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EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS


COURSE NAME

PNEUMATIC AND HIDRAULIC SYSTEM DESIGN

COURSE CODE

EPT 427/ 3

LAB No.

LAB MODULE

PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS

LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY
1

KNOWLEDGE

REPETITION

APPLICATION

ANALYSIS

EVALUATION

SYNTHESISE

SCHOOL OF
MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING
1
EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

LAB 1
PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS
1. Outcome
1.1
1.2
1.3

Understanding Basic Pneumatic equipment and its function.


Ability to design and simulate control circuit of multiple pneumatic system and
applications using the pneumatic training system.
Ability to analyze and design sequence control for multiple cylinder operation.

2. Introduction
2.1

Actuators

Linear actuators
Linear actuators (cylinders) are classified according to their construction and method of
operation. The single-acting and Double-acting cylinders are the basis for the other cylinders. A
single acting cylinder has a spring to return the piston rod. Air or fluid is used to extend the
cylinder and when the pressure is release, the spring return the piston. A doubleacting cylinder
uses air or fluid to extend and retract the piston. Cushioning can be added to decelerate the piston
at one or both ends of travel. The amount of cushioning is adjustable with a needle valve that
controls the flow rate of air or fluid as it escapes the cylinder. The cushioning is designed to
work at the end of the travel. The cylinder can move full speed between the endpoints of travel.
This is especially useful for moving heavy loads. The cushioning allows controlled deceleration
before stop. See the figure 2b for a double-acting cylinder with adjustable cushioning at both
ends. A single-ended cylinder produces unequal forces on the extend and retract stroke. On the
extend stroke, the air or fluid pushes against the whole surface of the piston. On the retract
stroke, the area is reduced by the diameter of the piston rod. A double-ended cylinder has equal
pressure on the extend and retract stroke.

Ao

A1

Ao

(a)
Ao >A1
F extend > F retract

Ao

(b)
Ao = Ao
F extend = F retract

Figure 2: single ended and double ended

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EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

Figure 3: Type of cylinder

The method of actuation ; Manually, Mechanically or by pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical


power and combination of actuation such as pneumatic and
Manual.
The Number of flow part ; Two way, three way and four way valve
they Provide
The type of connection ; Pipe Thread, straight thread, flanged and subplate or manifold
Type mounting.
Valve can also be classified by the internal type valve that is used; poppet (piston or ball), sliding
spool and rotary spool.

Figure 4: Air Supply and control device symbols.


3
EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

2.2

SEM1 SA 2014/15

Valve

Valve positions are represented by squares (see figure 4). The number of squares
represents the number of switching position. The one in figure 4b has two switching positions.
Valve shut-off positions are represented by lines at right angles (see figure 4d). Inlet and outlet
ports are shown by lines (see figure 4e). Directional control valves are represented by the number
of ports and the number of control positions that they have (see figure 4). Normally open and
normally closed are the opposite in fluid power. In electrical terms, a normally open valve does
not pass current. In fluid power, a normally open valve does pass fluid.

Figure 4: Valve Symbols

Figure 5: Directional Control Valve

4
EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

2.3

SEM1 SA 2014/15

Port Numbering

A numbering system identifies the ports on directional control valve. In the past, a
lettering system was used both are shown in figure 6. The pressure port is 1 or P. Exhaust ports
are 3 and 5 (R and S). Signal outputs are 2 and 4 (B and A). Directional control valve are
represented by the number of ports and the number of control positions that they have. The
simplest type of directional valve is a check valve, which allows flow in one direction but blocks
flow in the other direction. It is made of a ball, a seat and a spring (see figure 7). A light spring
pushes the ball against the seat to stop flow in one direction. If the pressure on the other side is
higher than the light spring pressure, the ball moves away from the seat and allows flow in the
direction.

Figure 6: Ports numbering

Pilot-Operated check valve


A pilot operator check valve is controlled by a pilot signal that is electrical, mechanical,
or fluid operated. The pilot operated check valve operates like a simple check valve until
pressure is applied through the pilot port. When pilot pressure is applied, reverse flow is
permitted through the valve.

Figure 7: Some of the more Common Types of Check valve

5
EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

Figure 8: Diagram of several common valve actuation types, a valve


can have more than one method.

Logic Valve and Sequence Control for multiple cylinder operation


Logical functions can be represented by the truth table, the logic symbol or the Boolean
equation.
AND Valve
AND function
a
0
0
1
1

b
0
1
0
1

Pneumatic Realisation
y
0
0
0
1

y = a .b
y=a^b
y = ab

OR Valve
OR function
a
0
0
1
1

b
0
1
0
1

Pneumatic Realisation
y
0
1
1
1

y=a+b
y=ab

6
EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS


SCHOOL OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

LAB REPORT
PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

LAB 1: Pneumatic System


Group: _______
Course: ___________________________
Date of experiment: _________________

GROUP MEMBERS NAME:


1. __________________________________________ Matrix No:___________________

2. __________________________________________ Matrix No.:___________________

3. __________________________________________ Matrix No.:___________________

7
EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

EXPERIMENT
Experiment 1: Direct and Indirect actuation
i. Develop circuit below
ii. Describe the operation of the circuit A and B

Figure 1: Circuit 1A & 1B

Equipments: list for pneumatic


1

Single acting cylinder

3/2 way valve with push button, NC

3/2 way valve , pressure actuator

Tube cutter

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EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

Experiment 2: Control speed for double acting cylinder with flow control valve.
i. Develop circuit below
ii. Describe the operation of the circuit.
iii. Base on experiment, what happen if the inlet air is control?

Push
button 1

Push
button 2

Figure 2: Circuit 2
Equipments: list for pneumatic
1

Double acting cylinder

3/2 way valve with push button, NC

5/2 way valve , pressure actuator

Tube cutter

One way flow control valve

9
EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

Experiment 3: OR and AND valve


i. Develop circuit below
ii. Describe the operation of the circuit 3.
iii. Function of OR and AND valve.

Push
button 1

Push
button 2

Push
button 3

Push
button 4

Figure 3: Circuit 3
Equipments: list for pneumatic
1

Double acting cylinder

3/2 way valve with push button, NC

5/2 way valve , pressure actuator

Tube cutter

And and Or valve

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EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

Case study

Two cylinders are used to transfer parts from a magazine onto a chute. Cylinder 1A and
cylinder 2A.When a push button or foot pedal is pressed and limit switch 3 touch, the first
cylinder extend, pushing the part from magazine and positions it in preparation for transfer by
the second cylinder onto the outfeed chute. Once the part is transferred, the first cylinder retracts,
followed by the second. Speeds for extend and retract of two cylinders are control to make the
part not damage when cylinders push it.

i.
ii.

Design circuit to make this system fully functional.


Draw sequence Diagram of circuit.

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EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP

EPT427 /3 Pneumatic And Hydraulic System Design

SEM1 SA 2014/15

DISCUSSION
Describe what have you observed and understand during conducting experiment.

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CONCLUSION
Comment about the experiment objective.

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Total Marks:
12
EN.RADHWAN HUSSIN
LECTURER PPKP