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SASTRA UNIVERSITY

(A University established under section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956)


THANJAVUR 613402, TAMIL NADU.

SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

BBTCBT507R01/MBTCBT507
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
LABORATORY MANUAL

MOLECULAR DIFFUSION
Aim
To determine the diffusion coefficient of the given organic liquid.
Apparatus
The apparatus consists of a T-tube made up of glass with graduations on the vertical
limb. The vertical limb of the tube can be filled with a liquid and the air is allowed to flow
through the horizontal line which is connected through a regulator to an air supply. The
amount of liquid diffusing at a particular time can be calculated by reading the liquid level.
Theory
When a gas-liquid interface is present, the transfer of liquid to the gas phase takes
place by molecular diffusion. This continues till the equilibrium is reached. The substance
moves from position of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. The rate at which
a solute moves at any point in any direction must therefore depend on the concentration
gradient at the point in that direction.
Procedure
1. The setup to the air line connection is made after filling the graduated tube with the given
organic liquid to a convenient level.
2. Air is allowed to pass over the liquid surface for some till the steady state is reached.
3. The initial level of the liquid is noted and the stop watch is started simultaneously.
4. The time taken for certain drop in the level of the liquid is noted.
5. The experiment is repeated to take five to six readings. The barometric pressure and the
ambient temperature are noted.
Observations
Density of organic liquid ( )
=
Molecular weight of organic liquid =
Dry bulb temperature (DBT)
=
TABULATION
Height (cm)
S. No

DAB (cm2/s)

Time, t (s)
Initial Z1

Final Z2

Model Calculations
1. Average temperature of organic liquid (T)
2. Partial pressure of organic liquid in air (PA1)
3. Total Pressure (Pt)

=
=
=

Note: To calculate the vapor pressure of a liquid at a particular temperature, the constants A,
B & C in the Antoine Equation for that liquid must be chosen in such a way that the units for
temperature and vapor pressure are in K and kPa respectively.
4. Vapor Pressure of organic liquid at temperature, T
5. PB1
6. PB2
7. PBM

= Pt PA1 =
= Pt PA2 =
PB 2 PB1
=

ln PB 2
PB1

8. Diffusivity of the given organic liquid, DAB =

PA2 = e

B
A

T C

RTPBM Z 22 Z 12
2 Pt PA2 PA1 tM

Result
The diffusion coefficient of the given organic liquid (diethyl ether) =

DRYING IN A CURRENT OF HOT AIR


Aim
To draw a rate of drying curve for a given sample (wet brick) at constant drying
conditions and also to find the mass transfer coefficient and heat transfer coefficient using
current of hot air.
Apparatus
1. Drying Equipment (Blower, Heater, Drying chamber, Weighing balance)
2. Wet and Dry bulb thermometer.
Equipment Description
The drying equipment consists of a blower supplying air at constant flow rate and is
connected to an air heater, where the temperature of the air is raised to about 60-62 C. The
equipment is well insulated. Wet brick is attached through a thread to a counter poise balance
kept over the drying chamber.
Theory
Drying is the removal of relatively small amounts of moisture from a wet solid by
passing hot dry air. Water or other liquids may be removed from the solids mechanically by
presses or centrifuges or thermally by vaporization. It is generally cheaper to remove liquid
mechanically than thermally. The liquid content of a dried substance varied from product to
product occasionally the product contains no liquids and is called bore-drying. More
commonly the product thus contains some liquid. Drying is usually the final step in a series
of unit operations and the product from the drier is often ready for final packaging.
The rate of drying (moisture evaporated per unit area of drying surface) curve with
moisture content on the X-axis and the rate of drying is expressed as N plotted on the Y-axis.
In the beginning, the wet solid surfaces are usually colder than the ultimate surface
temperature (Ts), as evaporation rate increases the surface temperature raises to maximum
during the warming up period (the temperature of the solid becoming equal to the
temperature of the drying air). Consequently, constant rate period occurs during which the
layer of water on the surface of the solid is being evaporated. The amount of moisture
evaporated per unit time per unit area of drying surface, remains constant called constant
rate period. In these periods, the humidity of the surface equals the saturation humidity.
Then, the falling rate period (that is the amount of moisture evaporated per unit time per unit
area of drying surface) occurs due to some dry patches have started forming on the surface of
the solid. The rate of drying decreases for the unsaturated portion and hence rate for total
surface decreases. The moisture content at which, the change of constant rate period to
falling rate period (i.e., constant rate period ends and falling rate period starts) is called as
critical moisture content. Ultimately the drying becomes nil when equilibrium moisture
content is reached. The rate of drying depends on velocity, temperature and humidity of the
drying air and surface area of the solids. Drying operation may be carried out for reducing
the transportation cost, for making the material more suitable for handling and storage, in
some cases for preventing corrosion arising due to presence of moisture and reduce the
activity of the microorganisms.

Procedure
1. The blower is switched on.
2. The air heater is switched on and the temp. of the air is brought to around 60-62 C.
3. The mass of dry brick is noted. (W0)
4. The brick is wetted in a mug of distilled water for about 15 minutes so that it will be
saturated. The brick is removed out and the draining water is shaken off.
5. The brick is attached to the hook held in the thread, which is hanging from the
counterpoise balance.
6. The mass of wet brick is noted (W1) and then the stop clock is started. Two grams of
weight is removed from one pan and the time taken to reach the centre position is
noted.
7. The procedure is repeated until the entire moisture of the brick is removed. The heater
is switched off and after three minutes, the blower is switched off.
Graphs:
Graph-1: Plot Moisture content [X(t)] Versus Time(t) and draw the tangents for each point
in the curve and to determine their slopes.
Graph-2: Plot Rate of drying [N(t)] Versus Moisture content [X(t)] and to determine the
critical moisture content (Xc), constant drying rate (Nc)& equilibrium moisture content (X*).
Graph-3: Plot Rate of drying [N(t)] Versus time(t)] and it indicates how long each drying
period lasts.
Observations
1. Length of the brick (l)
=
2. Width of the brick (w)
=
3. Height of the brick (h)
=
4. Area of the brick (A)
=
5. Weight of dry brick (Wd)
=
6. Weight of wet brick (Ww)
=
7. Weight of the moisture content (Wmc) =
8. Wet bulb temperature (WBT)
=
9. Dry bulb temperature (DBT)
=
10. Steady state temperature (Tss)
=
11. Latent heat of vaporization of water (at Tss) =
TABULATION
Time taken for the
Weight of the
Moisture content (Xt)
removal of 2 gm of
S. No
wet brick (Wt)
moisture content
(g)
g of H2O/g of dry brick
(sec)

Drying rate
(Nt)
g of H2O/m2s

Model Calculation
1. Initial Moisture Content X (0)
2. Moisture Content at any time t, X (t)
3. Area of the brick (A)

= (Wt Wo)/Wo =
= (Wt - W0)/W0 =
= 2 x (l x w + h x w + l x h) =

4. Drying rate at any time t, N(t)

Ys =
Y=

dx(t )W0
=
dtA

(find the absolute humidity, corresponding to wet bulb temperature)


(find the absolute humidity, corresponding to dry bulb temperature)

5. Mass transfer coefficient (Ky)


6. Heat transfer coefficient (hg)

Nc
(Ys Y )
Nc
=
(Tg Ts)
=

7. Psychometric ratio

= [hg / Ky]

8. Duration of Constant rate period

(From graph 3)

9. Duration of Falling rate period

(From graph 3)

Result
Thus, the rate of drying curve for a given sample has been plotted and the following
parameters were determined.

1. The critical moisture content (Xc)

2. The constant rate of drying (Nc)

3. The equilibrium moisture content (X*)

4. Mass transfer coefficient (Ky)

5. Heat transfer coefficient (hg)

6. Psychometric ratio [hg / Ky]

SIMPLE DISTILLATION
Aim
To verify Rayleighs equation by conducting a batch distillation.
Theory
Distillation is the method adopted for separation of one of the components of two
miscible components in a liquid mixture. In differential distillation, the vapors generated by
the boiling liquid is withdrawn from contact with the liquid as fast as it is formed. This
operation is explained using Rayleighs equation given as
X

F
dx
F
Ln
W XW y * x
where F is the no. of moles of the feed, W is the number of moles of the residue, x f is the
mole fraction of more volatile component in the feed and xw is the mole fraction of more
volatile component in the residue.
Apparatus
The setup consists of a distillation flask, to which a condenser is attached. The
distillate is collected in a receiver through on adaptor. The still is heated by an electric hot
plate and a thermometer is used to measure the distillation temperature.

Procedure
1. A series of samples of 10ml of binary mixture A and B is made up and their densities
determined using a specific gravity bottle and an electronic balance.
2. A calibration curve is plotted between the densities and the volume fraction.
3. The distillation flask is charged with the given mixture and is heated at a slow,
uniform rate.
4. The heating is continued till approximately 45-50 % of total feed is collected as
distillate.
5. The hot plate is switched off and the flask is allowed to cool.
6. The densities of the distillate and the residue are measured using specific gravity
bottle and an electronic balance.
Observations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Volume of feed (Vf)


Volume of methanol (A) in feed (VA)
Volume of water (B) in feed (VB)
Volume of residue (Vr)
Volume of distillate collected (Vd)

=
=
=
=
=

TABULATION
Composition of mixture
S. No Volume % of Volume % of
A
B
1

100

20

80

40

60

60

40

80

20

100

VAD

VBD

VAW

VBW

Weight of empty
specific gravity
bottle, W0 (g)

Weight of bottle +
liquid mixture, W1
(g)

Density
(g/cm3)

Graphs:
Graph -1: Plot density versus volumetric composition of A
Graph II: Plot 1/(y*-x) versus x diagram for the components A in equilibrium with B
Model Calculation
Moles of methanol in feed (mAf)

VA A
MA

Moles of water in residue (mBf)

VB B
MB

Total Moles of feed (F)

= mAf + mBf

Mole fraction of methanol in feed (xf)

=mAf/F

Density of distillate
Density of residue

=
=

Volume fraction of methanol in residue (vAr)=


Volume fraction of water in residue (vBr) = 1- vAr

(from graph)

Moles of methanol in residue (mA)


Moles of water in residue (mB)

v Ar Vr A
MA
v Br Vr B
=
MB
=

Total moles of residue (W)

= mA+ mB

Mole fraction of methanol in residue (xw)

= mA / W

RHS of Rayleighs equation (Area under the curve)


Area = (No. of squares of 1mm2 area) (Scale on x-axis) (Scale on y-axis) (0.01)
LHS of Rayleighs equation
ln(F/W) =
% error
% error = (RHSLHS)/LHS
=

Result
Rayleighs equation is verified and the percentage error is found to be

LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION
Aim
To determine the extraction efficiency of water to separate acetic acid from its solution
in benzene in single stage and double stage extraction.
Apparatus
1. Separating funnel
2. Beakers
3. Burette
4. Pipette
5. Std. sodium hydroxide solution of 0.1N
Discussion
Extraction is an operation in which two miscible liquids are separated by the use of a
third liquid that preferentially dissolves one of them. When separation of miscible liquids is
difficult by distillation, extraction method is considered. Close boiling mixtures or substances
that cannot withstand the temperature of distillation, even under a vacuum may often be
separated from impurities by extraction, which uses chemical differences instead of vapour
pressure differences. Extraction is widely used for the purification of petroleum products,
penicillin recovery and in nuclear effluent treatment.
Extraction equipments may be operated as batch or continuous units. Similarly they
can be operated in single stage and multi stage modes. Extraction involves mixing a known
quantity of feed with the known quantity of solvent in an agitated vessel, after which the
layers are separated as extract and raffinate. Extraction efficiency depends on the intimacy of
contact of the phases and on the number of stages of contact, permissible by economy.
Procedure
Single Stage extraction
1. 50 ml of benzene and 25 ml of glacial acetic acid are mixed well and taken as feed in
a stopper bottle.
2. 30 ml of water is added to the bottle and the contents are mixed thoroughly by
shaking the bottle.
3. After 15 minutes , the contents of the bottle are transferred to a separating funnel
4. The extract layer is carefully removed from the separating funnel and transferred to a
beaker and its volume is measured.
5. A known volume of the extract sample is titrated against 0.1 N NaOH solution and
the volume of NaOH consumed is determined
Two Stage Extraction
1. 50 ml of benzene and 25 ml of glacial acetic acid are mixed well and taken as feed in
a stopper bottle
2. 15 ml of water is added to the bottle and the contents are mixed thoroughly by
shaking the bottle
3. After 15 minutes the contents of the bottle are transferred to a separating funnel

4. The extract layer is carefully removed from the separating funnel and transferred to a
beaker and its volume is measured
5. A known volume of the extract sample is titrated against 0.1 N Std. NaOH solution
and the volume of NaOH consumed is determined
6. The raffinate from the first stage is transferred to another stopper bottle to which 15
ml of water is added and the bottle is thoroughly shaken to mix the contents well
7. After 15 minutes, the contents of the bottle are transferred to a separating funnel.
8. The extract layer (from the second stage) is carefully removed from the separating
funnel and transferred to a beaker and its volume is measured
9. A known volume of the extract sample is titrated against 0.1 N Std. NaOH solution
and the volume of NaOH consumed is determined.
Observations
Single Stage Extraction
Volume of acetic acid in the feed (Vf)
Volume of benzene in the feed
Volume of the extract (Ve)
Volume of raffinate (Vr)

=
=
=
=

TABULATION - I
S. No

Volume of extract
taken for titration
(V2) ml

Normality of
NaOH (N1) N

Volume of NaOH
consumed (V1) ml

Model Calculations
Normality of extract (Ne)
Amount of acetic acid in the extract layer (W)
Single stage extraction efficiency ()

= (V1 N1)/V2
= (60VeNe) / 1000
= (100 W) / (Vfa)

Two stage extraction


First stage
Volume of extract (Ve1)
Volume of raffinate (Vr1)

=
=

Indicator

TABULATION - II
Volume of extract
S. No taken for titration
(V21) ml

Normality of
NaOH (N1) N

Volume of NaOH
consumed (V11) ml

Normality of extract (Ne1)

= (V11 N1)/V21

Amount of acetic acid in the extract layer (W1)

= (60Ve1Ne1)/1000

Indicator

Second stage
Volume of extract (Ve2)
Volume of raffinate (Vr2)
TABULATION - III
Volume of extract
S. No
taken for titration
(V22) ml

=
=

Normality of
NaOH (N1) N

Volume of NaOH
consumed (V12)
ml

Normality of extract (Ne2)

= (V12 N1) / V22

Amount of acetic acid in the extract layer (W2)

= (60Ve2Ne2) / 1000

Single stage extraction efficiency ()

= 100 (W1+W2)/(Vfa)

Indicator

Result
The extraction of acetic acid from benzene using water is conducted in single stage
and in two stages and the separation efficiencies are reported as follows
Efficiency in Single stage extraction
=
Efficiency in Two stage extraction
=

STEAM DISTILLATION
Aim
1. To verify the law of vapor pressure of immiscible liquids and to calculate the
vaporization efficiency and thermal efficiency of the steam distillation process.
2. To calculate the molecular weight of the given liquid by steam distillation.
Discussion
The process of steam distillation is applicable to liquids that are not miscible with
water. The phase rule states that the number of degrees of freedom (F), the number of
components (C) and the number of phases (P) are related by the equation,
F+P=C+2
In a system of two immiscible liquids the number of components is two and the
number of phases is three. Substituting these values in the above equation, we get F = 1, i.e.
the degrees of freedom is one. Fixing either the pressure or the temperature completely
defines such a system. For example, if the temperature of the system is fixed, the total vapor
pressure of the system is fixed as well as the vapor pressures of the individual components.
On the other hand, if the pressure is fixed, then the temperature at which the distillation takes
place is fixed.
From the above discussion, it can be seen that for a system comprising of two
immiscible liquids A and B the sum total of the vapor pressures equals the external pressure
(P). Thus, if PA is the vapor pressure of the component at the boiling point, the vapor
pressure of the second component, PB is equal to P-PA. If the vapor in equilibrium with such
a mixture is condensed, then the number of molecules of each component in the condensate
will be proportional to PA and PB and the mass of each component will be in the ratio,
WA PA M A

WB PB M B
Where WA and WB are the masses of A & B, MA and MB are the molecular weights of the
components A & B respectively.
Apparatus
The apparatus consists of a steam generator, a condenser, a steam still and a receiver.
The condensate eliminator is attached to the steam still which contains the liquid to be a
condenser and a receiver for collecting the distillate. Provision is made for reading the
temperature of the vapor issuing out of the steam still. The apparatus is completely lagged
except the condenser and receiver to prevent heat loss due to radiation.
Procedure
1. The apparatus is set and 100 ml of the given organic liquid is taken in the still and the
steam is bubbled through the liquid.
2. The liquid mixture is allowed to boil and the temperature of the vapor mixture is
noted.
3. The condensate is collected in the receiver.
4. The steam supply is stopped and the steam still is allowed to cool down to the room
temperature.
5. The condensate and the residue are poured in two separate measuring jars and allowed
to stand for some tine till the mixture separates in to two clear layers.

6. The volumes of the organic liquid and water are noted in both the condensate and the
residue.
7. The barometric reading is noted which gives the atmospheric pressure and the
densities of water and the organic liquid ate the room temperature.
Observations
1. Volume of aniline in the feed (VBF)
2. Temperature at the start of distillation (T)
3. Volume of distillate collected (VD)
4. Volume of residue collected (VR)
5. Volume of water in distillate (VA,D)
6. Volume of aniline in distillate (VB,D)
7. Volume of water in residue (VA,R)
8. Volume of aniline in residue (VB,R)
9. Density of aniline (B)
10. Density of water (A)
11. Molecular weight of aniline (MB)
12. Molecular weight of water (MA)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Model Calculations
Note: To calculate the vapor pressure of a liquid at a particular temperature, the constants A,
B & C in the Antoine Equation for that liquid must be chosen in such a way that the units for
temperature and vapor pressure are in K and kPa respectively.
1. Vapor Pressure of water at temperature, T
PA

=e

B
A

T C

2. Vapor Pressure of aniline at temperature, T


PB = e

B
A

T C

3. Theoretical ratio of mass of aniline collected per unit mass of water

WB
PM

B B
WA t PA M A
4. Actual ratio of mass of aniline collected per unit mass of water
V
WB

B , D B
WA a V A , D A

5. Vaporization efficiency ()

WB

WA a
=
100
WB

WA t

WB

PA M A
WA a
6. Molecular weight of the given liquid (MB) =
PB
7. Heat Input = Heat content of steam + Heat content of aniline in feed
= VA, D VA,W A c p100

Heat content of steam

is the latent heat of vaporization of water at 100 C , whose value is 2256.9 kJ/kg
cp,B is the heat capacity of aniline given by the equation, cp,B = a + bT + cT2 + dT3
Note: The above expression for is to be integrated as follows to determine the heat
content of aniline in feed, in residue and in vapors. Similar equation with different
constants is to be used to determine the heat content of water in residue and vapor.
Heat content of aniline in feed

= VB , D VB ,W B

T f 273

pB

dT

273

8. Heat Output
Heat content of residue

= Heat content of Residue + Heat content of vapors


= Heat content of water in residue
+
Heat content of aniline in residue

Heat content of water in residue

= VA,W A

T 273

= VB ,W B

T 273

dT

dT

pA

273

Heat content of aniline in residue

pB

273

Heat content of vapors = Heat content of water vapor + Heat content of aniline vapors
Note: To calculate the heat of water and aniline vapors, latent heat of vaporization of
respective liquids at the temperature of start of distillation have to be found out using
Watson equation as follows:

T T

Watson Equation is T C
1 TC T1

0.38

Where TC, T1, T are critical temperature, normal boiling point & the temperature at the
start of distillation at which is to be determined, respectively.
1 is the latent heat of vaporization of liquid at its normal boiling point

Heat content of water vapor


Heat content of aniline vapors

1. Thermal Efficiency
Result
1. Vaporization Efficiency
=
2. Molecular weight of aniline =
3. Thermal Efficiency
=

T 273

= VA, D A c pAdT T , A
273

T 273

= VB , D B c pBdT T , B
273

= Heat output / Heat input

INFRA RED RADIATION DRYING


Aim
To study the drying characteristics of given sample using infra red radiation.
Equipment Description
The apparatus consist of an infra red lamp with reflector which can be illuminated in a
controlled amount using a variac. The material to be dried is placed on a tray and spread as a
thin layer. The tray is placed on the balance pan and the loss in weight is recorded as a
function of time.
Theory
Infra red radiation is one of the special drying methods. The radiation is usually
applied by infra red lamps, and the material to be dried passes through a tunnel lined with
banks of such lamps. This procedure is suitable for drying thin film on the surface of the
material. It is used for drying paint on automobile bodies and for drying certain food and
pharmaceutical products in their final stages to make them immune to bacterial attack, and
for heat sensitive materials.
Procedure
1. The tray is placed on the balance and its empty weight is found out.(W0)
2. About 250 g of finely sized sand is taken in the tray and weighted (W1)
3. Water is sprinkled over the sand that the solid is just wet and the excess water is
drained off without the loss of sand. The weight of this wet sand is found
out.(W2)
4. The infra red lamp is switched on and stop clock is started simultaneously. The
intensity of radiation is adjusted using the variac.
5. A weight of 2g is removed from one of the pans and the time taken for the pans to
get balanced is noted.
6. The procedure is continued till the dry weight of sand is reached.
Graphs:
Graph-1: Plot Moisture content [X(t)] Versus Time(t) and draw the tangents for each point
in the curve and to determine their slopes.
Graph-2: Plot Rate of drying [N(t)] Versus Moisture content [X(t)] and to determine the
critical moisture content (Xc), constant drying rate (Nc)& equilibrium moisture content (X*).
Observations
1. Length (l)
2. Width (w)
3. Height (h)

=
=
=

TABULATION
Weight of the
solid with pan,
S. No
(Wt)
(g)

Time taken for the


removal of 2 gm of
moisture content, (t)
(sec)

Moisture content (Xt)


g of H2O/g of dry
material

Drying rate
(Nt)
g of H2O/m2s

Model Calculation
1. Initial Moisture Content X (0)
2. Moisture Content at any time t, X (t)
3. Mass transfer Area (A)

= (Wt Wo)/Wo =
= (Wt - W0)/W0 =
= LB =
m2

4. Drying rate at any time t, N(t)

dx(t )W1 W0
=
dtA

Result
Thus, the rate of drying curve for a given sample has been plotted and the following
parameters were determined.

1. The constant rate of drying (Nc)

2. The first critical moisture content (Xc1)

3. The second moisture content (Xc2)

STEAM DISTILLATION
Aim
3. To verify the law of vapor pressure of immiscible liquids and to calculate the
vaporization efficiency and thermal efficiency of the steam distillation process.
4. To calculate the molecular weight of the given liquid by steam distillation.
Discussion
The process of steam distillation is applicable to liquids that are not miscible with
water. The phase rule states that the number of degrees of freedom (F), the number of
components (C) and the number of phases (P) are related by the equation,
F+P=C+2
In a system of two immiscible liquids the number of components is two and the
number of phases is three. Substituting these values in the above equation, we get F = 1, i.e.
the degrees of freedom is one. Fixing either the pressure or the temperature completely
defines such a system. For example, if the temperature of the system is fixed, the total vapor
pressure of the system is fixed as well as the vapor pressures of the individual components.
On the other hand, if the pressure is fixed, then the temperature at which the distillation takes
place is fixed.
From the above discussion, it can be seen that for a system comprising of two
immiscible liquids A and B the sum total of the vapor pressures equals the external pressure
(P). Thus, if PA is the vapor pressure of the component at the boiling point, the vapor
pressure of the second component, PB is equal to P-PA. If the vapor in equilibrium with such
a mixture is condensed, then the number of molecules of each component in the condensate
will be proportional to PA and PB and the mass of each component will be in the ratio,
WA PA M A

WB PB M B
Where WA and WB are the masses of A & B, MA and MB are the molecular weights of the
components A & B respectively.
Apparatus
The apparatus consists of a steam generator, a condenser, a steam still and a receiver.
The condensate eliminator is attached to the steam still which contains the liquid to be a
condenser and a receiver for collecting the distillate. Provision is made for reading the
temperature of the vapor issuing out of the steam still. The apparatus is completely lagged
except the condenser and receiver to prevent heat loss due to radiation.
Procedure
8. The apparatus is set and 100 ml of the given organic liquid is taken in the still and the
steam is bubbled through the liquid.
9. The liquid mixture is allowed to boil and the temperature of the vapor mixture is
noted.
10. The condensate is collected in the receiver.
11. The steam supply is stopped and the steam still is allowed to cool down to the room
temperature.

12. The condensate and the residue are poured in two separate measuring jars and allowed
to stand for some tine till the mixture separates in to two clear layers.
13. The volumes of the organic liquid and water are noted in both the condensate and the
residue.
14. The barometric reading is noted which gives the atmospheric pressure and the
densities of water and the organic liquid ate the room temperature.
Observations
13. Volume of aniline in the feed (VBF)
14. Temperature at the start of distillation (T)
15. Volume of distillate collected (VD)
16. Volume of residue collected (VR)
17. Volume of water in distillate (VA,D)
18. Volume of aniline in distillate (VB,D)
19. Volume of water in residue (VA,R)
20. Volume of aniline in residue (VB,R)
21. Density of aniline (B)
22. Density of water (A)
23. Molecular weight of aniline (MB)
24. Molecular weight of water (MA)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Model Calculations
Note: To calculate the vapor pressure of a liquid at a particular temperature, the constants A,
B & C in the Antoine Equation for that liquid must be chosen in such a way that the units for
temperature and vapor pressure are in K and kPa respectively.
5. Vapor Pressure of water at temperature, T
PA

=e

B
A

T C

6. Vapor Pressure of aniline at temperature, T


PB = e

B
A

T C

7. Theoretical ratio of mass of aniline collected per unit mass of water

WB
PM

B B
WA t PA M A
8. Actual ratio of mass of aniline collected per unit mass of water
V
WB

B , D B
WA a V A , D A

5. Vaporization efficiency ()

WB

WA a
=
100
WB

WA t

WB

PA M A
WA a
6. Molecular weight of the given liquid (MB) =
PB
7. Heat Input = Heat content of steam + Heat content of aniline in feed
= VA, D VA,W A c p100

Heat content of steam

is the latent heat of vaporization of water at 100 C , whose value is 2256.9 kJ/kg
cp,B is the heat capacity of aniline given by the equation, cp,B = a + bT + cT2 + dT3
Note: The above expression for is to be integrated as follows to determine the heat
content of aniline in feed, in residue and in vapors. Similar equation with different
constants is to be used to determine the heat content of water in residue and vapor.
Heat content of aniline in feed

= VB , D VB ,W B

T f 273

pB

dT

273

8. Heat Output
Heat content of residue

= Heat content of Residue + Heat content of vapors


= Heat content of water in residue
+
Heat content of aniline in residue

Heat content of water in residue

= VA,W A

T 273

= VB ,W B

T 273

dT

dT

pA

273

Heat content of aniline in residue

pB

273

Heat content of vapors = Heat content of water vapor + Heat content of aniline vapors
Note: To calculate the heat of water and aniline vapors, latent heat of vaporization of
respective liquids at the temperature of start of distillation have to be found out using
Watson equation as follows:

T T

Watson Equation is T C
1 TC T1

0.38

Where TC, T1, T are critical temperature, normal boiling point & the temperature at the
start of distillation at which is to be determined, respectively.
1 is the latent heat of vaporization of liquid at its normal boiling point

Heat content of water vapor


Heat content of aniline vapors

2. Thermal Efficiency
Result
4. Vaporization Efficiency
=
5. Molecular weight of aniline =
6. Thermal Efficiency
=

T 273

= VA, D A c pAdT T , A
273

T 273

= VB , D B c pBdT T , B
273

= Heat output / Heat input

TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION


Aim
To verify transient heat conduction law with constant flux and to determine
theoretical temperature at t seconds.
Formula used
n

2

l
T Ta
x
n

x
2
e

2
1

(1 / n) sin
Ts Ta
l

l
n 1

Where
T is the temperature at distance x
Ts is the steam temperature
Ta is the water temperature
is the thermal diffusivity
L is the length of rod
X is the distance from the hot end
Procedure
1. The water is allowed to flow through the experimental set up by opening inlet valve.
2. Place the thermometer in the thermo well at the locations.
3. Open steam inlet valve & maintain steam pressure at 0.1 kg/cm2 gauge by adjusting
Steam valve.
4. Start the stop watch simultaneously as soon as steam is allowed.
5. Note down temperature at each locations at regular intervals till steady state is
attained.
6. Repeat for other two rods provided.
TABULATION - I
Length of the rod (L)
Thermal conductivity of stainless steel
FOR STAINLESS STEEL
Time
S. No
sec
T1

=
=
Temperature C
T2
T3
T4

T5

TABULATION - II
Length of the rod
Thermal conductivity of mild steel
FOR MILD STEEL
Time
S. No
sec

=
=

T1

T2

Temperature
C
T3

T4

T5

TABULATION III
Length of the rod
=
Thermal conductivity of brass =
FOR BRASS
S. No

Time
sec

T1

Temperature
C
T2
T3

T4

T5

Model Calculations
I. Stainless steel

T Ta

1.
2.
3.
4.

Ts Ta

1 x

(1 / n) sin nx
n 1

e
l

n
l

X=
X=
X=
X=

II. Mild steel

T TaTsTa 1 x l 2 (1/ n) sinnx l e

T TaTsTa 1 x l 2 (1/ n) sinnx l e

n 1

1.
2.
3.
4.

X=
X=
X=
X=

III. Brass

n 1

1.
2.
3.
4.

X=
X=
X=
X=

Graph: Plot the experimental and calculated temperature versus Distance from hot end
Result
The theoretical temperature at given time are calculated and results are tabulated
below

S. No

Material

Temperature C
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

SURFACE EVAPORATION
Aim
To determine the mass transfer coefficient for the evaporation of liquid into air under
natural convection conditions.
Theory
When a liquid is heated in an open container an increase in the vapor pressure of
liquid exerted at the surface of liquid with respect to temperature results. When the vapor
pressure reaches the value of atmospheric pressure, the liquid begins to boil and the
corresponding temperature is known as boiling point.
When the temperature of the liquid is higher than that of the atmosphere a driving
force exists due to difference in the vapor pressure of the liquid and partial pressure of vapor
in the air. Hence the transfer of mass from the surface of liquid to air occurs. From the
fundamentals and the rate of transfer, mass transfer coefficient can be calculated.
Procedure
1. The beaker is filled with sufficient amount of water and placed on the left side of a
balance.
2. The weight of the beaker with water is noted.
3. The immersion heater is inserted in to the beaker in such a way that the heater is not
in direct contact with beaker and balance.
4. The heater is switched on and water is heated to the desired temperature. The
temperature of water is maintained using a RTD.
5. The pan is balanced by adjusting the weights in the right side pan till the balance
comes to equilibrium.
6. Two grams is removed from the right side pan and the stop watch is started. The time
taken to reach the equilibrium position of pans is noted. This is due to the evaporation
of water in the left side pan into the air.
7. The procedure is continued by successively removing weights from the right side pan
and noting the time taken to reach the equilibrium position.
8. The ambient dry bulb temperature, pressure and relative humidity are measured.
Observations
Diameter of the beaker (D) =
Surface area of the beaker
=
(For evaporation)
Volume of water taken
=
Initial weight of the system =
Capacity of the heater
=
Wet bulb temperature (WBT) =
Dry bulb temperature (DBT) =
Relative Humidity (RH)
=

TABULATION - I

S. No

Mass of
beaker and
water, (g)

Average
Temperature
of water

Temperature of water
(C)

Time taken for


evaporation of 5
gm of water, t (s)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

Model Calculations
1. Rate of evaporation
N = 5/t =
(g/s)
Note:
To calculate the vapor pressure of water at a particular temperature, the constants A, B &
C in the Antoine Equation for water must be chosen in such a way that the units for
temperature and vapour pressure are in K and kPa respectively.
2. Vapor Pressure of water at temperature T,

PA = e

B
A

T C

3. Vapor Pressure of water at ambient temperature DBT

PA, amb

A DBT C

PA,amb = e
=
4. Partial Pressure of water vapor in air PA* = (RH * PA,amb) / 100 =
5. Mass transfer coefficient, kl =
TABULATION- II
Avg. Temp of
water
S. No
(K)

N
=
*
PA PA
Evaporation
Rate, N
(kg/s)

(PA PA*)
(kPa)
PA
PA PA*

Mass transfer
Coefficient, kl
(g/m2s. kPa)

Result
The mass transfer coefficient for evaporation of water into air under natural
convection conditions =

BARE TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


Aim
To find the steam side heat transfer coefficient and air side heat transfer coefficient
Apparatus
1. Steam boiler
2. Bare heat exchanger
3. Stop clock
4. Measuring gauge
5. Thermometer
6. Bucket
7. Balance
8. Length of tube 1 m, outside diameter of tube 10.3cm, inside dia of tube 10cm,material
construction SS 304
Theory
Heat exchangers are important equipments in process synthesis .Their designs have
been well developed .Heat exchangers come under different names depending on the process
example boilers, condensers, dryers, regenerative furnaces, recuperators, jacketed vessels,
coil type heat exchangers, plate tight heat exchangers ,evaporators and so many. Apart from
steam heating fluids, hot flue gases, hot air, molten metals etc serve as medium. Heat
exchanger medium performance is affected by many parameters like material of construction,
tube length, bottle spring, no pf passes, pressure deep due to flow of fluids etc many
standards like TEMA (tubular exchanger manufacturers association) ASTM(American
society for testing material) , ASME API Unfired Pressure Vessel Code (American Society
of Mechanical Engineers-American Petroleum Institute), I.S. Code (Indian Standards) are all
available now for structural and mechanical design of heat exchangers. For details refer to
McCabe and Smith V edition.
Procedure
1. The steam is allowed into the heat exchanger at a constant steam pressure (0.2 to 1
kg/sq cm) by regulating steam inlet valve.
2. The valves on the top of the exchanger are opened partially and the exchanger is
allowed to stabilize with surroundings .The exit valve is opened.
3. The condensate is simultaneously collected in the bucket or bare tube for a known
time. The volume of condensate is measured.
4. The procedure is repeated for different steam pressures.
Observation
1. Length of tube (L)
2. Outer diameter (do)
3. Inner diameter (di)
4. Atmospheric pressure
5. Ambient temperature (Tamb)

=
=
=
=
=

TABULATION - I

S. No

Gauge pressure

Atmospheric
pressure

Kgf/cm2

atm

bar

bar

Steam
temperature
TsC

Bare tube condensate


Kg / 2 min

Kg/sec

Model Calculation
I. For theoretical calculation
1. Tf = (Ts+Twall)/2 (Taking the property of the air, corresponding to film temperature, Tf).
2. Twall = (Ts+Tamb)/2
3. T = (Twall +Tamb)/2
4. = 1/T
5. NGr = (gL3T)/2
6. NPr = [Cp/K] or [/]
7. NGa = Npr.NGr
8. Nu = 0.59 (NGa)0.25
9. hair = Nu*(K/L)
10. hs = 0.943 [K32gs / LT]0.25
11. Utheo
= 1/(1/hs+1/hair (di/do))
II. For experimental calculation:
1. Steam pressure
2. Absolute pressure =
=

=
Kgf/cm2
=
bar
Gauge pressure+ Atmospheric pressure
bar

3. From Steam Table, Temperature base (corresponding to the above pressure)


Steam temperature, (Ts)
Latent heat of steam, (s)
4. Heat supplied by steam, (Qs)
5. Surface area of steam side (Ao)
6. T = (Ts - Tamb)
7. Uexp = Qs/AoT

=
= hfg =
= ms s
= doL

TABULATION - II
S.
No

Gauge
pressure

Absolute
pressure

ms
kg/s

NNu

Uthoe
K
hair

hs
Uexp
2
w/m
k
w/mk w/m2k Kg/m3 w/m2k w/m2k

Qs
Kw

Ts
C

Tf
C

dT
C

Twall
C

C-1

m2/s

s
kg/s

TABULATION - III
S.
No

T
C

Npr

NGr

Result
Thus the steam side and air side heat transfer coefficients were determined. The
values are given below,
1. The individual heat transfer coefficient for air side, hair =
2. The individual heat transfer coefficient for steam side, hs=
3. The theoretical overall heat transfer coefficient is, Utheo =
4. The experimental overall heat transfer coefficient is, Uexp =

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


1.

OBJECTIVE:
To study the heat transfer phenomena in vertical condenser and horizontal condenser.

2.

3.

AIM:
2.1

To calculate overall heat transfer coefficient for vertical condenser.

2.2

To calculate film coefficient for vertical condenser.

2.3

To calculate overall heat transfer coefficient for horizontal condenser.

2.4

To calculate film coefficient for horizontal condenser.

INTRODUCTION:
When saturated vapor is brought in contact with a cooled surface, heat is transferred
from the vapor to the surface and a film of condensate is produced. During the process
of condensation, one can obtain either film wise or drop wise condensation. If the
surface is wettable, film wise condensation occurs; otherwise drop wise condensation
occurs. However one cannot completely eliminate mixed condensation.

4.

THEORY:
4.1 FOR VERTICAL CONDENSER:
The heat transfer coefficients obtained during film wise are 1/5th to 1/6th of drop
wise condensation. In the case of vapor condensation on a vertical tube , the
condensate film flows downward under the influence of gravity , but is retarded by
the viscosity of the condensate film. The flow will normally be streamline and heat
flows through the film by conduction. Nusselt has derived a theoretical relation for
the determination of film heat transfer coefficient in terms of physical properties of
condensate film, characteristic dimension and the temperature driving force. The
film coefficient for condensation over a vertical plate of height, L, is given by:

k 3 ( s ) g s

h o = 0 .943

L T

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

1/ 4

.(1)

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 1 of 13 (Rev. 1)

4.2 FOR HORIZONTAL CONDENSER:


The heat transfer coefficients obtained during film wise are 1/5th to 1/6th of drop
wise condensation. The value of the condensing coefficient for a given quantity of
vapor on a given surface is significantly affected by the position of the condenser.
In a vertical tube about 60% of the vapor condenses in the upper half of the tube,
Provided that the condensate film is flowing under laminar flow condition, the
average condensation coeff. In case of a horizontal condenser shall be around 3
times as great as the vertical coefficient. Nusselt has derived a theoretical
relation for the determination of film heat transfer coefficient in terms of physical
properties of condensate film, characteristic dimension and the temperature
driving force. The film coefficient for condensation over a horizontal cylinder of
outerdiameter = D is given by:

k 3 ( s )g s

h o = 0 .729

D
T

1/ 4

......(2)

For N number of tubes, eqn (2) is writen as

k 3 ( s )g s

h o = 0 .729

ND T

1/ 4

. (3)

The physical properties are evaluated at film temperature, Tf, for both type of
condenser, where

Tf =

5.

1
(Th + Tw )
2

DESCRIPTION:
The set-up consists of two shell and tube heat exchanger mounted horizontally and
vertically named as horizontal condenser and vertical condenser. Shell is made of S.S.
and tubes are made of copper. The experiment is conducted on one type of condenser
at a time. Water passes through the tubes and steam condenses over the tubes. Steam
generator is provided with heater to generate the steam. Arrangement is also provided to
supply staem to other uses. The heater is controlled by digital temperature control. A
valve is provided to allow the steam either in horizontal condenser or in vertical
condenser. Steam is supplied to the condenser from the steam generator. Steam trap is
provided to collect the condensate in condenser. A valve is used to regulate the flow of

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 2 of 13 (Rev. 1)

steam. Rotameter is provided to control the flow rate of water. Temperature sensors and
digital temperature indicator are provided to measure the inlet and outlet temperatures of
water and steam.

6.

UTILITIES REQUIRED:
6.1

Electricity supply: Single phase, 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 32 Amp MCB with earth
connection.

7.

6.2

Water supply: Continuous @ 5 LPM at 1 Bar.

6.3

Floor drain required.

6.4

Floor area required: 1.5 m x 1 m

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
7.1 STARTING PROCEDURE (FOR VERTICAL CONDENSER):
7.1.1 Close all the valves V1-V14.
7.1.2 Open funnel valve V9 & air vent valve V10 of steam generator and fill 3/4th
of it with water.
7.1.3 Close both the valves V9 V10.
7.1.4 Fill water tank with cold water.
7.1.5 Ensure that switches given on the panel are at OFF position.
7.1.6 Connect electric supply to the set up.
7.1.7 Set the desired steam temperature (110 to 120 oC) in the DTC by
operating the increment or decrement and set button of DTC.
7.1.8 Switch ON the heater and wait till desired temperature achieves.
7.1.9 Switch ON the pump.
7.1.10 Open water supply valve V6 and adjust the flow rate of water by control
valve V4.
7.1.11 Open steam supply valve V1 of steam generator.
7.1.12 Open valve V3 for supply of steam to condenser.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 3 of 13 (Rev. 1)

7.1.13 Open vent valve V8 before steam trap of condenser to release air and then
close it.
7.1.14 Record temperatures, flow rate of cooling water and steam pressure.
7.1.15 At steady state (constant temperatures) start the stop watch and collect
the steam condensed in measuring cylinder.
7.1.16 Note down the time and volume of steam condensed.
7.1.17 Repeat the experiment for different flow rates of cold water.

7.2 CLOSING PROCEDURE (FOR VERTICAL CONDENSER):


7.2.1 When experiment is over switch OFF the heater.
7.2.2 Partially open vent valve V10 of steam generator to release pressure.
7.2.3 Switch OFF the pump.
7.2.4 Switch OFF the main power supply.
7.2.5 Drain cold water tank by open the valve V14.
7.2.6 Drain water from the condenser by open the valve V12.
7.2.7 Drain water from steam generator by the drain valve V13.

7.3 STARTING PROCEDURE (FOR HORIZONTAL CONDENSER):


7.3.1 Close all the valves V1-V14.
7.3.2 Open funnel valve V9 & air vent valve V10 of steam generator and fill 3/4th
of it with water.
7.3.3 Close both the valves V9-V10.
7.3.4 Fill water tank with cold water.
7.3.5 Ensure that switches given on the panel are at OFF position.
7.3.6 Connect electric supply to the set up.
7.3.7 Set the desired steam temperature (110 to 120 oC) in the DTC by
operating the increment or decrement and set button of DTC.
7.3.8 Switch ON the heater and wait till desired temperature achieves.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 4 of 13 (Rev. 1)

7.3.9 Switch ON the pump.


7.3.10 Open water supply valve V5 and adjust the flow rate of water by control
valve V4.
7.3.11 Open steam supply valve V1 of steam generator.
7.3.12 Open valve V2 for supply of steam to condenser.
7.3.13 Open vent valve V7 before steam trap of the condenser to release air and
then close it.
7.3.14 Record temperatures, flow rate of cooling water and steam pressure.
7.3.15 At steady state (constant temperatures) start the stop watch and collect
the steam condensed in measuring cylinder.
7.3.16 Note down the time and volume of steam condensed.
7.3.17 Repeat the experiment for different flow rates of cold water.

7.4 CLOSING PROCEDURE (FOR HORIZONTAL CONDENSER):


7.4.1 When experiment is over switch OFF the heater.
7.4.2 Partially open the vent valve V10 of steam generator to release pressure.
7.4.3 Switch OFF the pump.
7.4.4 Switch OFF the main power supply.
7.4.5 Drain cold water tank by open the valve V14.
7.4.6 Drain water from the condenser by open the valve V11.
7.4.7 Drain water from steam generator by open the valve V13.

8.

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION:


8.1 DATA:
Diameter of tube D

= 0.0127 m

Acceleration due to gravity g = 9.81 m/sec2

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

Number of tubes N

= 12

Length of tube L

= 0.5 m

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 5 of 13 (Rev. 1)

8.2.a OBSERVATION TABLE (FOR VERTICAL CONDENSER):


Sr.No.

W (LPH)

T1 (oC)

T3 (oC)

T4 (oC)

T6 (oC)

V (ml)

t (sec)

V (ml)

t (sec)

8.2.b OBSERVATION TABLE (FOR HORIZONTALCONDENSER):


Sr.No.

W (LPH)

T1 (oC)

T3 (oC)

T4 (oC)

T6 (oC)

8.3.a CALCULATIONS (FOR VERTICAL CONDENSER):


Th =

T1 + T3 o
( C)
2

TW =

Tf =

T 4 + T6 o
( C)
2

TW + Th o
( C)
2

Find the properties of condensate (, k, , Cp) at temperature Tf from data book.


= _____ (kg/m3)
k = _____ (W/m oC)
= _____ (kg/m-sec)
Cp = _____ (J/kg oC)
Find the property of steam (, s) at temperature Th from data book.
= _____ (J/ kg)
K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 6 of 13 (Rev. 1)

s = _____ (kg/m3)
Find the properties of water (Cpw, w) at temperature TW from data book.
= _____ (J/kg oC)

Cpw
w

= ______ (kg/m3)

MW =

W W
(kg/sec)
3600 1000

QW = M W C Pw (T6 T 4 ) (W)

MS =

V S
10 6 t

(kg/sec)

QS = M S (W)

Q=

QS + QW
(W)
2

T = Th TW (oC)
T1 = T1 T6 (oC)
T2 = T3 T 4 (oC)

T m =

T1 T 2 o
( C)
ln(T1 T 2 )

A = N DL (m2)

U=

Q
(W/m2 oC)
A Tm

s = + 0.68C P (TW + T h ) (J/ kg)


k 3 ( s ) g s

h o = 0 .943

L
T

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

1/ 4

(W/m2 oC)

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 7 of 13 (Rev. 1)

CALCULATION TABLE (FOR VERTICAL CONDENSER ):


S.No

QW (W)

QS (W)

Q (W)

Tm (oC)

U (W/m2oC)

ho (W/m2oC)

8.3.b CALCULATIONS (FOR HORIZONTAL CONDENSER):


Th =

T1 + T2 o
( C)
2

TW =

Tf =

T 4 + T5 o
( C)
2

TW + Th o
( C)
2

Find the properties of condensate (, k, , Cp) at temperature Tf from data book.


= _____ (kg/m3)
k = _____ (W/m oC)
= _____ (kg/m-sec)
Cp = _____ (J/kg oC)
find the property of steam (, s) at temperature Th from data book.
= _____ (J/ kg)
s = _____ (kg/m3)
Find the properties of water (Cpw, w) at temperature TW from data book.
Cpw

= _____ (J/kg oC)

= ______ (kg/m3)

MW =

W W
(kg/sec)
3600 1000

QW = M W C PW (T5 T 4 ) (W)
K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 8 of 13 (Rev. 1)

MS =

V S
10 6 t

(kg/sec)

QS = M S (W)
Q=

QS + QW
(W)
2

T = Th TW (oC)
T1 = T1 T5 (oC)

T2 = T2 T 4 (oC)
T m =

T1 T 2 o
( C)
ln(T1 T2 )

A = N DL (m2)
U=

Q
(W/m2 oC)
A Tm

s = + 0.68C P (TW + T h ) (J/ kg)


k 3 ( s )g s

h o = 0 .729

ND
T

1/ 4

(W/m2 oC)

CALCULATION TABLE (FOR HORIZONTAL CONDENSER):


S.No

QW (W)

QS (W)

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

Q (W)

Tm (oC)

U (W/m2oC)

ho (W/m2oC)

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 9 of 13 (Rev. 1)

9.

NOMENCLATURE:
Nom
A

Column Heading
Area of heat transfer

Units

Type

m2

Calculated
o

Cp

Specific heat of water at film temperature

kJ/kg C

Calculated

Cpw

Specific heat of water at mean temperature of water

kJ/kg oC

Calculated

Given

D
g

Diameter of tube

Acceleration due to gravity

m/sec
2o

Given

ho

Film coefficient

W/m C.

Calculated

Thermal conductivity at film temperature

W/m oC

Calculated

Length of tube

Given

MS

Mass flow rate of condensing steam

kg/sec

Calculated

MW

Mass flow rate of water

kg/sec

Calculated

Given

kg/cm2

Measured

Number of tube

Pressure of steam

Average heat transfer

Calculated

QW

Heat gain by water

Calculated

QS

Heat loss from steam

Calculated

T1

Steam inlet temperature for horizontal and vertical

Measured

condenser
T2

Steam outlet temperature for horizontal condenser

Measured

T3

Steam outlet temperature for vertical condenser

Measured

T4

Cold water inlet temperature for vertical or horizontal

Measured

Measured

Cold water outlet temperature for vertical condenser

Measured

Film temperature

Calculated

Mean temperature of steam

Calculated

Mean temperature of water

Calculated

sec

Measured

W/m2 oC.

Calculated

ml

Measured

LPH

Measured

condenser
T5

Cold water outlet temperature for horizontal


condenser

T6
Tf
Th
Tw
t

Time

Overall heat transfer coefficient

Volume of condensing steam

Flow rate of water

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 10 of 13 (Rev. 1)

Latent heat of condensate at film temperature

J/kg

Calculated

Latent heat of condensate at mean temperature of

J/kg

Calculated

kg/m-sec

Calculated

steam

Viscosity of condensate at film temperature

Calculated

Density of condensate at film temperature

kg/m

Density of condensate at mean temperature of

kg/m3

Calculated

kg/m3

Calculated

steam
w

Density of water at mean temperature of water

Mean temperature difference of steam and water

Calculated

T1

Inlet temperature difference

Calculated

T2

Outlet temperature difference

Calculated

Log mean temperature difference

Calculated

Tm

* Symbols are unitless quantity.

10. PRECAUTION & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS:


10.1

Never run the apparatus if power supply is less than 200 volts and more than 230
volts.

10.2

Never switch ON mains power supply before ensuring that all the ON/OFF
switches given on the panel are at OFF position.

10.3

Operator selector switch OFF temperature indicator gently.

10.4

Always keep the apparatus free from dust.

11. TROUBLESHOOTING:
11.1

If electric panel is not showing the input on the mains light, check the main
supply.

12. REFERENCES:
12.1

Cengel, Y.A (2007). Heat and Mass Transfer. 3rd Ed. ND: Tata McGraw Hill. pp
583-586.

12.2

Domkundwar A (2003). A Course in Heat & Mass Transfer. 6th Ed. NY: S.C
Dhanpat Rai & Co. (P) Ltd. pp A.6, A.9.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 11 of 13 (Rev. 1)

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

13. BLOCK DIAGRAM:

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 12 of 13 (Rev. 1)

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL CONDENSER


Page No. 13 of 13 (Rev. 1)

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


1.

OBJECTIVE:
To study the heat transfer phenomena in agitated vessel.

2.

AIM:
2.1

To determine the overall heat transfer co-efficient for heating process (steam
condensing in jacket).

2.2

To determine the overall heat transfer co-efficient for cooling process (cold water
flowing in coil).

3.

INTRODUCTION:
In most industrial chemical processes including reactors, heat is to be added or
extracted to control the process. The addition or removal of heat is done by passing
steam or water through a jacket or coil fitted to the outside or inside of the vessel. For
effective heat transport and even distribution of heat, the liquid is continuously agitated.

4.

THEORY:
Consider a well agitated vessel containing m kg of liquid of specific heat C p.It contains a
heat transfer surface of area A heated by a constant temperature medium such as
condensing steam at temperature TS . If the initial temperature of the liquid is Ta, its
temperature Tb at any time tT can be found as follows. The basic relation for unsteadystate heat transfer is
Rate of accumulation of energy = energy input energy output
For the batch heating process accumulation term in rate of change of enthalpy of the
liquid in the tank:

mCP

dT
UA(TS T )
dt

--------------------- (1)

If the overall heat transfer coefficient is constant (usually a reasonable assumption),


equation (1) can be integrated between the limits t=0, T=Ta, and t=tT, T=Tb to give

ln

Ts Ta UAtT

Ts Tb mCP

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

--------------------- (2)

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 1 of 10(Rev. 1)

On solving the above equation we get:

mCP Ts Ta
ln
At T
Ts T b

----------------------- (3)

Similarly for batch cooling, use the below equation:

mCP Ta Tc
ln
At T
T b Tc

------------------------- (4)

Where Tc is the cold fluid temperature.

5.

DESCRIPTION:
The set up consists of stainless steel jacketed vessel with a helical coil of copper is fitted
inside the vessel. A variable speed stirrer is fitted in vessel for agitation. Steam
generator is provided with heater for generate the steam. Set up is fitted with steam trap
for condensate collection. Rotameter is provided to measure the flow rate of water.
Temperature of inlet and outlet of both hot and cold fluids are measured by temperature
sensors and digital temperature indicator.

6.

UTILITIES REQUIRED:
6.1

Electricity supply: Single phase, 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 5-15 Amp combined socket
with earth connection.

7.

6.2

Water supply: Continuous @ 20 LPM at 1 Bar.

6.3

Floor drain required.

6.4

Floor area required: 1.5 m x 1m.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
7.1

STARTING PROCEDURE :
7.1.1 Close all the valves V1-V7 and set the speed control knob to zero.
7.1.2 Open funnel valve V5 & air vent valve V6 of steam generator and fill 3/4th of
it with water.
7.1.3 Close both the valves V5-V6.
7.1.4 Fill the vessel with measured quantity of water.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 2 of 10(Rev. 1)

7.1.5 Ensure that switches given on the panel are at OFF position.
7.1.6 Set the desired steam temperature (110 to 120

C) in the DTC by

operating the increment or decrement and set button of DTC.


7.1.7 Connect electric supply to the set up.
7.1.8 Switch ON the heater and wait till desired temperature achieves.
7.1.9 Switch ON the agitator and set the speed by RPM indicator and knob
provided on the panel.
7.1.10 Record the initial temperature of water in the vessel and RPM of agitator.
7.1.11 Open steam supply valve V1 of steam generator.
7.1.12 Open vent valve V2 to release air and then close it.
7.1.13 Record the time and temperature of water in the vessel at some intervals
(approx 1-2 minutes) till it starts boiling and the temperature remains
constant.
7.1.14 Stop the supply of steam by close the valve V1.
7.1.15 Switch OFF the heater.
7.1.16 Connect cooling water supply to the rotameter.
7.1.17 Set the flow rate of cooling water through coil by control valve V4.
7.1.18 Record the time and temperature of water in the vessel at some intervals
(approx 1-2 minutes).
7.1.19 Repeat the experiment at different RPM (drain the water from vessel
before changing the RPM).
7.1.20 Repeat the experiment for different flow rate of water.

7.2

CLOSING PROCEDURE :
7.2.1 When experiment is over switch OFF the heater.
7.2.2 Set the speedof control knob to zero and switch OFF the agitator.
7.2.3 Partially open the vent valve V6 of steam generator to release pressure.
7.2.4 Switch OFF the main power supply.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 3 of 10(Rev. 1)

7.2.5 Drain water from the vessel by open the valve V3.
7.2.6 Drain water from the steam generator by open the valve V7.

8.

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION:


FOR HEATING PROCESS:
8.1.a DATA:
Diameter of Jacket Dj = ______ m

Height of Jacket Hj = ________ m

8.2.a OBSERVATION:
V = _____ (Lit)

OBSERVATION TABLE :
S. No.

T1 (oC)

t (sec)

T2 (oC)

T3 (oC)

Vs (L)

t1 (sec)

8.3.a CALCULATIONS :
T

(oC)

Find the properties of water (C, ) at T from data book.


C

= _________ J/kg oC

= _________ kg/m3

Ts

V
1000

(kg)

T2 T3 o
( C)
2

T1 Ts T1i (oC)

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 4 of 10(Rev. 1)

T2 Ts T1 (oC)

Aj D j (

Uj

Dj
4

H j ) (m2)

T
ln 1 (W/m2 oC)
t A j T2

WC

CALCULATION TABLE
S. No.

W (kg)

Ts (oC)

Uj (W/m2 oC)

FOR COOLING PROCESS:


8.1.b DATA:
Outlet diameter of coil Dc= 0.016 m

Length of coil Hc = 3.4 m

8.2.b OBSERVATION:
V = _____ (L)

OBSERVATION TABLE :
S. No.

t (sec)

T1 (oC)

T4 (oC)

T5(oC)

Fc (LPH)

8.3.b CALCULATIONS :
T

(oC)

Find the properties of water (C, ) at T from data book.


C

= _________ J/kg oC

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 5 of 10(Rev. 1)

= _________ kg/m3

Tc

V
1000

(kg)

T4 T5 o
( C)
2

T1 T1i Tc (oC)
T2 T1 Tc (oC)
Ac Dc H c (m2)

Uc

T
ln 1 (W/m2 oC)
t Ac T2

WC

CALCULATION TABLE
S. No.

9.

W (kg)

Tc (oC)

Uc (W/m2 oC)

NOMENCLATURE:
Nom

Column Heading

Units

Type

Ac

Heat transfer area of coil

m2

Calculated

Aj

Heat transfer area of jacket

m2

Calculated

Specific heat of water

J/kg C

Calculated

Dc

Outer diameter of coil

Given

Dj

Diameter of jacket

Given

Fc

Volumetric flow rate of water in coil

LPH

Measured

Hc

Length of coil

Given

Hj

Height of jacket

Given

Maximum value of S. No of observation table

Calculated

Mean temperature of water in vessel

Calculated

T1

Temperature of water in vessel

Measured

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 6 of 10(Rev. 1)

T1i

Initial value of temperature T1

Calculated

T2

Inlet temperature of steam

Measured

T3

Outlet temperature of steam

Measured

T4

Inlet temperature of cold water

Measured

T5

Outlet temperature of cold water

Measured

Mean temperature of water

Calculated

Mean temperature of steam

Calculated

Tc
Ts

C
C
C
C
C
C

Time

sec

Measured

t1

Time taking to collect VS

sec

Measured

Uc

Over all heat transfer coefficient for coil

W/m2 oC

Calculated

Uj

Over all heat transfer coefficient for jacket

W/m2 oC

Calculated

Volume of water in vessel

Lit

Measured

Vs

Volume of steam

Lit

Measured

Mass of water in vessel

kg

Calculated

Density of water

kg/m3

Calculated

T1
T2

Inlet temperature difference

Calculated

Outlet temperature difference

Calculated

C
C

* Symbols are unitless.

10. PRECAUTION & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS:


10.1

Never run the apparatus if power supply is less than 200 volts & more than 230
volts.

10.2

Never switch ON mains power supply before ensuring that all the ON/OFF
switches given on the panel are at OFF position.

10.3

Operate selector switch OFF temperature indicator gently.

10.4

Do not switch ON heater before filling water in steam generator.

10.5

Always keep the apparatus free from dust.

11. TROUBLESHOOTING:
11.1

If electric panel is not showing the input on the mains light. Check the mains
supply.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 7 of 10(Rev. 1)

12. REFERENCES:
12.1

McCabe, Smith, Harriott (2005). Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering. 7th


Ed. NY: McGraw Hill. p 474.

12.2

Domkundwar A (2003). A Course in Heat & Mass Transfer. 6th Ed. NY: S.C
Dhanpat Rai & Co. (P) Ltd. pp A.6, A.9.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 8 of 10(Rev. 1)

13. BLOCK DIAGRAM:

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 9 of 10 (Rev. 1)

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED VESSEL


Page No. 10 of 10 (Rev. 1)

OPEN PAN EVAPORATOR


1.

OBJECTIVE:
To study the process of evaporation in open pan evaporator.

2.

AIM:
To calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the boiling point temperature.

3.

INTRODUCTION:
Evaporation is a process for concentrating the solution containing a non volatile solute
and volatile solvent. In most of cases solvent is water. By the removal of required
amount of volatile solvent concentrated solution is produced. The heat supplied to
solution is used to increase the temperature of solution to its boiling point and to
evaporate the solvent from solution.

4.

THEORY:
The capacity of an evaporator reduces due to the deposition of solids from the
evaporating solution into the evaporator heat transfer surface. This problem is
particularly acute when evaporating materials exhibit inverse solubility i.e where
solubility decreases with increase in temperature like solutions of sodium sulfate and
calcium sulfate. If the solution has a bulk temperature close to its saturation temperature,
the fluid close to the wall will become hot enough so that the saturation concentration
becomes lower than the existing concentration. The precipitated solid will cling to the
heat transfer surface and increase in temperature will further, promote precipitation. As a
consequence of this, the overall heat transfer coefficient must decrease as the scale
builds up because an additional heat transfer resistance is being formed in series with
those already present.
The overall heat transfer coefficient can be calculated as:

U=

Q
A T

Where U, A, Q and T are overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer area, amount
of heat transfer and temperature difference respectively.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

OPEN PAN EVAPORATOR


Page No. 1 of 6(Rev. 1)

5.

DESCRIPTION:
The set up consists of a jacketed pan evaporator fitted with scale to measure the level of
solution. Steam generator is provided to supply the steam in jacket with control valve to
concentrate the solution. The steam generator is fitted with pressure gauge, level
indicator and safety valve. Steam trap is used to collect the condensate from steam
jacket. Thermometers are used to measure the temperature of solution and the
temperature of condensing steam. Experiment can be done with closed pan with
measurement of pressure in pan. Safety valve is also installed for safety.

6.

UTILITIES REQUIRED:
6.1

Electricity Supply: Single Phase, 220 V AC, 50 Hz, 32 Amp MCB with earth
connection.

7.

6.2

Water supply (Initial fill).

6.3

Floor drain required.

6.4

Floor area required: 1 m x 1 m.

6.5

Chemicals:
Sodium carbonate

1 kg

Distilled water

10 Lit.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
7.1 STARTING PROCEDURE:
7.1.1 Prepare feed solution by mixing 800 gm of sodium carbonate in 8 liter
distilled water.
7.1.2 Close all the valves V1-V6.
7.1.3 Open funnel valve V3 & air vent valve V4 of steam generator and fill 3/4th of
it with water.
7.1.4 Close both the valves V3-V4.
7.1.5 Ensure that switches given on the panel are at OFF position.
7.1.6 Connect electric supply to the set up.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

OPEN PAN EVAPORATOR


Page No. 2 of 6(Rev. 1)

7.1.7 Set the desired steam temperature (110oC to 120oC) by operating the
increment or decrement and set button of DTC.
7.1.8 Switch ON the heater and wait till desired temperature achieves.
7.1.9 Initially the evaporator vessel is as closed system. Fill the evaporator
vessel up to hemispherical level with the help of funnel provided.
7.1.10 Open steam supply valve V1.
7.1.11 Open vent valve V2 before steam trap to release air and then close it.
7.1.12 Record the height of solution at every 5-10 minutes interval.
7.1.13 Record the constant temperatures.
7.1.14 If experiment is to be performed with open evaporator vessel then cover of
vessel can be removed with the help of ellen key provided.
7.1.15 After removing cover same procedure is to be followed

7.2 CLOSING PROCEDURE:


7.2.1 When experiment is over switch OFF the heater.
7.2.2 Partially open the vent valve V4 of steam generator to release pressure.
7.2.3 Switch OFF the power supply to the set-up.
7.2.4 Drain water and condensate by open the valve V5-V6.

8.

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION:


8.1

DATA:

Diameter of hemisphere D

= _____ m

Density of water

= 961 kg/m3

8.2 OBSERVATION:
T1 = _______ (oC)
T2 = _______ (oC)

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

OPEN PAN EVAPORATOR


Page No. 3 of 6(Rev. 1)

8.2.a OBSERVATION TABLE: (CLOSED SYSTEM)


(sec)

Sr. No.

P (kg/cm2)

h (m)

8.2.b OBSERVATION TABLE: (OPEN SYSTEM)


(sec)

Sr. No.

h (m)

8.3 CALCULATIONS:
hi = _________ (m)

h
2
wi = hi r i (m3)
3

h
2
w = h r (m3)
3

W =

w i w

(kg/sec)

Find the properties of steam ( ) at temperature T2 from data book.

= _________ (J/kg)
Q = W (W)
A=

D2
8

(m2)

T = T2 T1 (oC)
K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

OPEN PAN EVAPORATOR


Page No. 4 of 6(Rev. 1)

U=

Q
(W/m2 oC)
A T

CALCULATION TABLE:
Sr. No.

9.

NOMENCLATURE:
Nom

Column Heading

Units

Type

Heat transfer area

m2

Calculated

Diameter of hemisphere

Given

hi

Initial height of solution at = 0

Calculated

Height of solution at any time

Pressure of vessel in closed system

Q
T1
T2

Kg/cm

Measured

Heat transfer

Calculated

Boiling temperature of solution

Measured

Temperature of condensing steam

Measured

Overall heat transfer coefficient

Rate of water evaporation

wi
w

Measured
2

2o

W/m C

Calculated

kg/s

Calculated

Initial amount of water

m3

Calculated

Amount of water present at any time

m3

Density of water
Temperature difference

Calculated
3

kg/m

Given

Calculated

Time

sec

Measured

Latent heat of steam

J/kg

Calculated

10. PRECAUTION & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS:


10.1

Never run the apparatus if power supply is less than 200 volts and more than 230
volts.

10.2

Never switch ON mains power supply before ensuring that all the ON/OFF
switches given on the panel are at OFF position.

10.3

Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

OPEN PAN EVAPORATOR


Page No. 5 of 6(Rev. 1)

10.4

Always keep the apparatus free from dust.

11. TROUBLESHOOTING:
11.1

If electric panel is not showing input on the mains light, check the main supply.

12. REFERENCES:
12.1

Coulson, J.M, Richardson, J.F (1998). Chemical Engineering Vol-2. 4th Ed. ND:
Asian Books Ltd. pp 623-624.

12.2

Domkundwar A (2003). A Course in Heat & Mass Transfer. 6th Ed. NY: S.C
Dhanpat Rai & Co. (P) Ltd. p A.6

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

OPEN PAN EVAPORATOR


Page No. 6 of 6(Rev. 1)

K.C. Engineers Pvt. Limited, Ambala

13. BLOCK DIAGRAM:

OPEN PAN EVAPORATOR


Page No. 6 of 6(Rev. 1)