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Acceptable Quality Level (AQL): Criteria agreed between vendor and purchaser,

regarding the proportion of permissible defective items within a consignment

without causing rejection.
Accelerator: Compounding material used in small amounts with vulcanizing
agent to increase the speed of vulcanization and enhance physical properties of
the vulcanizate.
Activator: Compounding material used in small proportion to increase the
effectiveness of an accelerator.
After Cure: Continuation of the process of vulcanization after the energy source
has been removed.
Air-curing: Vulcanization at ordinary room temperature or without the aid of
Anchor Coat: The layer of latex compound applied to the back of tufted carpet
to secure the tufts to the backing fabric. Generally this coating is based on CSBR
latex with large amount of added filler.
Anode process: Term for the coagulant dipping process where the former is first
dipped into the coagulant, then into the latex compound.
Anticoagulant: Substance that prevents the coagulation of a colloid suspension
or emulsion.
Antifoaming Agent: Chemical added to a liquid mix to prevent formation of
foam, or added to the foam itself to break the foam already formed. Long chain
saturated alcohols containing 6 to 18 carbon atoms and emulsions of certain
silicone polymers are principal antifoams used.
Anti-gelling Agent: Material that prevents latex gelling. Ammonium hydroxide
and other basic substances are anti-gelling agents of latex.
Anti-tack Agent: Material used to reduce the surface tack of latex products;
usually, but not necessarily powders.
Anti-webbing Agent: Additive used to reduce web formation in latex dipping.
Antioxidant: Compounding material used to retard deterioration caused by
Artificial Latex: Term to denote latex prepared by dispersing a preformed
polymer in an aqueous medium to distinguish from synthetic latex made by
emulsion polymerization.
Attritor: Type of grinding machine used for the preparation of aqueous
dispersions. The grinding action is provided by an impeller stirring the gravel
grinding medium. Attritors are faster in their grinding action than standard ball

Autoclave: Pressure vessel used for vulcanizing rubber products by means of

steam under pressure.
Ball Mill: Grinding machine most widely used by the latex industry for
preparation of dispersions, consisting of a rotating container, part filled with
pebbles or stones. Friction between the pebbles produce the grinding action.
Beading: Rolled ring at the open end to reinforce the dipped goods.
Bentonite: Colloidal clay, naturally occurring hydrated aluminum silicate.
Bentonite is used to thicken latex, and as compounding material for natural
Biocide: Generic name for chemicals that eliminate or reduce microbial activity;
those that kill fungi are called fungicides, those that kill bacteria are bactericides.
Materials that merely prevent microbial multiplication are known as fungistats or
Blanc Fixe: Precipitated barium sulphate used in NR latex to obtain filled
compounds, from which smooth strong film deposits are obtained.
Bloom: Thin layer of a compounding ingredient formed on the surface of rubber
article (or a compound) when the ingredient is present at a concentration in
excess of its solubility in rubber at the prevailing temperature.
Brownian Motion: Agitated movement of suspended colloidal particles, when a
colloidal dispersion is examined using a light microscope at high magnification.
This motion is caused by collision with the molecules of the continuous phase;
the rate and extent of Brownian movement increases at higher temperatures.
Butyl latex: Latex produced by dissolving butyl rubber in a solvent and by
emulsification of the solvent to get the latex.
Carbon Dioxide Number: The number of grams of KOH equivalent to the
carbonate and bicarbonate ions in latex.
Centipoise: One hundredth of a poise, which is a value for viscosity. The
viscosity of water at 20C (68F) is approximately one centipoise.
Centrifuge: Machine for separating by centrifugal force the heavier components
from the lighter components of a liquid solution, dispersion, or emulsion.
Centrifuge Latex: Latex, the rubber concentration of which has been increased
by centrifuging.
China Clay: Kaolinite, a mineral hydrated aluminum silicate (Al2O32SiO22H2O),
a white, mildly reinforcing rubber compounding ingredient.
Chloroform Number: Name given to the method of determining the cure of
prevulcanized latex, mixing a portion of chloroform and accessing manually the
physical nature of the coagulum produced.

Coacervant: Coating of a coagulant on the surface of former for producing

dipped rubber products.
Coagulant: Substance used for causing coagulation. Salts, polyvalent cations
such as calcium, acids (including volatile acids like acetic and formic),
dehydrating solvents and combinations of these are commonly used as
coagulants of latex, for preparing latex dipped goods.
Coagulation: An irreversible agglomeration of the dispersed particles of a colloid
solution. In rubber latex, clotting together of the dispersed rubber globules to
form coherent jelly-like mass.
Coagulant Dipping: Process of dipping former into a coagulant. Mainly two
processes are used, Anode and Teague. In the Anode process, the former is
first dipped into the coagulant, then into the latex compound. In the Teague
process, the former is dipped first into the latex compound, then into the
coagulant. The process may be repeated in either case to build up the desired
film thickness. The film is cured on the former after dipping.
Coagulum: Piece of rubber formed by coagulation of latex.
Coagulum Content: Term to describe the weight of dry solid material retained
when NRL is sieved under standard conditions.
Colloid: State of matter in which size of the particles is greater than normal
molecular dimensions but too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope.
Compound: Term used in both latex and dry rubber technologies to denote the
mixture (of rubber and additives) from which a rubber product is made.
Compounding: Process used to produce a compound.
Concentrated latex: Latex, the rubber content of which has been greatly
increased by evaporation, creaming, filtration, or centrifuging. It usually contains
a small percentage of added preservative or stabilizer such as ammonia, or a
protective colloid, to prevent coagulation.
Copolymer: Polymer produced by polymerization of a mixture of two monomers.
Cord Dipping: Process of impregnation of tire cords passing them through
rubber latex, and then drying side by side to make a sheet, or by passing them
through a solvent solution of rubber and then removing the solvent.
Count: Method of defining the diameter of rubber threads the number of threaddiameters per inch.
Counter Ions: Ions of opposite electrical charge to the absorbed ions in the
aqueous phase of latex or dispersion, associated with the latex particle.
Creaming: Reversible process consisting of gathering by gravitational force,
rubber particles surround by serum, near the bottom or near the top of latex.

Creamed Latex - Cream latex: Latex concentrate produced by creaming

process. Creamed latex is normally supplied at a higher TSC value than
centrifuged latex e.g. at 66%
Creep: Continuing extension or flow exhibited by all rubbers held under tensile
or compressive force.
Crosslinking: Process of bridging individual rubber molecules through the
formation of covalent chemical bonds between the rubber molecules.
Cup Lump: Lump of rubber (coagulated field latex) remaining in the tapping cup
after emptying out the latex.
Dewebbing Agent: Additive used to reduce web formation in latex dipping.
Degradation: Loss of physical strength or other properties suffered by polymers
under various influences, e.g. by oxidation, heat, ozone etc.
Dipped Goods: Articles of manufactured rubber, usually thin walled, by dipping
suitable former into compounded latex and allowing the rubber coating to dry,
vulcanizing the coating, and removing the articles from the former.
Dipping Process: Deposition of rubber on the article or former dipped directly
into latex, pure gum or compounded, drying and vulcanzing the deposition after
the former is withdrawn.
Dispersion: Any system consisting of one material subdivided into a continuum
of another in which it is not soluble. Emulsions and Latices are specific types of
Double Centrifuged Latex: Natural latex centrifuged twice to yield a concentrate
with approximately half the amount of NRS found in ordinary centrifuged
Drum Lining: Material used to line the inside of mild steel latex drums to
prevent contamination of the latex.
Dry Picking: The loss of (latex) coating from the paper surface during printing.
Dry Rubber:
Rubber obtained from field latex by acid coagulation, washing, sheeting or
crumbling, and drying.

Rubber made from field latex coagulum such cup lump, tree lace, etc.

Dry Rubber Content (DRC): Mass of rubber coagulated by acid from one hundred
parts mass of latex.
Dry Stripping: Removal of dipped products from formers, usually after application
of powder lubricant, by mechanical means (e.g. rotating brushes) without the aid
of water.

Dwell Time:

Time of immersion of a dipping former in latex

Elasticity: Property that helps a substance to return to the original size and
shape, on release of the stress that caused its deformation by stretching,
compression, or torsion.
Emulsifier: Surfactant used to prepare an emulsion.
Emulsion: System in which a liquid is colloidally dispersed in another liquid.
Emulsions for latex use are of the oil in water type in which water is the
continuous phase and suspended droplets carry negative charge.
Emulsion Polymerization: The process of making synthetic polymers by free
radical polymerization of an emulsion of a monomer or mixture of monomers.
Emulsifying Agent: Substance added to an emulsion to increase its stability and
reduce the risk of separation of the two components. Soaps are widely used as
emulsifying agents in the preparation of latex compounds for production of
dipped goods.
Enzyme: Catalytic organic substance of animal or vegetable origin, not
composed of living cells but capable of causing fermentation or other chemical
changes in organic matter. Rubber latex is stated to contain a coagulating
enzyme. When the latex is allowed to stand, this enzyme or bacteria, or both,
causes the formation of acid substances that bring about coagulation.
Evaporated Latex: Concentrated natural rubber latex produced by evaporating
some of the water from the field latex. This latex is normally supplied at high
TSC (up to 72%).
Fahrenheit: Temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 32 and the
boiling point 212.
Flocculation: Formation of loosely coherent partially agglomerated rubber
distributed in the liquid phase of latex.
Field Latex: Latex obtained on tapping the Hevea tree.
Fish Eyes: Term commonly used to describe the small lens-like blemishes
sometimes found in dipped goods. Such blemishes often arise from silicone
based emulsions used as anti-foam or anti-webbing agents.
Flocculum: Aggregate of latex particles in latex or latex compound.
Flock Adhesive: Latex mix in which household glove gel is dipped prior to the
application of flock.
Flock: Short cotton or other fibers used to line the inner surface of household
Form: Article having shape of the finished product immersed in latex in the
dipping process.

Former: Same as form.

Gelling: Setting compounded latex to a jelly form.
Gel: Chemically, colloidal solution set to a jelly
Gel Content: That fraction of a polymer insoluble in solvent. The gel content of
rubber from mature NRL is usually of the order of 40-50% by weight, the actual
amount being solvent dependent.
Gelation: Any process which converts latex into a gel of the same external shape
as the vessel or mold in which it is placed.
Heat Sensitive Dipping: Production of dipped goods by means of heat sensitive
gelling process.
Higher Fatty Acids: Fatty acids with 10 or more carbon atoms present in natural
latex. The higher fatty acids (HFA) number is defined, similarly to the VFA
number, as the equivalent quantity of potassium hydroxide.
Homogenizer: Machine for preparing emulsions, or for improving the
homogeneity (and reducing the viscosity) of latex.
Hydrogel: Polymer capable of absorbing high proportions of water without
passing into solution.
Hydrogel Coating: Low-friction coating employed on powder-free gloves and
other products.
Jazzing: Process of dipping a latex product through layers of colored rubber
solutions floating on a bath of water to impart an irregular, variegated pattern of
colors on the surface.
Kaysam Process: Method of heat-sensitizing latex using ammonium salt together
with zinc oxide or zinc carbonate. Originally patented by the Kaysam company in
KOH Number: Number of grams of KOH (potassium hydroxide) equivalent to the
acid radicals combined with the ammonia in natural rubber latex containing 100g
of solids.
Latex: Aqueous colloidal emulsion of rubber (natural or synthetic) or of certain
plastics. Generally refers to the emulsion obtained from a tree or plant or
produced by emulsion polymerization.
Latex concentrate: Preserved, stabilized latex obtained by adding preservatives
to, and concentrating, field latex.
Latex, Creamed: Latex, the rubber concentration of which has been increased by
creaming and removal of the separated serum.

Latex Rubber, Prevulcanized: Rubber latex in which the particles have been
sufficiently vulcanized to produce films and useful articles by drying.
Latex Compound: Intimate mixture of latex with all the ingredients for the
finished latex rubber product.
Latex Compounding Ingredients: Material added to rubber latex to form latex
LATZ: Low ammonia preserved latex in which the preservatives comprise of
0.2% ammonia and 0.0125% each of TMTD and zinc oxide as dispersions and
0.05% lauric acid. VFA formation is effectively checked in this preservative
Leaching: Process normally carried out on all dipped goods for removal of all the
water soluble substances on the latex film.
Leatherboard: Product made by binding group-up leather with latex. The latex
may be natural or synthetic, or a mixture. Leatherboard is used mainly in the
shoe industry.
Maturation: The change in colloidal properties that latex compound exhibits
during storage.
Mechanical Stability Time: Time in seconds for the initiation of latex coagulation
when subjected to high speed stirring.
Modulus: Force per unit cross sectional area required to distort rubber to a given
extent. In extension it is an extensional or tensile modulus, and in compression a
compression modulus. Conventionally, the moduli are calculated using the initial
cross sectional area, i.e. the area before distortion.
Mold Release (agent): Substance applied to the inner surfaces of a mold to
facilitate removal of the finished product. Particularly used in molded latex foam
Mud-cracking: Phenomenon in which latex deposit on the formers for producing
the dipped goods cracks on drying, like cracked dried mud.
Neoprene: Trade name of the Dupont Co. for the original poly-chloroprene (CR)
rubber and latex.
Non-rubber Constituents: Material found in the serum of latex apart from, but
associated with, the actual rubber hydrocarbon particles such as resins, sugars,
proteins, minerals, salts, acid and enzymes.

Nitrile Rubbers: Co-polymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile. These vary

essentially in butadiene-acrylonitrile ratios, viscosities and staining properties.
They are resistant to solvents, oils, greases, heat and abrasion.

Oxidation Catalyst: Any substance which accelerates the rate of oxidation of a

polymer. Copper is such an oxidation catalyst and, in lesser degrees,
Manganese, Chromium and Iron and other transition metals.
Ozone Cracks: Cracks that appear in the surface of natural rubber (and some
synthetic rubber) articles when exposed to the atmosphere under and tensile
strain. The direction of ozone cracks is always at right angles to the direction of
Para Rubber: An archaic term for the best quality natural rubber. Originally
applied to the best rubber from Brazil, exported through the port of Para in Brazil.
pH Scale: Scale marked from 1 to 14 measuring the hydrogen ion concentration,
that is acidity or alkalinity of material. As per this scale, materials having pH less
than 7 are acidic substances and above 7 are alkaline substances.
Pick-up: Latex entrained or gelled on a former during a dipping process.
Planetary Ball Mill: Ball mill that both spins on its own axis and, simultaneously,
rotates about another axis, giving faster grinding action than a conventional mill.
Polyglycol Process: The method of heat sensitizing natural latex, using certain
polypropylene glycols, developed in the 1950s by E.G. Cockbain at MRPRA.
Polymer: Macromolecular material formed by the chemical combination of
monomers having either the same or different chemical composition.
Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which the molecules of a monomer are
linked together to form large molecules, whose molecular mass is a multiple of
the original substances.
Polyurethane: Synthetic rubber or resin prepared by the condensation of an
organic isocyanate and a polyester or polyether. It has high abrasion resistance,
high tear resistance and low hysteresis.
Positex: Form of NRL in which the particles possess a positive electrical charge.
(In normal NRL the particles have a negative charge.)
Pre-coagulation: Coagulation or destabilization of field latex through bacterial
action. Some of the bacteria feed on carbohydrates of the latex and convert
them into volatile fatty acids such as formic acid and acetic acid, while some
others feed on the proteins of latex and decompose them. The resultant
thickening of latex is known as pre-coagulation, premature coagulation, auto
coagulation and spontaneous coagulation.
Precure: Measure of the degree to which a latex compound pre-vulcanizes (cross
links) during storage.
Preservatives: Chemical or bactericidal activity which destroys or deactivates
micro-organisms and enhances the colloidal stability of latex. Ammonia is the

most popular preservative. Certain other chemicals used along with lower
concentration of ammonia are called secondary preservatives.
Prevulcanization: Process of vulcanizing latex prior to making a product. The
prevulcanization may be either partial or complete, with respect to the ultimate
level of cure required for the product.
Prevulcanized Latex: Latex produced by prevulcanization process.
PRM Test; Prem Test: Method of assessing the state of cure of a prevulcanized
latex by measuring the relaxed modulus of a ring prepared from a dipped tube of
the latex.
PRM Value: Value obtained from the PRM test, normally in units of Kg/cm2.
Raw Rubber: Uncompounded rubber. Rubber to which no ingredients have been
Redispersed Latex (latices): Latices made by dispersion of a performed polymer.
Such latices include those of butyl rubber, EPDM, Hypalon, reclaimed rubber etc.
Rubber Latex, Evaporated: Latex, the rubber concentration of which has been
increased by evaporation of some part of the water.
Rubber Latex, Preserved: Rubber latex treated to inhibit putrefaction and
accompany coagulation.
Rubber Latex, Prevulcanized: Rubber latex in which the rubber particles have
been sufficiently vulcanized to produce films and useful articles by drying.
Skim Latex: Serum obtained during latex centrifuging, containing 10 to 15
percent of rubber content. The rubber content is recovered by spontaneous
coagulation or acid coagulation.
Skim Rubber: Rubber obtained by coagulation of skim latex, this rubber has a
very high protein content.
Skin: Partially dry film formed on the surface of latex left exposed to the air and
Sludge: Substances that get settled at the bottom of the latex tank comprising
the magnesium ammonium phosphate, sand, dirt and other heavier matter in the
latex. A sludge trap is provided at the outlet of the latex tank to rid the latex
outflow of the sludge.
Sol: A term, often used in academic publications, to denote a colloidal
dispersion, usually of very fine particle size.
Solvent Roughening, Solvent Wrinkling: Terms used to describe the process of
producing a rough, irregular pattern of wrinkles on the outside of a latex dipped
product by immersing the wet gel in a solvent.

Solvent Stripping: A (rarely used) method of stripping in which the dipped

product is swollen in a solvent to facilitate removal from the former.
Spontaneous Coagulation: Coagulation of field latex stored without the addition
of preservatives. This coagulation is presumed to be due to the development of
acidity from the activity of bacteria.
Stabilizer: A substance which, when added to latex, increases or modifies its
colloidal stability. Such substances are usually, but not necessarily, surfactants.
Straight Dipping: Dipping process which uses no coagulant or gelling agent.
Strainability: Ease with which latex concentrate can be sieved or filtered.
Usually measured as the number of liters of latex that passes through a filter
before it becomes clogged. This measure is used more in extruded thread
technology than in other branches of latex processing.
Stripping: Removal of dipped latex products from the formers after
Stripping Aid: Substance, usually added to the coagulant in a coagulant dipping
process, to facilitate subsequent removal of the latex product from the former.
Various powders are usually used as stripping aids.
Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR): Most widely used synthetic rubber produced
by the co-polymerization of styrene and butadiene. It rubber possesses good
abrasion resistance and ageing characteristics.
Sub-stage Latex: Concentrated NRL produced (in effect) by one half
concentrations, e.g. by partial creaming (or centrifugation) followed by full
centrifugation. The resulting concentrate has approximately two thirds the
amount of NRS found in normal concentrate. This latex can be an intermediate
between normal latex concentrate and double centrifuged latex.
Sulphur: Main vulcanizing agent of rubber products including dipped latex
Sulphur Donor: Chemical which acts as source of sulphur in the vulcanization
reaction. Tetra methyl thiuraudisulphide is such a chemical.
Surfactant: Surface active agent substance preferentially adsorbed at an
interface between two phases. In latex technology the interface is usually the
rubber particle-serum interface but in foam technology, it may equally be the airserum interface.
Synergies: Spontaneous contraction of latex gel, resulting in expression of
serum to the surface.
Synergism, Synergy: Term used to describe the positive interaction of two
additives in a formulation. For example, the increased rates of vulcanization
given by combinations of dithiocarbamates and thiazole accelerators.

Synergist: Additive to enhance the action of another.

Synthetic Latex: Aqueous colloidal dispersion of any synthetic polymer (plastic
or rubber) whether made directly by emulsion or polymerization or by
emulsification of solution of a preformed polymer, or by any other means.
Tack: Adhesiveness of dipped rubber products.
Tackifier: Compounding ingredient which enhances the surface tack of uncured
rubber compounds. Tackifiers are exemplified by pine tar, and are classed under
softeners and processing aids.
Tensile Strength: Breaking stress in tension of an elastomer expressed in Mpa,
kg/cm2 or lb/in2. It is calculated on the original (unstressed) area of cross
section of the test specimen.
Terpolymer: Polymer produced by polymerization of a mixture of three
Total Solids: Residue obtained from drying a sample of latex.
Total Solids Content: Weight percentage of solid material (both suspended and
dissolved) in latex, measured by evaporating known weight of latex to dryness at
a temperature of 100C - 105C. Usually referred to by its abbreviation, TSC.
Tree lace: Strips of dried rubber formed on the tapping panel of the rubber tree
after latex collection.
Type I allergy: Allergy caused by certain residual proteins in a latex product,
characterized by the rapidity of its occurrence and manifested as contact
urticaria and anaphylaxis.
Type IV allergy: Allergy caused by some of the latex additives such as
accelerators and occasionally antioxidants. This allergy normally manifests itself
in the form of allergic contact dermatitis.
Viscosity: Resistance of material to flow under stress.
Volatile Fatty Acid: The steam-volatile fatty acids present in natural latex
consisting, essentially, of formic, acetic and propionic acids. These are measured
by the volatile fatty acid (VFA) test.
Vulcanization: Irreversible process during which a rubber compound becomes
less plastic, more resistant to swelling by organic liquids and elastic properties
are conferred, improved, or extended over a greater range of temperature
through change in its chemical structure.
Vulcanizing Agent: Any material that can produce in rubber the change in
physical properties known as vulcanization, such as sulphur, polysulfides, organic
polynitro derivatives and peroxides.

Wetting Agent: Substance that reduces the surface tension of a liquid, thereby
causing the liquid to spread more readily on a solid surface.
Webbing: Formation of liquid film of webs between adjacent formers or between
parts of the same former.
Zeta Potential: The electrical potential difference between the surface (strictly
the slip plane) of a latex particle and the bulk of the aqueous phase.
Theoretically this is a measure of the colloidal stability of a latex, i.e. the higher
the zeta potential the higher the stability of the latex. However, this theory does
not appear to apply to natural latex concentrate.
ZAAV Test: A test measuring the increase in viscosity of a latex after addition of
a zinc tetra-amine acetate solution.
Zinc (oxide) Sensitivity: Response of a latex or latex compound to the addition of
zinc oxide or other zinc containing chemicals. The more sensitive a latex is, the
more unstable it becomes when zinc compound is added.
ZOA Process: Any process using zinc oxide and an ammonium salt to produce
heat-sensitizing effect.
ZOV Test: Test measuring the increase in viscosity of latex after addition of zinc
ZST Test: Test measuring the mechanical stability of latex after addition of zinc