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WESTMINSTER INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE

MODULE TITLE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


TOPIC: FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO WORK STRESS.

PROGRAMME: MBA2
STUDENT NAME: TACHIE ANDREWS KWAMENA

ID: 0089JMMJMM1115
SEMESTER: TWO

LECTURER: DR. VIKINESWARAN AMANIAN

DATE OF COMPLETION AND SUBMISSION: 16TH JUNE 2016

SUBMISSION METHOD: TURNITIN

ASSESSMENT TYPE: INDIVIDUAL WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT

Table of Contents
Background of the Study................................................................................................................... 4

1.0.
1.1.

Problem Statement ........................................................................................................................ 5

1.2.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS........................................................................................................... 6

1.3.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................... 6

1.4.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY .............................................................................................. 7

1.5.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ................................................................................................ 7

1.6.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY ............................................................................................................. 7


LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................. 8

2.0.
2.1.

Work Stress ................................................................................................................................... 8

2.2.

Personal Vulnerability to Stress .................................................................................................... 9

122.2.1. Personality Factors ................................................................................................................ 9


2.2.2.

Negative Affectivity.............................................................................................................. 9

2.2.3.

Inadequate Personal or Environmental Resources .............................................................. 10

2.3.

Job Demands ............................................................................................................................... 10

2.3.1.

Workload................................................................................................................................. 10

2.3.2.

Time Pressure...................................................................................................................... 11

2.3.3.

Performance Pressure .......................................................................................................... 11

3.4. Organizational Climate .................................................................................................................... 11


3.4.1. Globalization of the Economy ...................................................................................................... 12
3.4.2. The Impact of Technology ........................................................................................................ 12
3.5. Organizational Culture and Socialization ........................................................................................ 13
3.6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE RESEARCH ............................................................. 14

3.7. Richard Lazarus management theory of stress................................................................................. 14


3.8. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................ 17
4.0.

CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................................................ 18

4.0.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................... 18

4.1.

INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

4.2.

RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 18

4.3.

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING SIZE ............................................................................................ 18

4.4. SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION.............................................................................................. 19


4.4.1. Primary data .............................................................................................................................. 19
4.4.2. Secondary data .......................................................................................................................... 19
4.5. DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT/ METHODS. ................................................................... 19
4.5.1. Questionnaires........................................................................................................................... 19
5.6. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES ................................................................................................ 20
5.7. Ethical Considerations ..................................................................................................................... 20
5.7.8. Impartiality and professionalism ............................................................................................... 20
5.7.9. Plagiarism ................................................................................................................................. 21
5.8. Expected Outcomes ......................................................................................................................... 21
5.9. Gantt chart - Time Schedule ............................................................................................................ 21
References .................................................................................................................................................. 23

INTRODUCTION
1.0.Background of the Study
Due to the persistent changing in todays businesses, most organizations are faced with various
challenges and opportunities.
These changes in the world of business includes the advancement in technology and the
constant changing economic trends within the global market. Padma (Padma & Sumitha, 2013)
Stated that most organizations are forced by factors such as the cultural, social, technological,
political and global forces to redefine their strategies in order to keep pace with the ever
changing business environments.

The results of these rapid changes for organizations which are also part of the global market is to
be able to compete well, survive and gain a competitive advantage within the business
environment. The changes also tend to affect the internal aspect of the organization such as their
organizational commitment and culture. (Whitehead, 2014)
Developing a healthful work environment pays off in reversing the trend of rising place of work
stress which has become a massive burden placed around the necks of each employees and
employers alike, affecting worker morale, productiveness and protection. This can be dealt with
by inviting employees to have a say about their work environment in a sincere and open style.
Inviting personnel to have a say about their work surroundings in an honest and open manner
can change the workplace lifestyle and reduce stress. Different successful control practices
consist of enhancing communication, growing workforce members choice making, presenting
flexible job scheduling, encouraging breaks and working in crew in the direction of a not
unusual goal, and management and professional development possibilities (Yong, 2012)

The constant and rapid changes in the global environment has put a bit of challenge on all
organizations to ensure a high level of output in order to stay in the market and maximize their
market share and profitability as well. In order to achieve these task, most organizations allow
their employees to do multiple work task, over time and sometimes work during holidays. (Kahn,
2012)

1.1.Problem Statement
Most private institutions in Ghana are mostly geared by increasing the number of students
enrolled for every academic year and processing their data all with the prime effort of meeting
students intake deadlines and also giving the chances to the qualified ones.
There may be therefore an increasingly excessive opposition within the Tertiary region of
Ghana (TSG) with managers and leaders grappling to discover new and revolutionary methods
of enhancing performance with the minimum addition of cost. (James, 2012)

Due to this, most employers and managers of organizations are changing their mission
statements, business enterprise policies, and formal structures thereby embracing lofty systems to
reply to those outside pressures. Due to the high demand of performance from employees by the
employers, the level of stress have increased in order to meet deadlines and targets set by
managers in the organization. In step with Yukl management influences employees in two ways:
circuitously via the outline of organizational guidelines and systems and also directly through
personal interactions. (Gurt, 2014)

Various studies have indicated clearly that the resulting physical and scare sociological features
of both the work and working environment (e.g. workload of the individual, plans or the
technical tools and equipment used, which are resolute by the managerial outline of the
organizational policies and systems, also in a way have an effect and impacts on employee
health (Smith, 2012)

These level of pressure on the employees have resulted in the ever increasing stressful
environment as both the teaching and non- teaching staffs of the institutions tend to work for
longer periods, skip public holidays, over time and sometimes sacrifice leave periods in order to
catch up with deadlines and increase productivity level.
According to Houtman, (2011), (Kompier, 2011) "work-related stress can have a negative effect
on the level of performance by the employees which can be attributed or associated with their
turnover rate, absenteeism, reduction in performance, higher rate of work related accidents,

increased complaints by the staffs, replacement of absent employees, training to substitute


employees etc.
A recent report issued by the institution clinic and the Human resource department indicated a
high rate of health issues from the employees of the various departments of the institution and
this has caused fear and panic in the sense that their health is at risk.

During the year under review, the number of times staff of the institution visited the clinic was
600 (male: 210 and female: 390). The health care reports indicate that among other illnesses
that were diagnosed, upper respiratory infections e.g. flu, stress and skeletal pains dominated the
rating. The annual academic report also showed a significant increase in the student enrolment
affecting workload of staff, lecturer students ratio as well as leaving a challenging task on
lecturers to meet deadline for marked scripts. (P.U.C health care report, 2015)
It is against this background that the researcher seeks to ascertain the extent to which
organizational culture might also be contributing to the stress levels of the employees.

1.2.RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions addressed the problem of workplace stress:
1. How do physical environmental issues affect levels of workplace stress?
2. How do job role issues affect levels of workplace stress?
3. How do organizational structure and job characteristics affect levels of workplace stress?
4. How do interpersonal relationships affect levels of workplace stress?

1.3.RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The main purpose of this work is to analyse the causes of organizational stress and how the
factors can influence workers performance in the organization.
More specifically the issue will address,
1. Identify the factors that contribute to organizational stress
2. Identify the problems that are associated with organization stress
3. Analyse how the factors can affect employee performance within the organization

4. Suggest possible management strategies that have to be considered in responding to


organizational stress

1.4.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


Upper management can benefit from an appreciation of a first-line management perspective.
Such an appreciation should highlight the urgency to address workplace stress by attending to
specific issues. The study also meets the needs of business and industry by focusing on the
changing context of the tertiary education industry.
Businesses organizations where staff reductions, high turnover, and low job satisfaction have led
to increased workplace stress, may also benefit from this study. Because recent technological
advances have resulted in higher levels of workplace stress, this study sought answers to this
continuing problem. It was hypothesized that employees remain with an organization when they
are reasonably satisfied. Reducing workplace stress may provide effective means of dealing with
the increasing problem of job dissatisfaction and turnover.

1.5. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


A major constraint is imposed by the time available for the study, which is limiting. This will
therefore force the researcher to limit the study to just only one Institution in Ghana. Again due
to privacy and the fear on the side of some employees on losing their jobs they mostly do not
give accurate and adequate information which the researcher seek to acquire. Another vital
limiting factor is the duration allocated to this research work by the school authorities. This will
therefore barred the researcher from conducting a detailed research work.
1.6.SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research therefore was limited to Pentecost University College. The study therefore aims at
looking into the factors that contribute to organizational stress within the Pentecost University
College staffs. Out of a total number of 150 staffs which include both the teaching and nonteaching staffs, 30 respondents would be considered for the purpose of this research where out

of the 30 respondents, 10 would be from the teaching staffs, 10 also from the top managements
and the other 10 respondents will be chosen from the labourers.
2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.Work Stress
Work stress has reliably been rebuked conflictingly yet it's essential to realize that not every
stressful moment can be regarded negative. For instance, in his underlying work on the subject of
stress, (Selye, 2013) abstracted two groupings, specifically great or attractive stress (eustress)
and dreadful or adverse stress (inconvenience). Eustress is great, or if nothing else testing, and
can convey gainful results, for instance, the development of yield and creativity.
Notwithstanding the way that everyone demonstrates a response to push, reactions move
comprehensively across over individuals. In reality, even at a functional level of psychology,
when run up against a significant stressor, a few people experience a quick augmentation in heart
rate while others feel a coziness or hitching in the stomach or strain headaches (Cavalini, 2013).
Anxiety is a fundamental bit of everyday activity and can't be avoided.

The term recognizes a way that stress can be in the form of a multi-faceted thought that happens
in a passing and component way; and is influenced by the joint effort of countless parts (Cotton,
2012). Case in point, Shirom (2010) described stress to be a persons acumen that natural
solicitations (stressor) surpass the abilities and resources, thusly provoking negative results. So
likewise, Selye (2012) portrayed stress to be unevenness amid the body's benefits and
solicitations made on it. The tension technique has in like manner been conceptualized as totally
monotonous and recursive (Lazarus, 2014).

Specifically, both physical and psychological aftereffects of the stress strategy can affect future
results by transforming into additional stressors or depleting the adjusting limit and resources
that are open to the individual. In this way, stress seen as a ceaselessly varying and round
technique, a suggestion that increases gigantic implications for practices and examination.
Moreover, interest is the conceptualization which was presented by Lazarus (2014) who guessed
that push related stress is a strategy, including an exchange that exist within a person and the

workplace. The researchers response to work stress could either be mental, physical or even
both and is by and large requested as either acute, post traumatic, or constant. (Cooper, 2012)

2.2.Personal Vulnerability to Stress


Particular individual qualities seem to influence the extent to which specific occasions or
conditions are seen as being stressful (Ganster, 2013). From the 2000s, a gigantic number of
examinations have distinguished unending rundown of individual issues liable which add to
experiencing stress. The variables are thought to have been connected to a more prominent
probability which seem for people to be encountering stress, not to able to oversee requests
which are stressful, use more time to recuperate from stress impacts, or endure pessimistic results
as an outcome of stress. It has additionally been guaranteed that such variables may even expand
people's subjection to occasions that outcome in contrary encounters or feelings (George, 2014).
This segment will audit the most normally referred to elements that is mostly likely to be seen as
stressful at work.
2.2.1. Personality Factors
How a person behaves or the kind of personality trait possessed by an individual at work can also
serve or be a major cause of stress in the organization. If a person perceives himself as someone
with a very high personality or with a higher esteem, he wishes to be regarded with such an
esteem within the organization. On the other hand, if a person perceives him or herself as being
possessed with a lower self-esteem then probably he might also expect others to relate to him as
he requires. All these personalities which seem to be distinct from each individual can also cause
work stress since every individual will have to cope with different forms of traits and characters
within the work. (Cotton, 2012)
2.2.2. Negative Affectivity
It is clear from current studies and findings that few people display a general propensity towards
incompatible reactions regardless of the sort of stress encountered in the surroundings. The
inclination, known to be negative affectivity, has been recognized in previous works directed on
persona psychology research and indicates to an "expansive scope of a stressful state which
include outrage, hatred, blame, and dreadfulness and depressed" (Watson, 2013). As indicated by
Watson, people with high NA are fit for encountering a lot of anxiety and distress, even in

generally harmless connections and their view of anxiety is liable to endure regardless of the
possibility that adverse working conditions are changed drastically. This characteristic is liable to
impact how people encounter their surroundings and additionally how they see their own
prosperity
2.2.3. Inadequate Personal or Environmental Resources
Access to adequate personal or ecological assets ought to intervene the relationship amongst
stressors and result by urging people to decipher their circumstances decidedly and actualize
fruitful adapting procedures. Nonetheless, researchers have found various capacities for assets,
proposing that the methods by which they impact result taking after stress is indistinct. Absence
of assets, directly affect result (Murrell, 2011). For this situation, assets seem to have an
'indication damper' impact, in that people with a larger number of assets tend to experience
preferred results over those with low assets, regardless of the presence of stress. Interestingly,
different analysts have found that assets go about as 'anxiety cushions' by killing the negative
relationship amongst stress and result (Cohen, 2011).
2.3.Job Demands
Though, individual weaknesses and vulnerability is perceived to be imperative indicator in the
process of work stress (Cotton, 2012), additionally, it is vital to realize that each worker convey
diverse aptitudes in the work environment and in addition a scope of vulnerabilities and qualities.
The end of vulnerabilities from the work environment is impractical, nor did appealing, as the
accomplishment of a work environment frequently relies upon the differences of identities from
which it is develop (Dollard, 2013). In this way, the employment associated elements that is said
to impact stress consist of pressure, for instance, substantial workload, time pressure, and
struggle at work surroundings. For the time being, just few would be discussed.
2.3.1. Workload
Workload occurs when the volume of the work done by the employees exceed their strength
level or their ability of meeting the scheduled time. (French, 2011). Qualitatively, workload can
be described as the rate by which the ability, skills and knowledge of the employee is lower than
the work (Sauter, 2012).
Quite a number of research have shown the results or effects accompanied by work overload.
Example, a recent study by Wilkes showed that the overload of work and constrain of time were

the major cause of stress amongst the nurses and teachers. (B. Watts, 2013). On an average scale,
women are more likely to work in such areas. The pressure from the work place leading to work
overload and the differing demand of home life.
2.3.2. Time Pressure
The case of time limitations and wanting to beat deadlines by workers is quite as vital as work
overload, certainly these two factors basically occur at the same period.
Various studies have proved a tight bond between time factor and work stress. These factors
includes inadequate time for planning, unable and willing to complete work task within the
working hours and leading to work been taken home, persistent work related demand and
perverse deadlines (Humphrey, 2012). Most organizations across the globe have all adopted a
longer working periods, mainly with the prime aim of increasing their output levels and profit
maximization and as a result, workers are encouraged and asked to work for longer periods and
even at unusual shifts (Schabracq, 2012).
2.3.3. Performance Pressure
A significant outcome of a quick advancement of the global section is the enlarged rate at which
employees are obliged to achieve a high level of output and improve competitiveness. For an
employee to keep to a higher output level, it is needed that employees to cope with the constantly
changing trend of technology (Cascio, 2013). These hierarchical changes have been observed to
be conceivably adverse to employees' wellbeing. Quite a number of companies have adopted the
monitoring of employees performance in order for them to keep to their performance level.
There are constant performance appraisal systems just to ensure that the employees are not
working below their average working and performance rate. This has resulted in most employees
wanting to put in their best and keep working even when they are stressed out so as to avoid the
risk of losing their jobs.
3.4. Organizational Climate
As effectively noticed, the rate of work as well as the working environment has transformed
essentially throughout the world, with significant outcomes by experiencing excessive of work
stress. Globalization and a rampant advancement of technology has been the main factors.
(Belous, 2013).

These powers have made a hierarchical atmosphere that is designated by increased pressure and
requests for efficiency or productivity. In the quest for gaining an upper hand within the industry,
work is being outsourced or directed in virtual work environments by a transitory workforce.
Employees regularly find that they have various roles in the organizations, which leads to role
conflict (Cooper, 2015). In the meantime, workloads have expanded in light of more prominent
requests for profitability and the expanded velocity with which correspondence can happen in the
working environment

3.4.1. Globalization of the Economy


Globalization therefor has contributed to a significant change in the business environment
(Carrithers, 2012). Globalization alludes to the huge number of business relations that goes on
across the globe in a quick level (Graddick, 2011). This sensation has advanced heightening
worldwide and domestic rivalry as well as the quick development of instructive establishments.
Going with these worldwide patterns is the interest for high authoritative execution that requires
harder rivalry, fast changes in data innovation, expanded profitability, more noteworthy
hierarchical and specialist adaptability and lower costs in the procurement of administrations
(Berwald, 2012).
The outcome for working in a competitive market is the likelihood of experiencing a massive
stress at work. To keep up and upgrade profitability and stay up to date with worldwide business
sector requests, employees are under increasing burden to work longer hours, work at a speedier
pace, build workloads and get to be multi-talented
3.4.2. The Impact of Technology
Notwithstanding the attack of globalization, the advancement of quickly moving technology has
affected workplaces. These advances in innovation have brought about the cutting back of
numerous associations as errands that were embraced by difficult work get to be mechanized.
Technology has additionally empowered a significant increment in the mechanized observing of
execution in the working environment, in this manner increasing pressure on performances
(Kolb, 2013). As indicated by Humphrey (2012), interruptions of this nature are affecting a large
number of employees across the globe like the educational sectors, telecommunication
organizations etc.

Rosch (2012) and numerous different specialists, have shown that technostress is turning into a
developing worry among employees. Technostress is especially important in commercial
enterprises where data over-burden originates from the absolute capacity of data that is gotten
through copy machines, cell phones and individual pagers.

3.5. Organizational Culture and Socialization


The culture present in an organization can also be a major cause of stress especially to the new
employees who have just joined the company. The norms, beliefs and attitudes of the company
which the already existing employees are used to will therefore tend to pose a major challenge to
the new employees since they might come in with different cultures which was learnt from a
different background or organization. For instance in a company where there exist a lot of
hostility in their culture will be perhaps very difficult for a new employee who has never
experienced any form of hostile company in his or her entire life. (Headley, 2012). In most of the
Asian countries, employees are allowed to work for 12 hours per day, unlike in some part of
Africa where the working hours is limited to only 8hours. In this case, an African working as a
new employee in the Asian market or firm will find it a bit challenging in coping with the longer
working period. Much in the same way, the dress code in most Asian countries is very different
from dress code in the Ghanaian working environment. For instance, ladies cannot put on a short
skirt to the workplace in Africa, but on the contrary, most ladies in the Asian communities are
used to putting on short skirts to the workplaces, in this regard, ladies will find it a bit
challenging when working or transferred to the African companies.
The main time when culture can impact an organization is through the socialization of new
employees. Socialization alludes to the adjustment procedure another worker encounters on
section into the organization and is the method for recognizing and learning standards, qualities
and practices that allow acknowledgment as a part to that organization (Maaen, 2012). The
underlying section stage is the most basic in the socialization procedure as the new employee is
prone to be unconscious of winning convictions and traditions and will, thusly, make disturbance
the current culture or norms. The beliefs and thoughts carried by most new employees can be a
major defy or obstacle to the existing culture of the company. (Schein, 2012).

3.6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE RESEARCH

JOB
VULNERABILITY
TO STRESS

JOB DEMAND

WORK
STRESS

ORGANIZATIONAL
CLIMATE

ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE AND
SOCIALIZATION

Source: Own design, 2016


The variables which will be used for this frame work are Y, F, X1, X2, X3, X4. . Where Y will be
The causes of work stress.
The equation will Y= F(X1, X2, X3, X4), where X1 = Job vulnerability to stress, X2 = Job
demand, X3 = Organizational climate, and X4 = Organizational culture and socialization

3.7. Richard Lazarus management theory of stress


Richard Lazarus a psychologist ones asked this question, what possibly could make one person
really stressed and never bother to the other at all?

People mostly picture most of the psychologist as being unrefueled and cool personalities, right?
Thats not always the case, within the 1960s, a heated war went on between psychologists, thats
the behaviorists and the cognitive psychologists.

RICHARD LAZARUS THEORY


OF STRESS
BEHAVIORAL
PSYCHOLOGY

COGNITIVE
PSYCHOLOGY

TRANSACTIONAL
PRIMARY & SECONDARY
SOURCE: (Wikimedia, 2016)
Behavioral psychology
According to Lazarus, the behavioral psychologist ended that a person can either be rewarded or
punished based on the main forces that drive within them.

For instance, if an employee is always rewarded and recognized always at work due to his or her
hard work, he then tends to work extra hard in pretense of gaining recognition forgetting that
they would be stressed out due to extra workloads.
On the other side, cognitive psychology also argued about the importance of the thoughts and
the emotions regarding how an employee lives from day to day. For instance, if an employee
want to reduce and avoid stress, the psychologist believe that, they should change their work
attitudes that leads to stress by working for the right number of hours and not always leaning on
the fact of losing their jobs and praising their employers.
Somewhere in the middle of the 20th centuries, the behaviorist were the master mind of
psychology. The feelings and thoughts of people, a lot of the psychologists didnt give much
emphasis on them. Richard Lazarus then put much emphasis on the feelings and thoughts. He
then stood up for thoughts and feelings. He deliberated on the stress level of the individual and
came out that, work or events are neither bad nor good but how we perceive or think about it
either makes it negative or positive and therefore tends to pose an impact on the level of stress.
For example, a worker goes to Starbucks to get a cup of coffee before rushing to the workplace,
upon reaching there is this other person also wasting a lot of time in his ordering. Generally, the
person taking too long in his ordering isnt either good or bad but the worker believes that he or
she is going to be late for work, makes him really stress out. This theory can either be called the
transactional theory of stress or the appraisal theory of stress. It can be remembered based on
how an individual appraises the current situation at hand have an effect on how they perceive or
feel about it.
The primary and secondary appraisal are the two main things when an individual is faced with
such a situation.

Primary Appraisal
For example, we take the coffee incident when the worker is almost late for work and follows
someone who seems to be asking complicated questions regarding what hes buying. In such a
situation, the individual might probably feel kind of stressed out. According to Lazarus, before
you the person feel stressed out, first of all, you must appraise the situation.
The primary appraisal therefore answers the questions. what really does this situation mean?
And in which way or how can it even affect me? the current situation at hand according to
Lazarus is a primary situation because it isnt about the individuals feeling but rather the
situation itself. In answering the first question, the situation actually mean that, we will be late
for work and the second questions also goes like, how youre being late to the work if going to
affect you. Its either your boss might fire you or yell at you or you might even think that being
delayed in the long queue might also give you release a bit of stress in you. So in short, there are
three main possible appraisals that mostly occur in the primary appraisal, which is, it can either
be positive and pose a challenge for growth or negative and create stress and neutral and not
really important.
The secondary Appraisal is also seen as the opposite of the primary according to Richard
Lazarus. He stated that, while the primary appraisal is all about the situation, the secondary
appraisal is also about how the individual feels about the situation that causes the stress. The
demand of the job, the resources available to deal with the stress, the organizational climate,
culture and the personal vulnerabilities to stress.
3.8. CONCLUSION
The whole chapter focuses mainly on the various quotes and relevant works and research done
by different researchers and has therefore backed immensely to the best knowledge of the causes
of work stress. Also, the various research studies which were used in this particular chapter have
given the best ever of an insight on work stress within an organization. It also helped in building
a strong research questions suitable for the work.

4.0.CHAPTER THREE
Chapter 1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN
The study will be designed in a way that it employed both exploratory and descriptive research
type. The qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection would be adopted so as to
explore and obtain viable data as regards the organizational stress of the under mentioned case
study and the possible management strategies. A case study approach will therefore be adopted
to help delve into the depth of the factors contributing to organizational stress and its effective
management strategies.(Crewell,2012).

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING SIZE


The convenience sampling will be adopted in this research from both the teaching and none
teaching staffs of the Pentecost University College which the researcher believes possesses the
rightful experience on the kind of work stress, the major cause and also willing to participate and
help suggest possible management strategies in dealing with them.
The benefits will be, participants will not be selected against their own will but be engaged
willingly. Feedbacks that will be received will be regarded as true and trustworthy because
respondents will participate willingly and not be forced to give information. The convenience
sampling technique will be adopted since its often the most efficient and less costly research
method.

A total sample size of 30 respondents will be selected for this research of which the respondents
will all be staffs from the institution, both teaching and none teaching staffs. The respondents
will be asked questions in relation to the causes of organizational stress and its possible
management solutions within the Pentecost University staffs.

4.4. SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION


4.4.1. Primary data
The primary data will be collected from the staffs of the Pentecost University College. This will
be done by administering Questionnaires where respondents would be guided in answering the
questions. The questionnaires will contain structured questions which will relate to each study
variable in the questions asked. The questions relating to the causes of organizational stress and
its management strategies will be constructed on a scale of five, of which the respondents will
answer on how they agree or disagree to the statements made in the questionnaires.
4.4.2. Secondary data
This will also be used in support of the experimental findings of the study. The data would be
gained from the organizations reports and journals from the school and some also from some
publishers like emerald publishing group recent articles published by master students from the
schools online library and also various literatures provided by some project management body
of knowledge will be reviewed.

4.5. DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT/ METHODS.


4.5.1. Questionnaires
The major collection instrument for this work will be the use of questionnaire for the primary
data method. The structure of the questionnaire will be form that, every respondent will well
understand and answer them without difficulty. The instruments, that will be adopted in data
collection is Interview and Questionnaire. Data for the research will be collected mainly through
the administration of questionnaire to respondents. Well-structured questions will be asked to
collect the information. Interviewees will therefore receive same set of questions and the

expected feedbacks must be same. Specific questions with fixed range of answers would be
given or provided. Yes or no alternatives, multiple choices of questions will be issued with
answers which the respondents are expected to choose one that suit them for that particular
question.
The prime reason why questionnaire would be the best method is the fact that it will enhance the
respondent to give a credible and accurate answers since their names and other information will
not be requested before answering
Both open- ended and close- ended questionnaire would be adopted for this work, reasons being
that data will quite be easy when questionnaire is used.

5.6. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES


Descriptive statistics will be adopted in analysing all data. Standard deviation and other relevant
statistics will also be used to better understand the data. The data so collected will be compiled
and edited then presented in graphs, bar graphs and pie charts. The data will be coded according
to the responses and analysed to reveal relationships among variables in the findings from the
data. Both inferential and descriptive statistics will be adopted. Presentation of data will be done
using bar charts, pie charts, frequency tables as well as percentages.

5.7. Ethical Considerations


The member ought to remember that any information gathered must be kept mystery and the
security is not bargained but rather ensured for sure. Subsequently, it ought to realize that the
data must not be discharged particularly to any outsider. At that point, while members are kept
overhauled, will unquestionably back in attaining genuine people.
5.7.8. Professionalism and impartiality
The researcher need to delineate to a specific level of proficiency in order to inform the member
sure when the overview is being taken. Outlining professionalism, capacity, information and
certainty by the researcher must keep the respondent surer and it will have trust. Then again,
unbiased attitude, each respondent will along these lines be dealt with similarly and reasonably
with conscious way in react to their answers

5.7.9. Plagiarism
The theories and all necessary theories and information in this research work will be well cited
for and also referenced. Therefore, I solely voice out, this work will be referenced fully and the
Harvard standard of referencing will also be adhered to.
5.8. Expected Outcomes
The outcome of this work will be very beneficial. A detailed exploration will be needed for this
work, Excel sheet will also be used in order to come out with the expected figures and graphical
depictions that will make it easy for Pentecost University College in assisting the causes and
possible solutions to organizational stress.
5.9. Gantt chart - Time Schedule
The Gant Chart exhibit how the whole research is to be carried within a time frame.
Figure 3:1 Gantt Chart

Source: Data 2016.

Task 1 delineates the start of the research where pertinent data will be accumulated, and the letter
of proposition composed with the reason for being affirmed after submission, it will take two
weeks to do the procedure. In the task 2, the procedure will be completed as same as the primary
month however the exploration point is relied upon to be endorsed in week three. Besides, Task
3 will be the gathering of information beginning in the most recent week of the principal month
which is week 4 to week 3 of the second month. The gathering of both essential and auxiliary
information will be key variable to bolster the examination amid that period. In task 4, it will
take two weeks to gathering all information, beginning in the second month particularly week 3.
Moreover, all information gathering will be assembled around then.
Task 5: Week 1 of the third month will be sufficient to finish all information gathering. In the
interim task 6 will just take a week to draft the report. Task 7, the second week of the third
month will be an ideal opportunity to get inputs from the manager. Assignment 8 in the most
recent month will likewise investigate the whole report and to ensure that the prerequisites will
be met. Task 9 this will be in the last week of the most recent month where the complete research
is to be submitted for survey.

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