-p-I.
`K-hm ambm-tam-l- Xop-X-cp--Xn\v ]pd-ta-tam-^- e hpw \Ipw. kk- m- \ - - f p- m- h m {_mhv
F\nv D]-tZ-in ]tbm-{hXw Rm \n\pw D]-tZ-in-mw.
]tbm-{hXw icn-bmbn A\p-jvTn-m- \nsbpw \ns km-\-fp-tSbpw IjvSX
- I
- `K-hms {]km-Z
- m amdn-n-pw.

]tbm- { hXw
ao\-am-k-n ip-]--n {]Ya apX ZzmZin
hsc-bp 12 Znh-k--fn ]mam-{Xw Ignv {hX-a-\p-jvTn-Ww.
{hXm-cw-`-n Xte-m Idp--hmhns \m \Znbn kv\m\w sN-Ww. ico-c-n hcmlw Ipn-smnb atm ip-amb atm tXv `qan-tZ-hnsb kvacnv
kvtXm{Xw sNmn thWw Ipfn-p-hm.
tl `qao- t Zhn, {]mWn- I v hkn- m m\-a pmn sImSp BZn- h- c m- l - aqn tZhnsb ckm- X -e n \np--cn-p. Abvv \a-kvm-cw. Fs ]m]w
\in-n-m-epw Fv ]d-p-thWw Ipfn-p-hm.
\a-kvXp`yw `K-htX ]pcp-jmb alo-btk
kh-`qX \nhm-kmb hmkp-tZ-hmb kmntW
\tam-hymb kqvamb {][m-\-]p-cp-jm-b N
NXphnw-i ipW-mb KpW-kw-Jym\ tlXth
28

ta-d cv a{- P]nv {iol-cnsb \a-kvcn--Ww. ]ns `K-hms KpWm-h-Xm-c-sf Nqn-m-Wnv


\a-kv-cn--Ww.
\tam-Zzn-iojvtW {Xn]tZ NXpx irwKmb Xth
k]vX-l-kvXmb bmb {Xbo-hn-Zym-t\ \ax
Zznioj-\w, {Xn]-Z-\w,- N-Xpx-irw-K\w, k]vX-l-kvX-\w,
-b-\w Xphpw {Xbo-hn-Zym-m- hp-amb Abv v \akvm-cw.
\ax inhmb cp{Zmb \ax in-[-cmb N
kh-hn-Zym-[n-]-Xtb `qXm-\mw-]-Xtb \ax
inh\pw in-[-c\pw kh-hn-Zym-[n-]-Xnbp `qX-]-Xnbp-amb Abvv \a-kvm-cw.
\tam-ln-c-Wy-K`mb {]mWmb PK-Zm-t\
bmssK-iz-cy- i-co-cmb \akvtX tbmK tlXth
l n c W y K ` \ p w { ] m W \ p w P K- Z m - m - hp- a m b
Abvv \a-kvm-cw. tbmssK-iz-cy-i-co-c\pw tbmK-tlXp-hp-amb Abvv \a-kvm-cw.
\akvtX BZn-tZ-hmb kmn-`q-Xmb tX \ax
\mcm-b-Wmb Ejtb \cmb lctb \ax
BZn-`q-X-\mb Abvv \a-kvm-cw, kmn`qX-\mb
Abvv \a-kvm-cw, \mcm-W\pw \c\pw Ejnbpw lc\p-amb Abvv \a-kvm-cw.
\tam ac--XI-iym-a -h-]p-tj-[n- K-X-{iotb
tIihmb \a-kvXp`yw \akvtX ]oX-hm-ktk
ac- X-I-iym-a-h- ]ppw A[n-K -X-{io-bp-a mb Abvv
29

\a-kvm-cw. tIi-h\pw ]oX-hm-k-p-amb Abvv \akvm-cw.


Xzw kh- h-cZx ]pwkmw htcWy hc-Zj`
AXkvtX t{ibtk [ocmx ]mZ-tcW ap]m-ktX
A\zh-mbw tZhmx {ioXz ]mZ-]-Zvatbm
kv]pl-b Chm-tamZw `K-h ta {]ko-Z-Xmw.
htc-Wy, hc-Zj-`, Av kI-epw hcpw sImSpp--h-\m-Wv. AXp-sImv Adnhp--h t{ib-n\v AbpsS ]mZ-tc-Wp-hns\ D]m-kn-p-p.
tZh-mcpw evao-t Z-hnbpw A-bpsS ]mZ-]- -fnse kpK- -a m- {K-l n- p-- h- sc t]mse bmsXm- cmsf
tkhnp B tZhm-[n-tZ-h Fs t\sc {]km-Zn--s-.
Cs\ a{- sImv k-cn-v, ]mZyw BNa-\o-bw, N-\w, ameyw, ]m, A`n-tj-Iw,-h-kv{Xw,-]q-Wq,
B`-c- W- Fn-h- bm ZzmZ-i- a-t {m-m-c Ww sImv
]qPn- -Ww. BN- a\w Anv Xmw_qew \nth-Zn- -Ww.
]qPm-h-k-c-n ZzmZ-im--c-a{w Hmw \tam `K-htX hmkptZ-hmb 108 {]mhiyw P]n--Ww.
Ah-Xm-c-eoe kvtXm{X- sNmn ZU-\-a-kvmcw
sN-Ww.
{]kmZw inc-n [cnv tijw `K-hms\ _nw_-n
\nv hnkn--Ww. Ah-m-\p-k-cWw Htm ctm
hn{]-mv `Ww sImSp--tijw DnjvTw _p-tfmSp IqSn `n--Ww. ]mb-km-Zn-{]-km-Zs ap--hv
sImSp-v Xm\pw `n--Ww.
]ntv {]Ya apX {]Xn-Zn\w 12 Znhkw ap]-dv
t]mse BN-cn--Ww. Cu ]Xn-aqv Znh-khpw {_-Ncyw
30

]men--Ww. \nev InS-Ww. aqv t\cw kv\m\w sNWw. ]m am{Xw Blm-c-ambn Ign--Ww. AkIm-cy kwkm-cn--cp-Xv. {]mWn-lnwk ]mSn-.
]{v Znh-kw-I-gnv {Xtbm-Z-inv Adn-hp--hsc
sImv hnjvWp-hn\v ]m apX-emb ]m-ar-X- sImv
A`n-tjIw sNn--Ww. tem`w IqSmsX Ghpw KpW-ap
ss\thZyw kan--Ww.
m\n-bmb BNm-cy-t\bpw Iw sNp EXn-pI-sfbpw hkv{Xw,- B-`-c-W-, ]ip Ch Zm\w sNbvXv
ktm-jn-n--Ww. AhnsS hcp Fm PmXnmpw
kZybpw ZnWbpw sImSpv ktm-jn-n--Ww. Cs\
sNbvX-X n `- K-hm ktm-jn-n-c n-pp Fp IcpXn
Xm\pw _p-fpw `pPn-t-Ww.
Cu ]{v Znh-k-fnepw ]qPm-h-k-c--fn \rw,
hmZyw , IYm-{]-kw-K-, kvXpXn-I- Ch Bhmw. CXmWv
]tbm-{h-Xw. \o hnizm-k-]qw {hX-a-\pjvTnp-I. CXn-\m
lcn ktm-jnv sFizcyhpw {iobpw kk-m-\--tfbpw
Xcpw.
`mhv Cu amXncn D]- tZ-i n- -X -\ p- k- c nv AZn- Xn{hXw {Ia-{]-Imcw A\p-jvTn-p. GIm-{K-X-tbmsS `K-hms\
kvacnv Bcm-[n-p.
{hXw Ign- - t m ` K- h m Ahv Zi\w
sImSpp. BZnXn ktm- j - t m- s Sbpw B- c y- t msSbpw Fgp-t-ddv \a-kv-cn-p.
Ctm Akp-c-msc Pbn-p-hm Akm-y-am-Wv.
Ahsc {]m]vXcmb {_m-W-t{i-jvT-m cn-p-p.-Imew
Ahv A\p-Iq-e-hp-am-Wv. Rm `h-Xn-bpsS ]p{X-\m-bn-P\n-mw. Fnv ap--hsc ZpJ-n \nv cnmw. Cu
cq]- t m- S p- I q- S nb Rm `h- X n- b psS `m- h n hkn31

pXmbn IcpXn At-ls `n-]qw tkhn-p-I.


A[nIw Xma-kn-bmsX `hXn K`w [cn-pw. CXv cl-ky-ambn-cn-s Fn-s\ ]dv `K-hm ad-p. kam-[n-bnen-cn-p Iiy-] `K-hms Awiw Xn {]th-in-n-cnp- p- s h- - d n- p. a\- n `K- h ms\ D]m-k nv Xs
hocys ]Xv \ n- bn B[m\w sNbvX p. Xs a- fmb
Akp-c-ms-Xnsc Ftm \S-p-hm t]mIp-p-sh-dnp Xs Cuiz-tc \S-s Fv Icp-Xn-bmWv Xm\pw
]mfn Bb-Xv. AZnXnbpsS K`w hfp hcm XpS-n.
{_m-hv K`--inip `K-hm-\m-sWv Adn-n-cp-p.
{_mhv K` inip-hns\ kvtXm{Xw sNbvXv \a-kvc
- n-p.

hma- \ m- h - X mcw
\mev Xrss-I-tfmSpw Ah-I-fn iwJ-N-{I-KZm]-tmSpw IqSn Iiy-]s lrZ-b- n-ep A-Im- cs
apgp-h \on kI-epw B\-s {]Zm\w sNp-hm
]nb cq]-n AZn-Xn-bn `K-hm Ah-X-cn--p. Nn-amk-n ipZzm-Z-in-bn Xncp-thmWw \-{X-n {]Ya-]m-Z-n A`n-Pnv aplq-n Fm {Kl- fpw
sXfn-n-cn-p Ah-k-c-n BWv `K-hm `qan-Zi\w
sNbvX-Xv. Cu ZzmZ-inv hnP-b-Zzm-Zin Fp IqSn t]cp-v.A-Zn-Xnbpw Iiy-]\pw AXyw ktm-jn-p. amXm-]n-Xm-m t\m-n-sm-n-cnt B Znhy-cq]w amdn. Hcp {_mW-Ip-am-cs cq]-n-em-bn. Dbcw Ipd Ipam-cs\ Iv
aljn- a m ktm- j n- p. Iiy- ] - { ]- P m- ] Xn Ipam- c \v
kwkv I m- c - I - sNbv X p. D]- \ - b \w \S- ptm
kqcy-tZ-h Kmb{Xn D]-tZ-in-p. Iiy-] Ac-bn Nph
Ib [cn- n- p. `qan- t Zhn Irjv W - a r- K - t m- e pw N{
ZWvUpw AZnXn tZhn Iu]o-\hpw tZymhv IpSbpw {_mhv
Ia-WvU-ephpw k]vXjn-I Z`bpw kc-kzXn P]-am-ebpw
Ipt_-c `nm-]m-{Xhpw {io]-c-ta-izcn `nm-hpw \In
32

Ipamcs D]-\ -b \w Ign- n- p. D]-\ -b -\ - n\v Pzen- n


An-bn Ipam-c s\sm-gnv ]qPn tijw tlma-{Z-hysf An-bn tlman-p.
`rKp-Ip-e-t{i-jvT-m-cmb ip{Im-Nm-cy apX-em-b-h \Sp alm_-en-bpsS Aiz-ta[ bmK-s-n apt Adnn-cp--Xn-\m B bmK-im-esb eyw shv Ipam-c
bm{Xbm-bn.
\Zm \Zn-bpsS hSt Xoc-n `rKp-I Fv
t{Xm--W-n shm-bn-cpp bmKw \S-n-bn-cp--Xv.
kh _e-]q\mb `K-hm Xs icoc`mcm Hmtcm
]mZw shbvp-tmgpw `qansb hnd-n-psImv b IhmS-n-se-n Aiz-ta[w \S-p alm-_-en-bpsS EXzn-pI-fmb aljn-am kao-]-n DZn kqcy-s\-tmse `Khms\ Ip. B EXzn-p-I-fpw -b-P-am-\\pw kZ-ky-cp-samw
hma-\s tXP-n-\m tXP-n-m--hm-cmbn Xop. Cu
bw Zin-m kmm kqcyt\m Antbm k\XvI p-a m- ct\m hcp- -X mtWm Fv kwi- b n- p. IpSbpw
ZWvUhpw , Pe-k-q-amb Ia-WvU-ephpw D-co-bhpw
[cn PSm-[m-cn-bmb hma-\-aqnsb Iv aljn-amcpw
injy-mcpw An tZh-X-I-fp-samw Fgp-t-p.
bP-am-\-\m-b-a-lm-_en taml-\-aqn-bmb `K-hms\
Iv B\--]-c-h-i-\mbn Ccn-p-hm ]oTw sImSp-p. _en
kzmK- X-a -cpfn A`n-\- nv `K- hms ]mZ- ]-Z va- IgpIn
mf\ Pew inc-n [cn-p. kmm ]c-ta-iz-c Xs
{iol-cn-bpsS ]mZ-n \np`-hn KwKsb inc-n [cnp-p. Cu ]mZ-Xos \Im `K-hm X-s-_-en-bpsS
ASp- hXv `-hmkeyw Fp Xs ]d-bmw.
alm-_en hma-\-t\mSv ]dp {_, Atbvv
\a- kv mcw.- Av {_jn-I -f psS X]v Xs cq]w
FSpv hv \np--Xmbn Rm hnNm-cn-p-p. Av
33

R - f ps S Krl - - f n h - X p - s Im v R - f p s S
hwiKrlw Fmw hnip- -a m- b n. bmKhpw tim`- \ - a m- b n.
]qhn-I-m-scmw ]m]--fn \npw D-cn--s-p. AbpsS Im Igp-Inb shw Rm tkhn--Xn-\m Fs
]m]- \inv Rm ]pWy-hm-\mbn Fs `mKyw. tl
{_-Nm-cn Av Fm-{K-ln-p-pthm AsXmw Xcmw.
]ip-tfm Krl-tam, {Kmatam, I-\y-Itbm F Fm-hiy-s-mepw AsXmw Rm Xcp--Xm-Wv.

hma-\ aqSn Bh-iy-s-Spp


ip{ImNm-cy AXv XS-bp-p.
alm- _ - e n- b psS [m- \ p- I q- e hpw kpa- [ p- c - h p- a mb
hmp-tIv `K-hm kp-jvS-\mbn AXns\ A`n-\-nv C{]Imcw ]d-p.
AbpsS hmv Ipe-n\v tbmPn-Xp Xs-bm-Wv.
Cu Ipe-n \nXz-\mtbm Ir]-W-\mtbm Bcpw P\nn-n-. {_m-W-t\mSv Xcn Fv ]d-bp--h \nXz\pw
Xcm- s av BZyw k- X nv ]noSv AXv sImSp- m- X n-c nph Ir]-W-\p-am-Ip-p. bmN-I-m tNmZn-p-tm
Xcn Fv ]d-bp--htcm bp-n\v t]mtIn hcp-tm
t]Snv Hgnv amdp--htcm A-bpsS Ipe-n Dmbn-n-.
A-bpsS Ipe-n ]fpp t]mse {]Im-in-p
{]lvfm-Z Dm-bn-cp-p. A-bpsS Ipe-n P\n lncWym- alm ]cm-{Ian Bbn-cp-p. At-l-tmSv FXncn-S m {Xntem-I - nepw Bcpw Dm- b n- cp- n- . At- l ns ktlm-Z -c -\ m- b -l n- cWy Iin]p ktlm- Z- c- h[w
Adnv ktlm-Z-cs\ h[n alm-hn-jvWp-hns\ shp-hnfnv tXSn \S-p. FhnsS sNmepw hnjvWp-hns ]pdsI
iqe-hp-sa-Spv Xnc-n-sN-n-cp-p. sskzcy-tSv kln-34

h- m - X m - b - t m hn j v W p k qva - i - c o- c - s a- S pv
lncWyIin]phns izmk-n IqSn AIv ISv lrZb-n Hfn-n-cp-p. sshIp-WvT-nepw hnjvWp-hns\ In. Xs t]Snv hnjv W p FhnsStbm H- f n- n- c n- pIbmsWv kzbw kam-[m-\nv lncWy Iin]p aS-n. AbpsS ]nXm-hmb hntcm-N-\\pw {_mW`-\m-bn-cp-p.
tZh- m {_m- W - t h- j - n sNv At- l - ns
Bbpv Bh- iy- s- p. Ah i{Xp- -f m-s W- -dn- npw
{_mW hj-[m-cn-I-fm-bn-cp--Xn-\m Xs Bbpv Zm\w
sNbvXp.
Am-Is ]qn-I-m BN-cn- -Xp-t ]mse Xs
[w BN-cnp hcp-p. Zm\w sNp--h-cn {][m-\nbmb Av Fs Im sImv Af--s-Sp aqv ASn
ew am{Xw F\nv Xm aXn. IqSp-X Imwn-p-h ]cn-{Klw sImp ]m]w A\p-`-hn-tn hcpw.
CXv tIv alm-_en tl {_m-W-t{ijvTm A-bpsS
hmp-I hr-P-\-v k-X-am-Ipw. Fm Av
_me-\pw, _pn Ipdh\pw , kzm-a-dn-bm--h-\p-amWv. aqv temI-n-sbpw A[n-]-\mb Fs hmp-I
sImv ktm-jn-n-n-v Cu aqSn \new am{Xw tNmZn-p-h _pn-iq-\y Xs-bm-Wv. Fn \npw Hcn-
Zm\w kzoI-cn tijw asmcp ev sNv hopw bmNnm CS-h-cm hn[w Pohn-p-hm Bh-iy-ap-n-S-tmfw
`qansb CjvSw t]mse tNmZnv hmpI Fv ]dp.
cmP {_m-WvU-n Fsmw {]nb-s--hn-jb--fptm Ah-bvsmpw C{n-b-sf Pbn-m inbn- m Ima- e - - S s\ Xr]v X n- s - S p- m km[n- n- .
aqSn sImv Xr]vXn-s-Sm--h\v Pw_pZzo]p apgp-h Innbm B Ah-k-c-n k]vX-Zzo]p apgp-h InWsav
B{K-l-ap-m-Ip--Xn-\m Xr]vXn-s-Sp-I-bn-. ]rYp, Kb
35

XpS-nb k]vX-Zzo-]p-I-fpsS apgp-h A[n-]-m-cmb N{Ihn-am t]mepw A-Im-a--fn Xr]vXn -{]m-]n-n-nsv \mw tIn-p--Xm-Wv.
bmZr-n-I-ambn Inp--Xp-sImv ktm-jn-p--h
B\--tmsS Ign-bp-p. a\-ns\ Pbn-m--h aqv
temI- Inn-bmepw Xr]vX-\m-hp-I-bn-. A-Im-a--fnep Akw-Xr-]vXn a\p-jy\v kwkm-c-_--\-n-\p aqe
Imc-W-am-Wv.-b-Zr-m-em`w sImp ktmjw \nXym-\-n\v tlXp-I-a-t{X. bZrm e`np em`w {_m-Ws
tXPv hn-npw adn-m-bm B tXPv \n-en-pIbpw sNpw. Bh-iyn\v am{Xw [\w Dm-bm AXv
kpJw Xcpw. Fv `K-hm ]d-p.
{]nb- a m- s W- n kXyw ]dp sImI. kXyw
A{]nbamsW-n Hpw ]d-tb-. {]nb-am-Ip-sav hnNmcnv Ak-Xyhpw ]d-b-cpXv FmWv a\p-kvarXn ]d-bp--Xv.

_enip{ImNmcykwhmZw
Ipe-Kp-cp-hmb ip{Im-Nm-cys D]-tZ-i-{]Imcw alm_en Ipd-pt\w Btem-Nnv \n-Xn\v tijw Kpcp-hn-t\mSv
C{]-Imcw ]d-p. A-n\pw Ima-n\pw Ionpw
D]-Po-h-\-am-n\pw _m[n-msX Ccn-pXv GXmtWm
AXmWv Krl- BN-cn-t [-sav ]d-Xv icnbm-Wv. Fnepw {]lvfm-Z-Ip-e-n P\n Rm A`o-jvSZm\w sNm-sa {]Xn-sb [\w tamlnv Fs\ \ncmI-cnpw? AXv kIonpw Ipe aln-abvpw lm\nbt?Ak- X y- t - m hep- X mb A[w asm- n- .
Ak-Xy-hm-Znsb Hgnv kI-e-tcbpw Rm kln-p-sapw
Ak-Xy-Xy-t-m hen-sbm-c-[-an-spw `qan-tZhn ]dn-p-v. \c-Iw, Zmcn-{Zw, m\{`wiw,- a-cWw Fn-htb-m-f-[nIw AkXyw ]dv {_m-Wsc hn-p--h36

sc-bmWv `b-s-tS--Xv.-[-\m-Zn-I Cu temI-n Xs


AXns DS-asb Dt]-n-pw. acn-p-tm IqsS sImpt]m-Ip--X-. AXp-sImv [\s Dt]-nv Zmcn-{Zys
A`n- a p- J o- I - c n- p- - X mWv D- a w. sImSp- m- s av kXnXp apgp-h sImSp-msX Ipdp hXpw sImSp-m
{_m-W ktm-jn-p- I-bn-. AXp- sImv sImSp- msav ]d-Xv apgp-h sImSp--Ww. Z[oNn aljn, in_n
N{I-hn XpS-n-b-h kzw {]mWs\ XyPnpw ap-hv D]-Imcw sNbvXn-p-v. Atm `qan apX-em-b-\n-mc-h-kvXp-sf XyPn-p--Xn Fn\v kwi-bn--Ww. AXpsImv kzw ico-c-c--bvp-thn AkXyw ]d-bpXv
icn-b-sv hcp-p.-bp--n t]mcm-Snb Akp-c-t{i-jvTm-cpsS kpJ-t`m-K- Imew ad-p-p. Fm Ah
{]Zin-n bp-km-ayhpw Ionbpw Fspw \ne\np-p.
C{Xbpw tIv alm- _en Nncnp sImp ]dp.
Fm CjvSw t]mse hmn-sm-p. alm-_en hma-\\v
aq-Sn av Zm\w sImSp-p-hm Pe-]m{Xw FSp-p.
ip{I-a-ljnv `K-hms CwKnXw a\-n-em-bn. `qan
Zm\w sNp _ensb ip{Im-Nm-cy XSp. hntcm-N-\]p{X CXv kmm kth-iz-c\pw `K-hm-\p-amb hnjvWp
tZh-Imcyw km[n-n-p--Xn-\mbn Iiy-]-\n \nv AZn-Xnbn P\n--h-\m-Wv. A\w a\-n-em-m Av aqSn
sImSp-m-sav {]Xn sNbvXXv icn-bm-sWv Rm IcpXp-n-. Akp-c-mv henb A\w hv IqSn-bn-cn-pp. ambm-h-Sp-hmb lcn A-bpsS m\-tbpw sFizcy-tbpw k- n- t\bpw tXP-v , bi-v , A[yb-\mZn
kv Fn-h-tbbpw kq{X-n ssI-emn C{\v
\evIpw. Ch hniz-Im-b-\m-bn-ov {Xnhn-{I-a--fm Cu
temI-ap-gp-h\pw cv ASn-sImv Af-s-Sp-pw. aqm37

as ASnv m\-anmsX {]Xn \nh-ln-m IgnbmsX Av \c-I-n hkn-tn hcpw Fv Rm `bs-Sp-p.


Zm\w,- b-w,- X-]v, av I- Fn-hsbmw
Pohn-m hI-bp-hv thn-bm-Wv. [-n\pw bin\pw A-n\pw Ima-n\pw kzP-\-n\pw Cs\
{Zhyw Ap hn[-n `mKnv sImSp-p--h Cl-nepw
]c- nepw kpJw A\p- ` - h n- p- p. kXyw kv XpXnpw
AkXyw \nnpw ]d--Xn\v tijw Nne-tm kXy-n
tZmjhpw Ak-Xy-n KpWhpw ]dv Fmw Imem-\pkr-X-ambn sN-W-sav thZ- ]d-bp-p.
tZl-cq-]-amb hr-ns ]pjv]-^-e-amWv kXyw.
tZl-am-Ip hrw \ne-\np-n-s-n ]pjv]-^-ehpw
C. tZl-nbpw aqew Ak-Xy-am-I-bm Ak-Xy-tmSv
tNv Xtb kXyhpw \ne-\np-I-bp-q. AXp-sImv
thn hm AkXyw sImpw tZls cn--Ww.
kv{XoI-fn-epw, t\cw t]mn-epw, hnhm-l-n-\mbpw D]-Poh- \ - n- \ mbpw, {]mWm- ] m- b - nepw tKm{_m- - W p
thnbpw kXyw ]d-m h-hpw lnwk-h-cp-tmgpw
AkXyw \nn-X-a-.
ip{ImNmcys Cs\bp D]tZiw {ihnnv
alm_en ]dbpp.
bp-`q-an-bn ]nhm-m-sX-bpw sNbvXv ac-W-a-Sbph [mcmfw Dv . Fm k{]m- { X- n Zm\w
sNbvXv [\s Dt]-n-p--h hnc-f-am-Wv. apgp-h\pw Zm\w
sNbvXv Zmcn{Zyw A\p-`-hn-p--X pw tim`-\o-b-am-Wv.
Cu An Fm-h- cmepw Bcm- [n-- s-S p alm38

hnjvWp BsW-n Fs t{Zmln-m h-h-\m-sW-nepw


Rm At-l-ns B{Klw \nd-th--Ww. cSn sImv
Cu temIw apgp-h Afv \nc-]-cm-[n-bmb Fn \npw
Fs cmPyw apgp-h ssI-em-p-Xv Hcp h-\-bm-Wv.
Cu I]-S-amw kzoI-cn-p-Xv Ftm-Sp `bw sImmbn-cnmw. `K-hm As\ A[w {]hn-p-I-bm-sWn Rm-\Xv klnp sImmw. h An hnjvWp-hmsWn A[w {]hn-p-I-bn-. A As\ sNpI- bm- s W- n -F - \ nv kIon- b m- bn- c npw ^ew.
Atm IqSp-X sFizcyw `K-hm Xcp-Ibpw sNpw.
adnv Rm {]Xnm `wKw sNbvXmtem F\nv \miw,
[\- i - \ m- i w,- Zp- j v I on acWw Chbpw hp- t N- c pw.
hnjvWp-hm--h Fs NXn-m Ahs DS-en Xe
Dm-hm Rm kXnn.
ip{I-a-ljn CsXmw tIv tIm]n-p. Xs D]-tZis Rms\ Al-mcw ImcWw Xf-fn--f--Xp-sImv
Cu W-n sFiz-cy-{`-jvS-\m-Is Fv ip{I-a-ljn
i]n-p.
alm-_- en- bpsS ]Xv\n- bmb hnym- hen ALym-Z nIp th ]pWy-P ew \ndv kz- pSw AhnsS
kan-p.
b-Im-hmb alm-_en kzbw _K-hms ]mZsf B\--]qw Igp-Inv kh-tem-I--tfbpw ipoI-cn-p B ]pWy-Xo- inc-n hln-p.
Atm BIm-iv tZh-mcpw K-m In-cmXp-S -n-b-h ]pjv]-hrjvSn sNbvXp. Akp-cm-[n]s\
Bcm-[n-p. ]e-Xcw hmZy- ap-gn Kh-m ]mSn
\rw sNbvXp. Kpcp-hns D]-tZ-is IW-m-msX
khhpw \in-p-sa--dn-npw aqv temI-fpw `K-hm\v
39

kanp F Ghpw ZpjvI-c-amb Iw Cu [oc


\n-ln-tm amcpw sNm ss[cy-s-Sm-XmWv Cu
al-mb Imcyw.

hnizcq]Zi\w
]noSv hma-\s icocw Fm-hcpw ImsI hep-Xmbn.Fm temIfpw \ndp.
]mZ-aq-e-n ckm-X-emZn temI-tfbpw ]mZ--fn
`qan-tbbpw PwL-I-fn ]h-X--tfbpw app-I-fn ]nI- t fbpw XpS- I - f n hmbp- k w- L - t bpw hkv { X- n
ky-tbbpw Kply{]tZ-iv {]Pm-]-Xn-am-tcbpw PwL-\n Xtm- s Smw Akp- c - m- t cbpw \m`n- b n \`- nt\bpw DZ-c-n k]vX-k-ap-{Z--tfbpw Dc-n \-{Xk-aq-l--tfbpw lrZbn [tbpw kvX\fn
EXkXysfbpw a\-n N{-t\bpw amhn-S-n eoem]w [cn evao-tZ-hn-tbbpw IWvT-n kma--tfbpw
khi- _ v Z - - t fbpw ssII- f n C{mZn tZh- m- t cbpw
I--fn Znp-I-tfbpw aqm-hn tZymhn-t\bpw apSnI-fn taL-n-t\bpw \mkn-I-bn hmbp-hn-t\bpw IpI-fn kqcy-t\bpw hZ-\-n An-tbbpw hmn thZtfbpw ck- t\-{n- b-n hcp-W-t \bpw ]pcn-I- -fn
hn[n \ntj-[--tfbpw An-tcm-a--fnZn\cm{Xsfbpw
s\nbn tIm]tbpw A[cn tem`-tbpw Xzn
Ima- t\bpw tcX- n Pe-t bpw ]rjvT- n A[tbpw ]mZ-\ym-k-n b-t\bpw Omb-bn arXyphn-t\bpw a-lm-k-n amb-tbbpw tcma--fn Huj[n-tbbpw \mUn-I-fn \Zn-I-tfbpw \J--fn ine-I-tfbpw
_pn-bn {_m-hn-t\bpw C{n-b--fn tZh-m-tcbpw
Ejn- I- t fbpw Cs\ alm-_ en hncmSv kzcq-] - n
mh-c-Pw-K-a--fmb kh-n-t\bpw Zin-p. `K-hm-\n
Cu {]]w apgp-h Iv Akp-c-m-scmw Fp-sN--W40

sa--dn-bmsX hnjm-Zn-p.
kpZi-\hpw CSn-sm \mZ-hp-ap iMvK-sa
hnpw taJ-i-_vZ-am ]m-P-\yhpw i-amb Iutam-ZIn
F KZbpw hnZy-[-c-sa hmfpw Akv{X- Ah-km-\nm Bh-\m-gnbpw kp\-mZn ]mjzZmtcbpw temI]m-e-I-m-cp-samw `K-hms\ ASpp \nv tkhn-p. hncmSv
kzcq]nbmb `K-hm {]Im-in-p IncoSw , tXm hfI, aI-c-Ip-WvUew, {io]w h\-ame apX-em-bh sImv
AewIrX\mbn tim`np. alm_enbpsS `qan apgph HcSn
sImv Afv Ahkm\nnp. A- c ow icocw
sImpw Znp- I ssII sImpw hym]v X - - f m- b nop. `K-hms ]mZw kz-n \nv apI-fn-tebvv
Db-cp-Ibpw al temIw, P\-tem-Iw, Xt]m-tem-Iw Fnhbpw IS-v k-Xy-tem-I-n-tev hym]n-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
`K-h ]m-Z- {_m-hns kXy-t emIw Fnbtm At- l - n- s ]mZ- \ - J - -f psS shfnw sImv
{_mhv kqn-p-t\m-n. DSs\ amcn-NymZn {]-Pm-]-Xn-I
\mc- Z m- Z n- { _- jn- I Ch- t cm- S v tNv {_mhv B
]mZsf \a-kv-cn-p. ]mZ- Igp-Im-\p Pew Xm
Xs sImp-hv kvXpXn-KoXw sImv `K-hms\ Bcm[n-p. ]mZw Igp-Inb Pew ]cn-ip KwK-bmbn aqv temItbpw ]cn-]m-h-\-amn Hgp-Iphm XpS-n.
`K-hm Xs hniz-c q-] s ad- p. ]g-b- Xp- t]m- se
{_-Nmcn cq]w kzoI-cn-p. at\m-th-K-X-bp Pmw_hm
F hm\-c-t{i-jvT kh-Zn-p-I-fnepw `K-hms hnP-ba-tlm-Zvk-hs t`cn sImn Adn-bn-p.
CsXmw Iv ZpJn-Xcpw {Ip-cp-amb Akp-c-m hma\-t\mSv bpw sNphm ]pd-s-p. Akp-c-ssk-\ym-[n-]m bp-n\v HmSn hcpXp Iv `K-hms ]mcvj-Z-m
Nncn- p- s Imv Ah- t cmSv FXnv Akp- c - s sk- \ ys
41

anp alm-_en Akp-c-msc bpw sNp--Xn \npw


XS-p. bpw sN-cp-Xv \npI Cu Imew \apv A\pIq-e-a-. bmsXm-cm kh-Po-hn-Ipw kpJhpw ZpJhpw
sImSp- mi-\ mtWm B Ime-a qnsb Hcmpw
AXn-{I-an-m kmy-a-. apv bmsXmcm \psS tan\pw tZh-m-cpsS \mi-n\pw Imc-Wamtbm B khi--\mb Ime-aqn Xs Ctm AXn\v hn-]co-X-ambn
hn-p-p. apv hn[n-bm sFiz-cymZn KpW-k---cmbn-o \n-fm ]cm-Pbw hcn-tn h tZh-m
Ctm \s-sbmw Pbnv knwl-\mZw apg-p-p. hn[n
{]km-Zn-p-I-bm-sW-n \apv Chsc Pbn-mw. AXn-\m
\apv A\p-Iq-e-am-bn-o-cm-hp Imew {]Xo-n-p-I. -alm-_-en-bpsS Cu hmv tIv Akp-c-mscmw ckm-X-en-tev t]mbn.
]n t{ijvT-\mb Kcp-U `K-hms k-ev]-a-dnv
alm-`-s A\--a-lna temI-n {]Jym-]\w sNm
b-n tkmam-`n-tj-I-Zn-\-n alm-_-ensb hcp-W]m-i- sImv _n-p. \ho-\-`m-j-bn Adv sNbvXp
Fm-W w. Cu _\w sImv cmPymZn Imcy- -fnep A`n-am-\-tbpw `K-hm Cm-Xm-n. Cu A`n-am\w
AYhm Al-m-c-am-bn-cpp Xs `-\p At[m-K-Xnv
ImcWw AXp-sIm-m-Wv Cns\ sNbvX-Xv.
hcp-W-]miw sImv _n tijw hma-\-aqn ]dp. aqv ASn ew Xcm-sa-t {]Xn sNbvX-Xv. aqmas ASn ew Xcn-I. hmKvZw sNbvX hkvXp apgp-h
Xcm-Xn-cp-m \c-I-hm-k-amWv ^ew. \ns Kpcp-hmb iq{ImNm-cy\pw Ans\ Bh-W-sav i]n-n-p-v.-G-sXm-cp-h
hm-K-Zw sNbvXXv sImSp-m-Xn-cn-p-pthm Ah\v kzw
e`n-p-I-bn-. Ah\v \cIw Xs-bmWv Inp-I.
42

_en- h m- a \ kwhmZw
alm-_-en-bpsS Al-mcw `K-hm-t\mSp t]mepw tXmpsIm- Sp-m A\p-h-Zn- n-. AXn-\m C{]-Imcw ]dp
aqSn ew Xcm-sav Rm {_-Nm-cn-tbmSv ]d--XmWv. Af-m t]mIp-tm ico-cs hep-Xmn cSn
sImv Cu temIw apgp-h Af nXn-bn aqm-as
ASnv ]mZw Fs inc-n shbvp-I. cv ASn sImv
Cu temIw apgp-h Af nXnv aqm-as ASnv
Fs incv aXnbm-Iptam Fv int-. [\-t-m
hepXv [\w km-Zn AXns DSa BsWv imkv{Xw
]d- b p- p. AXp- s Imv A- b psS ImeSn shm- \ p
ew Fs inc-n-\pv shp-sIm-pI.
AkXyw h\ Ch A]-Ion-I-c-am-Wv. Ah Zmcn{Zyw \cIw apX-emb IjvS-X-I-tf-m `b--c-amWv Ah
Fs _m[n-m-Xn-cn--s. Rm Fs ico-cs Abvv kan-p-p.
Fs _-\-n C-Xn Rm hyk-\n-p-n-.
ZpJ-n \ntm A]-In-I-fn \ntm Ap Xcp
in-bn \ntm F\nv `b-an-. bmsXmcp in amXm]nXm-tfm ktlm-Z-ct\m kplr-p-tfm Hcn-epw Xcpn-, alm-m--fm An--s-Sp B insb Rm
a-\p-jyv Ghpw D-a-ambn Icp-Xp-p. Av Akp-cm-cmb Rv i{Xp F hymtP\ A{]- Xy- -`m- hn ]c-a-Kp-cp-hm-Ip-p. Fs-m sFiz-cy-an F
Ah- -bmb Znhy- N- pp Xp- h- tm. `qcnIm-h mb
A-bm ]cm-Pn-X-\m-hp-Ibpw hcp-W-]m-i-m _n-X\m-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. AXn Rm en-p-n-, hyk-\np-n-.
Fs ]nXm- a - l \pw A- s b- s km- \m
B{i-bn--h-\p-amb {]lvfm-Z A-bpsS i{Xphpw kzw
]nXm-hp-amb lnc-Wy-I-in]phn\m ]e-hn[w ]oUn-n--snpw Cf-- an- msX A-bpsS ]mZ-] w Xs icWw
43

{]m]n-p. Ah-km\w \s hnp-t]m-Ip Cu tZlw sImv


Fp-Im-cyw. [\-a-]-l-cn-p ]p{X-m-sc-smtm kzP\- sf t]cn Adn- b - s - S p i{Xp- - s f- s mtm
Fp- Im-cyw. kwkm- c- _- -\ -I m-c -W -a mb ]Xv\ n-s b- sImsp Imcyw. acWw \nn- X- amb a\pjy\v hoSp- I
sImsp Imcyw. ChnsS tIhew Bbpv ]mgmbn
t]mIpp Fv am{Xw. Cs\ Nnn Fs ]nXm-a-l
{]lvfm-Z Akp-c-i-{Xp-hmbn Adn-b-s-Sp A-bpsS ]mZ]w Xs ic-W-am-n.
_em cmPy-{`-jvS-\m--s Rm Akp-c-i-{Xp-hmb
A-bpsS kao]w `mKy-Xn-i-b-m \bn--s-n-cn-p-p.
A-bpsS ]mZ-`- Fs ]nXm-a-l FXv am{X-amWv
F\n-p KpWw. AXp-sImv Fs Al-m-`m-h-tbpw
AXn ]nSnp \np sFiz-cy-tbpw Av \in-nv
Fs A\p-{K-lnp. sFiz-cyw Almcsbpw Ahnth- Is hn- n- p-I bpw hynsb `n- lo- \\m- pIbpw sNpw. AIs kao]n Ccnp PohnXw
NeamsWp t_m[w CmsXhcpIbpw sNpp.
AXn\m sFizcym]lcWw alm A\p{KlamIpp.
Fs ]nXmals A]mc`nbmWv Fs Abm
A\p{KlnsSm CSbmbXv Fv Rm IcpXpp.
Cs\ _en ]d-p-sIm-n-cn-p-tm `-in-tcmaWn {]lvfmZ- A-hnsS Fn. _-\--\mbncp-Xn\m alm-_-env {]lv-fm-Zs\ ]qPn-p-hm Ign-n-.-Xe-Ip-\nv \a-kvmcw Adn-bn-p. {]lvfm-Z`-K-hms\ \akv-cnv C{]-Imcw ]d-p.
`K-hms\ Chs kv Av ]nSnp ]dn-n-n-.Hcp Imev sFiz-cy-m aZm--\m-b C{s kzv
Xmm-en-I-ambn Chs ssIhiw Gev]n-p. Ch-\pw-sFiz-cy-a-Zw sImv tISp-h-cpp Fv I-tm Av AXp
44

Ctm Xncn-s-Sp-p. AXv A\p-{K-l-am-bn.


_en ]Xv\n hnym-hen Atm Cs\ ]d-p.
`K-hms\ Cu {Xntem-I- Av {IoUmw krjvSn-ncn--bm-Wv. hnn-I AXns Imhv Ah Xs F`n-a-m\n-p-p. Ch-cp-tS-X Fv Ch Adn-bp-n-. ChcpsS ssIhiw Atbvv kan-p-hm kz-am-bXv
Hpw Xs C. aqm-as ASn Af-m ew Av
tNmZn--tm At-l-ns inc-mWv ImWn--Xv. AXpw
ico-cm-`n-am\amWv. Fsm Cu icocw At-l-ns
A FXp Xs-bm-Wv. Atlw DsS Cu ImWp-sXmw `K-h m-\ n-embncns Atlw `K-hm\v kanp
Fv ]d-bp-Xv icnb.
Atm {_mhv `K-hm-t\m-Smbn Cs\ ]d-p.
Chs kzm[o-\-n-en-cp- -Fmw A-bvmbn kanp. Rms\ `mh-n\v Imc-W-amb ico-chpw A-bvmbn
kan-p. Ctm _-tl-Xp-hmb Am\w \in-n-cnp-p. qew, kqvaw, ImcWw F aqv hn[w icochpw aqv temI--fn-embn ImW-s-Sp-p. B aqv temIfpw Ahn-Zym-Im-c-W--fm-Wv. _-\-n\v Ch A-l\-.- ap-n-mWv Al-X. Ct-ls DS _--\-n
\n pw hn Sp- I . hnizmk _pn tb mSp IqSnb `
Abv v Pehpw ]pjv ] hpw kanv kmbqPyn\v
A l c mIp p. Cu al m _e n b mIs { Xn tem Ihpw
Abvv kanp. qew, kqvaw, ImcWwFo aqv
ic oc f m W v
aq v
te m I .
Cu
aq pw
AhnZymImcWamWv. `Khms ImcpWym Cu aqv
Ahn Zy m I m c W f pw \ in n c n p Xn \ m Ch
_\n\v Al\. Poh apnmWv Al.
Atm `K- hm Cs\ Adn- bn- p. tl {_
Rm Hcp- h s\ B\p- { K- l n- p- h m Dt- i n- m BZyw
45

Ahs sFiz-cys A]-l-cn-pw. sFiz-cy-a-Z-m a\mb a\p-jy temI-tbpw Ftbpw A]-am-\n-p-p.


]q- I - - S n- a sv Akz- X - { - \ mb Poh
X- s I hmk-\-I -fm ]e-Xcw tbm\n-I- fn {`an- psImv bmZr-jvNn-I-ambn Fs Icp-W-bm a\p-jy-Pw
{]m]n-p-p.-DIrjvS Pw hnZy, sFizcyw apX-em-bh
sImv GsX-nepw Hcmv Al-mcw hcm-Xn-cn-p-p-sn AXv Ah-\n Fs hep- Xmb A\p-{K-l-a m-Ip-p.
Fn AXy--`-n-bp ]pWy-hm tam-lm-[o-\-\m-Ip-n. Zm\- h - s sZ- X y- m- c n A{K- K - W y- \ mb Cu alm- _ en
Bpw Pbn-m Ign-bm Fs amb-sb-tmepw Pbnn-cn-p-p. kp{h-X-\mb Cu alm-_en [\-samw \in-npw
m\- {`-j vS- \m- -s - npw i{Xp- -f m _n-X- \m-b npw
_p- Dt]-n-npw Kpcp A[n-t-]n-npw ]e-hn[w
ti- A\p- `- h n- npw kXy- \n- j v T - \m- I - b m AXn
\npw hyXn-N-en-n-. Rm I]-S-[w ]d-npw [w
Dt]-n-n-.
tZh-mv t]mepw {]m]n-m Ign-bm kpZpe`
m\w Rm- C - t - l - n\v sImSp- n- c n- p- p. Fs
s A{i-bn Ctlw kmhn a\z--c-nse C{\mbnocpw.
AXp-hsc hniz-Imhv \nn kpX-e-sa temIn hkn-p-I. AhnsS Xma-kn-p--hv Fs Zi\w
\nanw B[n-hym-[n-Itfm oWtam aSntbm tXmevhntbm
av h D]-{Z-h-tfm _m[n-p-I-bn-. Abvv awKfw
`hn--s.- Av _p--tfmSp IqSn tZh-mpw {]m]nm tbmKy-a-m kpX-e-n Fp-I. temI-]m-e-Imv t]mepw Asb B{I- an- p- I -b n- . A- b psS
Iev]\ ewLn-p Akp-c-msc Fs kpZi\ N{Iw
\in-n-pw. kh B]-p-I-fn \npw Rm Asb
46

cn-pw. AhnsS kn-[m\w sNp Fs `hm kZm


ImWpw.-A-hn-sS- Zm-\-h-ssZ-Xy-m-cpsS kwKw \nanw Abvp-m-Ip- -A-kp-c-`mhw Fs Znhy-{]-`mhw Zinv DSC-m-Xm-Ipw.

_en kpX- e - n Fp- p.


alm_en- hm-a-\-aqn-tbmSv KZvK-Zm--c-n ]dp. `K-hms\ A-bpsS ImcpWyw Bcyw Xs. RmA-sb \a-kv-cn--W-sav Dt-in--tX-bpffq,- \-a-kvcn- n- n- . C{X- a m{Xw sNp- t m- t gv Av Aan- X - a mb
ImcpWyw s]mgn- n-c n- p- p. X]v , Zm\w apX-e m-b h
sNbvXm t]mepw knn-m ^ew Av \In Ignp. Cu \a- k v m- c - ns amlmyw F{X-b m- s Wv
\n-bn-m {]-bm-kw. C{]-Imcw ]dv alm-_en lcn,
{_m-hv, inh Ch aqh-tcbpw \a-kv-cn-p. kp-jvS\m-b-a-lm-_en Akp-c-m-tcm-Sp-IqSn kpX-e-n-tev t]mIphm Hcp-n. C{m-\p-P-\mb hma-\-aq-n C{\v kz-s -sIm-Sp tijw Xs amXm-hm-b- A-Zn-Xnsb Iv
\a-kv-cn-p. Xs ZuXyw \nd-th-n-b-hn-hcw ]d--dn-bnp. amXmhv hfsc ktm-jn-p.
`K-h `-n-bn ap-nb {]lvfm-Z `K-hm-t\mSv ]dp. tl `K-hm {_-mZn tZh-mv IqSn \evIm Cu
ImcpWyw Av R-fn {]Zin-n-n-cn-p-p. R
hm-kvX-h-n CXn-\l-c. B{i-bn-p--hsc ktm-jnn-pI FXv AbpsS A`n-a-X-am-Wv.
hm {]lvfm-Zm, \n\v awKfw `hn--s. \obpw kpXe- n- t ev s]mbv s ImI. AhnsS ]u{X- t \mSp IqSn
ktmj PohnXw \bn- v kzw P\- v kpJs
sImSpv hkn-p-I. -kp-X-e-Zzm-c-n KZ Gn \nevp
Fs \o ImWpw. Fs Zi\w sImv kwkm-c-_w
\ntjw \opw.
47

{]lvfm-Z `K-hms Iev]\ kzoI-cnv Akp-c-ssk\y-tmSpw alm-_-en-tbmSpw IqSn kpX-e-n-tev t]mbn.


alm-_- en- bpsS bmK- nh \yq\X ]cn-l -cnv
bmKw ]qn-bm-p-hm hma-\-aqn ip{Im-Nm-cy-t\mSv
\nt-in-p. sshjy-ay--sfmpw Dm-bn-n-. Fm-bmepw
A-bpsS B \nd-th-n-tbmw Fv ]dv ip{ImNm-cy bmKw ]qn-bm-n.
{_mhv ]noSv hma-\s\ temI--fp-sSbpw temI]m-e-m-cp-sSbpw ]Xn-bmbn A`n-tjIw sNbvXp. bph-cm-Pmhm- b n- mWv A`n-t jIw sNbv X- X v. ]noSv tZh- m-A - tls kz-n-tev sImp-t]mbn hma-\-aqn-bpsS
klm-b-tmsS `cn-p C{ AXn tXP-kzn-bmbn sFizcy-tmsS hkn-p.
{_mhv, inh apX-em-b-h `K-hms Cu IrXys
{]iw-knv Ah-c-h-cpsS m\--fn-tev t]mbn. CXmWv
Ctm \S-p Ggm-as a\z--c-n \S hma-\mh-Xm-c- IYbpsS cXv\-p-cp-w.

\ncq]WwKpW]mTw
KoXm{]pIm Kpcphmbq tZhkzw XpSnbh
{]knoIcn aqehpambn _s `mKhXntem
\mcmbWobntem hma\ alm_ensb ]mXmfntev
Nhpnmgvn Fv ]dbpn. ]Icw kXyk\pw
[njv T\pamb alm_ensb hma\ ]conpIbpw
]coWn hnPbn _ensb hma\ A\p{Kln
pIbpamWv sNbv X Xv . i_v Z Xmcmhenbnepw av N ne
` m K hXk w { Kl IY If n e pw s h w am W n b p s S
]pcmW\nLphnepw ]pcmWfpsS ]npW CmsX
]dbp sXmb IY Fs\ hp Fv AdnbpIbn.
H c p ] s \ m tSm S n IY Is f ASn m \ am n
48

hnIrXoIcnXmImw. alm_enbpsS Imev tIcfw


Dm b n c p n .
tIc tf m ] n
\ Sn b Xv
]cipcma\mWv . ]cipcmamhXmcw hma\mhXmcn\v
tijamWv \SXv . Xs Imev CmXpw Xm
` c n n n m Xpam b tIc f w Im W phm al m _e n
hma\t\mSv A\phmZw hmn BptXmdpw tIcfw
ImWphm hcpp F IYbpw Ihn`mh\ am{XamWv.
`mKhXw aqen Cu IY ]dbpn. hma\ _enbpsS
incn ]mZw shbv p p Fpt]mepw `mKhXw
aqen ]dbpn.
m\m\kckzXnbpsS `mKhXclkyn
aq Sn
ew
Xcmsa
_e n b ps S
kXyw
bmYmyamm\pw kXy`wKn hcp \cIhmkw
Hgnhmm\pw hma\ _enbpsSXebn {]XoImIambn
]mZw shbvpp Fv am{Xw ]dbppv. CXns Aw
aqm as ASnb mbn _e ns b ` Khm XtXm bn
kzoIcnv A\p{KlnppshmWv . sFizcym
_enpmb Almcw iannphm\mWv `Khm Cu
\mSIw ActdnbXv.
`Khms ]mZw incn ]XnbpXv F alm`mKyw
H c \ p{ Kl w am { Xam W v. ] pW y m m v am { X ta
As\bp alm`mKyw knnpIbpq. `Khms
ssIIfm acWaSbphpw kmbqPyw e`npXmWv.
PbhnPbm im]w aqew aqv XhW `qanbn P\nv
i{Xp`mhn `Khms\ kva cnv `Khms ssIIfm
h[nsv kmbqPyw e`nhcmWv.
kzman m\m- \- -k -c - kzXn Cu hma- \ m- h- X m- c -I -Y bpsS KpW-]mTw Xmsg ]d-bp hn[-n hnh-cn-p-p.
Pm{Kpw kz]v\hpw kpjp-]vXn-bp-am-Ip aqp-temI--fn-em-sWm-cm-fpsS Pohn-Xw. Poh Hp Xs-bm-sW49

nepw PohnXw aqp-tem-I-n-em-Wv. Pm{K-Zm-h--bn hnizs\ t]cn qe-i-co-c-nepw kz]v\m-h--bn ssXPk F t]cn kqv a- i- co- c- nepw kpjp- ]vX n- bn-
{]m-s\ t]cn Imc-W-i-co-c-n-ep-amWv hym]-cn-p-Xv. Ch Xs Hcp Pohs ss{Xtem-Iyw. Cu ss{XtemIyw
apgp-h Bkp-c-i-n-bm \nd-b-s-Spp Fp-Xp Xs
Akp-c-m-cpsS `c-Ww. hmpw hnNm-chpw {]hr-nbpw apgph \ndp kXy-lnw-km-Zn-tZ-h-m m\-{`-jvS-cm-bn-ocp-tm hnZym-i-n-bm-Ip tZh-am-Xmhv X]n-m-\n-S-bmIp-p. Poh-\m-Ip Iiy-]-a-ljn Cuiz-tcm-]m-k-\sb D]tZ-in-p-p.-X-n-ep Ghpw sNdnb Cuiz-c-ssN-X\yw
D]m-k-\-bn-eqsS hfp {ItaW hfv ss{XtemIyw apgph \nd-bm-\nS hcp-tm tZh-m kq-i-cpw Akpc-m ]cm-Pn-X-cp-am-Ip-p. Fn-s\ Aym-nI cl-kysf th-t]mse Dsm-n Cu ]ptWy-Xn-lm-khpw
Pohn-Iv ]m]-l-chpw ]mh-\-hp-a-t{X.
aqm- a - s ASn ew tNmZn- - t m- alm- _ en
Xs ico-cs kzbw kan-p-I-bmWv sNbvX-Xv.-hmp
sImSp-Xn\v tijw AXv ]men-n-s-n hmp sImSp-bmv ]m]-ap-m-Ipw. Cu ]m]-n \npw Xs `\mb _ensb cn-mthn hma-\ sNdp-Xmbn Xs
]mZw _en-bpsS inc-n shv aqm-as ASn Inn-bXmbn k-Xn-p Fv `mK-h-X-n ]d-bp-n-s-nepw Nne
hymJym-\--fn ImWp-p-v. Fm Hcn-Spw alm-_ensb ]mXm-f-n-tev Nhp-n-mgvn Fv ]d-bp-n-.
Cu kabw AhnsS Fnb {_mhpw _en-bpsS ap {]-lvfm-Z\pw _ensb {]iw-kn-p.Xs `\mb _enbpsS Al-mcw ian-n-p-hm-\mWv CsXmw Ac-t-dn-bXv
Fv hma-\ ]d-p. ASp a\z--c-n alm-_en
sb C{-\mbn \nb-an-p-sapw AXp-hsc tZh-m t]mepw
50

sImXn-p kpX-e-n al-_m-enbpw ]cn-hm-c-fpw


{]lvfm-Z-t\m-sSm-nv hkn-p-sapw Ahv c-I-\mbn
alm- hn-jvWp-Xs kpX-e-n KZm-[ m-cn-b mbn hkn-psapw hma-\ A\p-{K-ln-p.
alm-_-en-bpsS Imev tIcfw Dm-bn-cp-n-. kap{Z- t mSv {]mnv agp Fdn- mWv ]c-i p- cm- a- t {Xw
\nn--Xv. ]c-ipcm-am-h-Xmcw hma-\m-h- Xmcw Ign-mWv
kw`-hn-Xv F-Xn-\m _en-bpsS `c-W-Im-ev tIcfw
Dm-bn-cp-n Fv kwi-b-an-msX ]d-bm-hp--XmWv. hma\s P-\m-fmb Nn-am-k-n Xncp-thmWw bYmn hma- \ - P - b - n- b m- W v . alm- _ en tIcfw ImWm
hcp Znh-k-a F-XmWv bmYmyw. CXn Bsnepw kwi-b-ap-s-n `mK-hXw AjvS-a-kvIw hmbnp
t\mpI.
F{X`\msWnepw \h\msWnepw kXyk
\sWnepw Almcw \X F alm_enbpsSIY
\ s f ] T n n p p. Al m c w s Im pm I p
AanXhnizmkm a\pjy\v ]e IjvS\jvSfpw hv
`hnpw.

51

]c-ip-cm-a
alm-hn-jvWp, {_m-hv,-`r-Kp, Nyh-\, -Du,- E-Nn-I,-Pa-Z-n, ]c-ip-cm-a Fn--s\-bmWv hwim-h-en. ]c-ip-cm-a almhn-jvWp-hns D{K-{]-`m-h-tmSp IqSnb Hcp a\p-jym-h-Xm-c-am-Wv.
Im-ho-cymp-\s A\p-hm-Z-tm-Sp-IqSn An-tZ-h
Xs cmPy-nse ImSp-Ifpw ae-Ifpw `n-p-sIm-n-cn-p-tm
B h\-n X]v sNbvXp-sIm-n-cp A]-h F -a-ljnbpsS B{i-ahpw In Nm-em-bn. Im-ho-cymp-\-\mWv
CXns Imc-W
- m-c Fv a\-n-em-nb ap\n alm-hnjvWp {_mW-hw-i-n ]ndv {Xn-b-cpsS Al-mcw \in-n-s Fv i]np. CX-\p-k-cnv alm-hnjvWp `m-h-hw-i-n Pa-Z-n- a-ljnbp-sSbpw tcWp-Ib
- p-sSbpw Am-as ]p{X-\mbn P\n-p.
Pew tiJ-cn-m t]mb tcWpI \Zn-bn kzme-cm-Pm-hmb
Nn{X-cY
- F b Xs `man-\n-tbm-Sp IqSn Pe-{IoU sNpXv Iv t\mn \np-t ]m-bn. AXn- \m ka-b-n\v Pew
sImphcphm tcWpIbvv Ignn. tcWpI a\v sImv
sXv sNbvXp Fv aljnv a\nembn. {Ip\mb Pa-Zn
aljn tcWp-Isb sImm thn ]p{X-m-tcmSv Bh-iy-s-p.
aq\mev ]p{X-mcpw amXr-l-Xy-v hnk--Xn-p. Atbbpw
ktlmZcmscbpw h[nphm aljn cmat\mSv Bhiysp.
14 hbv am{Xw {]mb-ap ]c-ip-cm-a As \nt-i-{]-Imcw
Asbbpw ktlmZcmscbpw h[n-p. ktm-j-hm-\mb ]nXmhv
Fv hcw thW-sa-nepw tNmZn-p-sIm-p-hm ]c-ip-cm-a-t\mSv ]dp. Atbbpw ktlmZcmscbpw ]p\o-hn-n--W-sapw
Ahv kw`hn acWsn Hm DmhcpsXpw ]c-ip-cma hcw tNmZn--X-\p-kc
- nv Pa-Zn tcWp-Itbbpw ]p{Xmscbpw
]p\Po-hn-n-p.
[\phnZy ]Tn-p-hm ]c-ip-cm-a inhs\ X]v sNbvXv
{]km-Zn-n-p. {io]-c-ta-iz-c-\n\n-pw- ]-cip F Bbp-[w e`n-Xn-\m-emWv ]c-ip-cm-a F t] Dm-b-Xv. ]c-ip-cm-a\v Znhym-bp[- sImSp-v inh A\p-{K-ln-p.

52

Hcn ]cipcma Xs Kpcp inhs\ ImWphm\mbn


ssIemkn sNp. ]cipcmas\ AIv {]thinnmsX
KW]Xn XSp. Ah Xnep bpn KW]XnbpsS
sImv HSnv ]cipcmas Inembn. HSn sImv \nev
shm Xe s]mnsdnpsav KW]Xn i]np. ]cipcma
sImv Hcp ]gn Hfnnv KW]Xnv sImSpp.As\ sImv
KW]XnbpsS Inembn. Gw CSptm am{Xw sImv `qanbn
shmsav ]cipcma im]s absSpn. As\bmWv
Gw CSo KW]Xnv {]nbambXv.
Z-bm-K-n Ip]n-X-\mb inh Xs {Xniqew bmK-ime-bn-tev Fdn-p. bmK-n\v kh-\miw hcp-nb tijw iqew
temIw Npn \Sv _Z-cym-{i-a-n Xma-kn-n-cp \c-\m-cm-b-Wm-cpsS t\sc Xncn-p. Ejn lpw Imc taevn--tXmsS iqew-Xncn-p. Xs iqes A]-am-\n-Xn {Ip\mb ]-c-ai
- n-h EjntbmSv Gp-apn. Ejn sXmSp ]pv Hcp ]c-ip-hmbn inh-t\mSv
Gp-ap-n. inh CXv cv JWvU-ambn apdn-p-I-f-p. HSp-hn
Ejn inhs\ kvXpXnv hW-n. Ap-ap-X ]c-ip-hns JWvU inhs ] Ah-ti-jn-p. Cu ]c-ip-hmWv inh ]c-ipcm-a\v km-\n--Xv. inh-\n \npw ]c-ip- e-`n--Xn-\m cma\v
]c-ip-cm-a F t]kn-n-p.
Hcn- Im-ho-cymp-\ \-Zm-\Zo Xoc-p-IqSn thbmSn Xfv oWnv Pa-Z
- n-bpsS B{i-a-n Fn. kpioe
F Ima-t[-\p-hns klm-b-m ap\n Ahv arjvSm-t- `m-P\w- \evIn k-cnv aS-n. cmPm-hn\v Znhy-bmb kpio-esb In-Wsav B{K-l-am-bn. ]ip-hns\ sImp-h-cp-hm cmPmhv a{n N{Kp-]vX-s\ -A-b-p. ]ip-hn-s\ -sIm-Sp-p-hm Pa-Zn hnk-X
- n-p.
N{-Kp-]vX _e-ambn ]ip-hns\ ]nSn-p-sImv t]mbn. Pa-Zn
Ahsc ]np-Sp. Ip]n-X\
- mb N{-Kp-]vX Pa-Z-nsb h-[n-p.
hnh-ca
- d- nv tcWp-Ibpw ]c-ip-cm-a\pw Fmw AhnsS Fn.
tcWpI 21 {]mhiyw s\--Snv Ic--Xn-\m 21 {]mhiyw
temIw Npn {Xn-bsc h[n-p-sa-v- ]-c-ip-cm-a i]Yw sNbvXp.
B kabw ip{I-ap\n bmZr-n-I-ambn AhnsS Fn. ip{Im-Nm-cy
arX-k-RvPo-h\n P]nv Pa-Z-nsb Pohn-n-p. kpio-ebpw InSm-hn-

53

s\ -Iq-SmsX hp tNp.
kpio-e-bpsS InSm-hns\ sImp-h-cp-hm thn ]-c-ip-cma\pw injy A{I-pX-{hW\pw IqSn aln-jvaXn \K-c-n-tev
t]mbn.-A-hnsS \S `b--c-bp--n Im-ho-cymp-\\pw
At\Iw ssk\y-fpw Nsm-Sp-n.- Ap\s ]Xn\mbncw
]p{Xm `bv HmSntmbn. In-Sm-hn-s\-bpw- sImv ]c-ip-cm-a
aSn Fn. At\Iw t]v Poh-\miw hcp-n-b-Xns ]m]w
Xop-hm ]nXm-hns D]-tZ-i-{]-Imcw ]-c-ip-cm-a atl-{-Kn-cnbn X]-n-\mbn t]mbn. Hcp hjw Ignv ]cipcma Xncnp
hp. I-ho-cymp-\s ]p{X iqc-tk-\ ]-c-ip-cm-a
Cm kabv A\p-bm-bn-I-tfm-sSmw hv Pa-Z-n-bp-sS- Xe
shn-smv t]mbn. AbpsS Icn tIv ]c-ip-cm-a\pw injyK-W-fpw aS-n-h-p.- P-a-Z-n-bpsS ih-i-cocw ktlmZcsf
Gev]nv cma {Xnb kwlmcn\mbn Xncnp.
]-ci
- p-cm-a 21 {]mhiyw `mc-Xw Npndn {Xn-bk
- w-lmcw
\S-n. alm-`m-c-Xb
- pw \S Ipcp-t{Xw ka--]--I-sa
t]cn ]-ci
- p-cm-a m]n-X
- m-Wv. 21 {]mhiyw ssP{X-bm{X \Sn h[n {Xn-b
- m-cpsS cw Fmw ka--]
- I
-
- n D
Av Ib--fn Bn-op. B c--b
- f
- n- ]-ci
- p-cm-a
]nXr-v \nWw sImv XWw \S-n. ]nXr- kp-jvScmbn {]Xy-s
- v Fv hcw thW-sa-nepw tNmZn-p-sIm-p-hm
]d-p. {Xn-bsc sImp-Sp-nb ]m]w ]cn-l-cn-p-Ibpw AvIb--fntebpw cw Xo-am-bn-o-cW
- s
- apw ]c-ip-cm-a At]n-p. A-s\-bm-Is Fv ]nXr- A\p-{K-ln-p. Ap-ap-X
ka--]-Iw F t]cn Hcp ]pWy-`q-an-bm-bn-op.
]-c-ip-cm-a {Xn-b-kw-lmcw \S-n-b-Xns ]m]w Xocp-hm\mbn {_m-W-scsbmw ka--]--I-n hnfn-p-h-cp-n Iiy]s t\Xr-Xz-n Hcp bmKw \Sn. Xs ]nXmhns Xe DSen
tNv shv b tZhXbpsS A\p{Klm ]nXmhns\
k]vXjnIfn Hcmfmn. ]-c-ip-cm-a Aphsc ]nSn--S-nb
`qan Fmw Iiy-]\pw {_mWpw Zm\w sNbvXp. kz-ti-Jc-samw {_m-Wv Zm\w sNbvXp. Zm\w sImSp `qan-bn hknpXv icn-b-m--Xn-\m Iiy-]s D]-tZ-i-{]-Imcw sXvk-ap-

54

{Z-Xo-cv hv kap-{Z-tmSv ew bmNn-p. hcp-W \nt-in-X-\p-k-cnv kap-{Z-n-tev Hcp iqw (ap-dw) Fdn-p. As\
IS-en-dn Ic ImW-s e-amWv iqm-cIw AYhm tIc-fw.
Cu e-hpw -{_m--Wv Zm\w sNbvX-tijw ]c-ip-cm-a atl{-Kn-cn-bn t]mbn X]v Bcw-`n-p. ]-c-ip-cm-a agp-sh-dn-mWv
kap{Z-n \npw tIcfw Dbn FSp-Xv Fpw IY-bp-v.
hma\mhXmcn\v tijamWv ]cip cmamhXmcw \SXv .
AXn\m alm_enbpsS Imev tIcfw DsSbp
]cipcmat{Xw Dmbncpn. AXn\m alm_en tIcfw
`cnp Fv tIcfn {]Nmcap IY shdpw Ihn `mh\
am{XamWv.
{iocma inhs hnv Ipev koXm-kz-bw-hcw \Sn aSp-tm ]-ci
- p-cm-a\pambn Gp-ap-n. sshjvWh
- N
- m]w Ipev insX-fn-bn-p-hm ]c-ip-cm-a {iocm-as\ shp-hn-fn-p. {iocm-as
in-Iv ktm-jnv ]-c-ip-cm-a {iocmas\ A\p-{K-lnv aS-ntm-bn. ]-c-ip-cm-a Xs ssZh -Ie {iocm-a\v ssIamdn Fpw
]d-bp-p-v.
{ioIr-jvW-\p-ambpw ]-c-ip-cm-a cv XhW Ip-ap-n-bn-pv. Hcn- {ioIr-jvW\pw _e-cm-a\pw tKma-]
- -X
- n X]v
sNbvXvsIm-n-cn-p ]-c-ip-cm-as\I-p-ap-n. ]h-X-ns Xmgvhc-bn D Ic-hocw F cmPys kpKm-e-hm-kp-tZ-h-s\- h-[n-W-sav ]-c-ip-cm-a {ioIr-jvW-t\mSv \nt-in-p. Iuc-h-k-Z-ntev ZqXv t]mIp-tm {ioIr-jvW ]-c-ip-cm-as\ Ip-ap-n.
{ioIr-jvWs\ Benw-K\w sNbvXv Imcy- kXy-am-bn-s ]db-W-sav D]-tZ-in-p. ZqXv ka-bv ]c-ip-cm-a\pw kZ-n -D-mbn-cpp.
t{ZmWm-Nm-cysbpw I-sbpw Kpcp ]-ci
- p-cm-a\mbn-cp-p.
]-c-ip-cm-a {_m-W-c-m--hsc injy-m-cmbn FSp-n-cp-n-.
AXn-\m I Bf-dn-bn-msX {_m-Ws thj-n-emWv ]c-ip-cm--Ws\ kao-]n--Xv. ]-c-ip-cm-a Is Im]Syw Ahkm\w
Xncndnp. -]Tn hnZy Bhiyw hcp-tm ad-p-t]m-Is Fv
]c-ip-cm-a Is\ i]np.

55

cmambWw
ZicYcmPmhv aqv hnhmlw Ignsnepw ]p{Xm
Dmbn. ]p{XImtajvSn bmKw Ignv \mev ]p{Xm Dmbn.
{iocma, `cX, eva, i{XpLv\ FnhcmWv ]p{Xm.
Ch \mev t]cpw hfsc kvt\ltmSpIqSn sFIyaXztmSpw
IqSn hfp hp. hknjvTs KpcpIpen t]mbn Ch hnZy
A`yknp. P\IalmcmPmhns hfp ]p{Xn koXsb inhs
hnp Ipev {iocma hnhmlw sNbvXp.
{iocmas\ bphcmPmhmbn A`ntjIw sNphm ZicY
Xocpam\np. Hcn Hcp bpn ZicYs ]Xv\nbpw `cXs
amXmhpamb ssItIIn ZicYs cYw HSnpt]mImsX cnp.
AXn\p {]Xyp]Imcambn cv hc Fp thWsanepw
tNmZnphm ZicY ssItIIntbmSv ]dncpp.
acbpsS Zpcp]tZiw sImv ssItIInbpsS a\v
Iepjambn. {iocma\v ]Icw `cXs\ cmPmhmbn hmgnWsapw
{iocmas\ ]Xn\mev hjw h\hmkn\v AbWsapw
ssItIIn Bhiysp. Cu Bhiyw tIbpSs\ Xs
ZicYalmcmPmhv t_m[clnX\mbn hoWp. {iocma
hnhcadnp. As kXyw ]mentXv aIs ISabmsWv
{iocma ]dp. AXn\m Fmw Dt]nv koXtbmSpw
evaWt\mSpw IqSn {iocma h\ntev t]mbn.
{iocmahnclm a\ws\mv ZicY acWaSp.
`cX aSn htm hnhc Fmw Adnp.
ZpjvSbmb Xs Asb A[nt]np. {iocmas\
Iqnsmphcphm h\ntev t]mbn. Fmhcpw IqSn
As ]nXrI sNbvXp. {iocmas \n_{]Imcw
`cX aSnt]mIm kXnp. {iocmas ]mZpIshv
{iocmas {]Xn\n[nbmbn 14 hjw kw\ymkPohnXw FSpv
sImmcn {]thinmsX `cWw \Smsav `cX\v
kXntn hp. 14 hjw XnIbptm {iocma aSn

56

hnmsbn Xm An{]thiw sNbvXv acnpsapw `cX


Adnbnp.
Cu 14 hjn ]Xns\mc hjhpw {iocma
XmaknncpXv Nn{XIqSv F {]tZimWv. AhnsS \nv
]hSn (\mknIv) bnsen. AhnsS shv cmhWs ktlmZcn
]qX\ hnhmlm`y\bpambn cmat\bpw ev a Wt\bpw
kao]np. ]qX\ A{Iamkbmbtm evaW AhfpsS
aqpw apebpw tOZnv ]dbp.
]qX\ hv Xs ktlmZc cmhWt\mSv hnhc
]dp. kpcnbmb koXsb A]lcnWsapw ]dp.
cmhW Xs _phmb acoNs\ Hcp kzam\ns
thjn ]dbp. koXbv v kzams\ thWsav
]dtm evaWs\ Imh \nnbnv {iocma am\ns\
]nSnm t]mbn. {iocmas ApsImv am acnp hogptm
evaWm koXm Fv {iocmas i_vZn amcoN
hne]np.koXbpsS \n_{]Imcw evaW\v hnem]w tI
etv t]mtIn hp. Cu kabw cmhW hv koXsb
A]lcnv Xs hnam\n Ibn ebntev sImpt]mbn.
hgnbn PSmbp F ]nhv cmhWs\ XSp.
cmhW PSmbphns NndIpI apdnp. NndI ]n `qanbn
]Xnp. cmaevaWm koXsb At\zjnv bm{Xbmbn. hgnbn
PSmbphns\ Ip. PSmbp hnhcsamw cmaevaWmtcmSv
]dXn\v tijw acWaSp. PSmbphns kwkv mcw
\SnbXn\v tijw cmaev a Wm _mepkv { KohmcpsS
cmPysn, l\pams\ Ipapn. l\pams \nti{]Imcw
kqcy]p{X\mb kp{Koh\pambnknsNbv X p. kp{Kohs
ktlmZc _mensb h[nv cmPyw kp{Koh\v XncnsI \evIpw.
kp{Koh\pw Xs A[o\IXbnep hm\cSbpw cmhWs\
h[nv koXsb hosSpphm {iocmas\ klmbnpw.
kp{Koh _mensb t]mcn\p hnfnp. kp{Koh\pw _menbpw

57

Xn `bcbpw \Sp. Atm {iocma adncpv


_mensb h[np.

_menh[w
`Khms AhXmcamb {iocma_mensb h[nv _menv
kmbqPyw sImSpp. P\nm acWw FXv DdmWv.bpw
sNptm BtcmSv bpw sNpthm AbmfpsS ]IpXn _ew
IqSn _menv e`npsaXn\m _mensb Bpw bpn
h[nphm IgnbpIbn. cmhWs\ t]mepw _men Xs hmen
Npcpn Ggv kap{Zw NmSn XWw \Sn. Ahkm\w Hpw
AdnbmXp t]mse cmhWs\ _\n \npw ap\mn.
_men hnNmcnm cmhWs\ _\\mn {iocma\v
apn kanm km[npambncpp. _men {iocma
`\pambncpp.As\bp _menbpambn kJyw DmmsX
_menbpsS ktlmZc kp{Koh\pambn kJyw sNbvXv {io cma
Hfnp\nv _mensb Fn\mWv h[nXv. {iocma
kzmnbmbncpsn _mentbmSv kJyapmn koXsb
hosSppambncpnt?
`Khm
{iocma\mbn
AhXcnXv
[w
kwcnphm\mbmWv. _men Nne sXnmcWIfpsS ^eambn
Xs ktlmZc kp{Kohs\ \njvImk\w sNbvXp. AXn\v tijw
ktlmZc Pohnncnptm Xs ktlmZc `mcysb kzw
`mcybmn kzoIcnp F A[w _men {]hnp.
AXn\memWv {iocma _mensb h[nXv.
Xs `\mbncpXn\m `Khms ssIIfm
h[nsXn\m _menv kmbqPyw e`np. PbhnPbmcpsS
Pamb cmhWIpw`Im `Khms ssIIfm h[nsv
im]tamw IntXpw Cuizc\nbamWv. CXv \SWsan
kp{Koh\pambp kJyw A\nhmcyambncpp. adnmbncpp
Fn sXpImcmb _mentbbpw cmhWt\bpw Fs\

58

innm Ignbpw.
Cuizc`\msWnepw sXmb Iw sNbvXm AXns
in A\p`hntnhcpw F KpW]mTw _menbpsS IYbn
\npw hyamIpp.
_mensb h[nXn\v tijw l\pam kap{Zw NmSnSv
ebn Fn koXmtZhnsb Iv ap{ZtamXncw sImSpv
{iocma cmhWs\ sImv koXmtZhnsb cnphm hcp
hnhcw Adnbnp. emZl\w \SnbXn\p tijw l\pam aSn
{iocmas ASpsen.
cmhWs aqeytfmSpw NnmKXnItfmSpw Atlns
ktlmZc hn`ojW tbmPnn. {iocmat\mSv a]dv
koXmtZhnsb hnpsImSpphm hn`ojW D]tZinp. AXpw
cmhW sNhnsmn. Ahkm\w hn`ojW cmhWs\
Dt]nv {iocmas ]w tNp. Hcn bpn
ev a W\v amcIamb apdnthtm l\pam lnameb
km\pfntev t]mbn. arXkRvPoh\n acpv Xncndnbm
hmXn\m ]XtmsS ASn FSpv l\pam
bpetv sImphv evaWs\ Pohnnp. Ahkm\w
{iocma Ipw`It\bpw cmhWt\bpw h[nv k oXsb
hosSpp.
koX An{]thiw sNbvXv Xs ipn shfnsSpn. 14
hjw XnIbp Znhkw Xs Ah Fmhcpw Atbmybn
aSn Fn. {iocma cmPy`cWw GsSpp.
{iocma Hcp acymZ ]pcpj BWv. sXmb Imcy
{iocma {]hnncpn. almmKmnv Ghpw CjvSs
Bcm[\m aqn {iocma\mWv. cmacmPyw t]msebp
cmPy`cWamWv KmnPn hn`mh\w sNbvXncpXv. AXns Aw
cmPmhns `cWw P\tan\pthnbpXmbncnWw
FmWv. cmPmhns PohnXhpw P\v amXrIbmbncnWw

59

Fv {iocma Xs PohnXn IqsS ]Tnnp. kzw


kpJkuIcy, A[nImcw, {]Xm]w Fnhbnsempw
{iocma\v bmsXmcp Xmev]cyhpw Dmbncpn. As kXyw
]menphm thn Fmw XyPnv 14 sImw h\hmkn\v
t]mbn. `cX \n_nnv t]mepw aSnhn. CXns
ImcWmcnbmb ssItIIntbmSv \ocktam tZzjtam Dmbnn.
An ]co \SnbXn\v tijw kzoIcn koXmtZhnsb
P\v amXrIbmbncnm thn{iocma Dt]np.
HcepImc koXmtZhnsbn A]hmZw ]dXn\memWv
Cs\ sNtnhXv. Cu ths]Sa\psImmbncpn.
koX \nc]cm[nbmsWv cma\v Ddpmbncpp. Fm B
hnizmkw P\sf t_m[nnphm amanmsX htm
P\v amXrIbmbncnphm thn koXsb hmevaoIn
aljnbpsS B{ian sImpsNmn.
B Imev cmPmmv _lp`mcymXzw A\phZ\ob
ambncpp. Fnepw {iocma cmaXpw hnhmlw Ignn.
GI`mcym {hXtmSpIqSn Xs Pohnp. Aizta[bmKw
\Snbtmgpw ]Xv\nbpsS m\v koXmtZhnbpsS kzw
sImp {]XnabmWv shncpXv.

60

tKm]kv{Xo hkv{Xm]lcWw
[\pamkn ]uWan Znhkw Ahkm\nhn[w
Hcp amks ImXymb\n hrXw tKm]kv{XoI XpSn. Ah
shfpns\ Fgptv Imfnn \Znbn Ipfnv AXnse
asSpv I mXymb\n _nw_apmn ]pjv ] sImv
Aecnv ]qPnv Is\ XfpsS `mhmbn e`nWsav
{]mnpp. Cu ]uWan Znhkw anhmdpw XncphmXnc
\{XnemWv hcmdpXv. [\pamknse XncphmXnchrXw
Fpw CXns\ ]dbpp.
F v h b n X m s g a m { X w { ] m b a p I s
Zmkamcmbnocm `mKyw Xv DmIWta FmWv
Ah {]mnXv.
Hcp Znhkw cmhnse ]qPsbmw Ignv tKm]kv{XoI
hkv{Xsamw Agnv Icbnshv ]q\cmbn Imfnnbn
Cdn ]mp]mSn XpSnv Ipfnphm XpSn. Fp hbn
Xmsg am{Xw {]mbap I Atm AhnsS Fn. Chcdn
bmsX I AhcpsS hkv { X FSpv kao]p
ISphrns sImpIfn sInbnp. A\cw B
acn Ccpv apcfn hmbnphm XpSn.
apcfoKm\w tIv I\yII Icbntev t\mn. XfpsS
hkv { X FSpv ISpacns sImn sInqn
bncnpXmbn Ip. C\n Fs\bmWv \Znbn \npw
IbdpI. hkv{Xw Xcphm\ mbn Ah It\m Sv sIn
At]np. Is ZmknamcmIWsav B{KlnmWvR
]qP \SnbXv. GsXnepw Pn Is\ `mhmbn
I n Ws a v B { K l n v ] q P \ S n b R v C u
A\p`hamWtm InnbXv.
\n Fs ZmknamcmsWn Rm ]dbpXv \n
tIWw. \n Hmtcmcpcmbn Icbn Ibdn ChnsS hv

61

AhchcpsS hkv{Xw hmnsImp s]mbvsmphm I


]dp. DSpXpWnbnmsX ]nd]msS \n Fs\ \np
Ipfnp. ]nd ]mtS \np Ipfnm \nv \mWw
tXmnbnt? As\ sNpXv ]m]amsWv AdnbpIbnt.
tKm]I\yIam IjvSnembn. Ipdp Ignm
IqSpX BfpI Fpw. Atm IqSpX hjfmIpw.Cs\
hnNmcnv Ah Hcp ssIsImv Kply{]tZiw adv ]nSnv
Icbvv Ibdn hkv{Xw bmNnp.
]pWy\Znbmb Imfnnbn \cmbn Cdnpfnv
Pe{IoUI sNbv XXv ]m]Icamb {]hnbmWv. Imfnn
kqcys ]p{XnbmbXn\m BZnXyim]hpw DmIpw. AXn\m
\n Fmhcpw cv ssIIfpw incn shv sXmgpXp
s Im v s N bv X sX n\ v am v Xc Ws a v I mf n n tb mS v
At]nWw.
I ]dXp t]mse Ah A\pkcnp. tZlm`nam\w
shSnv Imfnnsb hnp. Xs apn `ntbmsS
\ n p I \ y I I f n I \ v I m c p Wy w h n p .
ktmj]qw AhcpsS hkv{X XncnsI sImSpp.
tKm]nIamv I AhcpsS hkv{Xw A]lcnnpw
]c nl kn n pw e nX cm nb n pw `K hmt \m Sv ]c n` hw
tXmn bn. Ah hkv{X [ cnv `Khms \ Xs
t \ m n s m v B \ `c n X c m bn A h n sS s \n p .
k\mb `Khm Xs {io]mZtkh e`nm\mbn
hrXa\pjvTn tKm]nIamtcmSv Cs\ AcpfnsbvXp. \nfpsS
kev]w Rm\dnbpp. Rm\mkev] w kXyambn
`hn npXm Wv. F n A n a\ v hdp hnv
apfbvmXpt]mse hnjbfntev t]mhpIbn. \n
Fv Dtinv hrX\pjvTnpthm AXns ^e{]m]vXnmbn
FtmSpIqSn N{nI \nd cm{XnIfn \nv canm
km[npXmWv. Ctm {hPntev t]mIphn.

62

Imfno \Zn AYhm bap\m\Zn KwKbpsS t]mjI


\ZnbmWv. KwKbntem ]pWy\ZnIfntem sNm ]mSnm
Imcyfn HmWv \cmbn kv \ m\w sNpI FXv .
]pcpjmtc m kv{XoItfm Bcpw Xs KwKbn
DSpXpWnbnmsX \ambn kv \m\w sNm ]mSn FmWv
km[mcW\nbaw. ASp ]qnb IpfnapdnbnemsX s]mXpe
smpw ]pcpjm t]mepw \cmbn kv\m\w sNm ]mSn.

63

cmk{IoU
{]khnv ]v hbp XnIbpXn\v app apX
Irjv W ImWnp sImncp A`pXeoemhnemk
IpIv tKm]nIamv B iniphn `ntbmSpIqSnb Hcp
kvt\l hmkeyw Zn\w{]Xn hnphp. DnIrjvWs
km ao]y w A h kZm B{K ln p. I rjv Ws\ ImWm
t]mIpXn\v ]pcpjmpw Bt]w Dmbncpn.
A X n a m \ p j X z w D Hc p _ m e \ m Wv I r j v W F v
tKm]mpw t_myw hp Ignncpp.
N{nImNnXamb Hcp kpccm{XnbpsS BZybmaw.
bap\m\ZoXocncpv `Khm HmSpg hmbnp. Imw
Ccpns\ BIjnpXpt]mse HmSpg \mZw tIv Fm
tKm]I\yIamcpw HmSnsbn. tKm]kv{XoIfpw `mhnt\bpw
IpnItfbpw Dt]nv bap\mXoctv HmSnsbn. ChcpsS
hchv Imamknbn \npw DmbX. Ggphbv {]mbap
_me\pambn IfnpknpXn Fv irwKmcw Bsv
kwibw.
BZyambn Ah hmZytaftfmSp IqSn kwKoXmem]\w
\Sn. AXn\v tijw Ah Fmhcpw hn Npn \nv
\rw sNbvXp. F{X tKm]nIamcptm A{Xbpw IrjvW\p
apmbn. HmtcmcpcpsS IqsSbpw Hmtcm IrjvW \rw
s N p p . t K m ] n I a m v a p I r j v Ws \ I m Wm
IgnbpIbn. AXn\m Hmtcmcpcpw AhcpsS IqsS am{Xw
IrjvW \rw sNbvXp FmWv [cnXv. ]ckv]cw
Npw_npw Btjnpw ssII tImv Xncnpadnv
BSnfnbpw Xmfns\mv InnWnI apgnbpw Ah
\rw sNbvXp.
cm k{ Io U Ig nv F mh cp w ba p\ bn Ip fn v
tZlipn hcpnbpw Pe{IoU \Sn. N{ Akv X an
pXn\v apmbn Fmhcpw AhchcpsS `h\fntev
Xncnpt]mbn.

64

AXn\v tijw ]e cm{XnIfnepw \ \nemhv sXfnbptm


tKm]nIfpsS Bhiy{]Imcw `Khm Ahscmnv ]e
h n t \ m Z f p w B S n b n p v . F m A h s b m p w
aZ\eoeIfmbncpn. Xs {]mbns\m eoeI BSn
Ah sm w B\ hpw ` nbp w `Kh m h nn p.
Hmtcmcppw AhchcpsS Bhiy{]Imcap B{Kl
k m [ n n p s I m S p p . N n e v Z i \ k p J w N n e v
kv]i\kpJhpw Zi\kpJhpw . Fm IrjvW AXn
\ n p w h n ` n \ m b n B m c m a \ m b n a m dn \ n n c p p .
cmk{IoUbvv tijw hrmh\nse tKm]nIam IqSpX
IrjvW`nbphcmbn Xop.
tKm]kv{XoIfpsS `mmv Ah AhcpsS
kao]p Xs DmbncpXmbmWv A\p`hsXv . F{X
tKm]nIam Dtm A{Xbpw IrjvWmcpw Dmbn. CsXmw
IrjvWs alXzs ImWnpp.

65

\cImkpch[w
almhnjvWp hcmlambn AhXcnv lncWym Hfnnv
shncp`qansb kap{Zn \npw Dcnv ]qh
nXnbnemn. CXns\ FXn lncWyms\ hcmlw Xs
N{Iw sImv h[np. hcmlns tXmI `qanbn IqSn
Cdnbtm `qantZhn hnImcXcfnXbmbn. Cu kabw
hcmlns hnbv `qantZhnbn hoWv ]nd ]p{X\mWv
\cImkpc.aXmhmb `qantZhnbpsS kXtmSp IqSn am{Xta
\cImkpc\v acWapmIpIbpq Fv almhnjvWp
A\p{Klnp. am{Xa. hnjvW p \cI\v \mcmbWmkv{Xhpw
sImSpp. \mcmbWmkv { Xw In DnStmfw Imew
hnjvWphn\msX ampw \cImkpcs\ h[nm IgnbpIbn
Fv almhnjvWp A\p{Klnp. lcWyms kv]i\m
`qantZhn Aipambncp kabv P\n]p{X\mbXn\m Ch
Hckpc\mbn Xocpw Fpw almhnjvWp Adnbnp.
{ioIrjvWs ]Xv \ nbmb kXy`ma `qantZhnbpsS
AwimhXmcamWv. AXn\memWv \cImkpch[n\p thn
kXy`masb IqSn Iqnsmp t]mbXv. \cImkpc\v Znhyamb
\mcmbWmkv{Xw DffXn\m hnjvWphn\msX Bpw \cIs\
h[nphm km[npIbn.
\cIs A{Iahpw A\oXIfpw hnphp.
cmPmmtcmSv bpw sNbvXv 16100 cmPI\yIamsc A]lcnv
XShdbn ASp. \cImkpcs B{Iasfn tZth{
almhnjvWphnt\mSv ]cmXnsp. \cI hcpW O{Xs
A]lcnp.tZhamXmhmb AZnXnbpsS Ipesf Ic amn.
almtacphn C{m\amb aWn]hXs ssISn.
\cI\pambn t\cnSm {ioIrjvW kXy`mabpsamv
KcpUs ]pdv Ibdn {]mIvtPymXn]pctv bm{Xbmbn.
\cI]pcv hfscb[nIw ZpLSfpv . \mev `mKpw
]hX, iqew Xd haXnepI, Anbmepw Npgen

66

Imn\mepw Pemepw Nps InSpI, Fnh bpmbncpp.


Bpw AhnsS {]thinm IgnbpIbn. AXn\memWv
`Khm KcpUs ]pdv bm{XbmbXv.
`Khm ZpLSsfbpw tImtbbpw InSpIsfbpw
\innXn\v tijw iwJv \mZw apgn. imJ\mZw tIv
InSnep shn hknp ApXebpv apcmkpc
Bbp[sfSpv `Khms\ t\cnp. `Khm apcmkpcs
incpIsf N{Imbp[w sImv apdnpamn. `Khms t\sc
]mph apcmkpcs Ggv ]p{Xmtcbpw `Khm h[np.
Cu kabw \cImkpc ssk\yktaXw `Khmt\mSv t\cnp.
\cImkpc P\nDSs\ Xs Hcp \cs\ Poht\msS
hngpnsbXn\memWv \cImkpc F t]cv knnXv .
\cImkpcs Bbp[w Gv KcpU\pw `Khm\pw ]cnpI ]n.
B kabw kXy`ma bpw GsSpp kv{XoItfmSv bpn\n
Fv ]dv \cI Znhymkv{Xw Dt]np. B kabw `Khm
Xs kpZi\N{Iap]tbmKnv \cImkps\ h[np.
Cu kabw \cIs amXmhv `qantZhn Xs ]u{X
`KZ\pambn AhnsS Fn. cXv\Ipetfbpw h\ame
tbbpw hcpWs O{Xtbpw aWn]Xtbpw `Khms
Im kanp. `KZs\ A\p{KlnWsav At]np.
`Khm `KZs\ A\p{Klnv A`bw \In. \cI av
cmPmmcpsS ] \npw ]nSnsSp kpfpw \mev
sImp 64 B\Itfbpw ZzmcIbntev Abp. \cIs
_\n \npw 16100 cmPI\yIamsc tamNnnp.
_\n Bbncp Ahsc IpSpw_m kzoIcnn.
Hcm{ibanmsX Ahsc kaqlntev hnSm\pw km[npIbn.
Hcp ]t AhBlXy sNbvsXncnpw. Cu
A\njvSkw`h Hgnhmm `Khm AhcpsS
{]m\{]Imcw `mcym]Zhn sImSpv kwcnmsav
kXnp. `Khms Cu ImcpWyw Iv Ah ktmjnp.

67

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