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Airport Authority of India

Airport Authority of India (AAI) manages a total of 125 Airports, which include 11
International Airports, 08 Customs Airports, 81 Domestic Airports and 25 Civil Enclaves at
Defense Airfields. AAI also provides Air Traffic Management Services (ATMS) over entire
Indian Air Space and adjoining oceanic areas with ground installations at all Airports and 25
other locations to ensure safety of Aircraft operations. AAI provides air navigation services
over 2.8 million square nautical miles of air space. [1]
The corporate headquarters (CHQ) are at Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan ,Safdarjung Airport.
R K Srivastava is the current chairman of the AAI. Airports Authority of India has
responsibility of creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure
both on the ground and air space in the country.
All major air-routes over Indian landmass are Radar covered (29 Radar installations at 11
locations) along with VOR/DVOR coverage (89 installations) co-located with Distance
Measuring Equipment (90 installations). 52 runways are provided with ILS installations with
Night Landing Facilities at most of these Airports and Automatic Message Switching System
at 15 Airports.[1]
AAI's successful implementation of Automatic Dependence Surveillance System (ADSS),
using indigenous technology, at Calcutta and Chennai Air Traffic Control Centers, gave
India the distinction of being the first country to use this advanced technology in the South
East Asian region thus enabling effective Air Traffic Control over oceanic areas using
satellite mode of communication. Use of remote controlled VHF coverage, along with
satellite communication links, has given added strength to our ATMS.[1]

AAI has also planned to provide Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) at Delhi and
Mumbai Airports. This GBAS equipment will be capable of providing Category-II (curved
approach) landing signals to the aircrafts thus replacing the existing instrument landing
system in the long run, which is required at each end of the runway.
The Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (ASMGCS), installed At
Delhi, have upgraded operation to runway 28 from CAT-IIIA level to CAT-IIIB level. CAT-IIIA
system permits landing of aircrafts up to visibility of 200mtrs. However, CAT-IIIB will permit
safe landing at the Airports at a visibility below 200mtrs but above 50mtrs.
AAI's Endeavour, in enhanced focus on 'customer's expectations', has evinced enthusiastic
response to independent agency, which has organized customer satisfaction surveys at 30
busy Airports. These surveys have enabled us to undertake improvements on aspects
recommended by the Airport users. The receptacles for our 'Business Reply Letters' at
Airports have gained popularity; these responses enable us to understand the changing
aspirations of Airport users. During the first year of the millennium, AAI endeavors to make
its operations more transparent and also make available the instantaneous information to
customers by deploying state-of-art Information Technology.
AAI has undertaken initiatives to upgrade training facilities at CATC Allahabad and
Hyderabad Airport. Aerodrome Visual Simulator (AVS) has been provided at CATC recently
and non-radar procedural ATC simulator equipment is being supplied to CATC Allahabad
and Hyderabad Airport. [1]

Airports Authority of India (AAI) was constituted by an Act of Parliament and came into
being on 1st April 1995 by merging erstwhile National Airports Authority and International
Airports Authority of India. The merger brought into existence a single Organization
entrusted with the responsibility of creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil
aviation infrastructure both on the ground and air space in the country.[1]


The functions of AAI are as follows:
1. Design, Development, Operation and Maintenance of international and
domestic airports and civil enclaves.
2. Control and Management of the Indian airspace extending beyond the
territorial limits of the country, as accepted by ICAO.
3. Construction, Modification and Management of passenger terminals.
4. Development and Management of cargo terminals at international and domestic
5. Provision of passenger facilities and information system at the passenger terminals
6. Expansion and strengthening of operation area, viz. Runways, Aprons, Taxiway etc.
7. Provision of visual aids.
Provision of Communication and Navigation aids, viz. ILS, DVOR, DME, Radar etc.[1]

1.4 Security
The continuing security environment has brought into focus the need for
strengthening security of vital installations. There was thus an urgent need to revamp
the security at airports not only to thwart any misadventure but also to restore
confidence of traveling public in the security of air travel as a whole, which was
shaken after 9/11 tragedy. With this in view, a number of steps were taken including

deployment of CISF for airport security, CCTV surveillance system at sensitive

airports, latest and state-of-the-art X-ray baggage inspection systems, premier
security & surveillance systems. Smart Cards for access control to vital installations
at airports are also being considered to supplement the efforts of security personnel
at sensitive airports.[1]

Airports are presently classified in the following manner:
International Airports: - These are declared as international airports and are
available for scheduled international operations by Indian and foreign carriers.
Presently, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Calcutta and Thiruvananthapuram are in this
Domestic Airports: - These are of two types: Custom & Model.
Custom Airports: -They are having limited international operations. These have
customs and immigration facilities for limited international operations by national
carriers and for foreign tourist and cargo charter flights. These include Bangalore
(CE), Hyderabad, Ahmadabad, Calicut, Goa (CE), Varanasi, Patna, Agra (CE),
Jaipur, Amritsar, Tiruchirapally, Coimbatore and Lucknow.(CE - Civil Enclave)
Model Airports: - These domestic airports have minimum runway length of 7500
feet and adequate terminal capacity (400 passengers or more) to handle Airbus
320 type of aircraft. These can cater to limited international traffic also, if required.
These include Bhubaneswar, Guwahati, Nagpur, Vadodara, Imphal and Indore.
Rest 6 Nos. of airports, developed under Model Airports concept has graduated to
the classification of Customs Airports, given above.
Other Domestic Airports: - All other 71 domestic airports are covered in this category.
Civil Enclaves in Defense Airport: - There are 28 civil enclaves in Defense

airfields. Twenty civil enclaves are in operation.[2]


An information service and alerting service are the basic levels of air traffic service,
providing information pertinent to the safe and efficient conduct of flights and
alerting the relevant authorities should an aircraft be in distress. These are
available to all aircraft through an FIR.


The airspace of the world has been divided into homogeneous regions called FIRs.
A Flight Information Region (FIR) is an aviation term used to describe airspace
with specific dimensions, in which a Flight Information Service and an alerting
service are provided. It is the largest regular division of airspace in use in the world
Any portion of the atmosphere belongs to some specific FIR. Smaller countries'
airspace is encompassed by a single FIR, larger countries' airspace is subdivided
into a number of regional FIRs. Some FIRs may encompass the territorial airspace
of several countries. Oceanic airspace is divided into Oceanic Information Regions.
The division among authorities is done by international agreement through ICAO.
There is no standard size for FIRs .It is a matter for administrative convenience of
the country concerned.
The FIR is responsible for providing air traffic services to all the flights that are:
Entering (overhead) , Leaving (overhead), Taking off, And Landing.
In India, there are five such FIRs namely:-Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Calcutta,

The region of airspace over which an FIR is responsible for providing air traffic
services is broadly classified as Area, Approach, Tower
An FIR may include many airports within itself. For example the Delhi FIR
includes Jaipur, Varanasi, Nagpur, Amritsar airports etc. The Delhi airport is
connected to all these stations through various media links to enable the effective
management of air traffic services in the Delhi FIR.


4.1 Role of CNS department

To provide uninterrupted services of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS)

facilities for the smooth and safe movement of aircraft (over flying, departing & landing) in
accordance with ICAO standards and recommended practices.
To maintain Security Equipment namely X-Ray Baggage systems (XBIS), Hand Held
Metal Detectors (HHMD) and Door Frame Metal Detectors (DFMD).
To provide and maintain inter-unit communication facility i.e. Electronic Private
Automatic Exchange Board (EPABX)
To maintain the Computer systems including peripherals like printers, UPS etc.
provided in various sections connected as standalone as well as on Local Area
Network (LAN).
To maintain the passenger facilitation systems like Public Address (PA) system, Car
Hailing System and Flight Information Display System (FIDS).

To maintain and operate Automatic Message Switching system (AMSS) used for
exchange of messages over Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network (AFTN).
To provide Communication Briefing to pilots by compiling NOTAM received from other
International NOF.
To maintain and operate Fax machine.
To co-ordinate with telephone service providers for provision and smooth functioning
of auto telephones/ hotlines/ data circuits.[3]


Communication is the process of sending, receiving and processing of information by
electrical means. It started with wire telegraphy in 1840 followed by wire telephony and
subsequently by radio/wireless communication. The introduction of satellites and fiber
optics has made communication more widespread and effective with an increasing
emphasis on computer based digital data communication. In Radio communication, for
transmission information/message are first converted into electrical signals then modulated
with a carrier signal of high frequency, amplified up to a required level, converted into
electromagnetic waves and radiated in the space, with the help of antenna. For reception
these electromagnetic waves received by the antenna, converted into electrical signals,
amplified, detected and reproduced in the original form of information/message with the
help of speaker.[3]


Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct
aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to
separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to
provide information and other support for pilots when able. [1] In some countries, ATC may
also play a security or defense role (as in the United States), or be run entirely by the
military (as in Brazil).
Preventing collisions is referred to as separation, which is a term used to prevent aircraft
from coming too close to each other by use of lateral, vertical and longitudinal separation
minima; many aircraft now have collision avoidance systems installed to act as a backup to
ATC observation and instructions. In addition to its primary function, the ATC can provide
additional services such as providing information to pilots, weather and navigation
information and NOTAMs .

Figure: Voice Communication Control System

Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that
pilots are required to follow, or merely flight information to assist pilots operating in the
airspace. In all cases, however, the pilot in command has final responsibility for the safety
of the flight, and may deviate from ATC instructions in an emergency.



Navigation is the process of reading, and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle
from one place to another. It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used
by navigators to perform navigation tasks. The word navigate is derived from the Latin
"navigate", which is the command "sail". Radio Navigation is based on the use of Radio
Transmitter, Radio Receiver and propagation of electromagnetic waves to find navigational
parameter such as direction, distance, position of the aircraft etc.[4]

According to service range the radio navigational aids are broadly classified into three
categories 1. Long Range.
2. Medium Range.
3. Short range.

1. Long Range navigational aids

Operate in very low frequency and low frequency, i.e. 10 KHz, 50-100 KHz and 100-200
KHz respectively.

LORAN and OMEGA falls in this category.

2. Medium range navigational aids

It operates in the LF or MF band of frequency.

It gives the range of 150-250 nautical miles.

NDB (Non Directional Beacons) falls in this category.

3. Short-range navigational aids

These aids operate in and above VHF bands.

The coverage is dependent upon line of sight propagation.

VHF, ILS, DME, VOR and RADAR are some widely used short-range aids[4]


While the evolving role of the Surveillance capability is less obvious than the PBN
revolution in Navigation and the system wide connectivity driving Communication
developments, Surveillance nevertheless continues to be an essential enabler to ATM
Increasing traffic densities, pressures on the utilization of RF spectrum, new modes of
separation, including ASAS applications in the cockpit and improved safety nets are placing
greater demands on surveillance systems. These needs stimulate the use of new
surveillance techniques including ADS-B and Wide Area Multilateration which can deliver
improved performance in terms of accuracy, update rate, coverage and are also potentially
more efficient from an RF perspective than traditional SSR. Advanced multi-sensor
surveillance data fusion can also maximize the use of common airborne components,
depending on specific ground system requirements and the operational needs.
SESAR will develop an ADS-B ground-station to include the integration of WAM capability.
On the airborne side the ability of 1090MHz ADS-B to continue to work in the ever more
congested 1090MHz band is being investigated while the longer term view of a potential
new ADS-B system is also planned. Other options in the future could include satellite based
solutions and the evolution of the non-cooperative surveillance infrastructure.
The intelligent combination of these different surveillance techniques and the improved
sharing of surveillance data will allow a rationalization of the surveillance infrastructure
(especially in terms of multiple overlapping SSR as we have today) which should lower
costs and reduce the impact on the 1030/1090 spectrum extending its useful life as traffic
increases .ACAS evolution will also take account of new separation modes and the
coordination of airborne and ground-based safety nets also drives the development and
validation of the ground system capability to receive ACAS alerts to be made available to
the ground systems.


An instrumentation landing system (ILS) is a ground-based instrument approach system
that provides precision guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using

a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a
safe landing during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), such as low ceilings or
reduced visibility due to fog, rain, or blowing snow.
Instrument approach procedure charts (or approach plates) are published for each ILS
approach, providing pilots with the needed information to fly an ILS approach during
instrument flight rules (IFR) operations, including the radio frequencies used by the ILS
components or navaidsand the minimum visibility requirements prescribed for the specific
Radio-navigation aids must keep a certain degree of accuracy (set by international
standards of CAST/ICAO); to assure this is the case, flight inspection organizations
periodically check critical parameters with properly equipped aircraft to calibrate and certify
ILS precision.


Figure: Typical Locations of ILS Component


The A-SMGCS system provides air traffic controllers with a complete picture of the airport
surface in all weather conditions. This improves the controllers situational awareness
and increases the level of safety at the airport.
A-SMGCS is used to:
Reduce runway incursions
Improve coordination between Air Traffic Control personnel
Correlate flight plan information with aircraft position on control er displays
Eliminate blind spots and coverage gaps
Increase situational awareness in all weather conditions
Support Airport Operations
Snow removal coordination
Departure and arrival queuing
Taxi route monitoring[5]
A-SMGCS combines multi-source surveillance data with target identification and Flight
Plan information into a fused system track. This system track is provided along with
safety logic alerts to improve the air traffic controllers situation awareness


A-SMGCS fuses five types of data; transponder multilateration (MLAT), surface

movementradar (SMR), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Terminal
AirportRadar (TAR) and Flight Plan information.
The key sensors providing A-SMGCS target location data are the Radar Sensor and the
Multilateration Sensors[5]

Figure: Showing the Position of Multilateration Sensor

Controller Display
The A-SMGCS Operational Display accurately presents a detailed picture of the Airport
Greater control of surface space in busy transportation centers.
Controllers can accurately monitor aircraft movement in the approach and
departure corridors.
Landing and taxing aircraft can be better controlled by maintaining safe distances
between all air traffic and service vehicles.
Safety logic processing serves to provide controllers with visual and audible alerts.


9.3System Capabilities
A-SMGCS is designed to provide surveillance of the airport surface and approach
In the movement area, the coverage is from the ground to a minimum of 300 feet
(91 m). The approach corridor is adaptable, but typically extends at least 5 nm
(nautical miles) beyond the runway threshold from the ground up to 5000 feet
(1524 m) or to match the glide slope. The approach corridors are covered in
configurable increments of 100 feet up to 5000 feet above ground level for every
1 mile.
Coverage is adaptable up to 50 nm range from the airport center and up to
100,000 feet (30,480 m) AMSL (above mean sea level).
A-SMGCS provides accurate identification of all aircraft on the ground providing
the aircraft has an active transponder. The position and identification of each
tracked target (aircraft or vehicle) is updated once per second.
A-SMGCS processes over 200 targets per second with a peak initiation rate of
20 new targets per second. The system tracks aircraft and vehicles entering the
coverage area within 5 seconds.
A-SMGCS integrates Flight Plan information with position/identification
Information . This combined system track is displayed on the controller display
within one second of an update.
Less than one second processing delay
ADS-B target reporting[5]


The A-SMGCS system is composed of many subsystems.

The Surface Movement Radar (SMR) subsystem is a primary radar used

to detect surface targets, and report that information to other A-SMGCS
subsystems for processing. The SMR for your system is the Term
antenna and transceiver.

The Multilateration subsystem (MLAT) is a secondary surveillance like

Radar that provides position and identification of all transponder equipped
Aircraft &Vehicles.

The Processor Subsystem combines (fuses) all sensor reports for a target,
Determines target position, tracks the target, and provides safety logic

The Tower Display Subsystem provides the data and CWP displays for Air
Traffic Controller and Airway Facility Technician use.

The Remote Monitoring System (RMS) provides the data and displays the
Airway Facility Technician uses to monitor, troubleshoot, and manage ASMGCS.

The Communications subsystem provides data communications and

Protocol conversion between various A-SMGCS subsystems and other
Information sources such as ASR and Flight Plan systems.

9.4 Design Concept:

The A-SMGCS system was designed to be flexible and adaptable to meet the
Coverage requirements unique to each airport.
The A-SMGCS configuration allows different architectures to be deployed
Without any special software. For example, remote units can be configured
From as few as 4 up to a maximum of 32.
A LAN architecture connects the A-SMGCS subsystems. The use of a LAN
Architecture allows A-SMGCS to interface with other Air Traffic systems
And supports multiple display processors, which in turn support, multiple
Operator displays.
The CPU processor capability allows for future growth for increased target

Processing, to provide future safety logic enhancements, to support

Multiple and/or remote SMR configurations.
Modular construction supports primary and secondary equipment
Redundancy for critical components, removal and replacement of Line
Replaceable Units (LRUs), and a low mean time to repair[5]


The A-SMGCS system performs target detection and tracks targets of interest on the
Airport surface and in the approach corridors. The system accomplishes this using
Multiple sensors and a fusion processor.
The primary A-SMGCS sensors are the Multilateration (MLAT) and Surface Movement
Radar (SMR) subsystems. These sensors contain processors that perform target
Detection and tracking.

The Radar Data Processor (RDPi) performs target detection and tracking on raw

video received by the SMR transceiver. The RDP sends target and plot data to the
Single Sensor Data Processor (SSDP).

The Target Processor (TP) performs target detection, identification, and tracking
based on ATCRBS, Mode S, and ADS-B replies received by the MLAT Remote

The RDPi and TP maintain their own local track databases, but they also share

local track information with the A-SMGCS fusion processor. In an A-SMGCS system,
the fusion processor is the Multi-Sensor Data Processor (MSDP). The MSDPs MultiSensor Track Maintenance (MSTM) process handles fusion processing.

The Terminal Airport Radar (TAR) input provides coverage off of the airport surface

(adaptable out to 250 nm). In addition, it provides a seamless transition for targets
transitioning between the airport surface and the approach corridors.

External MLAT: For systems with an external MLAT tracker, the ASDP receives the

target tracks, performs association logic for existing tracks and sends track reports to

The Flight Plan interface (FLIP) allows the MSTM to include flight plan information

any targets that have Mode 3/ A identification (MLAT or TAR only).

The MSTM process fuses all of these sensor inputs into a single system track
output to

The Display Processor (DP)

The purpose and major components of each A-SMGCS subsystem:

Multilateration Subsystem
Surface Movement Radar (SMR) Subsystem
Processing Subsystems (Processor, RMS, and Display)
Communications Subsystem

Subsystem Interrelationship

1. Multilateration System
The Multilateration (MLAT) Subsystem is a secondary surveillance sensor that provides
accurate position and identification information on transponder equipped aircraft and
surface vehicles.
The multilateration subsystem contains the following major components

Remote Units (RUs)

Reference Transmitters (RefTrans)

Target Processors (TPs)

i) Remote Unit (RU)

Remote units are the sensors used by A-SMGCS to detect transponder signals. These
signals (ATCRBS & MODE S) are time stamped and passed to the target processor for
There are two types of RUs:

Receive Only (RO)

Receive/Transmit (R/T).

The RO and R/T are based on a common Architecture. The RU elements are
configurable by software and hardware to operate as eitheran RO unit or an R/T. To
operate as an R/T, the unit requires the addition of a transmitter module.


Figure: Remote Unit

ii) Reference Transmitter (RefTrans):

RefTrans are used to calibrate the target processors Time Difference of Arrival
Function (TDOA).
RefTrans perform this function by squitting Mode-S messages. These squitters are from a
known location and the multilated position provides calibration. The RUs detect the
RefTran squit as a Mode S message it will be time stamped and provided to the TP.
The TP uses these squits for RU Time Correction
Calibration is necessary for accurate multilateration.
For redundancy, each RefTran has two transmitters.
The number and placement of RUs and RefTrans is determined through site
surveys and mathematical modeling of the coverage area.

Figure: Reference Transmitter (Reftran)


iii) Target Processor:

Target Processor is located in the Processor Cabinet; it is part of the multilateration
Subsystem .The TP is the processor that performs Time Difference of Arrival
(TDOA) processing, better known as multilateration.
The TP will perform TDOA processing on signals received at the Remote Units. The
types of signals it will process include:
ATCRBS replies
Mode-S replies
Mode-S squitters
RefTran Mode-S squitters
The TP processes targets (received by the RUs) as track and identification data.
The track information will be passed to the MSDP for fusion processing.
There is one primary and one secondary TP. In the event the primary fails, there is
an automatic switchover to the secondary TP.
Target Position Estimator (TAPER):
TAPER receives target detections from RUCIS and performs RU clustering, time RUC
and performs RU clustering, time correction, and target position Positions are forwarded
to the ASTP. If the detection is a RefTran detection, a copy of the cluster is sent on to
RefTran Synchronization (REFSYNC): REFSYNC uses the precisely known positions of
the RU and RefTran antennas and the RU timestamps of RefTran detections to create a
table of offsets & drifts used to correlate the free-running RU clocks. REFSYNC provides
time tracking information that TAPER uses to correct the RU Timestamps
Airport Surveillance Track Processor (ASTP): ASTP provides target tracking for each
detected target. ASTP associates incoming targets, models the motion of each target,
predicts its next position, validates the positions provided by TAPER, and issues target
interrogation requests to RUCIS. Target positions in Sensis Generic Format (SGF) are
provided to the fusion processor.

Surface Movement Radar (SMR): The SMR is a primary radar. It provides target
detection and tracking for targets on the airport surface. The SMR is comprised of two
main subsystems:
Transceiver: the transceiver creates radio frequency (RF) pulses for transmission,
down-converts RF echoes to video, converts the video from analog to digital, and
performs 4-Pulse Non-Coherent Integration (NCI) processing on the video.


targets are provided to the RDPi in a Batch PRI Range Cell (BPRC) format.
Radar Data Processor-Improved (RDPi): The Sensis RDPi receives digital video in
BPRC format from the transceiver. It performs target detection and target tracking with
Signal and Data Processor functions:
The Signal Processor performs target detection. It receives the 8-bit video from the
transceiver, computes adaptive thresholds, performs threshold tests, and generates
radar plots for use by the data processor. It provides the data processor with two types
of plots:

Target plots used for target detection and

Static reflector plots used in multipath processing


Data Processor performs target tracking.

It processes target plots

(primitives) on a scan by scan basis. Then, it either associates and updates

established tracks or initiates tracks. In addition, it compares static reflector plots and
established tracks with new tracks to determine if the new track is the result of
multipath. The data processor outputs track information in a Cat10 format to an SSDP
in the MSDP
Terminal Radar Plots:
The Terminal Area Radar (TAR) is the long range (approach) sensor in an A-SMGCS
system used to monitor targets in the approach corridors. It is external to the A-SMGCS
system, with data typical y fed to the system through a serial link. The TAR may be a
primary surveillance radar (PSR) only or may include a secondary surveillance radar
(SSR). A-SMGCS expects to receive the following target information from the TAR
interface. [9]






Mode A reply

Mode C reply

Since the data for this sensor is provided by the customer, Terminal Radar data must be
aligned with MLAT data for proper coverage. This alignment is performed after MLAT
alignment is complete.


Multi Sensor Data Processor
The purpose of the Multi-Sensor Data Processor (MSDP) is to process all surveillance
and target information sources and provide an integrated (fused) output to the Display
subsystem. The MSDP is the heart of the A-SMGCS system.
It processes data from all connected subsystems:

SMR plot and track data based on radar measured position.

Multilateration plot and track data (including identification) based on multilaterated

position measurements from beacon-equipped targets.

GPS-based position measurements from ADS-B equipped targets.

Terminal radar plots.

Flight Plan information.(Note: If both MSDPs are reset, it may take up to one hour before
information is available from FPDS for departing aircraft.)

Subsystem Status messages from each connected subsystem.

Safety Logic audible and visual alerts.

Display Subsystem
The Display Subsystem provides the interface used by operators to view and manage A24

SMGCS target and map information:

The Display Subsystem contains:

Up to 15 KVM Extenders (Receiver/Transmitter pairs)

Up to 15 Display Processors (DPs)

Display Processors #3 thru #17 are in the Display Processor Cabinet(s)

One Tower Display (CWP) (with safety logic speaker) per DP

Two Ethernet Switches per rack

The purpose of the display processor is to convert the MSDP map and target data into a
visual representation of the airport surface and targets in the coverage volume.

The display processor receives map, track, data tags, and system status information
from the MSDP in the form of broadcast messages. It converts these messages into
video for display to the operators.

It saves, updates, and recall user preferences to/from the MSDP and sends control
messages to the MSDP.

It uses blocking read functions so that the Display Processor can update the display
viewed by an operator in response to an operator changing Map Range and read
MSDP messages simultaneously.

It accepts operator input via the input devices and responds accordingly,

Such as repositioning a map, creating and saving user preference sets, etc.[5]

4. RMS Subsystem
Remote Monitoring Subsystem (RMS):
The RMS is to the primary subsystem used to monitor, troubleshoot and manage the ASMGCS system
The RMS Subsystem contains the following components:
1. Maintenance Display Terminal (MDT)
2. Data Recording Facility (DRF)
3. Two DPs
4. KVM Switch
5. One Display

6. Storage Server [9]

9.7 MDT
The purpose of the MDT is to provide a maintenance interface to monitor and control the ASMGCS system.

Function: 1.The

MDT provides the interface for overall monitoring of the A-SMGCS system and

subsystem components including fault detection and isolation.

2. The MDT monitors the TP and MSDP subsystem health and status messages. System status
is displayed is displayed in the form of visual indicators (subsystem cartoons and fault status
4. The MDT interfaces with the TP and MSDP for fault clearing, rebooting, and optimizing the
connected subsystems.
5. MDT is composed of a number of processes each designed to accommodate a specified role
in the control and monitoring of the A-SMGCS system. An example of this would be the
Maintenance Toolbar.

5. The MDT provides both maintenance data, target data (via the ASD), and engineering
recording. [9]




(Frequency range: MSSR L band (1030 MHz and 1090 MHz) ASR S band (2.7- 2.9 MHz)

Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range,
altitude, direction, or speed of objects. Radar stands for RAdio Detection And Ranging.
It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles,
weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio
waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. The object returns a tiny
part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is usually located at the same site
as the transmitter.[6]

10.2 Classification:Based on operation:

Primary Radar Co-operation of targets is not required for detection. It works
on echo technology.
Secondary Radar Active co-operation of targets is required for finding range and other
details of target.

Based on waveform:

CW Radar- can detect moving target and its velocity.

CWFM Radar can detect range using fm signals.
Pulsed Radar -uses pulse modulated microwave signals for detecting range & velocity.

Based on services:
Search Radar also known as surveillance radar. Uses continuously rotating antenna.
Covers large volume of space.

Tracking Radar gives accurate angular position, range and radial velocity of targets
with precision. If used for tracking it must first be co-located with search radar for
1st acquiring the target.[7]

10.3 Applications
o Air Traffic Control
o Aircraft Navigation

o Maritime Navigation
o Meteorological Applications

o Space Applications

o Military Applications

o Law Enforcement Applications


10.4 Radars used in ATC

Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)

Air Route Surveillance Radar (SSR)

Airport Surface Movement Detection Equipment (ASDE)

Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

Monopulse Secondary Surveillance Radar (MSSR)

Maximum range of RADAR depends on:(1) Peak transmission power (4th root)
(2) Minimum detectable signal (MDS)
(3) Antenna Gain
(4) Radar Cross Section of the target
(5) Atmospheric Attenuation


10.5 Primary Radar

Primary Radar works on the principle of reflection or echo. Primary radar antennae
continuously send pulses in all possible directions. When these pulses hit some moving or
still objects, the pulse is reflected back to the antenna. Generally the radar transmitter and
receiver are located at the same located. The radar processes the information and
confirms the presence of an object. If the object is moving either closer or farther away,
there is a slight change in the frequency of the radio waves, caused by the Doppler effect.

Secondary Radar
Secondary radar works target specific. An interrogation pulse is sent from the radar
transmitter. The target, on receiving the signal, replies back with another signal. The radar
then processes the distance covered by the signal and the time taken for the operation
and calculates the position of the target accordingly. One kind of secondary radar used by
ATC is MSSR or Monopulse Secondary Surveillance Radar.

MSSR Interrogation

The interrogator transmits a pair of pulses at 1030 MHzs

Each pulse has the same duration, shape and amplitude.

Their spacing distinguishes various modes of interrogation.


P2 pulse is used for control.



In radar technology the Doppler Effect is using

for two tasks:
1) Speed measuring and
2) MTI - Moving Target Indication



The S band is part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is defined by
an IEEE standard for radio waves with frequencies that range from 2 to 4 GHz, crossing the
conventional boundary between UHF and SHF at 3.0 GHz. The S band is used by weather
radar, surface ship radar, and some communications satellites, especially those used
by NASA to communicate with the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. The 10cm radar short-band ranges roughly from 1.55 to 5.2 GHz.[8]
The S-band has long been an application space servicing both commercial and military
radars. Many of the radar systems required very high peak power levels with low to
medium pulse widths that were best served by silicon bipolar technology. Silicon
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) technology has demonstrated very high power
density under pulsed conditions and established ease of use. A true measure of power
density must include a very dense die delivering a very high power level in a small
package footprint combined with a small matching circuit wrapped around the device.
The RF power devices were biased in Class C mode of operation to maximize
efficiency at maximum power with little regard for linearity which wasnt a critical factor.
The small matching circuits and simple bias circuitry make the BJT devices easy to
implement into complex systems . The growing S-band market grew to demand wider
bandwidths and higher power levels which were both well served with silicon BJT

ADVANTAGES Algorithms developed and specifically tuned for performance at S-Band

Superior performance designed for long range weather detection
Innovative architecture provides highest receiver sensitivity
Advanced radar motion control system provides better spatial resolution resulting in
more accurate data
Industry leading clutter suppression technology

Patented fiber-optic technology provides noise free, ultra-high speed data

Adaptive spectrum-based clutter mitigation algorithms
Improved data quality achieved through advanced continuous calibration techniques
Advanced Polarimetric rainfall estimation and attenuation correction techniques
Over 500 configurable diagnostic points monitored in real-time. [9]



11.1AM Transmitters
Transmitters that transmit AM signals are known as AM transmitters. These transmitters
are used in medium wave (MW) and short wave (SW) frequency bands for AM broadcast.
The MW band has frequencies between 550 KHz and 1650 KHz, and the SW band has
frequencies ranging from 3 MHz to 30 MHzs The two types of AM transmitters that are
used based on their transmitting powers are:

High Level

Low Level

High level transmitters use high level modulation, and low level transmitters use low level
modulation. The choice between the two modulation schemes depends on the transmitting
power of the AM transmitter. In broadcast transmitters, where the transmitting power may
be of the order of kilowatts, high level modulation is employed. In low power transmitters,
where only a few watts of transmitting power are required , low level modulation is used.

High-Level and Low-Level Transmitters

Below figure shows the block diagram of high-level and low-level transmitters. The basic
difference between the two transmitters is the power amplification of the carrier and
modulating signals.
Figure (a) is drawn for audio transmission. In high-level transmission, the powers of the
carrier and modulating signals are amplified before applying them to the modulator stage,
as shown in figure (a). In low-level modulation, the powers of the two input signals of the
modulator stage are not amplified. The required transmitting power is obtained from the
last stage of the transmitter, the class C power amplifier.




figure (a)



Frequency multiplier

Power amplifier

Audio chain

Modulated class C power amplifier

Carrier oscillator
The carrier oscillator generates the carrier signal, which lies in the RF range. The
frequency of the carrier is always very high. Because it is very difficult to generate high
frequencies with good frequency stability, the carrier oscillator generates a sub multiple
with the required carrier frequency. This sub multiple frequency is multiplied by the
frequency multiplier stage to get the required carrier frequency. Further, a crystal oscillator
can be used in this stage to generate a low frequency carrier with the best frequency
stability. The frequency multiplier stage then increases the frequency of the carrier to its
required value.

Buffer Amplifier

The purpose of the buffer amplifier is two fold. It first matches the output impedance of the
carrier oscillator with the input impedance of the frequency multiplier, the next stage of the
carrier oscillator. It then isolates the carrier oscillator and frequency multiplier.
This is required so that the multiplier does not draw a large current from the carrier
oscillator. If this occurs, the frequency of the carrier oscillator will not remain stable.
Frequency Multiplier
The sub-multiple frequency of the carrier signal, generated by the carrier oscillator , is now
applied to the frequency multiplier through the buffer amplifier. This stage is also known as
harmonic generator. The frequency multiplier generates higher harmonics of carrier
oscillator frequency. The frequency multiplier is a tuned circuit that can be tuned to the
requisite carrier frequency that is to be transmitted.
Power Amplifier
The power of the carrier signal is then amplified in the power amplifier stage. This is the
basic requirement of a high-level transmitter. A class C power amplifier gives high power
current pulses of the carrier signal at its output.
Audio Chain
The audio signal to be transmitted is obtained from the microphone, as shown in figure
(a). The audio driver amplifier amplifies the voltage of this signal. This amplification is
necessary to drive the audio power amplifier. Next, a class A or a class B power amplifier
amplifies the power of the audio signal.

Modulated Class C Amplifier

This is the output stage of the transmitter. The modulating audio signal and the carrier
signal, after power amplification, are applied to this modulating stage. The modulation
takes place at this stage. The class C amplifier also amplifies the power of the AM signal
to the reacquired transmitting power. This signal is finally passed to the antenna., which
radiates the signal into space of transmission.

The low-level AM transmitter shown in the figure (b) is similar to a high-level transmitter,
except that the powers of the carrier and audio signals are not amplified. These two
signals are directly applied to the modulated class C power amplifier.
Modulation takes place at the stage, and the power of the modulated signal is amplified to
the required transmitting power level. The transmitting antenna then transmits the signal.




HFs (330 MHz) offer long-range and even worldwide communication via the ionosphere.
Since HF systems require only modest transmitters and antennas, and do not require
external infrastructure, HF links can be easily established from remote locations, or
following a natural disaster. Terminals are often connected to the local PSTN or Internet to
allow remote access. HF is widely used for voice and data communication by military,
diplomatic, aeronautical, marine, and amateur-radio services. However, the variable and
dispersive nature of the ionosphere imposes some unique requirements on both hardware
and communication protocols.

HF Communication Systems
The transmitting station consists of a transmitter, matching network, and antenna. The
receiving station includes an antenna, matching network or active preamplifier, and
receiver. Most HF equipment is operable over all or most of the 230-MHz range, and
each group of users is typically assigned a number of frequencies or bands. HF systems
employ a wide variety of transmitting antennas [1]. Low-angle radiation is needed for longrange communication, while high-angle radiation is needed for shorter range nearvertical-incidence- skywave (NVIS) communication. It is not necessary to match the
polarizations of the transmitting and receiving antennas because the ionosphere generally
produces elliptical polarization.
Low-angle directional transmission is usually accomplished by a mechanically rotated
beam such as a Yagi (specific frequency) or log-periodic dipole array (band of
frequencies). The gains are typically in the range of 310 dB. Low-angle omnidirectional
transmissions typically use monopoles.


In radio communication, skywave or skip refers to the propagation of radio

waves reflected or refracted back toward Earth from the ionosphere, an electrically
charged layer of the upper atmosphere. Since it is not limited by the curvature of the
Earth, skywave propagation can be used to communicate beyond the horizon, at
intercontinental distances. It is mostly used in the shortwavefrequency bands.
As a result of skywave propagation, a signal from a distant AM broadcasting station,
a shortwave station, orduring sporadic E propagation conditions (principally during
the summer months in both hemispheres)a low frequency television station can
sometimes be received as clearly as local stations. Most long-distance shortwave
(high frequency) radio communicationbetween 3 and 30 MHzis a result of skywave
propagation. Since the early 1920s amateur radio operators (or "hams"), limited to
lower transmitter power than broadcast stations, have taken advantage of skywave
for long distance (or "DX") communication.

Skywave propagation is distinct from:

groundwave propagation, where radio waves travel near Earth's surface without
being reflected or refracted by the atmospherethe dominant propagation mode
at lower frequencies,

line-of-sight propagation, in which radio waves travel in a straight line, the

dominant mode at higher frequencies.

11.4 HF TRANSMITTER MODESHFRT communication is the acronym of high frequency radio Tele Communication. When aircraft
crosses 200 NM radius from the aerodrome, one of the ways of communication is HFRT
communication. It is a distant communication. Unlike VHF, its not dependent on line of sight (LOS)
& it uses sky wave. Hence distance communication is possible through HFRT. Mainly it is used in
oceanic region where there is no way to make communication through VHF frequency range.

It is operated in two modes :


MWARA : Major World Air Route Area.

It is used for International Flight. The available frequencies for MWARA in N.S.C.B.I
Airport at Kolkata are:
10066 KHz ,6556 KHz ,3491 KHz, 2947 KHz.

Among these the first two are used during day (1st is main, 2nd is standby) &
other two frequencies are used at night.

RDARA : Regional Domestic Air Route Area.

It is used for Domestic Flight. The available frequencies for RDARA in N.S.C.B.I Airport
at Kolkata are:

8869 KHz, 6583 KHz, 8948 KHz, 5580 KHz, 2872 KHz.

These are also operated in the same manner as MWARA.

HFRT is very noisy because transmission is done using ionospheres reflection.

Imaginary points on different routes are named to facilitate aircrafts
navigation. Some names are : DOPID, BBKO, MABUR, BINDA etc.
The difference in elevation levels that can be assigned to flight in the same
direction is 1000 ft and in opposite direction it is 2000 ft.
Minimum horizontal separation between any two aircrafts is 10 NM. [9]



5.www. A-SMGCS.com & department of ASMGCS in AAI
9. material from respective departments in AAI.