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FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

1. INTRODUCTION
Flying robot is a four rotor quadcopter which is lifted and propelled by the
propellers. It has two sets of propellers-two clockwise (CW) and two counter clockwise
(CCW) propellers. By varying the speed (rpm) of the motors, flying robot is able to fly
due to change in torque load and thrust/lift characteristics. The speed of the motor is
controlled by the electronic speed controller (ESC) and stabilization of flying robot
depends on the pre-programmed multi-controller.
We are interfacing four sensors (PIR, LDR, FIRE, and TEMPERATURE) with
global positioning system (GPS) and GSM Module to communicate the sensors data
with us. GSM Module is highly efficient communication media and provides wide
coverage area in very less amount. The operating frequency of GSM is varies Between
900 MHZ to 1800 MHZ. The operating principle of GSM is based on Time Division
Multiple Access.
Sensors are nothing but a device or a transducer which convert any physical or
environmental quantity to electrical signal. Passive infrared sensor (PIR) sensors are
also known as motion sensors provide us the information about the presence of any
moving object on the basis of energy radiate by the moving object . Light dependent
register (LDR) detects the presence of light on the basis of Intensity of light. Fire sensor
are used to detect the fire and temperature sensor are used to detect the
temperature(Thermistor) is high or not on the basis of threshold or reference
temperature value. All these sensors are connected with GSM Module through PIC
microcontroller to communicate the sensed data with the receiver side GSM module
which is connected with our laptop. GPS helps us to find the exact location and tracking
of flying robot on the basis of latitude and longitude value.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

2. LITERATURE SURVEY
[2.1] A One Wheel Flying Robot- Soumya Das Dept. Of E.C.E. Bengal
Institute of Technology WBUT, International Journal of Computer Applications
(0975 8887) Volume 61 No.5, January 2014
More recently, a growing interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been
shown among the research community. Being able to design a vertical takeoff and
landing (VTOL)-UAV, which is highly maneuverable and extremely stable, is an
important contribution in the field of aerial robotics since potential applications are
tremendous (e.g., high buildings and monuments investigation, rescue missions, film
making, etc.). For the navigation and military purpose their mainly two type of robot
use: multi or single wheel robot and flying robot .But each type has certain limitation, to
overcome from that here we have propose a novel concept of a robot called OWFR(one
wheel flying robot) base on the Vertical takeoff and landing(VTOL) mechanism. OWFR
can land on its single wheel .It can pass from a very narrow road as it has only one
wheel. By simulation we have shown that it will efficiently land and fly in its single
wheel and thus it is better than previous type of robots.
Robots are An electro-mechanical device which is capable of reacting in some
way to its environment, and take autonomous decisions or actions in order to achieve a
specific task."
Multi or Single Wheel Robot
In the single or multi wheel robot the main purpose of wheel is to give the stable
Movement. The invention of the wheel was, without a doubt, a revolutionary step in the
development of transport, with the improvement of wheel all the transport vehicle
quality is improving.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

Use of microcontrollers is introducing a new system that capable of autonomous


operations The Grover which is created by CMU and the Gyrobot which is created by
NUS. Are both single wheel robot that are got stability by using mechanical gyroscopes
and the main advantage of using gyroscope is the robot can move any direction or any
angle.
Flying Robot
Flying robot is a low-cost and small-size flying platforms are becoming
broadly available and some of these platforms are able to lift relatively high payloads
and provide an increasingly broad set of basic functionalities. This enables even
inexperienced pilots to control these vehicles and allows them to be equipped with
autonomous navigation abilities. Whereas most of the proposed approaches for
autonomous flying focus on systems for outdoor operation, vehicles that can
autonomously operate in indoor environments are envisioned to be useful for a variety
of applications including surveillance and search and rescue. In such settings and
compared to ground vehicles, the main advantage of flying devices is their increased
mobility. As for ground vehicles, the main task for an autonomous flying robot consists
in reaching a desired location in an unsupervised manner, i.e. without human
interference. In the literature, this task is known as navigation. To address the general
task of navigation one requires tackling a set of problems ranging from state estimation
to trajectory planning.
Those systems are generally called as flying robots or unmanned air vehicle
(UAV). UAVs are defined as aircraft without the onboard presence of pilots. Those
systems are widely used for military applications, search and rescue operations,
agricultural disinfection, filming sports events or movies from almost any angle and
transporting or controlling equipment. Earlier day some type flying robot are invented
and These are Quad-rotor, Twin-rotor,Tri-rotor, Helicopter, UAV, VTOL, etc.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

An autonomous landing maneuver depends largely on two capabilities: the


decision of where to land and the generation of control signals to guide the vehicle to a
safe landing.

Fig:2.1 Balance using the effect of gyroscopic precession induced by the applied
torque
Fig: 2.2 The basic configuration of Gyrover

The behavior of gyrover is based on the principle of gyroscopic precession as


exhibited in the stability of a rolling wheel. Because of its angular momentum, a
spinning wheel tends to process (its axis) at right angles to an applied torque, according
to the fundamental equation for gyroscopic precession, T = J where is the
angular speed of the wheel, is the wheel's precession rate, normal to the spin axis, J is
the wheel polar moment of inertia about the spin axis, and T is the applied torque,
normal to the spin and precession axes.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

Figure shows a schematic representation of the mechanism design. Robot is a


sharp-edged wheel, inside of which an actuation mechanism is fitted. The actuation
mechanism consists of three separate actuators:

A spin motor, which spins a suspended flywheel at a high rate, imparting


dynamic stability to the robot;

A tilt motor, which controls the steering of the robot; and

A drive motor, which causes forward and/or backward acceleration, by driving


the single wheel directly.

FLYING MODE OF OWFR

Fig 2.3: Flying modes of OWFR


CONSTRUCTION OF OWFR
Gyroscopic Wheel
A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the
principle of angular momentum. Mechanically, a gyroscope is a spinning wheel. In
OWFR gyroscope is the only one wheel we used.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

Rotor Blades
The blades of OWFR are long, narrow airfoils with a high aspect ratio, a shape
which minimizes drag from tip vortices (see the wings of a glider for comparison). They
generally contain a degree of washout to reduce the lift generated at the tips, where the
airflow is fastest and vortex generation would be a significant problem. Rotor blades are
made out of various materials, including aluminum, composite structure and steel or
titanium with abrasion shields along the leading edge. Rotorcraft blades are traditionally
passive.
Supporting Arms
Four supporting arms R1,R2,R3 &R4 are there in OWFR. Mainly those are used
to stabilize the robot. In the algorithm of landing we have use Lr. where Lr initial value
is the height of supporting arm.
Camera
In OWFR camera is an very important part. Mainly CCD video camera is use to
see the landscape means to view the surrounding environment.
Altitude Controller
Attitude determination is an essential task for flying robotics applications.
Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is a fundamental instrument in order to control and
store data of the flying object.
CHALLENGES OF OWFR
The main challenge of OWFR is to

Take off safely through its one wheel because in the time of take-off robot
should be stable and also upper surrounding environment should be obstacle
free.

Land safely on a narrow path on its one wheel is an very challenging task.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

It can fly up to 10 meters from ground using its flying instruments. It can be fly
above 10 meter but when we control the robot through remote to fly very high
altitude communication in between robot and remote should be very strong.

It uses the Vertical Takeoff and Landing mechanism (VTOL) to fly.

Its can land on its single wheel which is the main characteristics of OWFR and
landing in one wheel is the most challenging work because in the time of
landing on ground robot should be stable.

It can pass from a very narrow road like as it has only one wheel.

[2.2] Review On Blimp Robot Based On Embedded System And


Fuzzy Logic - Sunil K. Suman, Prof. Sania M. Ansari Department of ExTC, D.Y.
Patil School of Engineering SPPU, Pune, Maharashtra, India,.
Blimps have some advantages, for example that they do not need driving forces
to float and can move in any direction. In this paper we are going to present a low
weight , embedded system based blimp unmanned Airship. Advantages of this project
could be less energy consumption low noise and cost efficiency which could made them
ideal for exploration of areas without Disturbing environment. We are trying to use the
Fuzzy controller. Mainly to control the navigation of blimp. We are going to facilitates
blimp with obstacles avoidance and going to provide more stability to blimp system in
air.
THE ROBOTIC BLIMP
In todays world, there are many things that go wrong in life. The outcome on
arrays of events that occur all the way from terrorism to as simple as traffic accidents
can dramatically change if cameras were implemented more in our society.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

Even though there have been more applications of their usage, the idea of them
being mobile would be more idyllic. Introducing the Aerial Blimp Robot, a robotic
blimp camera system designed to be an all-in-one observation system. The research
behind this project will have the prospective to make important contributions to the
advancement of self-directed robotics as well as being enjoyable to us engineering
students. Refined machines are able to do crazy tasks that most people cannot even
begin to think about much less have people try to complete the inconceivable tasks,
which would take extended periods of time to accomplish, and in the end may even led
to the overall failure of the tasks in the first place. The main objective of this paper is to
design a mobile device that will be able to observe and capture events as they happen
while being connected to an aviation envelope. It will have several main functions,
which are as follows: video surveillance, camera stabilization system, power directed
propellers (on a rotating axis), user control by remote control, user control by inputting
coordinates into system, user control by computer ,laptop, and video recognition. This
system has the intentions to be just a fancy surveillance system; however, it will also act
as a type of revenue for some people by advertising their companys logo on the side, or
even sending data to a centralized base such as weather readings, body counts at special
events, or simply just recording your favorite football team to watch on television.
The development of small size autonomous flying vehicles represents one of the
current frontiers of research in mobile robotics. In this context, aerial blimps have the
advantage that they operate at low speed, do not spend energy to keep their position, and
are not overly sensitive to control errors compared to other flying vehicles. On the other
hand, they are sensible to outside influences like air flow and are subject to a three
dimensional motion model with translations and Rotations.

Therefore, they are a

common platform to evaluate robotic algorithms for autonomous flight and navigation.
In this project, we describe how such a blimp system including an embedded micro
system and software framework can be build up. In this regard, we aim to keep the
system as small and agile as possible in order to operate indoors.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

This size constraint also limits the possible weight of the blimp. Due to these
characteristics, blimps are not only interesting for robotics but also for micro system
technology as the attached devices should be both small and efficient. Such performance
aspects are evaluated in the experiments.

Fig.2.4. Full blimp system


Recently, the robotics community has shown an increasing interest in smallsized and low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) such as helicopters, quad rotors, or
blimps. Especially their low power consumption and safe navigation capabilities make
blimps ideally suited for long-term indoor operation tasks. In thesis, we present the
design of a robotic blimp for autonomous indoor navigation. The hardware as well as
the software system of our blimp is designed in a modular way so that it can be easily
adapted for various autonomous navigation experiments. Furthermore, we introduce
environment models, the formal state and control definition for miniature blimps, and
methods to obtain accurate ground truth state information. We finally present a motion
model for miniature indoor airships, which physically simulates the motion based on
forces and torques and which enables a probabilistic motion prediction.
THE BLIMPS SYSTEM UNIT
A. The Main Unit (MU)
The processing control unit is the core of the system and it is distributed among
At mega microcontroller which handles stability control and maintaining blimp attitude
set points.

Prime College of Engineering

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

Our chosen for this microcontroller depends on its ability to interface with other
components in the system.
B. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)
As a flying robot the Bryan angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) are required and to
obtain these angles an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was used. The accelerometer
data along with the gyroscope data about all three axes will be taken into contexts,
allowing the blimp to know its attitude along with its distance travelled at any point in
time.
C. Motor Drivers
They are necessary to control the speed of each motor. The drivers are based on
discrete MOSFET H-bridge motor driver enables bidirectional control of one highpower DC brushed motor. It supports a wide 5.5 to 30 V voltage range and is efficient
enough to deliver a continuous 15 A without a heat sink. The pulse-width modulation
(PWM) is directly controlled by the microcontroller.
D. Sensors
We mounted a quarter ring with four ultrasonic sensors to gondola in (x, y) plane
to be used for avoidance obstacles. The altitude distance during the flight was
verification and controlled via the fifth ultrasonic sensor that is downward-facing
mounted at the bottom of the gondola.

Prime College of Engineering

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Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

Fig.2.5 the Gondola Onboard Unit (GOU)

[2.3] Vision Based Flying Robot With Sensing Devices For MultiPurpose Application - Pratik Kumar, Electronics And Telecommunication,
Sathyabama University Chennai, India, Sumit Kumar Rajak Electronics And
Telecommunication Sathyabama University Chennai, India, Gaurav Kumar T.Stephen
John Electronics And Telecommunication Electronics And Telecommunication
Sathyabama University Sathyabama University Chennai, India Chennai, India
Flying robot is a four rotor quadcopter which is lifted and propelled by the
propellers. It has two sets of propellers-two clockwise (CW) and two counter clockwise
(CCW) propellers. By varying the speed (rpm) of the motors, flying robot is able to fly
due to change in torque load and thrust/lift characteristics. The speed of the motor is
controlled by the electronic speed controller (ESC) and stabilization of flying robot
depends on the pre-programmed multi-controller. We are interfacing four sensors (PIR,
LDR, FIRE, and TEMPERATURE) with global positioning system (GPS) and GSM
Module to communicate the sensors data with us. GSM Module is highly efficient
communication media and provides wide coverage area in very less amount. The
operating frequency of GSM is varies between 900 MHZ to 1800 MHZ.

Prime College of Engineering

11

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

The operating principle of GSM is based on Time Division Multiple Access


(TDMA). Sensors are nothing but a device or a transducer which converts any physical
or environmental quantity to electrical signal. Passive infrared sensor (PIR) sensors are
also known as motion sensors provide us the information about the presence of any
moving object on the basis of energy radiate by the moving object. Light dependent
register (LDR) detects the presence of light on the basis of Intensity of light. Fire sensor
are used to detect the fire and temperature sensor are used to detect the temperature
(Thermistor) is high or not on the basis of threshold or reference temperature value. All
these sensors are connected with GSM Module through PIC microcontroller to
communicate the sensed data with the receiver side GSM module which is connected
with our laptop. GPS helps us to find the exact location and tracking of flying robot on
the basis of latitude and longitude value The eye of flying robot is wireless camera fixed
with it and uses a High-watt (HW) battery as a input power source with light sensor so
that it also work efficiently at night and provide good quality video.
To receive this video we have wireless receiver whose coverage area is 50 meter.
After receiving this video we are implementing Mat lab program for the detection of the
moving object using Background subtraction on the basis of Frame difference.
PICK and PLACE system is used to carry small things from one place to other
with the help of flying robot. It can rotate 180 degree with the help of servo motor and
hold any objects.

Prime College of Engineering

12

Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

3. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Flying robot has witnessed an incredible evolution in the last years. Existing
models of quadcopteruses epoxy glass sheet for the central hump which haswiring and
soldering problem so instead of epoxy sheetwe prefer ceramic board which has inbuilt
wiring hencesoldering problem is solved. The earlier model frame ismade up of
aluminium rod which is heavier so we usedcarbon fiber frame which is lighter than the
aluminum rod. Earlier model have one or two applications while ourflying robot has
many application. They have not pick & PICK system is used to carry small things from
one place to other with the help of flying robot. It can rotate 180 degree with the help of
servo motor and hold any objectsplace arm while ours have pick and place arm which
canpick two to three hundred gram.

Fig 3.1. Block diagram of quadcopter.

Prime College of Engineering

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Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

Now lots of flying robotpresent in the market with camera for surveillance or
with GPS for tracking any object. So we made a flying robot with sensing devices
(sensors), GPS, Pick and Place and wireless camera.Flying robot is a vehicle which
consists of four rotors with propellers to get sufficient amount of throttle so that it can
easily lift and fly. The design of flying robot based on NEWTON-EULERS equation.
The quad are generally used by military and law enforcement companies .One of
them is AERYONSCOUTwhich is used by America for surveillance the drug traffickers.
Quad is also used in matches for recording purpose. The basic principle of flying is the
equal force generated by the all four motors. Out of which two are rotating in clockwise
direction while two are in counterclockwise direction. Due to which thrust and torque is
produced about its center of rotation and also Drag force is produced opposite to the
vehicle which helps this vehicle in flying. The main mechanical components are frame
(made up of carbon fiber materials due to its light weight), four motors with electronic
speed controller, four propeller, pick and place.
When sensors detect any physical phenomena, sends that to pic microcontroller
which has inbuilt analog to digital converter converts this analog signal to digital form
and sent to the authorized person via GSM module.

Fig 3.2. Video Transmission

Prime College of Engineering

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Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

The eye of our flying robot is this wireless camera continuously capturing the
video and sends us through the wireless receiver which we can see in our laptops or PC
with the help of TV tuner card. After getting this video we implement Mat lab coding on
that video for moving object detection using Background subtraction technique on the
basis of frame difference Background subtraction subtracts the background from
foreground according to our region of interest. This technique is useful for thermal or
nuclear power plant since normal human cant go there our quad will go thereand check
whether any human is there or not and to recognize them we need this background
subtractiontechnique

Fig 3.3. Block diagram of flying robot


This is the final block diagram of our flying robot after interfacing all the
sensors, camera, pick & place. The power source of quad is Li-PO battery of 2250mAh

Prime College of Engineering

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Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

capacity which is connected with motor through the PCB board where all four motors
wire is soldered. The rotation of the motor and the direction of the quad is control by the
RC control of 2.5GHz six channel. The movement of pick & place arm is also controlled
by the RC controller. We used two software Mat lab for background subtraction and
KEIL software for sensors coding with PIC microcontroller.

Prime College of Engineering

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Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

4. EXPERIMENTAL OUTPUT
At first we have to fixed the propellers with the help of tightened rod and insert
the SIM card in GSM module then connect the motors with the battery then switch ON
the remote controller and established the connection (arm) between the flying robot and
the RC receiver. After that give little bit throttle, when quad is in air then give direction
to the flying robot. The assembled quad is shown in figure 4.1.
The output of wireless sensor is in text form which we get through the GSM
module so we have to insert a SIM card so that it can communicate with us

Fig 4.1. Assembled flying robot


At first we have to set two mobile number on which we want to receive the
messages and also threshold value for temperature, human intensity. So on the basis of
that sensor will send the information to the authorized person. Light dependent register
value we can check from display only. When sensor sense the temperature, fire, human
it compares the sensed value with fixed value, if it is more than that it will send the
message like TEMPERATURE HIGH,FIRE DETECT with their latitude and
longitude value. We can check this message on our pc also with the help of visual basic
software for which we need one GSM module in the receiver side also and one serial to
USB connector to connect the GSM module with pc which is clearly shown in fig 4.2.

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Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

Fig 4.2. Sensor output in mobile

Fig 4.3. Sensors output in pc

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FLYING ROBOT

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Hyper terminal application window shows output and it is in the form of the
CMT:+mobile no. through which message is received, Date, Time, geographical
information such as latitude and longitude, and atmospheric temperature with respect to
the reference value. Also it is included with human detect (ECT) option, fire detect (RE
DETECT) option

Fig 4.4. Extracted input video frames


When we perform the coding on our video captured by camera first it will divide
the input video into frames after that it removes the background then shows the
remaining foreground output frame by frame according to our region of interest. On the
basis of frame difference we can tell that the object is moving or not. For example we
have some input frames which is shown in fig 4.4 .

Fig 4.5. Extracted output frame


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Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

After performing the mat lab coding background is subtracted and the output
frames are as shown in fig 4.5.
Thus the high performance flying robot is designed and flew successfully. Multi
sensors detection system using PIC microcontrollers has been designed, developed &
deployed successfully. The weight of the robot is reduced, complexity of wiring is
reduced and flight time is improved successfully. The recipient can easily observe some
certain region without moving here and there with the help of flying robot. In future the
fuel problem can be solved by the use of hydrogen-fuel cell and the quality of video
taken by camera can be enhanced by the use of image sharpening, feature extraction,
smoothing etc also with the using of high quality cameras. By the use of ultrasonic,
water and smoke sensor the usage of quad is very high.

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FLYING ROBOT

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5. APPLICATIONS
5.1 PHOTOGRAPHY & FILM PRODUCTION

Figure 5.1. Photography using flying robot


Aerial images are ideal for putting objects in the right perspective. A flying robot
can quickly scan over real estate properties, industrial and architectural sites, roads and
open terrain, and generate impressive images for documentation, advertising and
publicity.

5.2 MAPPING & SURVEYING

Figure 5.2. Mapping and surveying

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FLYING ROBOT

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Precise Surveying with Aerial Images. The flying robot covers the terrain via a
programed route, and delivers high-resolution, blur-free shots for further processing in
GIS applications.

5.3 INSPECTION & DOCUMENTATION

Figure 5.3. Inspection using flying robot


Control and inspection of inaccessible buildings and industrial plants such as
Buildings and bridges, large containers, power lines, pipelines, wind power and
photovoltaic systems.

5.4 MONITORING & ANALYZING

Figure 5.4. Monitoring an area using flying robot

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Analyzing Process and Change. Flying robots are ideal for taking systematic
inventory, analyzing progress, and keeping track of the protocol of projects such as in
construction or property development. Also, in the regular inspection of buildings and
facilities, flying robots provide valuable support.

5.5 DETECTION & SAFETY

Figure 5.5. Detection and safety surveillance


First Aid in Disaster. With the help of cameras and detectors, flying robots can
sense people, chemical compounds, hotspots, leaks, and other materials. They measure
industrial gases and emissions in the air with specialized sensors, and capture the
context conditions in film and photo...

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FLYING ROBOT

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6. ADVANTAGES

First and foremost, flying robots are fun to build and fly

Experiments on Remote controlled robots are going on for years. This means
there is a huge community which can help you if you like to build one.

These robots are extremely useful as surveillance robots

Spying on people in ways people can't move and from views humans can't reach

Giving us information that humans can't get

Working at places 24/7 without any salary and food. Plus they don't get bored

They can perform tasks faster than humans and much more consistently and
accurately

They can capture moments just too fast for the human eye to get, for example the
Atlas detector in the LHC project can capture ~ 600000 frames per second while
we can see at about 60

Most of them are automatic so they can go around by themselves without any
human interference

Other Advantages

Saves Lives: The most obvious advantage of flying robots is that they greatly
reduce putting military personnel in harms way or in combat.

Low Cost: The second most obvious advantage of flying robots is their low cost,
because they are significantly cheaper to purchase, fuel, and maintain than
regular airplanes.

Low Risk: Since flying robots are smaller and can fly lower than traditional
airplanes, there is less risk to military hardware.

Operational Hours: Without a human pilot, flying robots can stay in operation
for significantly longer hours of operation without fatigue. Additionally, flying
robots pilots or operators can easily hand off controls of a flying robots without
any operational downtime.

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Accuracy: flying robots can have more pinpoint accuracy from greater
distances, thus reducing collateral damage to civilians and infrastructure.

Lethal: flying robots are as lethal to enemy combats as regular airplanes.

Spying: Years before flying robots were used in combat; flying robots have
proven to increase surveillance, reconnaissance, and general military
intelligence.

Deployment: Finally, flying robots are significantly easier and faster to deploy
than most alternatives

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7. DISADVANTAGES

Building a flying robot is expensive when compared to purchasing one

Requires extensive research before designing and building one (and even then it
might fail)

A minor crash can break parts and make your robot irreparable. The parts
required to build these flying robots are very expensive making a crash even
worst.

It needs a supply of power

It needs maintenance to keep it running

Limited Abilities: flying robots have obvious limitations. For example, they
cannot communicate with civilians for more detailed intelligence. flying robots
cannot capture surrendering military personnel, abandoned hardware, or military
bases. flying robots cannot go from door to door, at least, not yet.

Civilian Losses: flying robots warfare often causes collateral damages in


civilian lives and property, as well as traditional warfare too.

Counterproductive and Destabilizing: Civilian opinions about flying robots


are typically negative, since they are viewed as an invasion force. The mere
presence of flying robots has been known to convert civilians into military
combats. Furthermore, when flying robots cause collateral damage, such as
killing civilians and damaging civilian property, the opinions of civilians
decrease even more so. Additionally, some cultures believe the use of flying
robots as not brave and cold hearted. As a result, flying robots are sometimes
counterproductive by more destabilizing some regions.

Too Easy: By making flying robots warfare very similar to video games, flying
robots warfare makes combat too easy by diminishing ethical decisions.

Take Over: Finally, the worst case scenario is when flying robots or a fleet of
flying robots have been commandeered or taken control by the enemy. While
security measures help make this possibility more difficult, it will never be
impossible.

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8. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
The vision for the demonstration was to advance the state-of-the-art in the
integration of heterogeneous robots into a single team with minimal human intervention.
This required the presentation of a single integrated command and control interface for
the human operator that enabled him/her to task the team and monitor performance of
the mission. This proved to be very challenging since the team consisted of diverse
robotic assets from different universities, each running different operating systems and
robot control architectures, and all quite different in physical size and capabilities. The
final multi-robot coordination framework had to be both flexible and responsive to be
able to execute tasks efficiently and robustly
The task was to patrol a small village and report and track a human target. The
approach taken was to augment each robotic assets controller with an instance of a
distributed tasking software agent. For each robot, this agent negotiated work
assignments with the other assets agents and with the operator console to support
assigning tasks across the assets. Each tasking agent instance maintained a work queue
for its robot and passed commands and waypoints to the underlying controller for
execution. It also aggregated status reported by the underlying controller and sent status
reports back to the controller and to the other robots. This architecture allowed the
operator to create a single mission for the team, distribute the mission to the robotic
team members over the wireless network, and monitor, modify, or replace the mission
during execution. In this fashion, the commander was able to deploy the mission across
the team using the operator console and monitor progress of the mission and the location
of vehicles on a map display during the demonstration. When a threat was identified the
operator was presented with video of the potential target for confirmation.

Prime College of Engineering

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Dept of CSE

FLYING ROBOT

SEMINAR REPORT 16

9. CONCULSION
Flying robot technology can be adopted to address a given mission needs from
pre-launch inspections to on-board inspection and health monitoring of a CEV. This
technology combined with micro-Raman spectrometer probes may monitor stress
related cracks and fissures by providing a vertical and horizontal scanning of the
materials and hardware. Flying robots can also perform the function of an assistant robot
for a primary robot, where the primary robot may control planning and scheduling of all
instrumentation of the micro-flying robots in inspection missions and in sciences
missions. The micro-flying robots can support human missions as robotic assistance.
Since micro-flying robot development is at its initial stages, new innovative concepts are
needed to achieve NASA's mission needs and goals.

Prime College of Engineering

28

Dept of CSE