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Unit 8

REPORTED SPEECH

El estilo indirecto es la forma de reproducir lo que otra persona ha dicho sin citar
sus palabras exactas (textuales).
En una oracin en estilo indirecto podemos encontrar DOS PARTES:
Una primera PARTE INTRODUCTORIA que incluye el verbo, que es el que
introduce lo que se va a contar: say (decir), tell (contar), mention
(mencionar), order (ordenar), suggest (sugerir), ask (pedir,
preguntar), wonder (preguntarse), insist (insistir), invite (invitar),
offer (ofrecer), thank (agradecer), warn (advertir), remind
(recordar), etc.
Una segunda parte que es LO QUE ALGUIEN DIJO sobre algo.
Dependiendo del contenido de la frase y de la intencin del hablante, distinguimos
entre AFIRMACIONES, PREGUNTAS, RDENES y SUGERENCIAS.
REPORTED STATEMENTS (RACIONES ASEVERATIVAS)
Al transformar una informacin a estilo indirecto se producen una serie de CAMBIOS
GRAMATICALES Y SINTCTICOS:
1. NO se utilizan comillas.
2. CAMBIOS EN LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES.- Cuando el verbo principal (reporting verb)
est en pasado, el verbo que apareca en estilo directo retrocede un tiempo verbal al pasar a
estilo indirecto. Las correspondencias son las siguientes:

ESTILO DIRECTO
Presente simple
"I always drink coffee", she said
Presente continuo
"I am reading a book", he explained.
Presente perfecto
"I have been to Spain", he told me.
Presente perfecto continuo
They complained, "We have been waiting for
hours".
Pasado simple
"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said.
Pasado continuo
"We were living in Paris", they told me
Pasado perfecto
"I had just turned out the light," he explained.
Futuro simple
"I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said
Condicional simple
Futuro continuo
She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday".
Will
Shall
Must / Have to
May
Can

ESTILO INDIRECTO
Pasado simple
She said that she always drank coffee.
Pasado continuo
He explained that he was reading a book
Pasado perfecto
He told me that he had been to Spain
Pasado perfecto continuo
They complained that they had been waiting for
hours.
Pasado perfecto
He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday
Pasado perfecto continuo
They told me that they had been living in Paris.
Pasado perfecto
He explained that he had just turned out the light.
Condicional simple
He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday.
Condicional perfecto
Condicional continuo
She said that she would be using the car next Friday.
Would
Should
Had to / Must
Might
Could

Ten en cuenta que NO CAMBIAN: Pasado perfecto; los modales: Would, Could,
Might, Should, Ought to.

3. Cambios en EXPRESIONES TEMPORALES.


ESTILO DIRECTO

ESTILO INDIRECTO

TODAY
YESTERDAY

THAT DAY
THE DAY BEFORE / THE LAST DAY / THE PREVIOUS
DAY
THE NEXT DAY / THE FOLLOWING DAY / THE DAY
AFTER
THAT WEEK
THE FOLLOWING ----THE ----- BEFORE / THE PREVIOUS --------- BEFORE
THAT NIGHT
THEN / IN THAT MOMENT
AT THAT MOMENT
TWO DAYS BEFORE
TWO DAYS LATER
THAT ------THOSE --------

TOMORROW
THIS WEEK
NEXT ----LAST --------- AGO
TONIGHT
NOW
AT THE MOMENT
THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY
THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW
THIS ------THESE ----------

4. Cambios en EXPRESIONES DE LUGAR.


ESTILO DIRECTO
Here

ESTILO INDIRECTO
THERE / THAT PLACE (o un lugar especfico)

5. Cambios en los DEMOSTRATIVOS (adjetivos y pronombres).


ESTILO DIRECTO
This
These

ESTILO INDIRECTO
THAT
THOSE

6. Cambios en los PRONOMBRES PERSONALES y en los POSESIVOS (adjetivos y


pronombres).
I/me/my/mine, you/your/yours HIM/HIS/HER/HERS
we/us/our/ours, you/your/yours THEY/THEIR/THEIRS
He said: "I like your new car." He told her that he liked her new car.
REPORTED COMMANDS (RDENES INDIRECTAS)
Al pasar al estilo indirecto una orden, utilizamos la siguiente construccin:
SUJETO + VERBO (TELL) + COMPLEMENTO'+ INFINITIVE CON TO.

'Close the door!' He told me to close the door. (Me dijo que cerrara la puerta.)
Cuando queremos pasar una ORDEN NEGATIVA al estilo indirecto, colocamos NOT
delante del infinitivo. La construccin resultante es la siguiente: sujeto + verbo +
complemento + NOT + infinitive con to.

Don't forget your wallet.' She told him not to forget his wallet. (Le dijo que
no olvidara la cartera.)

stos son algunos de los VERBOS que se utilizan para introducir ordenes y
recomendaciones en el estilo indirecto: advise, ask (pedir), encourage, invite, order,
persuade, remind, warn. (Nunca el verbo SAY).

'Go and see the doctor now!' He advised her to go and see the doctor
immediately. (Le recomend que fuera inmediatamente al medico.)
REPORTED REQUESTS (PETICIONES INDIRECTAS)
Al pasar al estilo indirecto una peticin, utilizamos la misma construccin que con las
rdenes:
SUJETO + VERBO (ASK) + COMPLEMENTO'+ INFINITIVE CON TO.

'Please, Can you close the door?' He asked me to close the door. (Me pidi que
cerrara la puerta.)
Cuando queremos pasar una PETICIN NEGATIVA al estilo indirecto, colocamos NOT
delante del infinitivo. La construccin resultante es la siguiente: sujeto + verbo +
complemento + NOT + infinitive con to.
stos son algunos de los VERBOS que se utilizan para introducir peticiones en el estilo
indirecto: ask (pedir),beg, encourage, invite, persuade, remind (Nunca el verbo SAY).
REPORTED QUESTIONS (PREGUNTAS INDIRECTAS)
Hay que tener en cuenta que:
-Se utiliza el mismo orden que para oraciones enunciativas.
- No se utilizan signos de interrogacin
Tambin hay que tener en cuenta:

Si la pregunta comienza con un pronombre interrogativo (WH-QUESTION)


como WHO / WHAT TIME / WHEN / HOW MUCH..., tambin utilizaremos ste en la
frase en estilo indirecto, seguido de una frase afirmativa o negativa.

He said to me: "What time do you get up?" He asked me what time I got up.

Si no tiene pronombre interrogativo, es decir si es una YES/ NO QUESTION


utilizaremos If o Whether (si...).

He said: "Has John studied English"

He asked me if John had studied English.

Nota: No se usara "that" nunca: He asked me that if John had studied English.
stos son algunos de los VERBOS que se utilizan para introducir preguntas en el estilo
indirecto: ask (preguntar),wonder, want to know

REPORTING VERBS
Los verbos que se utilizan en las oraciones de estilo indirecto son de DOS TIPOS:
1) Los que requieren un complemento, por ejemplo TELL: I told her (that) he was
studying English.

2) Aquellos que no lo necesitan, como por ejemplo SAY: I said (that) he was
studying English.
Verbos parecidos a SAY (no necesitan
complemento)

Admit answer declare indicate observe mention


report believe think prove...

Verbos parecidos a TELL (necesitan


complemento)

Advise convince inform notify teach promise


remind...

Se pueden agrupar en:


A) VERBO + OBJETO+ Infinitivo con TO

Advise
ask
beg
command
encourage

forbid
instruct
invite
order
persuade

remind
teach
tell
warn

B) VERBO + Infinitivo con TO (sin complemento/objeto)

Agree
offer

Promise*
refuse

Hope*

C) VERBO + (that) +SUJETO+ Verbo en el tiempo correspondiente

add
admit
answer
claim
comment
complain
confirm
consider
declare

explain
hope*
insist*
mention
persuade
promise*
propose
recommend
repeat

reply
reveal
say
suggest*
suppose
tell
think
understand
warn

D) VERBO + Verbo-ING

Apologise + FOR + Verb-ING


Insist on * + Verb-ING

Suggest* + (Object) + Verb-ING

Hay verbos que pueden ir seguidos de dos estructuras diferentes:


We should arrive in London before nightfall."
They hoped to arrive in London before nightfall.
They hoped that they would arrive in London before nightfall.

REWRITE INTO THE REPORTED SPEECH: Do not use say or tell as an


introductory verb.
We said to Mary: Do you like playing chess?

Lets have a barbecue tomorrow night I told my girlfriend.

Be careful! The water is boiling. My mother said to me.

The teacher told the students: Dont open the door now. Its raining heavily

Ill write you , I promise Helen said to her boyfriend.

REWRITE THE SENTENCES IN REPORTED SPEECH. Change pronouns and


expressions of time and place where necessary.
1.

He said, "I am writing a test tomorrow."

2.

"Close the door behind you," he told me.

3.

"Where have you been?" the mother asked her daughter.

4.

You said, "I will do this for him."

5.

"Which dress do you like best?" she asked her boyfriend.

6.

"Shall we have a party? " he said.

7.

"Don't be late," he advised us.

8.

She said, "I am not hungry now."

9.

"Don't drink and drive," she told us.

10.

"Stop staring at me," she said.

11.

They said, "We have never been here before."

12.

"Don't be angry with me, please" he said.

13.

"What are they doing?" she asked.

14.

They said, "We were in London last week."

15.

He said, "I will have finished this paper by tomorrow."

16.

"Leave me alone," she said.