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: Sel sebagai unit asas kehidupan .


: Menghuraikan mengapa manusia

adalah organisma yang kompleks .
: Pencemaran udara

Subtopik : 5.5 : Menghasilkan kesan

pencemaran udara
Hasil pentaksiran :
B6D5 : Memerihalkan tentang pencemaran
B6D5E1 : Membuat pembentangan dalam
pelbagai bentuk mengenai :
1. Pencemaran udara
2. Contoh bahan cemar dan
3. Kesan pencemaran udara
4. Langkah langkah menghalang dan
mengawal pencemaran udara .
5. Cara cara mengekalkan supaya
udara sentiasa bersih .
6. Mempraktikan amalan yang
mengekalkan udara yang bersih .

Why humans are complex organism ?

The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped
into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can
best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve: deriving
energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and
The continual need for energy engages the senses and skeletal muscles in
obtaining food, the digestive system in breaking food down into usable
compounds and in disposing of undigested food materials, the lungs in
providing oxygen for combustion of food and discharging the carbon
dioxide produced, the urinary system for disposing of other dissolved waste

products of cell activity, the skin and lungs for getting rid of excess heat
(into which most of the energy in food eventually degrades), and the
circulatory system for moving all these substances to or from cells where
they are needed or produced.
Like all organisms, humans have the means of protecting themselves. Selfprotection involves using the senses in detecting danger, the hormone
system in stimulating the heart and gaining access to emergency energy
supplies, and the muscles in escape or defense. The skin provides a shield
against harmful substances and organisms, such as bacteria and parasites.
The immune system provides protection against the substances that do
gain entrance into the body and against cancerous cells that develop
spontaneously in the body. The nervous system plays an especially
important role in survival; it makes possible the kind of learning humans
need to cope with changes in their environment.
The internal control required for managing and coordinating these complex
systems is carried out by the brain and nervous system in conjunction with
the hormone-excreting glands. The electrical and chemical signals carried
by nerves and hormones integrate the body as a whole. The many crossinfluences between the hormones and nerves give rise to a system of
coordinated cycles in almost all body functions. Nerves can excite some
glands to excrete hormones, some hormones affect brain cells, the brain
itself releases hormones that affect human behavior, and hormones are
involved in transmitting signals between nerve cells. Certain drugslegal
and illegalcan affect the human body and brain by mimicking or blocking
the hormones and neurotransmitters produced by the hormonal and
nervous systems.
Reproduction ensures continuation of the species. The sexual urge is
biologically driven, but how that drive is manifested among humans is
determined by psychological and cultural factors. Sense organs and
hormones are involved, as well as the internal and external sex organs
themselves. The fact that sexual reproduction produces a greater genetic
variation by mixing the genes of the parents plays a key role in evolution.

Among living organisms, much behavior is innate in the sense that any
member of a species will predictably show certain behavior without having
had any particular experiences that led up to it (for example, a toad

catching a fly that moves into its visual field). Some of this innate potential
for behavior, however, requires that the individual develop in a fairly normal
environment of stimuli and experience. In humans, for example, speech will
develop in an infant without any special training if the infant can hear and
imitate speech in its environment.
The more complex the brain of a species, the more flexible its behavioral
repertory is. Differences in the behavior of individuals arise partly from
inherited predispositions and partly from differences in their experiences.
There is continuing scientific study of the relative roles of inheritance and
learning, but it is already clear that behavior results from the interaction of
those roles, not just a simple sum of the two. The apparently unique human
ability to transmit ideas and practices from one generation to the next, and
to invent new ones, has resulted in the virtually unlimited variations in ideas
and behavior that are associated with different cultures.
Learning muscle skills occurs mostly through practice. If a person uses the
same muscles again and again in much the same way (throwing a ball), the
pattern of movement may become automatic and no longer require any
conscious attention. The level of skill eventually attained depends on an
individual's innate abilities, on the amount of practice, and on the feedback
of information and reward. With enough practice, long sequences of
behaviors can become virtually automatic (driving a car along a familiar
route, for instance). In this case, a person does not have to concentrate on
the details of coordinating sight and muscle movements and can also
engage in, say, conversation at the same time. In an emergency, full
attention can rapidly be focused back on the unusual demands of the task.
Learning usually begins with the sensory systems through which people
receive information about their bodies and the physical and social world
around them. The way each person perceives or experiences this
information depends not only on the stimulus itself but also on the physical
context in which the stimulus occurs and on numerous physical,
psychological, and social factors in the beholder. The senses do not give
people a mirror image of the world but respond selectively to a certain
range of stimuli. (The eye, for example, is sensitive to only a small fraction
of the electromagnetic spectrum.) Furthermore, the senses selectively filter
and code information, giving some stimuli more importance, as when a
sleeping parent hears a crying baby, and others less importance, as when
a person adapts to and no longer notices an unpleasant odor. Experiences,
expectations, motivations, and emotional levels can all affect perceptions.

Much of learning appears to occur by association: If two inputs arrive at the

brain at approximately the same time, they are likely to become linked in
memory, and one perception will lead to an expectation of the other.
Actions as well as perceptions can be associated. At the simplest possible
level, behavior that is accompanied or followed by pleasant sensations is
likely to occur again, whereas behavior followed by unpleasant sensations
is less likely to occur again. Behavior that has pleasant or unpleasant
consequences only under special conditions will become more or less likely
when those special conditions occur. The strength of learning usually
depends on how close the inputs are matched in time and on how often
they occur together. However, there can be some subtle effects. For
example, a single, highly unpleasant event following a particular behavior
may result in the behavior being avoided ever after. On the other hand,
rewarding a particular behavior even only every now and then may result in
very persistent behavior.
But much of learning is not so mechanical. People tend to learn much from
deliberate imitation of others. Nor is all learning merely adding new
information or behaviors. Associations are learned not only among
perceptions and actions but also among abstract representations of them in
memorythat is, among ideas. Human thinking involves the interaction of
ideas, and ideas about ideas, and thus can produce many associations
internally without further sensory input.
People's ideas can affect learning by changing how they interpret new
perceptions and ideas: People are inclined to respond to, or seek,
information that supports the ideas they already have and on the other
hand to overlook or ignore information that is inconsistent with the ideas. If
the conflicting information is not overlooked or ignored, it may provoke a
reorganization of thinking that makes sense of the new information, as well
as of all previous information. Successive reorganizations of one part or
another of people's ideas usually result from being confronted by new
information or circumstances. Such reorganization is essential to the
process of human maturation and can continue throughout life.

To stay in good operating condition, the human body requires a variety of
foods and experiences. The amount of food energy (calories) a person
requires varies with body size, age, sex, activity level, and metabolic rate.
Beyond just energy, normal body operation requires substances to add to

or replace the materials of which it is made: unsaturated fats, trace

amounts of a dozen elements whose atoms play key roles, and some
traces of substances that human cells cannot synthesizeincluding some
amino acids and vitamins. The normal condition of most body systems
requires that they perform their adaptive function: For example, muscles
must effect movement, bones must bear loads, and the heart must pump
blood efficiently. Regular exercise, therefore, is important for maintaining a
healthy heart/ lung system, for maintaining muscle tone, and for keeping
bones from becoming brittle.
Good health also depends on the avoidance of excessive exposure to
substances that interfere with the body's operation. Chief among those that
each individual can control are tobacco (implicated in lung cancer,
emphysema, and heart disease), addictive drugs (implicated in psychic
disorientation and nervous-system disorders), and excessive amounts of
alcohol (which has negative effects on the liver, brain, and heart). In
addition, the environment may contain dangerous levels of substances
(such as lead, some pesticides, and radioactive isotopes) that can be
harmful to humans. Therefore, the good health of individuals also depends
on people's collective effort to monitor the air, soil, and water and to take
steps to keep them safe.
Other organisms also can interfere with the human body's normal
operation. Some kinds of bacteria or fungi may infect the body to form
colonies in preferred organs or tissues. Viruses invade healthy cells and
cause them to synthesize more viruses, usually killing those cells in the
process. Infectious disease also may be caused by animal parasites, which
may take up residence in the intestines, bloodstream, or tissues.
The body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep
them from entering or settling in the body. Protective mechanisms include
skin to block them, tears and saliva to carry them out, and stomach and
vaginal secretions to kill them. Related means of protecting against
invasive organisms include keeping the skin clean, eating properly,
avoiding contaminated foods and liquids, and generally avoiding needless
exposure to disease.
The body's next line of defense is the immune system. White blood cells
act both to surround invaders and to produce specific antibodies that will
attack them (or facilitate attack by other white cells). If the individual
survives the invasion, some of these antibodies remainalong with the
capability of quickly producing many more. For years afterward, or even a
lifetime, the immune system will be ready for that type of organism and be

able to limit or prevent the disease. A person can "catch a cold" many times
because there are many varieties of germs that cause similar symptoms.
Allergic reactions are caused by unusually strong immune responses to
some environmental substances, such as those found in pollen, on animal
hair, or in certain foods. Sometimes the human immune system can
malfunction and attack even healthy cells. Some viral diseases, such as
AIDS, destroy critical cells of the immune system, leaving the body helpless
in dealing with multiple infectious agents and cancerous cells.
Infectious diseases are not the only threat to human health, however. Body
parts or systems may develop impaired function for entirely internal
reasons. Some faulty operations of body processes are known to be
caused by deviant genes. They may have a direct, obvious effect, such as
causing easy bleeding, or they may only increase the body's susceptibility
to developing particular diseases, such as clogged arteries or mental
depression. Such genes may be inherited, or they may result from mutation
in one cell or a few cells during an individual's own development. Because
one properly functioning gene of a pair may be sufficient to perform the
gene's function, many genetic diseases do not appear unless a faulty form
of the gene is inherited from both parents (who, for the same reason, may
have had no symptoms of the disease themselves).
The fact that most people now live in physical and social settings that are
very different from those to which human physiology was adapted long ago
is a factor in determining the health of the population in general. One
modern "abnormality" in industrialized countries is diet, which once
included chiefly raw plant and animal materials but now includes excess
amounts of refined sugar, saturated fat, and salt, as well as caffeine,
alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs. Lack of exercise is another change from
the much more active life-style of prehistory. There are also environmental
pollutants and the psychological stress of living in a crowded, hectic, and
rapidly changing social environment. On the other hand, new medical
techniques, efficient health care delivery systems, improved sanitation, and
a fuller public understanding of the nature of disease give today's humans
a better chance of staying healthy than their forebears had.

Good mental health involves the interaction of psychological, biological,
physiological, social, and cultural systems. It is generally regarded as the

ability to cope with the ordinary circumstances people encounter in their

personal, professional, and social lives.
Ideas about what constitutes good mental health vary, however, from one
culture to another and from one time period to another. Behavior that may
be regarded as outright insanity in one culture may be regarded in another
as merely eccentricity or even as divine inspiration. In some cultures,
people may be classified as mentally ill if they persistently express
disagreement with religious or political authorities. Ideas about what
constitutes proper treatment for abnormal mental states differ also.
Evidence of abnormal thinking that would be deliberately punished in one
culture may be treated in other cultures by social involvement, by isolation,
by increased social support, by prayers, by extensive interviews, or by
medical procedures.
Individuals differ greatly in their ability to cope with stressful environments.
Stresses in childhood may be particularly difficult to deal with, and,
because they may shape the subsequent experience and thinking of the
child, they may have long-lasting effects on a person's psychological health
and social adjustment. And people also differ in how well they can cope
with psychological disturbance when it occurs. Often, people react to
mental distress by denying that they have a psychological problem. Even
when people recognize that they do have such a problem, they may not
have the money, time, or social support necessary to seek help. Prolonged
disturbance of behavior may result in strong reactions from families, work
supervisors, and civic authorities that add to the stress on the individual.
Diagnosis and treatment of mental disturbances can be particularly difficult
because much of people's mental life is not usually accessible even to
them. When we remember someone's name, for example, the name just
seems to come to us the conscious mind has no idea of what the search
process was. Similarly, we may experience anger or fear or depression
without knowing why. According to some theories of mental disturbance,
such feelings may result from exceptionally upsetting thoughts or memories
that are blocked from becoming conscious. In treatment based on such
theories, clues about troubling unconscious thoughts may be sought in the
patient's dreams or slips of the tongue, and the patient is encouraged to
talk long and freely to get the ideas out in the open where they can be dealt
Some kinds of severe psychological disturbance once thought to be purely
spiritual or mental have a basis in biological abnormality. Destruction of
brain tissue by tumors or broken blood vessels can produce a variety of

behavioral symptoms, depending on which locations in the brain are

affected. For example, brain injuries may affect the ability to put words
together comprehensibly or to understand the speech of others, or may
cause meaningless emotional outbursts. Deficiency or excess of some
chemicals produced in the brain may result in hallucinations and chronic
depression. The mental deterioration that sometimes occurs in the aged
may be caused by actual disease of the brain. Biological abnormality does
not necessarily produce the psychological malfunction by itself, but it may
make individuals exceptionally vulnerable to other causes of disturbance.
Conversely, intense emotional states have some distinct biochemical
effects. Fear and anger cause hormones to be released into the
bloodstream that prepare the body for actionfight or flight. Psychological
distress may also affect an individual's vulnerability to biological disease.
There is some evidence that intense or chronic emotional states can
sometimes produce changes in the nervous, visceral, and immune
systems. For example, fear, anger, depression, or even just disappointment
may lead to the development of headaches, ulcers, and infections. Such
effects can make the individual even more vulnerable to psychological
stresscreating a vicious circle of malfunction. On the other hand, there is
evidence that social contacts and support may improve an individual's
ability to resist certain diseases or may minimize their effects.

Air pollution
Air pollution is the introduction into
the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that
cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living
organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built
The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is
essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due

to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as

well as to the Earth's ecosystems.
Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the Worlds
Worst Toxic Pollution Problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's
Worst Polluted Places report.
A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment
is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles,
liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made.
Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary
pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic
eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur
dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted
directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or
interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level
ozone one of the many secondary pollutants that make up
photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary:
that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary
Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include:

Sulphur dioxides (SOx) - especially sulfur dioxide, a chemical

compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in
various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain
sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further
oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO 2,
forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain. This is one of the causes for concern
over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from

high temperature combustion, and are also produced naturally during
thunderstorms by electrical discharge. Can be seen as the brown haze
dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the
chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of the several
nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp,
biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants.

Carbon monoxide (CO) - is a colourless , odorless, non-irritating but

very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel

such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source

of carbon monoxide.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) - a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse

gas also associated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such
as combustion, cement production, and respiration. It is otherwise
recycled in the atmosphere in the carbon cycle.

Volatile organic compounds - VOCs are an important outdoor air

pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories
of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an
extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced
global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant
greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the
life of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending
on local air quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds
benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead
to leukemia through prolonged exposure. 1,3-butadiene is another
dangerous compound which is often associated with industrial uses.

Atmospheric particulate matter - Particulates, alternatively referred to

as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or
liquid suspended in a gas. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the
gas together. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural.
Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust
storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray.
Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power
plants and various industrial processes also generate significant
amounts of aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols
those made by human activities currently account for about 10 percent
of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere. Increased levels of
fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart
disease, altered lung function and lung cancer.

Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could

cause cardiopulmonary disease.

Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer emitted from
products currently banned from use.

Ammonia (NH3) - emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a

compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas
with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to
the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor
to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also
a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in
wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous.

Odors such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes

Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, nuclear

events, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive
decay of radon.

Smog over Santiago, Chile

Secondary pollutants include:

Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and

compounds in photochemical smog. Smog is a kind of air pollution; the
word "smog" is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Classic smog results
from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of
smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from
coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the
atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants
that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical

Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs. Ozone (O3) is a
key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of
certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone
layer. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of
the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by
night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human

activities (largely the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant, and a

constituent of smog.

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) - similarly formed from NOx and VOCs.

Minor air pollutants include:

A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are

regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air
Framework Directive.

A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to

particulate matter.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are
resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and
photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist
in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate
in human and animal tissue, bio magnify in food chains, and to have
potential significant impacts on human health and the environment .

Sources of air pollution

Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors

which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere.
These sources can be classified into two major categories which are:
Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning
different kinds of fuel

"Stationary Sources" include smoke stacks of power plants,

manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as
furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices. In developing
and poor countries, traditional biomass burning is the major source of air
pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung. [6][7]

"Mobile Sources" include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and

the effect of sound etc.

Chemicals, dust and controlled burn practices in agriculture and

forestry management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique
sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or
greenhouse gas abatement. Fire is a natural part of both forest and
grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters.
Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest
trees, thus renewing the forest.

Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other

Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane. Methane is

not toxic; however, it is highly flammable and may form explosive
mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxia and may displace oxygen
in an enclosed space. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen
concentration is reduced to below 19.5% by displacement

Military, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ

warfare and rocketry
Natural sources

Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no

Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for

example cattle

Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a
colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is
formed from the decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard.
Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially
in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most
frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking
Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires
Vegetation, in some regions, emits environmentally significant
amounts of VOCs on warmer days. These VOCs react with primary
anthropogenic pollutantsspecifically, NOx, SO2, and anthropogenic
organic carbon compoundsto produce a seasonal haze of secondary

Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates

Emission factors

Industrial Air Pollution emissions

Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that people attempt
to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an
activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are
usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight,
volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g.,
kilograms of particulate emitted per mega gram of coal burned). Such
factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air
pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available
data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative
of long-term averages.
There are 12 compounds in the list of POPs. Dioxins and furans are two of
them and are intentionally created by combustion of organics, like open
burning of plastics. The POPs are also endocrine disruptor and can mutate
the human genes.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published a

compilation of air pollutant emission factors for a multitude of industrial
sources. The United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and many other countries
have published similar compilations, as well as the European Environment

Indoor air quality

A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often
spend the majority of their time. Radon (Rn) gas, a carcinogen, is exuded
from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building
materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde (H2CO) gas.
Paint and solvents give off volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as they
dry. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air
pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners, incense, and other
scented items. Controlled wood fires in stoves and fireplaces can add
significant amounts of smoke particulates into the air, inside and out. Indoor
pollution fatalities may be caused by using pesticides and other chemical
sprays indoors without proper ventilation.
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty
vents and chimneys, or by the burning of charcoal indoors. Chronic carbon
monoxide poisoning can result even from poorly adjusted pilot lights. Traps
are built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas, hydrogen sulfide,
out of interiors. Clothing emits tetrachloroethylene , or other dry cleaning
fluids, for days after dry cleaning.
Though its use has now been banned in many countries, the extensive use
of asbestos in industrial and domestic environments in the past has left a potentially very dangerous material in many localities. Asbestosis is a
chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs. It
occurs after long-term, heavy exposure to asbestos from asbestoscontaining materials in structures. Sufferers have
severe dyspnea (shortness of breath) and are at an increased risk
regarding several different types of lung cancer. As clear explanations are
not always stressed in non-technical literature, care should be taken to
distinguish between several forms of relevant diseases. According to
the World Health Organization (WHO), these may defined
as; asbestosis, lung cancer, and Peritoneal Mesothelioma (generally a very
rare form of cancer, when more widespread it is almost always associated
with prolonged exposure to asbestos).

Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and
airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from
minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting
and furniture produce enzymes and micrometer-sized fecal droppings,
inhabitants emit methane, mold forms in walls and
generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can
incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and houseplants, soil and
surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack
of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than
they would otherwise occur in nature.

Health effects
Air pollution is a significant risk factor for multiple health conditions
including respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer, according
to the WHO. The health effects caused by air pollution may include difficulty
in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory
and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication
use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions
and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far
reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the
cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the
type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the
individual's health status and genetics.
The most common sources of air pollution include particulate matter,
ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Both indoor and outdoor air
pollution have caused approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide. Children
aged less than five years that live in developing countries are the most

vulnerable population in terms of total deaths attributable to indoor and

outdoor air pollution.
The World Health Organization states that 2.4 million people die each year
from causes directly attributable to air pollution, with 1.5 million of these
deaths attributable to indoor air pollution. "Epidemiological studies suggest
that more than 500,000 Americans die each year
from cardiopulmonary disease linked to breathing fine particle air pollution.
A study by the University of Birmingham has shown a strong correlation
between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from motor
vehicles. Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to air pollution than to
automobile accidents. A 2005 study by the European Commission
calculated that air pollution reduces life expectancy by an average of
almost nine months across the European Union. Causes of deaths include
aggravated asthma, emphysema, lung and heart diseases, and respiratory
allergies. The US EPA estimates that a proposed set of changes in diesel
engine technology (Tier 2) could result in 12,000 fewer premature
mortalities, 15,000 fewer heart attacks, 6,000 fewer emergency room visits
by children with asthma, and 8,900 fewer respiratory-related hospital
admissions each year in the United States.
The US EPA estimates allowing a ground-level ozone concentration of 65
parts per billion, would avert 1,700 to 5,100 premature deaths nationwide in
2020 compared with the current 75-ppb standard. The agency projects the
stricter standard would also prevent an additional 26,000 cases of
aggravated asthma, and more than a million cases of missed work or
The worst short term civilian pollution crisis in India was the 1984 Bhopal
Disaster. Leaked industrial vapors from the Union Carbide factory,
belonging to Union Carbide, Inc., U.S.A., killed more than 25,000 people
outright and injured anywhere from 150,000 to 600,000. The United
Kingdom suffered its worst air pollution event when the December 4 Great
Smog of 1952 formed over London. In six days more than 4,000 died, and
8,000 more died within the following months. An accidental leak
of anthrax spores from a biological warfare laboratory in the former
USSR in 1979 near Sverdlovsk is believed to have been the cause of
hundreds of civilian deaths. The worst single incident of air pollution to
occur in the United States of America occurred in Donora, Pennsylvania in
late October, 1948, when 20 people died and over 7,000 were injured. [24]
A new economic study of the health impacts and associated costs of air
pollution in the Los Angeles Basin and San Joaquin Valley of Southern
California shows that more than 3800 people die prematurely
(approximately 14 years earlier than normal) each year because air

pollution levels violate federal standards. The number of annual premature

deaths is considerably higher than the fatalities related to auto collisions in
the same area, which average fewer than 2,000 per year.
Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to combustion derived
particulate matter air pollution. In several human experimental studies,
using a well validated exposure chamber setup, DE has been linked to
acute vascular dysfunction and increased thrombus formation. This serves
as a plausible mechanistic link between the previously described
association between particulate matter air pollution and increased
cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Effects on cardiovascular health

A 2007 review of evidence found ambient air pollution exposure is a risk
factor correlating with increased total mortality from cardiovascular events
range: 12% to 14% per a 10 micro/m3 increase). PMID 19235364.
Air pollution is also emerging as a risk factor for stroke, particularly in
developing countries where pollutant levels are highest. A 2007 study found
that in women air pollution is associated not with hemorrhagic but with
ischemic stroke. Air pollution has was also found to be associated with
increased incidence and mortality from coronary stroke in a cohort study in
Effects on cystic fibrosis
A study from around the years of 1999 to 2000, by the University of
Washington, showed that patients near and around particulate matter air
pollution had an increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations and decrease
in lung function. Patients were examined before the study for amounts of

specific pollutants like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Burkholderia

cenocepacia as well as their socioeconomic standing. Participants involved
in the study were located in the United States in close proximity to
an Environmental Protection Agency. During the time of the study 117
deaths were associated with air pollution. Many patients in the study lived
in or near large metropolitan areas in order to be close to medical help.
These same patients had higher level of pollutants found in their system
because of more emissions in larger cities. As cystic fibrosis patients
already suffer from decreased lung function, everyday pollutants such as
smoke, emissions from automobiles, tobacco smoke and improper use of
indoor heating devices could further compromise lung function. [34]
Effects on COPD and asthma
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes diseases such
as chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Researches have demonstrated increased risk of developing asthma and
COPD from increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Additionally,
air pollution has been associated with increased hosptializations and
mortality from asthma and COPD.
A study conducted in 1960-1961 in the wake of the Great Smog of
1952 compared 293 London residents with 477 residents of Gloucester,
Peterborough, and Norwich, three towns with low reported death rates from
chronic bronchitis. All subjects were male postal truck drivers aged 40 to
59. Compared to the subjects from the outlying towns, the London subjects
exhibited more severe respiratory symptoms (including cough, phlegm, and
dyspnea), reduced lung function (FEV1 and peak flow rate), and increased
sputum production and purulence. The differences were more pronounced
for subjects aged 50 to 59. The study controlled for age and smoking
habits, so concluded that air pollution was the most likely cause of the
observed differences.
It is believed that much like cystic fibrosis, by living in a more urban
environment serious health hazards become more apparent. Studies have
shown that in urban areas patients suffer mucushypersecretion, lower
levels of lung function, and more self diagnosis of chronic bronchitis and
Links to cancer
A review of evidence regarding whether ambient air pollution exposure is a
risk factor for cancer in 2007 found solid data to conclude that long-term
exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) increases the overall risk of non
accidental mortality by 6% per a 10 micro/m3 increase . PMID 19235364

Exposure to PM2.5 was also associated with an increased risk of

mortality from lung cancer (range: 15% to 21% per a 10 micro/m3
increase) and total cardiovascular mortality (range: 12% to 14% per a
10 micro/m3 increase). PMID 19235364
The review further noted that living close to busy traffic appears to be
associated with elevated risks of these three outcomes (increase in lung
cancer deaths, cardiovascular deaths, and overall nonaccidental
deaths. PMID 19235364
The reviewers also found suggestive evidence that exposure to PM2.5
is positively associated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and
exposure to SO2 increases mortality from lung cancer, but the data was
insufficient to provide solid conclusions.
In 2011, a large Danish epidemiological study found an increased risk of
lung cancer for patients who lived in areas with high nitrogen oxide
concentrations. In this study, the association was higher for nonsmokers than smokers. An additional Danish study, also in 2011,
likewise noted evidence of possible associations between air pollution
and other forms of cancer, including cervical cancer and brain cancer.
Effects on children
Around the world, children living in cities with high exposure to air
pollutants are at increased risk of developing asthma, pneumonia and
other lower respiratory infections. Because children are outdoors more
and have higher minute ventilation they are more susceptible to the
dangers of air pollution. Risks of low initial birth weight are also
heightened in such cities.
The World Health Organization reports that the greatest concentrations
of particulate matter particles are found in countries with low economic
world power and high poverty and population growth rates. Examples of
these countries include Egypt, Sudan, Mongolia, and Indonesia.
However even in the United States, despite the passage of the Clean Air
Act in 1970, in 2002 at least 146 million Americans were living in nonattainment areasregions in which the concentration of certain air
pollutants exceeded federal standards. These dangerous pollutants are
known as the criteria pollutants, and include ozone, particulate matter,
sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead.
Protective measures to ensure children health are being taken in cities
such as New Delhi, India where buses now use compressed natural
gas to help eliminate the "pea-soup" smog.
Health effects in relatively "clean" areas

Even in the areas with relatively low levels of air pollution, public health
effects can be significant and costly, since a large number of people
breathe in such pollutants. A 2005 scientific study for the British
Columbia Lung Association showed that a small improvement in air
quality (1% reduction of ambient PM2.5 and ozone concentrations)
would produce a $29 million in annual savings in the Metro
Vancouver region in 2010. This finding is based on health valuation of
lethal (death) and sub-lethal (illness) effects.

Reduction effort
There are various air pollution control technologies and land use
planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. At its most basic level
land use planning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure
planning. In most developed countries, land use planning is an important
part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of
the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment.
Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes primary regulation
(many developing countries have permissive regulations), expanding
regulation to new sources (such as cruise and transport ships, farm
equipment, and small gas-powered equipment such as lawn
trimmers, chainsaws, and snowmobiles), increased fuel efficiency (such as

through the use of hybrid vehicles), conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bio
ethanol, biodiesel, or conversion to electric vehicles).
Control devices
The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices by
industry or transportation devices. They can either destroy contaminants or
remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the
Particulate control

Mechanical collectors (dust cyclones, multi cyclones)

Electrostatic precipitators An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or

electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes
particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an
induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly
efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases
through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter
such as dust and smoke from the air stream.

Bag houses Designed to handle heavy dust loads, a dust

collector consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and
a dust receptacle or dust removal system (distinguished from air
cleaners which utilize disposable filters to remove the dust).

Particulate scrubbers wet scrubber is a form of pollution control

technology. The term describes a variety of devices that use
pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams. In a wet
scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the
scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a
pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the

Baffle spray scrubber

Cyclonic spray scrubber

Ejector venture scrubber

Mechanically aided scrubber

Spray tower

Wet scrubber
NOx control

Low NOx burners

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)

NOx scrubbers

Exhaust gas recirculation

Catalytic converter (also for VOC control)

VOC abatement

Adsorption systems, such as activated carbon


Thermal oxidizers

Catalytic converters

Bio filters

Absorption (scrubbing)

Cryogenic condensers

Vapor recovery systems

Acid Gas/SO2 control

Wet scrubbers

Dry scrubbers

Flue-gas desulfurization

Mercury control

Sorbent Injection Technology

Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO)

Miscellaneous associated equipment

Source capturing systems

Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

Legal regulations

Smog in Cairo
In general, there are two types of air quality standards. The first class of
standards (such as the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards and
E.U.Air Quality Directive) set maximum atmospheric concentrations for
specific pollutants. Environmental agencies enact regulations which are
intended to result in attainment of these target levels. The second class
(such as the North American Air Quality Index) take the form of a scale with
various thresholds, which is used to communicate to the public the relative
risk of outdoor activity. The scale may or may not distinguish between
different pollutants.
In Canada air pollution and associated health risks are measured with the
The Air Quality Health Index or (AQHI). It is a health protection tool used to

make decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting

activity levels during increased levels of air pollution.The Air Quality Health
Index or "AQHI" is a federal program jointly coordinated by Health
Canada and Environment Canada. However, the AQHI program would not
be possible without the commitment and support of the provinces,
municipalities and NGOs. From air quality monitoring to health risk
communication and community engagement, local partners are responsible
for the vast majority of work related to AQHI implementation. The AQHI
provides a number from 1 to 10+ to indicate the level of health risk
associated with local air quality. Occasionally, when the amount of air
pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed 10. The AQHI
provides a local air quality current value as well as a local air quality
maximums forecast for today, tonight and tomorrow and provides
associated health advice.

Risk: Low (1-3) Moderate (4-6)

High (7-10)


Very high (above 10)

As it is now known that even low levels of air pollution can trigger
discomfort for the sensitive population, the index has been developed as a
continuum: The higher the number, the greater the health risk and need to
take precautions. The index describes the level of health risk associated
with this number as low, moderate, high or very high, and suggests
steps that can be taken to reduce exposure.



Health Messages

At Risk population



*General Population

Enjoy your usual outdoor Ideal air quality for

outdoor activities

Moderate 4-6

Consider reducing or
rescheduling strenuous
activities outdoors if you
are experiencing

No need to modify your

usual outdoor activities
unless you experience
symptoms such as
coughing and throat



Reduce or reschedule
strenuous activities
outdoors. Children and
the elderly should also
take it easy.

Consider reducing or
rescheduling strenuous
activities outdoors if you
experience symptoms
such as coughing and
throat irritation.


Avoid strenuous activities

outdoors. Children and
the elderly should also
avoid outdoor physical

Reduce or reschedule
strenuous activities
outdoors, especially if you
experience symptoms
such as coughing and
throat irritation.

Very high

It is measured based on the observed relationship of Nitrogen Dioxide

(NO2), ground-level Ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM2.5) with mortality
from an analysis of several Canadian cities. Significantly, all three of these
pollutants can pose health risks, even at low levels of exposure, especially
among those with pre-existing health problems.
When developing the AQHI, Health Canadas original analysis of health
effects included five major air pollutants: particulate matter, ozone,
and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as well as sulfur dioxide(SO2), and carbon
monoxide (CO). The latter two pollutants provided little information in
predicting health effects and were removed from the AQHI formulation.
The AQHI does not measure the effects of odor, pollen, dust, heat or


Nitrogen dioxide concentrations as measured from satellite 2002-2004

Air pollution is usually concentrated in densely populated metropolitan
areas, especially in developing countries where environmental regulations
are relatively lax or nonexistent. However, even populated areas in
developed countries attain unhealthy levels of pollution with Los
Angeles and Rome being two good examples.
The National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) is EPA's ongoing
comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S. EPA developed the NATA
as a state-of-the-science screening tool for State/Local/Tribal Agencies to
prioritize pollutants, emission sources and locations of interest for further
study in order to gain a better understanding of risks. NATA assessments
do not incorporate refined information about emission sources, but rather,
use general information about sources to develop estimates of risks which
are more likely to overestimate impacts than underestimate them. NATA
provides estimates of the risk of cancer and other serious health effects
from breathing (inhaling) air toxics in order to inform both national and more
localized efforts to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types
and locations which are of greatest potential concern in terms of
contributing to population risk. This in turn helps air pollution experts focus
limited analytical resources on areas and or populations where the potential
for health risks are highest. Assessments include estimates of cancer and
non-cancer health effects based on chronic exposure from outdoor
sources, including assessments of non-cancer health effects for Diesel
Particulate Matter (PM). Assessments provide a snapshot of the outdoor air
quality and the risks to human health that would result if air toxic emissions
levels remained unchanged.

Governing urban air pollution a regional example (London)

In Europe, Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment

and management provides a common strategy against which member
states can "set objectives for ambient air quality in order to avoid, prevent
or reduce harmful effects on human health and the environment . . . and
improve air quality where it is unsatisfactory".
On 25 July 2008 in the case Dieter Janecek v Freistaat Bayern CURIA,
the European Court of Justice ruled that under this directive citizens have
the right to require national authorities to implement a short term action
plan that aims to maintain or achieve compliance to air quality limit values.
This important case law appears to confirm the role of the EC as
centralized regulator to European nation-states as regards air pollution
control. It places a supranational legal obligation on the UK to protect its
citizens from dangerous levels of air pollution, furthermore superseding
national interests with those of the citizen.
In 2010, the European Commission (EC) threatened the UK with legal
action against the successive breaching of PM10 limit values. The UK
government has identified that if fines are imposed, they could cost the
nation upwards of 300 million per year.
In March 2011, the City of London remains the only UK region in breach of
the ECs limit values, and has been given 3 months to implement an
emergency action plan aimed at meeting the EU Air Quality Directive. The
City of London has dangerous levels of PM10 concentrations, estimated to
cause 3000 deaths per year within the city. As well as the threat of EU
fines, in 2010 it was threatened with legal action for scrapping the
western congestion charge zone, which is claimed to have led to an
increase in air pollution levels.
In response to these charges, Boris Johnson, Mayor of London, has
criticized the current need for European cities to communicate with Europe
through their nation states central government, arguing that in future "A
great city like London" should be permitted to bypass its government and
deal directly with the European Commission regarding its air quality action
In part, this is an attempt to divert blame away from the Mayors office, but it
can also be interpreted as recognition that cities can transcend the
traditional national government organizational hierarchy and develop
solutions to air pollution using global governance networks, for example
through transnational relations. Transnational relations include but are not
exclusive to national governments and intergovernmental organizations
allowing sub-national actors including cities and regions to partake in air
pollution control as independent actors.

Particularly promising at present are global city partnerships. These can be

built into networks, for example the C40 network, of which London is a
member. The C40 is a public non-state network of the worlds leading
cities that aims to cure their greenhouse emissions. The C40 has been
identified as governance from the middle and is an alternative to
intergovernmental policy. It has the potential to improve urban air quality as
participating cities "exchange information, learn from best practices and
consequently mitigate carbon dioxide emissions independently from
national government decisions". A criticism of the C40 network is that its
exclusive nature limits influence to participating cities and risks drawing
resources away from less powerful city and regional acto