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# [UNIT 4 PHYSICS ON THE MOVE 4.

3] 1

## 4.3 Particle Physics

1. Nucleon Number and Proton Number
2. Alpha Particle Scattering
3. Electrons from thermionic emission
4. Particle Accelerators and Detectors
5. r = p/BQ
6. Analysing Detection
7. Particle Breaking
8. Creation and Annihilation of Matter and Antimatter
9. Conversion of SI and non-SI units
10. Relativistic Effects
11. Standard Quark-Lepton Model
12. Standard Nuclear Notation and Standard Particle Symbols
13. de Broglies wave equation

## <read to pg 78-81, for a brief intro>

Proton number (atomic number) refers to the number of
protons in an atom.
Nucleon number (mass number) refers to the sum of the
number of proton and neutrons in an atom in the nuclei.

## In the experiment where alpha particles ( 42 He ); the

nucleus of helium is radiated through a thin gold foil, the
following observations were obtained:o Most pass through with little deviation
o Some deflected with a large angle
o A few repelled back.
The inference:o Most of the atom is an empty space
o The atoms positive charge is concentrated at one
spot.
o The mass is concentrated in a central nucleus.
An alpha particle is positively charged.
<try question on pg. 81>

## Electrons liberated using photons photoelectric effect.

Electrons liberated from heated metal surface thermionic
effect.
The speed at which the electrons travel depends on the
potential difference, V.
Kinetic energy, Ek = eV
where e is the charge on an electron.

## Particle accelerators for example, an electron gun uses

potential difference to accelerate particles.
The higher the pd, the higher the acceleration.
The pd is generated by a alternating pd
2 types of accelerators
o Linear accelerator (LINAC)
o Cyclotron

## In a cyclotron, the acceleration is controlled by flipping the

frequency of the voltage in tandem with the particle.
The particle gets accelerated as it passes the gap between the
dee electrodes.

wkquay@gmail.com

Detectors
o Ionisation & Deflection recall mass spectrometer
o The electric fields function to accelerate
o The magnetic fields function to focus or to deflect
o see pg 90, fig 3.2.8

5.

r = p/BQ

## Recalling the force F on a charge particle

F = Bqv
and centripetal force
F=mv2/r
When particles are accelerated in a circular path
m v2
Bqv=
r

mv
Bq
p
r=
{ p=mv } (1)
Bq
r=

## an ionised particle will be attracted to the electrodes

a charge will then form a current which will be logged

## In order to maintain the acceleration at exactly the correct

instant, the pd has to be flipped precisely when the particles
leaves one dee to the other.
1
2 r
T=
T=
f
v
mv
( 1 ) , r=

Bq
2 mv 2 m
T =
=

Bqv
Bq
Bq
f=
i.e. frequency is independent of radius
2 m

## see fig 3.2.9b Hydrogen Bubble chamber

type of particle can be infered by observing particle tracks
o When tracks stop, collision is assumed.
o If tracks appeared from nothing, then particles have
been created.
Using Flemings left hand rule.
o Circular concentric lines are either electrons or
positrons
o Circles are concentric because particles are moving
slower.
<try question on pg 93>

7. Particle Breaking

wkquay@gmail.com

## High energies are required to accelerate particles to

relativistic speeds to emulate the Big bang to produce
particles and interaction.
see pg 94 -95 on LHC
<try question on pg 96>

## According to Einstein, matter and energy are

interchangeable, at relativistic speeds.
E = c2 m
see eg in pg 97
Hence, if a matter, meets an anti-matter it will vanish and
produce enegry.

## 9. Conversion of SI and non-SI units.

For energy, MeV and GeV
For mass, MeV/c2, GeV/c2 and atomic mass unit, u.
1 u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg
<see eg on pg 98>
10. Relativistic Effects

## Be aware that these effects need to be taken into account at

speeds near that of light.

## each particle ahs a corresponding antiparticle

Baryons (eg. protons and neutrons) are made from 3 quarks
Mesons (eg. pions) from a quark and an antiquark
Symmetry of model predicted top and bottom quark

wkquay@gmail.com

## 13. de Broglies wave equation

Wavelength,
=h/ p
where h = Planck constant
p = momentum

see eg on pg 83
<try question on pg 84>