4 views

Uploaded by Nmg Kumar

eraeraeraer

- Microgrid Report
- Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Analysis on Micro-grid Based on DIgSILENT
- 2. Smart Mini Grid An Innovative Distributed.pdf
- Artificial Neural Networks Application on Power System
- legea energiei electrice in iordania.pdf
- Electrical Supply lect 5.ppt
- Power sector in india
- Basics of Power System
- Dayton-Power-
- On Prospects of Sustainable Energy Sources for Power Generation in Indonesia
- ESMAP, Technical and Economic Assessment of Off-grid, Minigrid and Grid Electrification Technologies, 12-2007
- A Review on AC and DC Technology in Microgrids
- Reconfiguration of distribution system using fuzzy multi-objective approach
- Design and Implementation of Grid Connected Hybrid PV and Wind Energy Generation System
- 2015 Microgrid Col
- Generación distribuida
- Seminar Ppt
- Hybrid System With Micro Gas Turbine And
- Feasibility Analysis of the Positioning Of
- 14-2010-Differential Evolutionary Algorithms in Optimal Distributed Generation Location

You are on page 1of 15

INTRODUCTION

1.1 NETWORK RECONFIGURATION

Distribution systems usually open ring design and operation as are radial. If

all keys are closed, the network losses will be minimal. But due to the complexity

and high level of protection short circuit if it does not work. In these systems there

are two types of switches; sectionalizing-switches (normally closed) and tieswitches (normally open)[3].The configuration of the distribution system is

changed by opening sectionalizing switches and closing tie switches so that the

radial structure of the network is maintained and all of the loads are supported, and

reduced power losses and improve power quality and increase system security. The

problem formulation proposed here in considers two different objectives related to

minimizing the power losses and minimizing the deviation of the bus voltage.

Distribution system reconfiguration problem is a complex, combinatorial

optimization problem involving constraints. The complexity of the problem arises

from the fact that distribution network topology has to be radial and power flow

constraints are nonlinear in nature[5]. Since a typical distribution system may have

hundreds of switches, an exhaustive search of all possible configurations is a not a

practical solution. In this study, forward and backward sweep method processes

using kirchoffs laws is used to find out the load flow solution.

1.2 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

Distributed Generation(DG) in power system networks has rapidly

increased.

technologies for small-scale generation. DG units are typically connected so that

they work in parallel with the utility grid, and they are placed depending on

availability of the resources.

1.3. OVERVIEW OF THIS PROJECT

Most of the algorithms in the literature are based on heuristic search

techniques, using either analytical or knowledge-based engines[4]. A branch

exchange-type heuristic algorithm has been suggested by Civanlar, where a simple

formula has been derived to determine how a branch exchange affects the losses.

In Shirmohammadi and Hong, the solution method starts with a meshed

distribution system obtained by considering all switches closed[4]. Goswami and

Basu report a heuristic algorithm that is based on the concept of optimum flow

pattern that is determined by using a power-flow program.

The network reconfiguration problem in a distribution system is to find a

best configuration of radial network that gives minimum power loss while the

imposed operating constraints are satisfied, which are voltage profile of the system,

current capacity of the feeder, and radial structure of the distribution system[6].

The penetration of DG may impact the operation of a distribution network in both

beneficial and detrimental ways. Some of the positive impacts of DG are: voltage

support, power loss reduction, support of ancillary services and improved

reliability.

In distribution network the number of such switching options is very large.

The problem of determining the status of the network switches, therefore , when

formulated as a non-linear optimization techniques[6]. The forward and backward

power flow technique have been suggested to solve the reconfiguration problem.

This

work

proposes

evolutionary

optimization

techniques

namely

gives result with minimum real power loss for IEEE 33-Bus and 69-Bus.

CHAPTER 2

NETWORK RECONFIGURATION WITH DISTRIBUTED

GENERATION

2.1. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Electricity distribution system is a final stage in the delivery of electricity to

the end user. A distribution system's network carries electricity from the

transmission system and delivers it to consumers. There are 3 type of power

distribution namely loop, network and radial.

2.1.1. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Radial distribution is the type of power distribution where the power is

delivered from the main branch to sub-branches then it split out from the subbranches again. It is the cheapest but least reliable network configuration.

Radial Power System is a system in which power flows in the direction from

the distribution substation to an individual customer. Radial system looks like a

branch of a tree with a main line connected to a series of a smaller circuit. From

the smaller circuit, the circuit will branch off to contain the customer need.

Radial system will have one source of power or a group of power sources in

the same area.

Power failure, short circuit, down the power line will cause

disruption to the system and the system cannot be restored until the fault is fixed.

Only one path is connected between each customer and substation. Electrical

power flows along a single path. If interrupted, results in complete loss of power to

the customer. The ability to reconfigure a RDS can help to improve the

a very useful tool for DS management. The RDS reconfiguration problem is a

mixed integer, nonlinear optimization problem. It may be posed for a variety of

objectives, and has been solved using many different techniques.

Distribution

network

reconfiguration

is

complex

combinatorial

minimize the system power loss while satisfying operating constraints[1]. The

complexity of the problem arises from the fact the distribution network

topology

in nature. Since a

search of all possible configuration is a not a practical solution.

Network

problem

where

the sectionalizing

the best possible combination of status

(open / close) of

reconfiguration have been the minimization of the transmission loss and voltage

deviations. Generally power distribution network reconfiguration provides

services to as many customers as possible following fault coding and during

planned outage for maintenance purposes with system loss minimization[2].

Feeder

reconfiguration

entails

altering

the

topological structure

of

both normal and abnormal operating conditions[6]. When the operation conditions

of the distribution systems change, the network is reconfigured for two main

purposes are to improve the voltage profile and help to reduce the

line losses

Network reconfiguration allows the system to serve the same load to users

with less power losses on the system lines. It can also relieve the overloads in

the network, and prevent lipid overload. Network reconfiguration is an effective

way to improve the power quality in the system and enhance the reliability of

power voltage on the user side.

Generally speaking, the network reconfiguration is a multi-objective

nonlinear optimization problem. Due to the fact that there are a large number

of sectionalizing switches in a distribution network, most of the

existing

or heuristics. Power distribution networks are mostly radially configured, aimed

to make easier inherent protection factors, coordination and short circuit currents

attenuation, looking for equipments costs reduction. In general, these networks

present possibilities for topology modification

configuration, is aimed to reduce the feeders

active

losses,

improve the

isolate faults restoring or supplying the power . Thus, these sectionalizing switches

are used for both objectives[3]

Protection (faults isolation)

Reconfiguration (configuration management).

The reconfiguration problem is solved using computational simulation.

However, this kind of

programming

A radial system presents low short circuit currents, simple

protection equipments, low cost of operation and construction, but also

presents

low

sectionalizing

reliability.

switches

Thus,

radial networks

are

constructed

with

protection and reconfiguration. Generally speaking, we could say that the network

reconfiguration problem consists on searching an optimal strategic of operation

in a way to minimize feeders losses and propitiate a suitable load balancing in the

three-phase system, considering

The exact solution for the reconfiguration problem involves selection,

within all possible configurations, of that which has the smallest loss. To find the

exact solution is impossible, due to the exponential growing, dependent on

the number and location of the system switches, Of the number of generated

feasible

relevant

in operation. Their configurations may be varied with manual or automatic

switching operations so that, all the loads are supplied and reduce power loss.

Reconfiguration also relieves the overloading of the network components.

Feeder reconfiguration is performed by opening sectionalizing (normally closed)

and closing tie (normally open) switches of the network. These switching are

performed in such a way that the radiality of the network is maintained and

all the loads are energized. A normally open tie switch is closed to transfer a

load from one feeder to another while an appropriate sectionalizing switch is

opened to restore the radial structure. The problem to be addressed is, to

determine the status of the network switches such that the reduction in power

loss is achieved.

2.3.1. HEURISTIC ALGORITHM

Note that the search space in the optimization problem is exponential .

Moreover, due to the loads fast change in each node, we need a real time

algorithm to ensure that when we perform the network reconfiguration, all the

factors in the network dont change too much. Otherwise, even if we

successfully solve the optimization problem , the solution will still

invalid

be an

dimension curve, in this section, we develop a heuristic and greedy algorithm

to solve this optimization problem, which iteratively finds the maximal

branch exchange in each step of network reconfiguration. To put it formally,

suppose we are at the end of the round network reconfiguration, and the

current network reconfiguration set is {(o1,c1), ... (or,cr)}, denoted by Cr. In the

r+1 round.

Step 1: Solve a single increment optimization of the optimization problem

Step 2: Perform the solution (or+1, cr+1) of (1) into the network reconfiguration.

Thus, we have

C r +1 = C r U (or +1, cr +1 ) ....(2)

Step 3: Wait the response from sensors at nodes or+1 and cr+1. After the r+1

round network reconfiguration is complete, update the new load information at

each node and go back to Step 1 to start the r+2 round network reconfiguration.

The quadratic terms in the Dist Flow branch equations represent the

losses on the branches and hence they are much smaller than the branch

power terms Pi, Qi. By dropping the second order terms, the approximate

power flow equations are of the form

Pi +1 = Pi PLi +1

Qi +1 = Qi QLi +1

Vi 2 1 = Vi 2 2 (ri Pi + x iQi )

(1)

(2)

(3)

LPi = ri (Pi 2 + Qi2 / Vi 2 )

(4)

Power flow in a radial distribution network can be described by a set

of recursive

equations called Dist Flow branch equations that use the real

power, reactive power and voltage at the sending end of a branch to express

the same quantities at the receiving end of the branch as

Pi +1 = Pi ri (Pi 2 + Qi2/Vi 2 ) PLi +1

Qi +1 = Qi x i (Pi 2 + Qi2/Vi 2 ) QLi +1

Vi 2 1 = Vi 2 2 (ri Pi + x iQi ) + (ri2 + x i2 ) + (Pi 2 + Qi2)/Vi 2

the real power, reactive power, voltage at the receiving end of a branch to express

the same quantities at the sending

end of the branch as

Pi 1 = Pi + ri (Pi ' 2 + Qi' 2)/ Vi 2 + PLi

Qi 1 = Qi + x i (Pi ' 2 + Qi' 2 )/Vi 2 + QLi

Vi 1 = Vi 2 + 2 (ri Pi ' + x iQi' ) + (ri2 + x i2 ) (Pi ' 2 + Qi' 2 )/Vi 2

where

Pi ' = Pi + Pli

and

Qi' = Qi + QLi

The input data of this algorithm is given by node-branch oriented data used

by most utilities. Basic data required is: active and reactive powers, nomenclature

for sending and receiving nodes, and positive sequence impedance model for all

branches.In the following, the standard BW/FW sweep power flow method is

written in matricial notation using complex variables. Branch impedances are

stated as a vector Z corresponding to a distribution line model containing a series

positive sequence impedance for line or transformer. Shunt impedances are not

considered in this first approach. Fig. 1 shows a radial distribution network with n

+ 1nodes, and n branches and a single voltage source at the root node 0. Branches

are organized according to an appropriate numbering scheme (list), which details

are provided in

Z =[Z01 ... Zij ... Zmn]

where,

data

Branch and node numbering of a radial distribution network

i, j = 1, ..., n i = j Bus

S=

P1 +jQ1

S1

:

Pi+jQi

Sj

:

Sn

Pn +jQn

The numbering of branches in one layer begins only after all the branches in the

previous layer have been numbered. Considering that initial voltages are known

voltage at substation is set V 0 = V ref and an initial voltage vector is given by

V0 = [V01 ... V0i ... V0n]

The state of the system is reached solving two steps iteratively.

A. Step 1 - Backward Sweep

For each iteration k, branch currents are aggregated from loads to origin:

Jk = T Ik

The relationship between nodal currents Ik and branch currents Jk is set

through an upper triangular matrix T accomplishing the Kirchhoff Current Laws

(KCL). Each element Iki of Ik associated to node i is calculated as function of

injected powers Si and its voltage profile Vk as shown below

Iik=Si*/Vik*

i = 1, ..., n

Nodal voltage vector V is updated from the origin to loads according the Kirchhoff

Voltage Laws (KVL), using previously calculated branch currents vector J, branch

impedances vector Z.

Vk+1 = V0 TT DZ Jk

where V0 is a n-elements vector with all entries set at voltage at origin (swing

node) V0 and branch impedances DZ is the diagonal matrix of vector Z.

Vk+1 = V0 + TT DZ T Ik

Vk+1 = V0 + TRX Ik

where

TRX = TT DZ T

C. Convergence

Updated voltages are compared with previous voltages in order to perform

convergence check in. |Vk+1i Vki| i = 1, ..., n

2.4. ADVANTAGES OF NETWORK RECONFIGURATION

Efficient Electric Transmission.

Network reconfiguration improves the voltage stability of the system.

Enhancement of voltage stability can be achieved without any additional

cost involved for installation of capacitors, tap changing transformers and

the related switching equipment.

In developing countries around the world, more than 2

billion people lack access to electricity. Distributed

generation represents an

Distributed generation

for on-site

models for

advantages when

power generation.

The

ranging in capacity from 5kW to 10MW, at or near to the end-user to provide the

electric power needed. DG

includes

generation

and

distribution System for the small villages. This includes generation, energy

storage, on-site management ( i.e. dispatch, control, communications) and all

ancillary devices and services.

that can run on various fuels but most often are run on diesel fuel. The

expectations are that emerging technologies will play a significant future role

in DG especially with regard to village electrification. Solar, Micro turbines,

fuel cells and wind-powered generation are all now in the early commercial

or

transportation

for

devices. Distributed Generation plants are increasing their popularity around the

world, and village power electrification programs are widespread throughout

Africa, Asia, and South America.

If the Distributed Generators are correctly installed at optimal

locations and if units are correctly coordinated, they will improve voltage

profile and reduce power losses in distribution system. Main use of DG is for

generation back up. Another popular advantage of DG is injection of excess power

into unbalanced distribution network when the DG capacity is higher than the local

loads.

2.6. VALUE OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

Where there is no power, any source of power generation is, of course, of

significant

value

to the

multiple other

The generator can be sited close to the end-user, thus decreasing

transmission and distribution costs and electrical losses.

Sites for small generators are easier to find.

Distributed generators offer reduced planning and installation time.

Because the DG units are distributed , the system may be more

reliable. One unit can be removed for maintenance or service with only

a moderate effect on the rest of the power distribution system. Newer

distributed generation technologies offer an environmentally clean and

low noise source of power.

Newer distributed generators can run on multiple types of fuels. This

allows flexibility and reduction in cost of the infrastructure required

to get the fuel to the generator.

Newer

distributed

generators

can

run on

fuels generated

from

Power is readily available and the power has improved quality and

reliability over power produced from central generating stations.

Depending on the nature of fuel used, electricity prices are often lower than

power from central plants.

Some DG technologies provide cogeneration possibilities, which allow site

recovery of heat and / or hot water. This has the potential to raise energy

efficiency to around 90%.

2.7.COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL CENTRAL GENERATION

The plant efficiency of existing large central generation units could

be in the 28-35% range depending on the age of the plant. This means that

they convert between 28-35% of the energy in their fuel

into useful

electric

and

to various new gas turbine and combined cycle units suitable for DG

applications. Certain novel technologies, such as a fuel cell / gas turbine hybrid, is

claimed to

operations and maintenance. A DG unit does not have this T&D burden because

it is already at the site of electrical use. In addition the T&D infrastructure is

often responsible for a good deal of the service reliability problems experienced

by electrical users. By avoiding those costs and reliability problems, DG can

provide better service at lower cost in many applications.

There are examples of distributed generation systems in dozens of developing

countries. These systems use all of the generation technology options listed

above. Although the primary source of power is reciprocating engines fueled by

diesel fuel or natural gas, renewable energy sources(e.g. solar, wind, hydroelectric)

have surged because of advances in technology and reduction in costs. Other

examples of distributed generation show the emphasis by governments to provide

electric power to remote communities.

In India, the

the nations 500,000 villages.

the

year 2000.

In Zaire, several major hospitals depend on photovoltaic solar energy.

In Mongolia, the government plans the distribution of 240 small wind /

photovoltaic systems

implementation plan.

In Nepal, 1500 photovoltaic systems have been installed and are currently

supplying village homes.

- Microgrid ReportUploaded byNitin Kakad
- Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Analysis on Micro-grid Based on DIgSILENTUploaded byjano_rdr
- 2. Smart Mini Grid An Innovative Distributed.pdfUploaded byMarco Arturo Cueva Morales
- Artificial Neural Networks Application on Power SystemUploaded byYaser
- legea energiei electrice in iordania.pdfUploaded byMunteanu Alina
- Electrical Supply lect 5.pptUploaded byYoesof Hilaby
- Power sector in indiaUploaded byshikhakumar
- Basics of Power SystemUploaded byMitesh Gandhi
- Dayton-Power-Uploaded byGenability
- On Prospects of Sustainable Energy Sources for Power Generation in IndonesiaUploaded bya1999
- ESMAP, Technical and Economic Assessment of Off-grid, Minigrid and Grid Electrification Technologies, 12-2007Uploaded byDetlef Loy
- A Review on AC and DC Technology in MicrogridsUploaded byhafiz858
- Reconfiguration of distribution system using fuzzy multi-objective approachUploaded byapi-3697505
- Design and Implementation of Grid Connected Hybrid PV and Wind Energy Generation SystemUploaded byIJSTE
- 2015 Microgrid ColUploaded byAlamgir Hossain
- Generación distribuidaUploaded byjhon_gambini
- Seminar PptUploaded byAnmol
- Hybrid System With Micro Gas Turbine AndUploaded bymbahbim2
- Feasibility Analysis of the Positioning OfUploaded byYellaturi Siva Kishore Reddy
- 14-2010-Differential Evolutionary Algorithms in Optimal Distributed Generation LocationUploaded byAbbas Divian
- 16Uploaded byrajapandiya
- Published 153250082 e 20152 e 1039098Uploaded byrodrigoveiga
- S6 - 3 Cases Problem-Objective TreesUploaded byVictor Pinillos Rosas
- Introduction to LossesUploaded byPrasad
- A Stationary Reference Frame Current Control for a Multi-levelUploaded bymipanduro7224
- 1-s2.0-S0960148110001291-mainUploaded bySara Nunes
- Single Point Supply to Co-Operative Group Housing SocietiesUploaded bymanoj.ranjan
- 14152626124223416Resume New1Uploaded byMostafa Mohmmed
- nabard_dec10Uploaded byAmit Beriya
- 09mn10Uploaded byprem035

- DC machinesUploaded bygopinathbl71
- Detrmination of Load Parameters From Load CurveUploaded byNmg Kumar
- Fault AnalysisUploaded byNmg Kumar
- Load Flow - Fast de-Coupled TechniqueUploaded byNmg Kumar
- Revised Meeting Schedule With Dr.lazar Mathew (July 2018) - 17.07.2018Uploaded byNmg Kumar
- BosUploaded byNmg Kumar
- Load Flow by Newton Raphson MethodUploaded byNmg Kumar
- Power System Control-convertedUploaded byNmg Kumar
- Load Profile ProgramUploaded byNmg Kumar
- addUploaded byNmg Kumar
- New Text DocumentUploaded byNmg Kumar
- zcUploaded byNmg Kumar
- m.tech Model PaperUploaded byNmg Kumar
- Power System Deregulation _SVEC-19_M.techUploaded byNmg Kumar
- 118 Br 052017Uploaded byNmg Kumar
- Energy audit-Modified.docxUploaded byNmg Kumar
- Performance of transmission lines.docxUploaded byNmg Kumar
- ABSTRACT.docxUploaded byNmg Kumar
- 10. Chapter 1.docxUploaded byNmg Kumar
- JICA Thematic Guidelines on Energy Conservation.pdfUploaded byNmg Kumar
- ED&CAD.docUploaded byNmg Kumar
- ee212_4Uploaded byNmg Kumar
- PSA Assesment II 2014Uploaded byNmg Kumar
- PSA Scheme of Evaluation 2014Uploaded byNmg Kumar
- Intro to PSCAD PowerPoint Rev1.1Uploaded byArumugam Rajendran

- measurement.pdfUploaded byNivaldo Garcia
- Standard Capacitor CatalogUploaded byJhon Fredy
- Printed Notes on Operational Amplifiers and differential amplifier and numericals based on the sameUploaded byDipti
- HelpUploaded byredouan karihi
- TzeUploaded byJorge Hidalgo Lumbreras
- S-Wave+0809_U_U-65-18DV8-B3_DEUploaded byManagam Hasibuan
- Electronics 1Uploaded byImranRafiq
- Guide to Cable SelectionUploaded byFaddy Faris
- Temperature and Trim Effect Compensation of a VCXO Using a Multidimensional Segmented Polynomial Array PosterUploaded byEsterline Research and Design
- at89c2051Uploaded bymesale454545
- 4F7Examples06_07Uploaded byఅయ్యలసోమయాజుల సాయి శివ
- Plano Electrico Excavadora Caterpillar 330c CyaUploaded byEdwin Vaca
- Crystal RadioUploaded bySaleh Shafi Raja
- external_light.pdfUploaded byabugida
- IRJET-DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCLEHEAD SHAPE MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNAUploaded byIRJET Journal
- 3810fcUploaded byCenkGezmiş
- ARK-1370Uploaded byYagmur Yüksel
- RF modem source codeUploaded byAbdalla Mustafa Mohamed Ahmed
- Hall Effect SensorUploaded bymahmoodsaraf2926
- Q N AUploaded byVIGNESH L R
- Overlay Load ListUploaded bybarone_28
- 00217a - Stand Alone - HCS ProgramUploaded bymarcdtr
- SMC 2015 Catalog Final.compressedUploaded bymosesobeti
- Adaptive Indoor Localization by using Environmental Thresholding and Virtual Fingerprint TechniqueUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- CITEC - Gen-X Catalogue 2008 FinalUploaded byDenny
- Indoor Site Cut Over Guidance-V1.0Uploaded byOyebanji Olajide Fatai
- Midland Alan 121 ManualUploaded byPascal Preker
- il7812Uploaded bylunalo marc
- 2013-IEEE Design and Development of Digital PID Controller for DC Motor Drive System Using Embedded Platform for Mobile RobotUploaded bytilottama_deore
- Differential AmplifiersUploaded bynidhi_26