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In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best matches the description.
G ______ 1. wetland dominated by non woody plants

a. swamp

F_______ 2. precipitation that can carry pollutants into aquatic ecosystems

b. profundal zone

E_______ 3. amount of dissolved salts in water

c. decomposers

4. .wetland dominated by woody plants

d. littoral zone

H_______ 5. area where fresh water mixes with salt water

e. salinity

B_______ 6. located near the bottom of a pond or lake

f. runoff

C_______ 7. organisms that break down dead organisms

g. marsh

_F_________ 8. leads to an increase in nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem

h. estuary

D________ 9. .aquatic zone found near the shore

A_______ 10. Estuaries are productive ecosystems because they constantly receive nutrients from
a. rivers and oceans.
c. lakes and ponds.
b. coral reefs.
d. photosynthesis
D_______ 11. Which of the following is a factor that influences where an organism lives in an aquatic ecosystem?
a. sunlight
c. temperature
b. nutrient availability
d. all of the above
B_________12. In which of the following aquatic ecosystems are both littoral and benthic
zones likely?
a. open ocean
c. lake
b. coral reef

d. none of the above

C_______ 13. Estuaries

a. are always saltwater ecosystems.
b. are always freshwater ecosystems.
c. are ecosystems where both fresh water and salt water are present.
d. prevent the development of salt marshes.
Section: Marine Ecosystems
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
Estuaries support many marine organisms because estuaries receive plenty of light for photosynthesis and plenty of nutrients
for plants and animals. Rivers supply nutrients that have been washed from the land, and because the water is shallow,
sunlight can reach all the way to the bottom of the estuary. The light and nutrients support large populations of rooted plants as
well as plankton. The plankton in turn provides food for larger animals, such as fish. Dolphins, manatees, seals, and other
mammals often feed on fish and plants in estuaries. Oysters, barnacles, and clams live anchored to marsh grass or rocks and
feed by filtering plank ton out of the water. Organisms that live in estuaries are able to tolerate variations in salinity because the
salt content of the water varies as fresh water and salt water mix when tides go in and out.
Estuaries provide protected harbors, access to the ocean, and connection to a river. As a result, many of the worlds major
ports are built on estuaries. Of the 10 largest urban areas in the world, 6 were built on estuaries. These 6 cities are Tokyo, New
York Shanghai, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, and Bombay.


One reading skill is the ability to identify the main idea of a passage. The main idea is the main focus or key idea. Frequently, a main idea is
accompanied by supporting information that offers detailed facts about main ideas.
Read each question and write the answer in the space provided.

What types of organisms do estuaries support?

Answer: Estuaries support plants and animals

2. How do oysters, barnacles, and clams feed?

Answer: The filter plankton out of the water.
3. What do dolphins, seals, and other mammals eat?
Answer: The feed on fish and plants in estuaries.
4. What two ingredients make estuaries suitable for plants and animals?
Answer: Fresh water and salt water

5. How many of the worlds 10 largest urban areas are built on estuaries? List them.
Answer: 6 of the largest urban areas are built on estuaries: Tokyo, New York, Shanghai, Buenos Aires, Rio de
Janeiro, and Bombay.

Compare and Contrast: Using a double bubble diagram compare and contrast the following terms:

River and Lake


Oligotrophic and Eutrophic


Marshes and Swamps


Photic zone and aphotic zone


Intertidal zone and Benthic Zone










c Zone