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GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING SCOPE OF SITE INVESTIGATION WORKS FOR ROAD

PROJECTS
By
Ir. Neoh Cheng Aik

1.

INTRODUCTION
The basic purpose or objective of site
investigation (SI) is to acquire all necessary
ground information and data to enable a safe,
efficient,
practical
and
economical
geotechnical or foundation design to be
prepared.
SI is an essential part of the geotechnical design
process. Intimate knowledge of the test
methods and possible geotechnical problems
that can arise from the ground conditions with
particular reference to the problems on stability
and deformation or displacement of slopes and
foundations are essential for planning the scope
of SI works.
This guideline is intended to assist engineers to
plan and implement SI Works for road projects
so as to ensure that the SI results are complete,
adequate, accurate and reliable according to
the usual good engineering practice. Sound
knowledge of SI methods, insitu & laboratory
testing, equipment, procedures coupled with
the understanding of the typical potential
geotechnical problems for road works will
ensure that proper SI methods and appropriate
tests for a situation are selected to achieve the
targeted purpose of SI.
This guideline also identities the typical
geotechnical issues or problems for road
embankments, cut slopes and common road
structures in typical geological formations.
Scope of SI and suitable SI methods including
relevant types of field tests, samples and
laboratory tests to procure the appropriate
design parameters for the geotechnical
problems identified are subsequently discussed.
General procedure of SI works including
preparation of SI report is also included.
Decision-making process of SI is presented by
the flow chart in Fig. 1 which indicates the
stages of an investigation, the action required,
and those who should have responsibility for
carrying out the actions.

Project brief with site & location plan


(to check overall details of structures &
nature of project; loads, bearing
capacity,
settlement
&
stability
requirements of slopes, walls, bridges
&
other
superstructures).
Usual
geotechnical design criteria for road
works are shown in Appendix A.

Topo map (to assess terrain, access &


site/environment conditions).

Geological
map
(to
evaluate
geological
formation
&
characteristics)

Aerial photo (to study site conditions,


land use, etc.)

Other
relevant
information.

An evaluation of performance of
existing road or structure in the
immediate vicinity of the proposed
alignment or site, relative to the
foundation, material and environment.

A review of all available information


on the geologic history and formation
of rock, or soil or both and groundwater conditions occurring at the
proposed alignment or location and in
the immediate vicinity.

records

and

These information plus site reconnaissance or


walk-over survey by designer or engineers
involved in SI are crucial to obtain basic
knowledge of site conditions and project
concept designs. The need, purpose and the
likely geotechnical issues or problems can then
be identified and subsequently used to
determine or design the scope and methods of
SI works. Through SI, the knowledge of
behaviour of the ground and i's spatial
variability can be obtained for the necessary
geotechnical design and construction.
3.

The planning of SI works should be carried out


by suitably qualified geotechnical engineers
after review of the project brief/route location,
desk study and field inspection. All the quality SI
works should be closely directed, monitored,
supervised and reported by a qualified
geotechnical Engineer registered with Board of
Engineers Malaysia
2.

SCOPE OF SI
Scope of SI for a project depends on what is
known about the site and what geotechnical
data are required for geotechnical design or
evaluation of geotechnical issues or problems.
The following information has to be procured
before scope of SI can be planned:,
likely or possible or anticipated
geotechnical issues or problems to be
encountered in design & construction
establish the purpose & need for SI
what information is required

DESK STUDY
Before planning SI works, the following desk
studies should be carried out first:

Page 1

extent. areas & depth of ground to be


investigated
time & site constraint

results exceeding 75 kPa if


the height of embankment is
3m to 5m.

The extent of SI mainly depends on the


character and variability of the subsoil and
ground water and the amount of existing
information available. However, it should be
noted that subsoil conditions of a road
alignment are very sensitive to type of
geological formations and so the spacing and
location of boreholes/test pits/types of tests
should be more closely related to the detailed
geology of the project area and the
geotechnical problem/analysis required to be
carried out.
Common SI methods and the list of relevant lab
and field test methods are given in Appendix B.
List of abbreviations used is given in Appendix
C.

3.2

subsoil profile showing the thickness of


various compressible and firm strata,
Water
Table
(WT),
etc.
Deep
Sounding/Deep Boring (DS/DB) plus
continuous sampling are necessary if
accurate profile is required. Spacing
of DS/DB should be in the range of
60m to 300m. DS/DB can be
supplemented by insitu vane shear
tests such as Geonor Vane tests and
JKR probes. Usually one or two
boreholes plus two or more DS or
piezocones are used to determine the
generalized subsoil profile for each
stretch of soft ground. Criteria to
terminate depth of bore hole are:
(a)

(b)

(d)

at least one borehole along


the soft stretch should be
extended until 2 consecutive
SPT values exceeds 50 or until
1.5m rock coring, whichever
comes first.

consolidation
parameters
for
settlement analysis (Cc, Cv, Mv, Pc,
etc, from consolidation tests using
quality undisturbed samples obtained
by stationary piston samplers). These
consolidation properties also can be
supplemented by correlation values
from DS or piezocones tests etc.

shear strength parameters for stability


and bearing analysis or ground
improvement design (Cu from insitu
vane shear tests or undisturbed
samples, C' & ' from triaxial tests using
quality undisturbed samples etc ....)

Index properties (LL, PL, PI, M/C,


gradation, organic contents, etc) for
soil classification and engineering
property correlations, etc.

see Appendix D for applicability of


various tests for various engineering
properties.

ROAD EMBANKMENT ON SOFT/WEAK GROUND


Coastal alluvium or deposited soil formations or
swamps are typical soft/weak grounds. Typical
geotechnical problems in such areas are
excessive total settlement, excessive differential
settlement and stability. Usual geotechnical
design and checking are bearing (short & long
term), slope stability (local & global, short & long
term), amount and rate of settlement (primary &
secondary consolidation, elastic deformation).
Geotechnical designs are usually carried out to
check whether the design criteria as shown in
Appendix A can be complied and subsequently
carry out the necessary designs of ground
improvement works. important data to be
acquired through SI are:

until 2 consecutive SPT


values exceeding 50 or 2
consecutive
SPT
values
exceeding 40 (for depth
exceeding 30m) if the height
of embankment is more than
5m.

Some typical geotechnical problems and usual


applicable SI methods and tests for typical road
works are given in the following sections.
3.1

(c)

ROAD EMBANKMENT ON ROLLING & HILLY


TERRAINS
The main geotechnical problems and the
relevant SI methods and tests to address the
problems are:

until 10 consecutive SPT


exceeding 10 or until 10
numbers of insitu vane shear
tests exceeding 50 kPa if the
height of embankment is less
than 3m.
until 5 consecutive SPT values
exceeding 20 or 5 numbers
of insitu vane shear tests

Page 2

(a)

Check the stability of embankment


body (local and global slope stability);
usually unsaturated soil, and the
design parameters especially the
shear
strengths
are
from
the
compacted samples using bulk
samples taken at least one or two
samples at 1.5m deep from the major
cut areas or borrow pits; assessment on
suitability of fill material from the
relevant major cut areas (HA, test pits
&
bulk
samples
for
the
compaction/CBR & classification tests
to get index properties for engineering
property correlations).

(b)

Check local and global stability of


embankment: bearing check of
supporting ground (DB/SPT or CIU tests
to
obtain
the
shear
strength

parameters of supporting ground


based on engineering property
correlations. JKR Probes, HA and
piezometer,
etc,
are
used
to
supplement DB/SPT) for determine
depth of unsuitable material to be
replaced. Spacing of boreholes for
low embankment (h<6m) and high
embankment should be 300m - 600m
and 100m - 300m respectively. DB
should be supplemented by at least
one HA plus few JKR probes. Depth of
borehole should be until 5 consecutive
SPT values exceeding 20 if the
embankment height is less than 6m OR
until 5 consecutive SPT values
exceeding 30 if the height of
embankment is more than 6m. SPT
should be carried out at 1.5m intervals.
Classification tests for all the disturbed
samples especially those from the top
6m should be carried out.
(c)

(d)
3.3

samples plus JKR probes or DB for


classification tests, compaction/CBR
tests and shear strength parameters
from compacted samples, etc).
(c)

Spacing of DB/HA in cut areas is usually 60m to


600m depending mainly on the type of
geological formation encountered. For stable
formation and low cut areas of less than 6m
high, bigger spacing or just HA only is
acceptable. For sedimentary rock areas
especially at cut height exceeding 12m, at least
2 boreholes per typical major hill should be
carried out to determine the stratigraphical
formation, the presence of defective or
unstable geological structural discontinuities
and its strength properties. Seismic survey and
geological mapping to supplement DB may
have to be carried out for project passing
through mountainous areas. (refer Appendix D1)

Stability check of the supporting


ground is very important when the
embankment is on sloping ground
and/or is very high, e.g., 12m high or
more. More DB/HA/JKR Probes plus
site inspection, etc, to identify possible
unstable faulted/sheared geological
formations,
laminated
bedding,
foliation, colluvium, water seepage
ground etc should be carried out.
Depth of borehole should be until 3m
(or more) rock coring especially for the
case of sedimentary rock formation.

DB in cut areas is usually terminated after 1.5m


rock coring or at least 3m below the design
formation level, whichever comes first. For
highly fractured sedimentary rock of RQD less
than 25% or boulder abundant formations, at
least 3m coring should be specified.
3.4

Refer Appendix D for the applicable


tests for relevant parameters.

Usual purposes of SI in cut areas are:


to assess the slope stability and obtain
soil data for the design of slope
stabilization works if found necessary.
Usually DB is carried out to procure
information such as subsoil profile,
weathering profile, WT conditions by
piezometers and shear strength
parameters.
SPT
and
disturbed
sampling should be taken at change
in material type or at about 1.5m
intervals if the soil is uniform. For major
high
cut
areas
and
unstable
geological
formations
(sheared/faulted zone or colluvium
areas or relict joints etc) more DB and
geological mapping during the design
and construction stages are required.
Refer Appendix D1 and D for
applicable SI methods and tests.

3.5

SI FOR STRUCTURES
Purposes of SI for structures such as bridges,
walls, major culverts, etc, are for foundation
design and construction with particular
reference to capacity, settlement and
constructability assessment.
At least 2 DB should be carried out at each site
or minimum one DB per pier/abutment or one
DB per 60m spacing especially for erratic or
unstable geological formation areas (limestone,
boulder abundant areas, faulted/sheared zone
etc). Borehole could be terminated after 5
consecutive SPT value exceeding 50 or 10
consecutive SPT exceeding 30 if the bore depth
is more than 60m or refer to designer for
direction. If rock is encountered, coring shall be

DB is usually supplemented by
geophysical surveys and/or HA plus
JKR probes, etc.
(b)

PAVEMENT EVALUATION
Tests relevant for existing pavement evaluation
of the existing road for upgrading works are test
pits plus bulk samples, water table monitoring,
plate bearing test, insitu field density, DCP
(Dynamic Cone Penetration) & insitu CBR tests.
These tests are carried out at about 200m to
1000m interval after pavement condition
inspection/surveys/traffic count survey. Falling
weight Deflectometer or Benklman Beam tests
at 50m to 200m interval depending on the
severity of pavement conditions may also need
to be specified.

CUT AREAS

(a)

to determine the bedrock profile, rock


condition and to determine rock type
and its quantity (by site inspection,
geological mapping, seismic survey or
DB)

to determine the suitability of cut


material as filling material for
embankment.
(HA, test pits, bulk

Page 3

carried out and minimum core length depends


on type & condition of rock. Suggested
minimum core lengths are as follows:
Rock Type

testing should comply with standard JKR SI


Spec. and relevant MS/BS/ASTM standards.
Standard borehole or casing sizes commonly
used are 75 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm. Usually NW
is specified for DB. When extensive and high
quality large undisturbed samples are required
to determine accurate consolidation properties
and shear strength for stability and settlement
analysis HW casing should be specified.

Min. Core
Length

Igneous rock (granite) and bore


depth <24m or recovery ratio R/r<50%

4.5m

Igneous rocks, bore depth >24m

3.0m

Shale/schist/slate/sandstone,
Recovery ratio
R/r<50%

6.0m

Shale/schist/slate/sand-stone,
Recovery ratio
R/r>50%

3.0m

Lime stone R/r>50% and no cavity

6.0m

Lime stone R/r<50% or with cavity

9m - 21 m

Other rocks R/r >50%

4.5m

Other rocks R/r <50%

6.0m

Guidance on selection of SI methods, spacing


and depth of boreholes, types of field and lab
tests etc. have been discussed in Para 3.
Appendices E, D1 & D also provide some
guidance in specifying the methods of sampling
and applicability of common field tests.

For structures on soft ground, insitu vane shear


tests and undisturbed sampling for shear
strength and consolidation tests should be
carried out. These test results are necessary for
foundation design, stability analysis, and
construction/temporary
works
design.
Pressuremeter and plate bearing tests may be
specified if detailed fractured rock conditions
(stiffness and deformation) are required for
bearing design e.g. rock socket design or shallow
foundation design. See Para 4.4, Appendix D,
D1 & E for additional guidance. If the
foundations (pier/abutment) are on or along
steep slope, additional boreholes on the slopes
should be carried out to obtain necessary shear
strengths & WT conditions for the slope stability
analysis (FOS>1.5) and necessary design of
stabilization works.

4.1

The guidance given in Para 3 above can be


used to determine the locations, numbers and
types of SI methods or boreholes or insitu testing
required basing on the need and purpose of SI
established from the desk study. Size of
boreholes depends on the size of soil & rock
samples required. Size of samples depends on
types of soils/rocks and types of tests required.
Common SI methods are JKR Probes, HA, MHB,
DB, DS (10T/20T), Piezocone, Bulk Sampling, Test
Pits, Insitu Geonor Vane, continuous soil
sampling, SBP, seismic surveys, etc. Methods,
procedure and equipment for SI methods &

4.3

Some guidance to determine the frequency &


types of insitu testing/sampling in the boreholes
are:

SPT

Suitable for almost all soil types except


very soft clay and coarse gravel;
disturbed samples (35 mm diameter)
are procured from the test for field
identification/description of soil types
and subsequent lab classification and
index properties tests. SPT is usually
carried out at a change of strata or
1.5m
interval
except
when
undisturbed sampling or vane shear
test or pressuremeter test is required.
SPT may be carried out at 1.0m
interval if detailed information is
required eg. for shallow foundation &
deep excavation works.

Pressuremeter test

Preparation of "Summary of Scope of SI Works"


and an illustrated example are enclosed in
Appendix H.
PROCEDURE

The sequence of SI methods or boring or insitu


testing & criteria of termination of boreholes
should be clearly stated in the document for SI
contractor. Phasing of SI programme may be
necessary for large/complicated projects
(Preliminary & detail SI works).

Insitu Vane shear test


very suitable for very soft to stiff clay to
obtain undrained strength. Results are
not reliable when the subsoil contains
decay wood, seashells and sand etc.

*Min core size should be 52mm diam (NMLC or


HMLC or equivalent

4.

4.2

Menard or self Boring type; suitable for


most soil types and soft or highly
fractured rocks except soft organic soil
& hard rock; useful to obtain accurate
bearing
capacity,
stiffness
and
compressibility properties; costly &
slow test; usually carried out only when
quality
undisturbed
samples
or
disturbed samples are difficult to
procure but important for the design
e.g. highly fractured soft rock, sandy
material, etc.

Packer test
-

Page 4

Single or double Packer test is


sometimes carried out in rock strata to
assess the amount of grout that rock

will accept, to check the effectiveness


of grouting, to obtain a measure of
fracturing of rock, to give an
approximate permeability of rock.

4.8

Determine scheme of laboratory


including types of lab tests for
-

disturbed samples (mainly for basic &


index
properties
tests).
Soil
classification tests shall be carried out
for all typical disturbed samples at
various distinct strata.

undisturbed samples (mainly


engineering property tests).

water samples (mainly for chemical


tests). At least 3 water samples from
river for bridge project shall be taken
for chemical tests (pH, 504, Chloride
etc).

block samples (mainly for engineering


property tests).

bulk samples from Test Pits(mainly for


compaction/CBR
tests
plus
classification tests)

Undisturbed sampling (Refer Appendix E)


-

stationary piston thin wall sampler


50mm, 75 mm or 100 mm diem;
suitable for very soft to firm clay when
strength and consolidation properties
are required.

Denison sampler for stiff to very stiff


cohesive soils and sandy soils (SPT = 4
to 20).

Quality requirements of samples (Refer


Appendix G).

Mazier sampler, 50 mm and 74mm


diam.; suitable for residual soil when
strength tests are required; careful air
foam drilling technique is preferred to
ensure high sample quality.

4.4

Thin wall open tube sampler, 50 mm,


75 mm or 100 mm diam; area ratio is
about 10%; suitable for soils having
some cohesion unless they are too
hard or too gravelly.

4.9

important geotechnical
from lab. tests are:-

Double tube swivel type (30 mm, 42


mm, 54 mm diam., TNW 61 mm diam.)
could be used for most rocks.

Triple tube core barrels (NMLC, 52 mm


diam. or HMLC. 64mm diam) should be
used for weak, weathered or fractured
rocks.

wire One barrels for rock coring at


great depth.

BW or larger drill rods are preferred if


bore depth exceeds 20m.

4.5

Prepare BQ, Spec., Costing & Works programme


(Std. JKR BQ & Spec. should be used).

4.6

Determine procedure, extent of supervision &


monitoring of SI works (supervisor and drillers
should have CIDB certificates).

4.7

The proposed scope of SI should be checked or


audited by an expert registered with ACEM/IEM
before
implementation.
Ensure
reliable/reputable SI contractor registered with
CIDB is engaged. Check the proposed works
programme and ensure all equipment
proposed comply with relevant standards.

Page 5

properties

BASIC PROPERTIES (colour,


smell
natural
moisture
content, sg, porosity, void,
reactivity
etc.)
for
soil
identification,
description,
classification & correlations.

INDEX PROPERTIES (LL, PL, PI,


SL, particle size distribution,
organic content etc) for soil
description, classification &
correlations with engineering
properties.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (total


dissolved salts, sulphate &
chloride contents; pH value
etc) for corrosion & durability
assessment of foundations.

ENGINEERING
PROPERTIES
(shear
strength, stiffness,
compressibility,
compaction/CBR,
permeability etc.) for analysis
and
design.
Engineering
properties can be obtained
from insitu
testing and
laboratory
tests
on
undisturbed samples. The
results from the insitu and
laboratory testing should be
viewed as complimentary
and then compared with the
recommended data from
the
published
literatures
before adopting as design
parameters.
For
uniform
subsoil, more elaborate lab
testing should be done, but if
the subsoil is complex or

Delft (29 mm or 66 mm diam.) or


Swedish (68 mm diam.) continuous soil
samplers
for
soil
fabrics
&
stratigraphical/profiling evaluation.

for

Usual important laboratory tests:


-

If rock is encountered or rock coring is required,


determine the size, length & type of coring (or
criteria of coring).

testing

erratic, more insitu testing is


more meaningful.

5.

classification & index tests from


disturbed & undisturbed samples are
mainly for classification, identification
& simple preliminary correlations for
shear strength parameters & other
engineering properties/behaviour.

shear strength tests from block


samples and undisturbed samples (UU,
CU, CKUC, CIUC, CLUE, CD triaxial
tests, direct shear test, UCS, etc.) are
for analysis and design.

consolidation & permeability tests from


undisturbed samples or block samples
are for settlement analysis and
seepage evaluation

compaction/CBR tests from bulk


samples coupled with index properties
are for fill suitability evaluation and
stability analysis etc.

capacity for the specified depth of


drilling i.e. open hole rotary drilling or
casing advancement drilling method.
To avoid disturbance of the underlying
soil stratum, only side discharge of
flushing medium (water) from drilling
rod bits is allowed; bottom discharge
from casing should not be permitted.
Water used for flushing should be clear.
If coarse sand or fine gravel are
encountered, then bentonite or mud
water is used to flush the coarse sand
out from the borehole. Borehole size of
NW or HW are preferred. For boreholes
deeper than 20m, rods with a stiffness
equal to or greater than BW drill rods
but less than 10 kg/m should be
specified. Invaluable to determine
stratigraphical formation and subsoil
properties in cut and filling areas.
Usual spacing is 60m - 600m. Field tests
such as SPT, vane shear, for soft to stiff
strata)
permeability
and
pressuremeter tests can be carried out
in the boreholes. Disturbed and
undisturbed samples can be taken for
various laboratory tests to determine
strength and deformation properties.
Piezometers can also be installed in
the borehole at predetermined strata
to monitor the piezometer levels and
ground water conditions. SPT tests are
usually carried out at change of soil
type or 1.5m or 1.0m intervals. For soft
clay and residual soil strata, stationary
piston and Mazier samplers are
respectively used to take quality
undisturbed samples for laboratory
strength tests.

COMMON SI METHODS
SI methods and the type of equipment or
samplers required for a SI job depend on the
nature of terrain, access, type of geological
formation, type of lab tests and intended use of
the data.
Experience plus engineering judgement are
required in selection of SI methods. Common SI
methods are briefly outlined as follows:
(a)

JKR Probes
Results can be used to determine
thickness of unsuitable material to be
removed and also for preliminary
design of embankments. Usually
carried out near HA or DB positions
and filling areas to verify the
consistency of subsoil of medium
strength up to maximum of 12m deep.

(b)

Continuous soil sampling (Swedish or


Delft
Samplers)
is
specified
if
identification of soil fabric or depth of
changes in distinct strata and
properties are required. For uniform
subsoil, more sampling for lab tests;
but for erratic subsoil more field tests
should be carried out.

Hand Auger (HA)

(d)

Used in soft to stiff cohesive soils or


sandy soils above water table. Usual
spacing is 60m - 600m. Maximum
depth is about 5m. Very extensively
used for road projects because
extensive open tube samples of 50
mm to 100 mm diam. along the
alignment can be obtained at a
relatively fast and low price for the
basic and index properties; used for
identification,
classification
and
correlation of engineering properties
such as permeability, strength and
deformation etc. HA is particularly
valuable in connection with groundwater determination.
(c)

Deep Sound (DS) - 100 kN/200 kN


capacity
This is the static Dutch Cone
Penetrometer Test. It is usually used to
supplement Deep Boring results in
filling areas which are fluvial or soft
formation. Not suitable for boulder or
gravel abundant subsoil. The results
can be used to correlate and
ascertain strength and deformation
properties, etc., of the subsoils. Useful
and adequate to determine subsoil
profile. Piezocone tests which can also
measure
pore
water
pressure,
consolidation properties, etc, are
preferred in soft ground if subsoil
profiling is required.

Deep Boring (DB)

(e)

Boreholes should be advanced by


power rotary drilling with adequate

Test Pit, Bulk Samples & Block Samples


Usually test pit can be up to 2m deep
or more it excavator is adopted.

Page 6

Visual inspection of subsoil strata, soil


type and strength (by pocket
penetrometer and plate bearing tests
and plate bearing tests) should be
carried in the test pit. Bulk samples
(about 50kg) for lab tests (soil
classification, CBR and compaction
tests) should be collected. Undisturbed
block samples also can be obtained
for strength tests in the laboratory.
(f)

geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist


to ensure compliance with the specification.
It should include but not limited to the following
details.
(a)

State for whom the SI works was done,


the nature & scope of SI, purpose of SI
and period on time over which SI was
done.

Motorised Hand Boring (MHB)


(b)

MHB or commonly called wash boring


or percussion drilling consists of a
tripod with block & tackle or motor
driven winch. The borehole is
advanced by chopping while twisting
rods and washing with pumpcirculated water. It is simple, portable
and can be used in all types of soils
except those containing big boulders.
Progress is slow when encountering
very stiff/dense material especially
when deeper than 10 m. MHB can be
adopted easily at locations where
access is difficult. Normally casing is
used and max. depth of boring is
about 20m.

(c)

FIELD WORKS
Account for SI methods, testing,
procedures, types and models of
equipment used (quote standards
used).
Problems encountered in testing &
sampling: date & time of SI.
Weather conditions.
Photos showing
site
& testing
process/conditions/typical soil & rock
samples
Plan showing the site & accurate and
identifiable
locations
of
boreholes/testing locations.

Geophysical Survey
(d)

Sometimes geophysical survey is used


to supplement borehole results for
projects covering large areas. The
seismic
refraction
method
with
multigeophones reception of seismic
wave of signals originating from
explosives or hammer blows (for
shallow investigation only) can be
used to determine the approximate
bed rock profile and geologic features
e.g. faults, etc with reasonable
accurate if the bedrock is quite
uniform & no boulders in the
overburden
soils.
The
electrical
resistivity method for measuring the
resistance of soil to a direct or
alternating current is also useful in
determining depth to rock, evaluating
stratified formations where a denser
stratum overlies a lesser dense stratum.
Corrosivity of soil and geological
features and cavities can also be
predicted.
6.

SITE DESCRIPTION
Describe access, terrain, vegetation,
land use, geological information etc.
about the site.

SPT, vane shear test and undisturbed


sampling (only soft to medium soil)
can be carried out in the borehole at
the required depth.
(g)

INTRODUCTION

BORE LOGS (field borelogs should be


corrected
&
checked
after
classification tests)
Title of SI/project.
Location reference or coordinates of
borehole no and sheet no.
Name
of Supervisor/driller. (Only
qualified CIDB registered driller is
allowed to operate & record the
boring & testing)
Date of boring, type of boring, make
of plants/tools used.
GL/RL; Depth to around water and
raising or lowering of level including
dates and times measured.
Type, size & depth of casing: drilling
fluid.
Size, type and design of core bits, core
barrel & reaming shell used.

SI REPORT

Types of insitu testing, sampling and


rock coring details (R/r, RQD, types of
sampler).

The SI report submitted by the SI Contractor


registered with CIDB should be checked arid
endorsed by a qualified P.Eng to ensure the
following items are included/complied:

Depth, date and time of boring


disruptions
and
termination
of
boreholes.

The factual SI report should be prepared,


checked and certified by a suitably qualified

Page 7

Any change to drilling fluid or drilling


fluid return.
Legends & symbols tor subsoil profile.
Soil/rock description of each stratum &
thickness/levels shall be made in
accordance to BS 5930.
A typical engineering borelog is shown
in Appendix Gl.

7.

8.3

BS 1377 (1990), BS Standard Methods of Test for


Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes

8.4

GEO HONG KONG (1993), Guide to Site


Investigation

8.5

JKR Standard Specification for Site Investigation


Works (1990)

8.6

JKR NOTA TEKNIK (JALAN) 20/98

(e)

Summary of all important lab. Test


results for each borehole with
reference to sample NO & RL.

8.7

NEOH CA (1997), Guidelines For Planning Scope


of Site Investigation Works For Road Projects, IEM
Bulletin August 97

(f)

Generalized subsoil profile - Drg.

8.8

(g)

Appendix - plan/drawing; photos for


site conditions, plant/machine set up,
typical rock samples, typical soil
samples etc.

NEON CA (1990), Site Investigation, IKRAM


Lecture Notes

8.9

ICE SI STEERING GROUP. Site Investigation In


construction series. Thomas Telford UK, 1993.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Accurate soil properties and ground data,
which cannot be specified or verified in the
same way as that for a structural design, have
to be procured by proper SI planning.
This guideline for Planning Scope of SI works is
aimed to assist geotechnical and road
engineers to plan and execute prober SI works.
Details about testing methods and procedures
should be according to Standard Specification
of SI Works and relevant MS/BS/ASTM
Experience in geotechnical engineering design
plus sound knowledge of SI methods and
procedures are crucial to ensure that proper SI
methods and tests are selected to achieve the
targeted purpose of SI.
The scope of SI works for a project depends
mainly on what is known about the site and the
nature of the project, i.e., the possible
geotechnical problems and issues likely to be
encountered during the construction & service
life. The scope of SI works may also need to be
changed in the light of new discoveries during
the process of SI.
Scope of SI works when planned by different
engineers of different background, training and
experience tends to be varied because there is
an infinite number of conditions to be met and
the process of planning also leaves many areas
where individual engineering judgement,
knowledge and experience must be applied.
Therefore it is important to realize that it is
impossible to provide an exhaustive step by
step guidelines applicable to all possible cases
for engineers who are not familiar with the
geotechnical design.

8.

REFERENCES

8.1

1986 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.08

8.2

BS 5930 (1981), Site Investigation

Page 8

Project Initiation

Preliminary Engineering Assessment


Project Brief
Scope of Works
Design Criteria
Define Project Work Plan
`

Preliminary Project Appraisal


Desk Studies
Site reconnaissance

NOT
OK

Identify likely geotechnical issues & problems


Determine design parameters required
Prepare preliminary SI programme & budged

NOT
OK

Send SI proposal to client for approval


OK

Design or determine scope of SI


Preparation of tender/contract documents, BO & Spec.

Audit by Expert
OK

Execute SI programme
Determine scope of Lab tests
Direct, supervise and monitor SI Works
YES
Additional SI ?
NO
Prepare factual SI report
End
Fig 1: Flow-chart for SI works

APPENDIX A

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROAD WORKS


(APPENDIX 1)

DESIGN COMPONENT

MODE OF FAILURE

MINIMUM
FACTOR OF
SAFETY

MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE MOVEMENTS

DESIGN LIFE
(durability of
materials)
VERTICAL

1.1
1.

Unreinforced Slopes
1.2

2.

3.

Reinforced or treated
slopes (not on soft
ground)

2. 1

Permanent Anchors

3.1
3.2

4.

Rigid Retaining
Structures

5.

Reinforced fill walls/


structures

6.

7.

Individual Foundation
Piles (mainly under axial
loads)

2.2

Local & global stability


(cut & fill)
Bearing (fill)

1.2

Local & global slope


stability (cut & fill)
Bearing (fill)

1.5

3.3

Tensile Resistance
Resistance at Soil
Grout Interface
Creep/corrosion

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

Overturning
Sliding
Overall Stability
Bearing

External Stability

2.0

6.1

Shaft Resistance

6.2

Base Resistance

Ultimate Lateral
Resistance

8.

Pile group

Block Bearing Capacity

9.

Piles as retaining
structures

DIFFERENTIAL

Analysis should be according to GEOTECHNICAL MANUAL FOR SLOPES


(1984), GEO Hong Kong

75 yrs

1.5
75 yrs

Geo Spec 1 (1989), GEO Hong Kong


BS 8081

1.8
1.6
1.5
2.0

75 yrs

15mm along
face of wall
Geoguide 1 (1983), GEO Hong Kong

15mm along
face of wall

1 : 150
along face of wall

BS 8006

120 yrs

5mm per metre height

15mm from reference alignment

1 : 100
along face of wall

2.0

75 yrs

2.0
3.0

Internal Stability

Indivudual Foundation
loads (mainly under lateral &
bending loads perpendicular to axis of pile)

10. Embankment on Soft


Ground

75 yrs

LATERAL

2.0
2.5

12mm along axis of pile


at pile head at design load.
38mm or 10% pile size
at pile head at twice design load.
BS 8004

75 yrs

12mm along axis of pile


at pile head at design load.

12mm perpendicular to axis of


pile at design load

BS 8004

As for 4, 6 & 7 above

10.1Bearing (short term)


10.2Local & global slope
stability (long term)

2.0
As for
individual
foundation
piles
1.4
1.2

75 yrs

12mm at Working Load


BS 8004

75 yrs

75 yrs

10 mm

As 4 above for rigid retaining structures


BS 8004
- Total post construction settlement < 400 mm
- 5 years post construction settlement < 100 mm (or 10% of estimated ultimate settlement)
(For embankment within 10 m from bridge abutment, the above settlement criteria should be reduced to 15%)

Membina Pusat Perubatan Nukleur dan Radiotherapi Hospital LikasPakar Likas, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah .

39

APPENDIX B
LIST OF LAB & INSITU TESTS
1.

Soil Classification Tests: BS 1377: Part 2: 1990


Moisture content, Liquid limit, Plastic limit, Plasticity index, linear shrinkage, particle size distribution.
(These tests are from disturbed samples such as split spoon samplers (SPT), bulk samples, etc.).

2.

Chemical & Electro-chemical Tests: BS 1377 Part 3: 1990


Organic matter content, Mass loss on ignition, Sulphate content of soil and ground water, Carbonate
content. Chloride content, Total dissolved solids, pH value, Resistivity and Redox potential.

3.

Compaction-related Tests: BS 1377: Part 4


(These tests are from bulk samples)
3.1
3.2
3.3

4.*

Compressibility. Permeability and Durability Tests: BS 1377: Part 5


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

5.*

Lab vane shear


Direct shear box (small)
Direct shear box (large)
Residual strength
Undrained shear strength (UU)
Undrained shear strength (multi loading)

Shear Strength Tests (Effective Stress) BS 1377: Part 8


7.1
7.2

8.

Consolidation Properties using hydraulic cell


Permeability in hydraulic conso cell
Isotropic conso properties using triaxial cell
Permeability in a triaxial cell

Shear Strength Tests (Total Stress) BS 1377: Part 7


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

7.*

1-D consolidation test


Swelling and collapse tests
Permeability by constant head
Dispersibility

Consolidation & Permeability Tests in Hydraulic Cells &


with pore pressure measurements: BS 1377: Part 6
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

6.*

Dry density - moisture relationship (2.5 kg/4.5 kg hammer)


Soil with some coarse gravels
vibrating method
Moisture condition value (MCV)
CBR tests

CIU with pore pressure measurement


CD with pore pressure measurement

Insitu Tests: BS 1377: Part 9


Field Density (cone, sand replacement & balloon). CBR, SPT, Plate Bearing, Vane shear (Acker,
Geonor. cylindrical), DS (Static Dutch Cone). Piezocone Test, etc.

These tests are from undisturbed samples (thin wall samplers, piston samplers, Mazier samplers. block
samples etc).

APPENDIX C
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/SYMBOLS
ACEM
ASTM
BS
BQ
Cc
Cv
C'
Cu
CBR
CIDB
CU
CD
CIUC

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

CIUE
CkoUC
DB
DS
GL
HA
HMLC
IEM
JKR
LL
M/C
Mv
MHB
MS
NW
NMLC
P.Eng
pH
PL
PI
Pc
RL
RQD
R/r
SI
SET
TNW
UU
UCS
WT

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia


American Society For Testing And Materials
British Standard
Bills of Quantities
Compression Index
Coef. of Consolidation
Effective Cohesion
Cohesion
California Bearing Ratio
Construction Industry Development Board
Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Test
Consolidated Drained Triaxial Test
Consolidated Undrained Compression Triaxial Test With Pore Pressure
Measurement (Effective stress)
Ditto - extension
Consolidated Undrained Compression At Ko Conditions
Deep Boring (rotary drilling)
Deep Sounding (Static Dutch Cone Penetrometer)
Ground Level
Hand Auger
65 mm Triple Tube Core Barrel (DCMA)
Institution of Engineers Malaysia
Jabatan Kerja Raya
Liquid Limit
Moisture Content
Coef. of Compressibility
Motorized Hand Boring (Wash Boring/Percussion Drilling)
Malaysian Standard
N Size Casing (101.6 mm diam)
52 mm Triple Tube Core Barrel (DCMA)
Professional Engineer registered with Board of Engineers Malaysia
Acidity Index
Plastic Limit
Plasticity Index
Effective Preconsolidated Pressure
Reduced Level
Rock Quality Designation
Recovery Ratio
Site Investigation
Standard Penetration Test
61 mm Double Tube Core Barrel (Atlas Copco)
Unconsolidated Undrained Test gives undrained shear strength (total stresses)
Unconfined Compression Strength
Water Table

APPENDIX D

APPLICABILITY OF COMMON FIELD OR INSITU TESTS


FIELD TESTS

1.

Soil

Soil

Rock

SOIL TYPE

SOIL PARAMETERS

Type

Profile

H.Rock

S.Rock

Gr

Sand

Silt

Clay

Peat

Cu

Mv

Cv

X
A
B
A
B
C

C
B
A
A
A
C

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
B
X
X
X
X

C
B
B
A
C
C

B
A
A
A
A
A

B
A
A
A
A
A

B
A
A
A
A
A

B
A
A
A
A
A

X
B
C
B
B
B

B
B
B
B
B
C

X
X
C
A
C
X

X
X
C
A
C
X

X
X
X
B
X
X

Penetrometer
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

JKR Probe
SPT
DS (CPT)
Piezocone (CPTU)
Flat Dilatometer
Resistivity Probe

Vane Shear

PB Pressuremeter

SB Pressuremeter

Continuous Soil Sampling

Legends:A
B
C
X

=
=
=
=

suitable/useful
moderate doubtful
doubtful
not suitable

Cu
My
Cv

=
=
=
=

effective frictional angle


unchained strength
coef. of volume compressibility
coef of consolidation

coef. of permeability

APPENDIX D1

soil

Stability

rock

soil

Identify soil & rock weathering profile

suitability of construction material survey

surface deposit

rock property (strength, etc)

geologic strata (fault, etc)

seepage

B
B
B
B

B
B

B
B
B

A
B

B
B

tulus

sandy soil

clayey soil

sandy soil

clayey soil

sandy soil

clayey soil

peat

foundation for pipe culvert, retaining wall (toe wall <2m)

structure with

mountainous/rolling

small-medium

flat (general)

scale

flat (soft)

flat (soft)

structure

**

B
B

B
B

B
A

A
A

supporting strata

mountainous

excavation

/rolling

large scale excavation

supporting strata

excavation

excavation below water level

supporting strata

excavation

with
large

flat (general)

scale
flat (soft)

excavation below water level

A
A

sand gravel

rolling/flat

Horizontal Boring

Pressuremeter Test

Loading
Test
Plate Loading Test

Vertical

Packer Test/Seepage
Pressure

Inclined

Test Pit/Trench

Horizontal

Seismic

Continuous Foil
Sampling

Double or Triple Tube

Thin Wall Tube

Hand Auger

SPT

JKR Probe

Boring and
soil sampling
In Situ Vane Test

Piezocon

Dutch Cone Penetration


Test (DS)

Ground
water
Variation in Ground Water
Level

rock

(after excavation)

Flat Dilatometer Test

Nucleonic

Electric

Boring & Sampling

Pumping or Permeability Test

Cut
Borrow Pit
tunnel

subgrade investigation

mountainous

Fill

Reflection

PS Wave

Sounding

Electric
Velocity

suitability of construction material survey

Geophysical
logging

Vertical

S. Wave Refraction

Identify soil & rock weathering profile

Scope & purpose of SI


by type of road structure

Structure

Seismic
P. Wave Refraction

SI Method

Geophysical
survey

Horizontal

Fill Inspection/ Walk-Over Survey

SCOPE OF SI SI METHODS

B
B

A
A

A
A
A

applicable

supplementary
or may be
applicable

COMMON SAMPLERS

1.

Appendix E

TYPE OF SAMPLERS

REMARKS

OPEN DRIVE SAMPLERS


1.1
Split-spoon for SPT
1.2
Thin-wall sampler
Thick wall sampler (50mm,
75mm, 100mm, 150mm).

No piston; penetration by static thrust or


dynamic impact; suitable for almost all
types of soils except gravelly soils or
hard/dense materials.

1.3

2.

THIN-WALL SAMPLER WITH


STATIONARY PISTON (50mm,
75mm, 100mm, 150mm)

The most reliable sampler to procure


undisturbe soft to stiff cohesive soils; area
ratio is usually about 10%. The inside
clearance ratio shall be 0.5 to 1%. Mainly
for shear strength & consolidation tests.

3.

DENISON SAMPLER
tube with thin wall tube)

No piston; suitable for stiff to very stiff


cohesive soil and sandy soil (SF = 4-20);
open drive sampler

4.

MAZIER SAMPLER
(74mm)

Triple tube sampler; usual core size 74mm


diam. & PW casing is required; air foam
drilling technique is preferred to procure
high quality undisturbed samples from
residual soils. Not suitable for gravelly soils.

5.

FOIL CONTINUOUS SAMPLERS


(DELFT 29mm, 66mm OR SWEDISH
SAMPLER 68mm diam)

With stationary piston; suitable for minor


stratification ie sand seams because of
continuous samples of 5 to 8m can be procured.

(Double

Continuous samples for soil fabrics &


stratigraphical or profiling evaluation etc.

6.

BLOCK SAMPLING

Blocks of soil (200 to 350mm cubes) cut


from test pits; Need careful sealing and
handling. Mainly for triaxial, shear box &
permeability tests.

7.

ROTARY ROCK CORE SAMPLERS

Double tube core barrels for strong rock


(Grade 1 or 2): 30mm; 42mm; 54mm; TNW,
61mm; T2-76, 62mm.
Triple tube core barrels for fractured rock;
HMLC, 52mm: HMLC, 64mm

Notes:

1.

Std. sampler size (UK) : 50, 75, 100, 150, 250 mm diam.
Std. sampler size (US) : 1 1/2, 2, 2 1/2, 3, 4, 5 inches diam.

2.

Samples should be labelled, handled, transported and extruded


carefully in accordance with BS 5930.

APPENDIX F
LIST OF STANDARD SIZES OF DRILLING RODS
CORE BITS & CASING
ASTMD2113 13
DCMA
E,A,B,N,H,P = 1 1/2", 2", 3", 4", 5"
TABLE 1 Core Bit Sizes
Outside Diameter

Core size
(mm)
Double
Tube

T2-76
TNW
T2-101
T6-101

62
61
84
79

Triple
Tube

NMLC
HMLC
3C-MLC
C-MLC

52
64
76
102

Inside Diameter

Size Designation

in

mm

in

mm

RWT
EWT
EWG, EWM
AWT
AWG, AWM
BWT
BWG, BWM
NWT
NWG, NWM
2 x 3 7/8
HWT
HWG,
4 x 5 5.44
6 x 7 7.66

1.16
1.47
1.47
1.88
1.88
2.35
2.35
2.97
2.97
3.84
3.89
3.89
138.0
194.4

29.5
37.3
37.3
47.6
47.6
59.5
59.5
75.3
75.3
97.5
98.8
98.8
3.97
5.97

0.375
0.905
0.845
1.282
1.185
1.750
1.655
2.313
2.155
2.69
3.187
3.000
100.8
151.6

18.7
22.9
21.4
32.5
30.0
44.5
42.0
58.7
54.7
68.3
80.9
76.2

K3 - 76
Tb - 76
K3 - 86

WF series (BS4019)
WT series (CDDA)
WM series (DCMA)
Craelius T or K series
(Atlas Copco)

48
57
58

TABLE 2 Casing Sizes


Size Designation

RW
EW
AW
BW
NW
HW
PW
SW
UW
ZW

Outside Diameter

Inside Diameter

in

mm

in

1.144
1.81
2.25
2.88
3.50
4.50
5.50
6.63
7.63
8.63

36.5
46.0
57.1
73.0
88.9
114.3
139.7
168.2
193.6
219.0

1.19
1.50
1.91
2.38
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00

Threads per in.

mm
30.1
38.1
48.4
60.3
76.2
101.6
127.0
152.4
177.8
203.2

5
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
2
2

Will Fit Hole Drilled with


Core Bit Size
EWT, EWG, EWM
AWT, AWG, AWM
BWT, BWG, BWM
NWT, NWG,NWM
HWT, HWG
4x5
6 x 7 3/4
6 x 7 3/4
...
...

TABLE 3 Drill Rods


Size Designation

RW
EW
AW
BW
NW
HW

Rod and Coupling Outside

Rod Inside Diameter

Coupling Bore, Threads

in

mm

in

mm

in

mm

1.09
1.38
1.72
2.13
2.63
3.50

27.7
34.9
43.6
53.9
66.6
88.9

0.72
1.00
1.34
1.75
2.25
3.06

18.2
25.4
34.1
44.4
57.1
77.7

0.41
0.44
0.63
0.75
1.38
2.38

10.3
11.1
15.8
19.0
34.9
60.3

per in
4
3
3
3
3
3

APPENDIX G
QUALITY OF SAMPLES (AFTER ROWE)
Quality
Class
1

Properties

Purpose

Typical Sampling
Procedure

- Remoulded properties
- Fabric
- Water content
- Density and porosity
- Compressibility & deformation
- Effective strength parameters
- Total strength parameters
- Permeability*
- Consolidation*

Laboratory data on
in situ soils
(classification tests
& engineering
properties)

- Remoulded properties
- Fabric
- Water content
- Density and porosity
- Compressibility & deformation*
- Effective strength parameters*
- Total strength parameters*

Laboratory data on
in situ insensitive
soils

- Remoulded properties
- Fabric A* 100% recovery.
Continuous
B * 90% recovery.
Consecutive

Fabric examination
and laboratory data on
remoulded soils

Pressed or driven thin


or thick walled
samplers. Water
balance in highly
permeable soils.

- Remoulded properties

Laboratory data on
remoulded soils.
Sequence of strata

Bulk and jar samples


(from SPT split
samplers)

None

Aproximate sequence
of strata only

Washings (washed
samples)

Piston thin walled


sampler with water
balance
Mazier sampler with
foam drilling
Block samples
Pressed or driven thin
or thick walled
sampler with water
balance
Mazier sampler

Items changed from original German classification (7th. Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Foundn.
Engng. Mexico 1969).

APPENDIX H
GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF SUMMARY OF SCOPE OF SI WORKS
(DESIGN OF SCOPE OF SI FOR ROAD PROJECTS)
Summary of Scope of SI Works with the following details should be given to
the SI Contractor:
1.

Brief project description and objectives of SI.

2.

SI Methods & Locations (Scope of SI Works)


-

Types & methods SI & the brief quantities should be summarized


& indicated
Locations of SI shown on Drawings should be indicated

3.

Criteria of Terminating Boreholes


Criteria of terminating boreholes or other SI methods should be clearly
indicated, e.g., in Cut Areas, in fill areas (in soft ground/swamp and
residual soil areas) and in structure areas.

4.

Field testing & sampling criteria


Types & frequency of various field testing & sampling should be
specified.

5.

Laboratory Testing
Types of lab testing & the selection criteria of samples should be
specified.

6.

Special requirements
Special requirements about SI methods, testing & sampling if any
should be clearly mentioned. Method Statement for SI methods & tests
plus works programme shall be submitted to the Designer at least 3
working days before commencement of SI works.

Example of Scope of SI Works for road project is enclosed.

Scope of SI works are based on "Guidelines for planning SI works for


Road Projects"

APPENDIX H (continue)
PROJECT JALAN ABC (Example)
SCOPE OF SI WORKS
1.

OBJECTIVES
This project involves in construction of a new R5 highway of about 30km through rolling to hilly
terrains with some localized swamps and 3 bridges. The alignment traverses through sedimentary shale
and granitic formations. Preliminary geological and terrain evaluation studies show that potential slope
instability areas are at KM5, KM9 and KM 12.
The main objectives of SI are:

2.

To determine generalised subsoil profile for the proposed road alignment (earthwork planning
& rock estimation)

To identify unstable soil formation and water table (water bearing zones and free water table
depth) in cut areas (colluvium, faulter or sheared zones) for stability analysis & pavement or
subsoil drainage design

To obtain subsoil properties and water table for embankment design & necessary ground
treatment

To determine suitability of fill and borrow sources

To obtain subsoil properties for foundation design for structures (3 bridges & several major
culverts & walls)

SI METHODS & LOCATIONS


-

Rotary boring (NW & HW casings)

33 Nos/location

Rotary boring (air foam drilling technique) (for Mazier samples) at cut areas.

10 Nos/location

Trial pits & bulk samples/block samples


(1.5mx1.5mx2.0m deep) plus 5 JKR probes/pit

JKR Probes
(Until 12m deep or until 400 blows/300mm)

200 locations

Hand Augers

20 Nos

Seismic survey (reflection method )

10 locations

30 lines at 8 locations

Locations of the above are shown in Drg. Nos A100


Works Spec: JKR Std. Spec. for SI Works (1980).
3.

CRITERIA OF TERMINATING BOREHOLES


3.1

Cut Areas
Boreholes should be terminated after 3 consecutive SPT values exceeding 50 or after 3m rock
coring or the max depth (about 3m below formation level) specified below, whichever comes
first:

BH21, BH28, BH35, BH40


BH4, BH30, BH38
BH15, BH31, BH25, BH26, BH39
BH11, BH24, BH33, BH42
BH41

- Max depth = 15m


- Max depth = 25m
- Max depth = 30m
- Max depth = 35m
- Max depth = 40m

APPENDIX H (continue)

3.2

Locations of boreholes to be selected to install piezometers (Casagrande type) will be


decided at the site by the Designer.

In Fill Areas
Boreholes in filling areas should be terminated as follows:
3.2.1

Alluvial Soil or Soft or Swampy Areas:


(a)

until 10 numbers of SPT exceeding N-value of 10 or until 10 insitu


vane shear tests exceeding, 50 kPa if the height of embankment is
less than 3m.( Refer longitudinal section of road alignment)

(b)

until 5 numbers of SPT exceeding N-value of 20 or 5 insitu vane


shear tests exceeding 75 kPa if the height of embankment is 3m to
5m.

(c)

until 2 numbers of SPT exceeding N-value of 50 or 2 SPT


exceeding 40 (for depth exceeding 30m) if the height of
embankment is more than 5m.

3.2.2

3.3

at least one borehole along the soft stretch should be


extended until 3 consecutive SPT exceeds 50 or until 3m
rock coring.

Residual Soil Areas:


(a)

until 5 numbers of SPT exceeding N-value of 20 if the height of


embankment is less than 6m.

(b)

until 5 number of SPT exceeding N-value of 30 if the height of


embankment is more than 6m.

Bridges & Structures


Locations of boreholes (BH5, 6, 7 & BH12 & 13) are shown in the Drg A100. Estimated
depths are given in the BQ.
Boring should be terminated after 5 consecutive SPT values exceeding 50, or 5 consecutive
SPT values exceeding 30, if the borehole depth also exceeds 60m. Boring should also be
terminated if rock is encountered. Rock corings shall be carried out as follows:
Min. Core
Length

Rock Type
Igneous rock (granite) and bore depth <24m or recovery
ratio R/r<50%

4.5m

Igneous rocks, bore depth >24m

3.0m

Shale/schist/slate/sandstone, Recovery ratio R/r<50%

6.0m

Shale/schist/slate/sandstone, Recovery ratio R/r>50%

3.0m

Lime stone R/r >50% and no cavity

6.0m

Lime stone R/r <50% or with cavity

9m - 21m

Other rocks R/r >50%

4.5m

Other rocks R/r<50%

6.0m

APPENDIX H (continue)

4.

Min core size should be 52mm diam. (NMLC or HMLC or equivalent)

FIELD TESTING & SAMPLING


Wash samples should be checked continuously and SPT should be carried out at change of soil type or
at 1.5m interval except when taking undisturbed samples or where soft cohesive stratum is encountered
where insitu vane shear test should be carried out (at 1.0m to 1.5m intervals) instead of SPT.
Typical undisturbed samples from soft to firm strata using thin walled stationary piston samplers should
be taken (min 63.5mm diam.).
Typical undisturbed samples from residual soils using Mazier samplers with detachable inner liner
(74mm diam.) should be taken at selected boreholes shown in the Drg. or as directed by the Designer.
Air foam drilling technique should be used.

5.

LABORATORY TESTING
Field borelogs should be sent to the Designer as soon as each borehole is completed. This is to enable
the designer to determine as early as possible the types of lab tests required. This is also to enable the
Designer, after examination of the field borelogs, to determine the adequacy of SI (to add or to omit or
to amend the scope of SI).
As a general guide, typical disturbed samples from Hand Augers and SPT samplers from each borehole
should be selected for classification tests which include natural moisture content, liquid limit, plastic
limit, plasticity index, and particle size distribution (excluding sg, pipette/ hydrometer tests and other
chemical tests sinless otherwise specified or directed by the Designer).
Typical undisturbed samples from soft to firm strata may be selected for oedometer tests/UU/CIU tests
etc.
Typical undisturbed samples from residual soils may be selected for CIU/CD or permeability tests etc.
Water samples are for PH & salt contents tests etc.
Bulk samples from trial pits are mainly for classification, compaction & CBR tests.
Block samples will be mainly for triaxial tests (CIU/CD) or permeability tests etc.

6.

SI REPORT
SI report shall be prepared according to REAM guidelines.