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PLS 100 (Fall 2014)

Exam 1 Study Guide

Know definitions and
significance associated with
these terms:

Bill of Rights
Checks and balances

Chapter 1
Constitutional government
Authoritarian government
Totalitarian government
Agenda power
Veto power
Transaction costs
Collective action principle
Free riding
Public good
Tragedy of the commons
By-product theory
Selective benefits
Path dependency
*Prisoners dilemma
*Keep-Share Game
*Nash equilibrium
Five principles of politics

Chapter 3
Expressed powers
Implied powers
*Negative right vs positive
Necessary and proper
Reserved powers (10th
Police power
Concurrent powers
Full faith and credit
Privileges and immunities
Home rule
Dual federalism
Commerce clause
Cooperative federalism
Categorical grants-in-aid
Project grants
Formula grants
Unfunded mandates
Block grants
States rights
State sovereign immunity
Checks and balances
Legislative supremacy
Divided government
Executive privilege
Writ of habeas corpus
*Regulated federalism
*New federalism

Chapter 2
Articles of Confederation
and Perpetual Union
New Jersey and VA plans
Great Compromise
Three-fifths compromise
Expressed power
Necessary and proper
Judicial review
Supremacy clause
Separation of powers

Chapter 4
Civil liberties
Strict scrutiny
Dual citizenship
14th Amendment
Miranda rule

Establishment clause
Lemon test
Free exercise clause
Clear and present danger
Prior restraint
Speech plus
Fighting words
Due process
Exclusionary rule
Grand jury
Double jeopardy
Eminent domain
Right to privacy
Selective and total
Chapter 5
Civil rights
Equal protection clause
Separate but equal rule
de jure segregation
de facto segregation
intermediate scrutiny
affirmative action
*Civil Rights Act of 1964
*Commerce Clause
*White primaries, poll tax,
literacy test,
grandfather clause
Affirmative Action
*Plessy v. Ferguson
*Brown v. Board of
Terms in italics were
emphasized in class.
You do NOT need to know
the terms that are crossed
out like this.
*These terms were
emphasized in class but do
not necessarily appear as
highlighted vocab terms in
the book.

PLS 100 (Fall 2014)

Exam 1 Study Guide
Possible Short Answer Questions (we will choose 2 out of this group for the exam)
1) In what way was the U.S. Constitution a compromise between: (a) large and small states, (b)
between federalists and anti anti-federalists?
2) Explain the prisoners dilemma or the Keep-Share game. Why is it hard to ensure
cooperation among all players? Provide one example in how this dilemma relates to politics.
3) Why is the drinking age, which is determined by state law, 21 in all states?
4) What is the difference between civil liberties and civil rights? Provide an example of each.
Additional review questions to think about
1) What were some problems with the Articles of Confederation? How did the U.S. Constitution
improve upon the Articles?
2) How is the Constitution amended?
3) How do federalism and the separation of powers limit the power of the national
4) Explain how and why the power of the national government has expanded over time. What
were some of the major turning points in the relationship between the state governments
and national government? What parts of the Constitution have been used to justify the
expansion of the federal government?
5) Some specific Amendments to know: What are the 1st Amendment rights (discussed in the
book and lecture)? What right does the 2nd Amendment protect? In what way do the 9th and
10th amendments contrast with the first 8 listed?
6) What in the Constitution protects a womans right to choose (abortion) and the rights of
homosexuals (in terms of private sexual behavior)?
7) What is the difference between total incorporation and selective incorporation of the Bill of
Rights? How has the Bill of Rights been incorporated in the U.S.?
8) What are examples of seemingly opposed Constitutional principles? Think about how they
are in tension (e.g., Establishment clause vs. Free exercise clause; Supremacy clause vs 10th
9) How was racial politics and slavery largely kept off the agenda early in US history?
10) What role did each political actor have in the civil rights movement during the middle of the
20th century? Mass public, Courts, President, Congress?
11) Why was constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 questioned? Why was it upheld as
constitutional by the Supreme Court?
12) The only court cases you need to know by name are: Plessy v. Ferguson; Brown v. Board of