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Distribution systems usually open ring design and operation as are radial. If
all keys are closed, the network losses will be minimal. But due to the complexity
and high level of protection short circuit if it does not work. In these systems there
are two types of switches; sectionalizing-switches (normally closed) and tieswitches (normally open)[3].The configuration of the distribution system is
changed by opening sectionalizing switches and closing tie switches so that the
radial structure of the network is maintained and all of the loads are supported, and
reduced power losses and improve power quality and increase system security. The
problem formulation proposed here in considers two different objectives related to
minimizing the power losses and minimizing the deviation of the bus voltage.
Distribution system reconfiguration problem is a complex, combinatorial
optimization problem involving constraints. The complexity of the problem arises
from the fact that distribution network topology has to be radial and power flow
constraints are nonlinear in nature[5]. Since a typical distribution system may have
hundreds of switches, an exhaustive search of all possible configurations is a not a
practical solution. In this study, forward and backward sweep method processes
using kirchoffs laws is used to find out the load flow solution.
Distributed Generation(DG) in power system networks has rapidly

This increase can be justified by factors such as environmental

concerns, the restructuring of electricity market, and the development in

technologies for small-scale generation. DG units are typically connected so that

they work in parallel with the utility grid, and they are placed depending on
availability of the resources.
Most of the algorithms in the literature are based on heuristic search
techniques, using either analytical or knowledge-based engines[4]. A branch
exchange-type heuristic algorithm has been suggested by Civanlar, where a simple
formula has been derived to determine how a branch exchange affects the losses.
In Shirmohammadi and Hong, the solution method starts with a meshed
distribution system obtained by considering all switches closed[4]. Goswami and
Basu report a heuristic algorithm that is based on the concept of optimum flow
pattern that is determined by using a power-flow program.
The network reconfiguration problem in a distribution system is to find a
best configuration of radial network that gives minimum power loss while the
imposed operating constraints are satisfied, which are voltage profile of the system,
current capacity of the feeder, and radial structure of the distribution system[6].
The penetration of DG may impact the operation of a distribution network in both
beneficial and detrimental ways. Some of the positive impacts of DG are: voltage
support, power loss reduction, support of ancillary services and improved
In distribution network the number of such switching options is very large.
The problem of determining the status of the network switches, therefore , when
formulated as a non-linear optimization techniques[6]. The forward and backward
power flow technique have been suggested to solve the reconfiguration problem.








Differential Evolution(DE) to solve reconfiguration for distribution system and

gives result with minimum real power loss for IEEE 33-Bus and 69-Bus.
Electricity distribution system is a final stage in the delivery of electricity to
the end user. A distribution system's network carries electricity from the
transmission system and delivers it to consumers. There are 3 type of power
distribution namely loop, network and radial.
Radial distribution is the type of power distribution where the power is
delivered from the main branch to sub-branches then it split out from the subbranches again. It is the cheapest but least reliable network configuration.
Radial Power System is a system in which power flows in the direction from
the distribution substation to an individual customer. Radial system looks like a
branch of a tree with a main line connected to a series of a smaller circuit. From
the smaller circuit, the circuit will branch off to contain the customer need.
Radial system will have one source of power or a group of power sources in
the same area.

Power failure, short circuit, down the power line will cause

disruption to the system and the system cannot be restored until the fault is fixed.
Only one path is connected between each customer and substation. Electrical
power flows along a single path. If interrupted, results in complete loss of power to
the customer. The ability to reconfigure a RDS can help to improve the

effectiveness of system management. Thus the reconfiguration of RDSs can be

a very useful tool for DS management. The RDS reconfiguration problem is a
mixed integer, nonlinear optimization problem. It may be posed for a variety of
objectives, and has been solved using many different techniques.








optimization process aimed at finding a radial operating structure that

minimize the system power loss while satisfying operating constraints[1]. The
complexity of the problem arises from the fact the distribution network

has power flow constraints are non linear

in nature. Since a

typical distribution system may have hundreds of switches of exhaustive

search of all possible configuration is a not a practical solution.


the sectionalizing

reconfiguration is essentially a combinatorial optimization

the best possible combination of status

(open / close) of

and tie switches has to be found. So that the objective

function in minimized[6]. The commonly used objective for distribution system

reconfiguration have been the minimization of the transmission loss and voltage
deviations. Generally power distribution network reconfiguration provides
services to as many customers as possible following fault coding and during
planned outage for maintenance purposes with system loss minimization[2].





topological structure


distribution feeders by changing the open/close status of the switches under

both normal and abnormal operating conditions[6]. When the operation conditions
of the distribution systems change, the network is reconfigured for two main

purposes are to improve the voltage profile and help to reduce the

line losses

in the distribution system.

Network reconfiguration allows the system to serve the same load to users
with less power losses on the system lines. It can also relieve the overloads in
the network, and prevent lipid overload. Network reconfiguration is an effective
way to improve the power quality in the system and enhance the reliability of
power voltage on the user side.
Generally speaking, the network reconfiguration is a multi-objective
nonlinear optimization problem. Due to the fact that there are a large number
of sectionalizing switches in a distribution network, most of the


methods are approximation methods either based on evolutionary knowledge

or heuristics. Power distribution networks are mostly radially configured, aimed
to make easier inherent protection factors, coordination and short circuit currents
attenuation, looking for equipments costs reduction. In general, these networks
present possibilities for topology modification

using sectionalizing switches

located in strategic points. The topology changing, maintaining the radial

configuration, is aimed to reduce the feeders



improve the

consumers voltage profile, increase reliability indices and eliminate and/or

isolate faults restoring or supplying the power . Thus, these sectionalizing switches
are used for both objectives[3]
Protection (faults isolation)
Reconfiguration (configuration management).
The reconfiguration problem is solved using computational simulation.
However, this kind of


make difficult the results visualization

and analysis, besides it has no training utility [8].

A radial system presents low short circuit currents, simple
protection equipments, low cost of operation and construction, but also






radial networks




at strategic points, aimed to help into the network

protection and reconfiguration. Generally speaking, we could say that the network
reconfiguration problem consists on searching an optimal strategic of operation
in a way to minimize feeders losses and propitiate a suitable load balancing in the
three-phase system, considering

protection reliability aspects and consumers

power supply quality.

The exact solution for the reconfiguration problem involves selection,
within all possible configurations, of that which has the smallest loss. To find the
exact solution is impossible, due to the exponential growing, dependent on
the number and location of the system switches, Of the number of generated

configurations. This is called combinatorial explosion. In network

reconfiguration for loss reduction, the solution involves a search over


radial configuration . Electrical distribution networks are built as

interconnected and meshed networks. However, they are arranged to be radial

in operation. Their configurations may be varied with manual or automatic
switching operations so that, all the loads are supplied and reduce power loss.
Reconfiguration also relieves the overloading of the network components.
Feeder reconfiguration is performed by opening sectionalizing (normally closed)
and closing tie (normally open) switches of the network. These switching are
performed in such a way that the radiality of the network is maintained and
all the loads are energized. A normally open tie switch is closed to transfer a
load from one feeder to another while an appropriate sectionalizing switch is
opened to restore the radial structure. The problem to be addressed is, to
determine the status of the network switches such that the reduction in power
loss is achieved.


Note that the search space in the optimization problem is exponential .
Moreover, due to the loads fast change in each node, we need a real time
algorithm to ensure that when we perform the network reconfiguration, all the
factors in the network dont change too much. Otherwise, even if we
successfully solve the optimization problem , the solution will still

be an

network reconfiguration. Therefore, heuristic algorithms dominate the

solution for network reconfiguration. Based on the save concern on the

dimension curve, in this section, we develop a heuristic and greedy algorithm
to solve this optimization problem, which iteratively finds the maximal
branch exchange in each step of network reconfiguration. To put it formally,
suppose we are at the end of the round network reconfiguration, and the
current network reconfiguration set is {(o1,c1), ... (or,cr)}, denoted by Cr. In the
r+1 round.
Step 1: Solve a single increment optimization of the optimization problem
Step 2: Perform the solution (or+1, cr+1) of (1) into the network reconfiguration.
Thus, we have
C r +1 = C r U (or +1, cr +1 ) ....(2)

Step 3: Wait the response from sensors at nodes or+1 and cr+1. After the r+1
round network reconfiguration is complete, update the new load information at
each node and go back to Step 1 to start the r+2 round network reconfiguration.


The quadratic terms in the Dist Flow branch equations represent the
losses on the branches and hence they are much smaller than the branch
power terms Pi, Qi. By dropping the second order terms, the approximate
power flow equations are of the form
Pi +1 = Pi PLi +1
Qi +1 = Qi QLi +1
Vi 2 1 = Vi 2 2 (ri Pi + x iQi )


The power loss in a branch is expressed as

LPi = ri (Pi 2 + Qi2 / Vi 2 )


Where LPi = Power loss in ith branch

Power flow in a radial distribution network can be described by a set
of recursive

equations called Dist Flow branch equations that use the real

power, reactive power and voltage at the sending end of a branch to express
the same quantities at the receiving end of the branch as
Pi +1 = Pi ri (Pi 2 + Qi2/Vi 2 ) PLi +1
Qi +1 = Qi x i (Pi 2 + Qi2/Vi 2 ) QLi +1
Vi 2 1 = Vi 2 2 (ri Pi + x iQi ) + (ri2 + x i2 ) + (Pi 2 + Qi2)/Vi 2

Dist Flow branch equations can be written in backward, by using

the real power, reactive power, voltage at the receiving end of a branch to express
the same quantities at the sending
end of the branch as
Pi 1 = Pi + ri (Pi ' 2 + Qi' 2)/ Vi 2 + PLi
Qi 1 = Qi + x i (Pi ' 2 + Qi' 2 )/Vi 2 + QLi
Vi 1 = Vi 2 + 2 (ri Pi ' + x iQi' ) + (ri2 + x i2 ) (Pi ' 2 + Qi' 2 )/Vi 2

Pi ' = Pi + Pli


Qi' = Qi + QLi


The input data of this algorithm is given by node-branch oriented data used
by most utilities. Basic data required is: active and reactive powers, nomenclature
for sending and receiving nodes, and positive sequence impedance model for all
branches.In the following, the standard BW/FW sweep power flow method is
written in matricial notation using complex variables. Branch impedances are
stated as a vector Z corresponding to a distribution line model containing a series
positive sequence impedance for line or transformer. Shunt impedances are not
considered in this first approach. Fig. 1 shows a radial distribution network with n
+ 1nodes, and n branches and a single voltage source at the root node 0. Branches
are organized according to an appropriate numbering scheme (list), which details
are provided in
Z =[Z01 ... Zij ... Zmn]

Zij = Rij + jXij

Branch and node numbering of a radial distribution network

i, j = 1, ..., n i = j Bus


P1 +jQ1




Pn +jQn

The numbering of branches in one layer begins only after all the branches in the
previous layer have been numbered. Considering that initial voltages are known
voltage at substation is set V 0 = V ref and an initial voltage vector is given by
V0 = [V01 ... V0i ... V0n]
The state of the system is reached solving two steps iteratively.
A. Step 1 - Backward Sweep
For each iteration k, branch currents are aggregated from loads to origin:
Jk = T Ik
The relationship between nodal currents Ik and branch currents Jk is set
through an upper triangular matrix T accomplishing the Kirchhoff Current Laws
(KCL). Each element Iki of Ik associated to node i is calculated as function of
injected powers Si and its voltage profile Vk as shown below

i = 1, ..., n

B. Step 2 - Forward Sweep

Nodal voltage vector V is updated from the origin to loads according the Kirchhoff
Voltage Laws (KVL), using previously calculated branch currents vector J, branch
impedances vector Z.

Vk+1 = V0 TT DZ Jk

where V0 is a n-elements vector with all entries set at voltage at origin (swing
node) V0 and branch impedances DZ is the diagonal matrix of vector Z.

Vk+1 = V0 + TT DZ T Ik
Vk+1 = V0 + TRX Ik


C. Convergence
Updated voltages are compared with previous voltages in order to perform
convergence check in. |Vk+1i Vki| i = 1, ..., n
Efficient Electric Transmission.
Network reconfiguration improves the voltage stability of the system.
Enhancement of voltage stability can be achieved without any additional
cost involved for installation of capacitors, tap changing transformers and
the related switching equipment.


In developing countries around the world, more than 2
billion people lack access to electricity. Distributed

generation represents an

opportunity to quickly increase the quality of life for these individuals.

Distributed generation

for on-site

power offers several

compared to centralized , conventional

models for

advantages when

power generation.


Distributed generation includes the application of small generators, typically

ranging in capacity from 5kW to 10MW, at or near to the end-user to provide the
electric power needed. DG


the complete power



distribution System for the small villages. This includes generation, energy
storage, on-site management ( i.e. dispatch, control, communications) and all
ancillary devices and services.

The bulk of the DG equipment today is reciprocating engines

that can run on various fuels but most often are run on diesel fuel. The
expectations are that emerging technologies will play a significant future role
in DG especially with regard to village electrification. Solar, Micro turbines,
fuel cells and wind-powered generation are all now in the early commercial

yield-prototype stage. These

defense and non-polluting

technologies were originally developed



applications. The Stationary power

market appears to be the first large-scale commercial opportunity for these

devices. Distributed Generation plants are increasing their popularity around the
world, and village power electrification programs are widespread throughout
Africa, Asia, and South America.


If the Distributed Generators are correctly installed at optimal
locations and if units are correctly coordinated, they will improve voltage
profile and reduce power losses in distribution system. Main use of DG is for
generation back up. Another popular advantage of DG is injection of excess power
into unbalanced distribution network when the DG capacity is higher than the local
Where there is no power, any source of power generation is, of course, of


to the end-user, to the regional government, and

prospective energy service company. However,

to the

from the electricity industry

perspective, distributed generation is attractive because it has

multiple other

values. These values include the following

The generator can be sited close to the end-user, thus decreasing
transmission and distribution costs and electrical losses.
Sites for small generators are easier to find.
Distributed generators offer reduced planning and installation time.
Because the DG units are distributed , the system may be more
reliable. One unit can be removed for maintenance or service with only
a moderate effect on the rest of the power distribution system. Newer
distributed generation technologies offer an environmentally clean and
low noise source of power.
Newer distributed generators can run on multiple types of fuels. This
allows flexibility and reduction in cost of the infrastructure required
to get the fuel to the generator.




biogasification . From the end-user

run on

fuels generated


perspective, distributed generation

is also attractive for several reasons.

Power is readily available and the power has improved quality and
reliability over power produced from central generating stations.
Depending on the nature of fuel used, electricity prices are often lower than
power from central plants.
Some DG technologies provide cogeneration possibilities, which allow site
recovery of heat and / or hot water. This has the potential to raise energy
efficiency to around 90%.
The plant efficiency of existing large central generation units could
be in the 28-35% range depending on the age of the plant. This means that
they convert between 28-35% of the energy in their fuel

into useful


power. By contrast, efficiencies of 40-50% are attributed to small fuel cells


to various new gas turbine and combined cycle units suitable for DG

applications. Certain novel technologies, such as a fuel cell / gas turbine hybrid, is
claimed to

offer electrical efficiencies about a transmission and distribution

infrastructure represents a significant cost in initial capital and continuing

operations and maintenance. A DG unit does not have this T&D burden because
it is already at the site of electrical use. In addition the T&D infrastructure is
often responsible for a good deal of the service reliability problems experienced
by electrical users. By avoiding those costs and reliability problems, DG can
provide better service at lower cost in many applications.


There are examples of distributed generation systems in dozens of developing
countries. These systems use all of the generation technology options listed
above. Although the primary source of power is reciprocating engines fueled by
diesel fuel or natural gas, renewable energy sources(e.g. solar, wind, hydroelectric)
have surged because of advances in technology and reduction in costs. Other
examples of distributed generation show the emphasis by governments to provide
electric power to remote communities.
In India, the

government plans to electrify 100,000 villages with

renewable energy and install solar powered telephones in every one of

the nations 500,000 villages.

Mexico plans to electrify 60,000 villages using photovoltaic by


year 2000.
In Zaire, several major hospitals depend on photovoltaic solar energy.
In Mongolia, the government plans the distribution of 240 small wind /
photovoltaic systems

for household use as the first phase in a larger

implementation plan.
In Nepal, 1500 photovoltaic systems have been installed and are currently
supplying village homes.