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Jul 15, 2016

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Kinematics

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1.

than the path length traversed by a particle?

2. A particle is moving in a straight line. Is it possible

for it to maintain the motion in the same direction

while the acceleration is in the reverse direction.

3. A particle is moving with constant acceleration. Will

it always move in a straight line?

4. The velocity-time graph of a particle moving in a

straight line is shown. What is the (i) total distance

travelled (ii) displacement in 2 s? Ans: 2m, 0

5.

by x = a t + b t2, then what will be the

instantaneous acceleration of the body? Ans: 2b

7. The v-t graph of a particle under rectilinear motion

is shown. What is its acceleration? a= -0.05ms-2

13.

14. The x t graph of an object is straight line motion

is shown. Find the instantaneous velocity of the

object at points A and B. What is the average

velocity? Ans: 0.5m/s

velocity at F. What is the velocity at P? (i) -0.75 ms-1

(ii) zero

16.

8.

9. A particle starts from rest and moves along a

straight line in the positive x direction. The a-t graph

of the particle is shown. (i) What is the velocity after

2 s ? (ii) What is the velocity after 4 s ? (iii) Is there

any reversal motion by the particle. Ans: (i)8m/s (ii)

zero(iii)no

10.

11. The x t graph starting from rest and moving for a

particle in a straight line is shown (fig. i).

12. (a) Draw v t and (b) a t graphs assuming the

acceleration between 04, 48, 810, 1012 S

to be constant.

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shown . The curve from 0 to 10 s is of three

degrees, from 10 to 18 s is a straight line and from

18 to 20 s it is an inverted parabola. The car comes

to rest after 20 s. Draw v - t and a - t graphs.

is thrown vertically with a speed After what time will

18.

h

g

they meet and at what height? Ans:

, h/2

29. A cyclist covers half of a journey between two

places with speed v1 and remaining half with speed

2v1v2

v1 v2

19. A particle moving along a straight line has x - t

curve given by x = t3 6t2 15t + 40 where x is

expressed in metres and t in sec. Find (a) the time

at which the velocity is zero, (b) the position and

distance travelled by the particle at that time (c) the

acceleration of the particle at that time (d) the

distance travelled by the particle from t = 4 s to t = 6

S. Ans: t=5s corresponds to zero velocity at t= 0

x=40 distance =100m (c) a= 18ms-2 9d) 18 m

20. State the three equations of motion. On what type

of motion are these equations valid?

Ans: V =-0.5t+5.

21.

22. The velocity time graph of a particle in rectilinear

motion is shown. Write the equation of motion.

23. Two balls, of different masses are projected

vertically upwards with the same speed. Which of

the balls, heavier or light will pass the point of

projection with a larger speed?

24. A balloon is rising upwards with a velocity 4 m s-1

and acceleration 2.5 m s-2. A parcel is dropped from

the balloon, what is the velocity of the parcel and

what is its acceleration? Ans: 4ms-1, 10ms-2

25. A car is travelling with a speed of 100 km/h. When

a shell is fired in the direction of motion of the car

with a muzzle velocity 200 km/h, the velocity of the

car is reduced by 40 km/h. What is the velocity of

shell w.r.t. the ground? Ans: 260 km/h.

26. A ball is thrown vertically upwards and it reaches a

height h after t1 s and after t2 s it again reaches the

same height. What is the height h in terms of t1 and

t2? Ans: h= g t1 t2

27. A ball dropped from height h reaches the ground in t

t

2

s. After what time it has reached h/2? Ans:

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30. A particle is moving along x-axis with x = 2 - 5t + 6t2

? where x is in m and t in s. What is the initial

velocity? Ans: -5m/s

31. A 100 m long train is moving north at a speed of 16

m s-1. A bird flying south flies over the train at a

speed of 9 m s-1 . What time will the bird take to

cross the train ? Ans: 4s

32. A ball dropped from height h reaches the ground in t

t

2

s. After what time it has reached h/2 ? Ans:

s

33. Draw approximate x t graphs of two objects: (i)

with equal velocities moving rectilinearly in parallel.

(ii) with unequal velocities showing the time of

meeting moving rectilinearly in parallel and starting

& with a certain displacement from each other (iii)

with velocities in opposite directions showing the

time of meeting. UPTO PAGE 3.16

34. Two bodies begin free fall from rest from the top of

a tower within a gap of 1 s. How long after the first

body begins to fall will the two bodies be 15 m

apart. Ans: 2s

35. Discuss the motion of an object under free fall.

Neglect air resistance. Take acceleration due to

gravity equal to 9.8 m s-2. Draw the a - t, v- t and y -t

graphs.

36. The reaction time of a truck driver is 0.6 s and the

truck is travelling at 72 km/h. When the driver sees

a child at a distance of 120 m. he applies brakes so

that a deceleration of 2 ms- 2 given to the truck.

What is the distance travelled by the truck before

stopping ? Will he be able to save the child? Ans:

112m , yes

37. A drunkard walking in a narrow lane take 5 steps

forward and 3 steps backward, followed again by 5

steps forward and 3 steps backward, and so on.

Each step is 1 m long and requires 1 s. Plot the x-t

graph of his motion. Determine graphically and

otherwise how long the drunkard takes to fall in a pit

13 m away from the start. Ans: 37 s

38. A jet airplane travelling at the speed of 500 km h -1

ejects its products of combustion at the speed of

1500 km h-1 relative to the jet plane. What is the

the ground? Ans: 1000kmh-1

39. A car moving along a straight highway with speed of

126 km h-1 is brought to a stop within a distance of

200 m. What is the retardation of the car (assumed

uniform), and how long does it take for the car to

stop? Ans: 11.4s

40. Two trains A and B of length 400 m each are

moving on two parallel tracks with a uniform speed

of72 km h-1 in the same direction, with A ahead of B.

The driver of B decides to overtake and accelerates

by 1 m s-2 If after 50 s, the guard of B just brushes

past the driver of A, what was the original distance

between them? Ans: 1250m

41. Read each statement below carefully and state

with reasons and examples, fit is true or false: A

particle in one-dimensional motion

50.

42.

( a) with zero speed at an instant may have

non-zero acceleration at that instant.

51.

43.

velocity.

44.

( c) with constant speed must have zero

acceleration.

motion ofa particle. Is it correct to say from the

graph that the particle moves in a straight line for t <

0 and on a parabolic path for t > 0 ? If not, suggest

a suitable physical context for this graph.

45.

(d) with positive value ofacceleration must

be speeding up.

46. A ball is dropped from a height of 90 m on a floor. At

each collision with the floor, the ball loses one tenth

of its speed. Plot the speed-time graph of its motion

between t = 0 to 12 s.

47. Explain clearly, with examples, the distinction

between ( a) magnitude of displacement

(sometimes called distance) over an interval of

time, and the total length of path covered by a

particle over the same interval ( b) magnitude of

average velocity over an interval of time, and the

average speed over the same interval. [Average

speed of a particle over an interval of time is

defined as the total path length divided by the time

interval]. Show in both (a) and (b) that the second

quantity is either greater than or equal to the first.

When is the equality sign true ? [For simplicity,

consider one-dimensional motion only].

48. A man walks on a straight road from his home to a

market 2.5 km away with a speed of 5 km h-1 .

Finding the market closed, he instantly turns and

walks back home with a speed of 7.5 km h-1. What

is the (a) magnitude of average velocity and (b)

average speed of the man over the interval of time

(i) 0 to 30 mm. (ii) 0 to 50 mm, (iii) 0 to 40 mm ?

49. Look at the graphs (a) to (d) (fig.) carefully and

state, with reasons, which of these cannot possibly

represent one-dimensional motion of a particle.

3 | Page

53.

54. A police van moving on a highway with a speed of

30 km h-1 fires a bullet at a thiefs car speeding

away in the same direction with a speed of 192 km/

h . If the muzzle speed of the bullet is 150 m/s, with

what speed does the bullet hit the thiefs car ?

(Note : Obtain that speed which is relevant for

damaging the thiefs car). Ans: 105m/s

55. Suggest a suitable physical situation for each of the

following graphs (Fig.):

velocity of 14 m/s. Find the maximum height

reached and the time of ascent. Given, g = 9.8ms -2.

Ans: 1.428 s

62. The velocity-time graph for a body moving along a

straight line is as shown in Fig. Find the

displacement of the body in 8 s of its motion.

56.

edge of a 200 m high with initial speeds of 15 m/s

and 30 m/s . Verfy that the graph shown in fig.

correctly represents the time variation of the relative

position of the second stone with respect to the first.

Neglect air resistance and assume that the stones

do not rebound after hitting the ground. Take g =

10m/s2. Give the equations for the linear and curved

parts of the plot.

58.

59. The speed-time graph of a particle moving along a

fixed direction is shown in fig. Obtain the distance

traversed by the particle between (a) t = 0 s to 10 s,

(b) t = 2 s to 6 s. What is the average speed of the

particle over the intervals in (a) and (b)?

60.

4 | Page

Ans: 23 m

63. A man walks on a straight road from his home to a

market 25 km away with a speed of 5 km/h. Finding

the market closed, he instantly turns and walks

home with a speed of 75 km/h. What is the

magnitude of the average velocity and average

speed of the man over the interval of time (i) 0 to 30

min, (ii) 0 to 50 min and (iii) 0 to 40 min? Ans: (i)

5km/h, 5km/h (ii) 6km/h (iii)1.875km/h,5.625km/h.

64. The position-time graph for a dancer demonstrating

dance steps along a straight line is as shown in Fig.

velocity for each dance step? Ans:

1m/s,0m/s, 1.33m/s, 1.33m/s, 2.75m/s,2.75m/s, 1m/s,1m/s

(b) What is the average velocity of the dancer

during the time interval between t = 4.5 to t

= 9 s? Ans: -0.89m/s.

65. Fig. shows velocity-time graph for the motion of an

object. (a) Compute the acceleration for each phase

of the motion. (b) Describe how the object moves

66.

retardation and total time taken. Ans; 0.8m/s2,

-0.5m/s2, 86s.

71. A body covers 4 m in 3rd second and 12 m in 5th

second. If the motion is uniformly accelerated, how

far will it travel in the next three seconds? Ans: 60m

72. The velocity time graph of an object moving along a

straight line is as shown in Fig. Find (a) the

distance covered and (b) the displacement by the

object in time interval between t = 0 to t = 5 s. [Ans.

(a) 50 m (b) 30 m/s.

73.

2

straight line is as shown in the Fig.

Calculate

the distance covered by the object: (i) between t = 0

to t = 5 s and (ii) between t = 0 to t = 10 s. Ans:

80m, 130m.

68. The velocity-time graph of a particle moving along a

fixed direction as

shown in Fig. Obtain the distance traversed by the

particle between (a) t = 0 to 10 s, (b) t = 2 to 6 s.

What is the average speed of the particle over the

intervals in (a) and (b)? Ans. (a) 60 m ; 6 m/s (ii) 36

m ; (iii) 9 m/s.

69. On a foggy day, two car drivers spot each other,

when they are just 80 m apart. They are travelling at

72 km/ h and 60 km/ h respectively. Both of them

simultaneously apply brakes, which retard both the

cars at a rate of 5 m/s2 .Determine whether they

avert the collision or not. Ans: the collision will be

averted.

70. A car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for

10 s to a velocity of 8 m/s. It then runs at a constant

velocity and is finally brought to rest in 64 m with a

constant retardation. The total distance covered by

5 | Page

straight line is as shown in Fig. Find the distance

covered by the object in time t = 0 to t = 7 s and the

maximum value of the acceleration during this

interval.[Ans. 170 m, 40 m/s]

75.

height of 98 m above the ground, when a packet is

dropped from the balloon. After how much time and

with what velocity, does it reach the ground?

77. The displacement (in metre) of a particle, moving

along X-axis is given by x = 18 t + 5 t2. Calculate (i)

the instantaneous velocity at t = 2 s, (ii) the average

velocity between t = 2 s and t = 3 s and (iii) the

instantaneous acceleration.(i) 38m/s (ii) 43m/s (iii)

10m/s2.

78. A parachutist bails out from an aeroplane and after

dropping through a distance of 40 m, he opens the

79.

80.

81.

82.

83.

84.

85.

86.

87.

88.

89.

the ground with a speed of 2 m/s, how long is he in

the air. At what height did he bail out from the

plane? Ans: 111/7 sec.

A ball is allowed to fall from the top of a tower 200

m high. At the same instant, another ball is thrown

vertically upwards from the bottom of the tower with

a velocity of 40 m/s. When and where the two balls

meet? Ans: 77.5m

Ball A is thrown upward with a speed of 35 m/s from

ground, while at the same time another ball B is

dropped from a height of 100 m with a speed 10

m/s along the same straight line. By choosing

positive direction of X-axis and origins for position

and time, find the height from ground, where the

two balls meet. Take g =10ms-2.Ans:53.09m .

A stone let fall from the top of a tower traverses a

distance of 245 m in the last second of its fall. Find

the height of the tower. Ans: 44.1 m.

A body travels a distance of 2 m in 2 s and 2.8 m in

next 4s. What will be speed of the body at the end

of 10th second from the start. [Ans. 0.1 m/s]

Show that the distances traversed by a freely falling

body during equal intervals of time stand to one

another in the same rati3 as the odd numbers

beginning with unity i.e. 1 : 3 : 5 : 7

Two bodies fall freely from different heights and

reach the ground simultaneously. The time of

descent for the first body is 2 s and for the second

is 1 s. At what height was the first body situated,

when the other began to fall? [Ans. 14.7 m]

A boy on a cliff 49 m high drops a stone and one

second later throws a second stone after the first.

They both hit the ground at the same time. How fast

did the boy throw the second stone ? Neglect air

resistance. [Ans. 1207 m/s]

A stone is dropped from the edge of a roof and is

observed to pass a window, vertically below it. The

stone takes 0.1 s to fall between the top and the

bottom of the window. If the window is of 2 m

height, how far is the roof above the top of the

window ? [Ans. 19.4 m]

A stone is thrown vertically upwards with an initial

velocity of 14 m/s. Find the maximum height

reached and the time of ascent. Given g =9.8 m/s2.

[Ans. 10 m, 1429 s]

When it is at a height of 98 m, a packet is dropped

from it. What is the velocity of the packet, when it

strikes the ground ? [Ans. 44.1 m/s]

From the top of a tower 100 m in height, a ball is

dropped and at the same time another ball is

projected vertically upwards from the ground with a

velocity of25 m/s. Find when and where the two

balls will meet ? (g = 98 m/s2 [Ans. 4 s, 784 m

(from the top)]

6 | Page

upwards with a speed of 20 m/s from the ground

and B, vertically downwards from a height of 40 m

with the same speed and along the same line of

motion. At what points do the two balls collide ?

Take g = 9.8 m/s2. [Ans. 15.1 in (above the ground)]

91. A ship is sailing westward at 8 m/s. While trying to

fix a bolt at the top of the mast, the sailor drops the

bolt. If tire mast of the ship is196 m high, where will

the bolt hit the deck? Ans: At its foot.(16m)

92. A projectile follows a parabolic path. At what point of

its path, the speed of the projectile is minimum ?

93. A bulb is accidentally dropped, from the ceiling of a

train moving with constant velocity. What shape of

the path will be seen frorn an observer on the

ground?

94. At what angle be a projectile thrown with the

horizontal that its horizontal range is equal to the

maximum height attained?

3i 4 j

95. A projectile is thrown with a velocity v =

in

m/s. What is the velocity at the top?

96. A body is projected at an angle of35 with the

horizontal. At what other angle can it be thrown to

achieve the same horizontal range?

97. A ball is dropped frorn the top of the tower and

another ball is thrown horizontally at the same time.

Which ball will reach the ground first?

98. A ball is dropped frorn the top of the tower and

another ball is thrown horizontally at the same time.

Which ball will reach the ground first?

99. A ball is projected with a velocity I 9.6 rn at an angle

of 30. After what time will the bull move at right

angles to its direction of motion?

100.

There are two directions and (90 - ) for

the same range for a projectile. For which direction

more time is taken by the projectile?

101.

A projectile is thrown at an angle of 45

with the horizontal. What is the horizontal range of

the particle ?

102.

A man can throw a stone upto a distance x,

to what height can he throw?

103.

Two paper screens A and B are separated

by a distance of 100 m. A bullet pierces A and then

B. The hole in B is 0.1 m below the hole in A .

104.

at the time of

velocity of the

hitting the screen A, calculate the

bullet, when it hits the screen A.

m/s2.

700m/s.

105.

A projectile is fired horizontally with a

velocity of 98 m/s from the hill 490 m high. Find (i)

time taken to reach the ground, (ii) the distance of

the target from the hill and (iii) the velocity with

which the body strikes the ground. Ans:

2

t=10s,x=980m, 98

m/s.

106.

A ball rolls off the top of a stairway with a

horizontal velocity u m s-i. If the steps are h metres

high and b metres wide, show that the ball will hit

2hu 2

gb 2

.

107.

A body is projected such that its kinetic

energy at the top is 3/4 th of its initial kinetic energy.

What is the initial angle of projection of the

projectile with the horizontal? [Ans. 30]

108.

A shot is fired with a velocity 100 m/s in a

direction making an angle 600 with the vertical.

Calculate its time of flight, the maximum height

reached and its horizontal range. Ans: 10.2s,

127.55m, 883.67m.

109.

A projectile is thrown from a point 392 m

away from the foot of a building 19.6, m high and

just reaches the top horizontally. Find the velocity of

projection and the angle of throw. 27.72m/s, 450

110.

A cricketer can throw a ball to a maximum

horizontal distance of 100 m. How much high above

the ground can the cricketer throw the same ball?

Ans: 50m.

111.What is a projectile ? Obtain the formulae (a) for

time taken to reach maximum height H (b)for

maximum height H (c)for time of flight (d)for

horizontal range (e)for the equation of the trajectory

for Find the angle of projection at which the

horizontal range and maximum height of a projectile

are equal. Ans: tan = 4.

112.

Prove that the maximum horizontal range is

four times the maximum height attained by the

projectile, when fired at an inclination so as to have

maximum horizontal range.

113.

A man can jump on moon six times as high

as on earth. Why?

114.

An aeroplane is flying horizontally at a

height of 490 m with a velocity of 360 km /h. A bag

containing ration is to be dropped to the jawans on

the ground. How far from them should the bag be

released, so that it falls directly over them ? [Ans.

1,000 m]

7 | Page

115.

Find the angle of projection so that a body

when projected has the horizontal range equal to

the maximum height attained. [Ans. 76]

116.

Prove that a gun will shoot three times as

high, when its angle of elevation is 60 as when it is

30, but cover the same horizontal range.

117.

A projectile is thrown horizontally from the

top of a tower and strikes the ground after 3 s at an

angle of 45 with the horizontal. Find the height of

the tower and speed with which the body was

projected. Given g = 98 m/s2 [Ans. 444 m ; 294 m

s]

118.

A ball rolls off the top of a stairway with

horizontal velocity of 1.8 m/s. The steps are 0.24 m

high and 0.2 m wide. Which step will the ball hit

first? Given g = 98 m/s2 fAns. Fourth step]

119.

What is the angular velocity of a flywheel

making 300 r.p.m. in rad ?[Ans. 10 rad /s]

120.

The blades of aeroplane propeller are

rotating at the rate of 600 revolutions per minute.

Calculate the angular velocity in rad/s. [Ans. 20

rad/s]

121.

Obtain an expression for the centripelal

acceleration in a un(form circular motion.

122.

The angular speed of a wheel is 88 rad/s.

Calculate the number of revolutions made by it in

one second. [Ans. 14 r.p.s.]

123.

An insect moves in a circular groove of

radius 12 cm and completes 7 revolutions in 100 s

at a uniform pace. Calculate (i) angular speed, (ii)

magnitude of velocity and (iii) magnitude of

centripetal acceleration. [Ans. (i) 044 rad ; (ii) 528

cm/s ; (iii) 232 cm s-2]

124.

A stone tied to one end of a string 70 cm

long is whirled in horizontal circle with a constant

speed. If the stone makes 10 revolutions in 20 s,

what is the direction and magnitude of the

acceleration of the stone?[Ans. along radius of the

circular path, 690.87 cm/s-2]

125.

Read each statement below carefully and

state, with reasons, if it is true or false: (a) The net

acceleration of a particle in circular motion is always

along the radius of the circle towards the centre. (b)

The velocity vector ofa particle at a point is always

along the tangent to the path of the particle at that

point. (c) The acceleration vector of a particle in

uniform circular motion averaged over one cycle is

a null vector.

126.

A cyclist is riding with a speed of 27 km/h.

As he approaches a circular turn on the road of

radius 80 m, he applies brake and reduces his

speed at the constant rate ofo.5 rn/s every second.

What is the magnitude and direction ofthe net

acceleration of the cyclist on the circular turn?