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KINEMATICS

1.

Can the magnitude of displacement be ever larger


than the path length traversed by a particle?
2. A particle is moving in a straight line. Is it possible
for it to maintain the motion in the same direction
while the acceleration is in the reverse direction.
3. A particle is moving with constant acceleration. Will
it always move in a straight line?
4. The velocity-time graph of a particle moving in a
straight line is shown. What is the (i) total distance
travelled (ii) displacement in 2 s? Ans: 2m, 0
5.

6. If the distance travelled by a body in time t is given


by x = a t + b t2, then what will be the
instantaneous acceleration of the body? Ans: 2b
7. The v-t graph of a particle under rectilinear motion
is shown. What is its acceleration? a= -0.05ms-2

13.
14. The x t graph of an object is straight line motion
is shown. Find the instantaneous velocity of the
object at points A and B. What is the average
velocity? Ans: 0.5m/s

15. From the x t graph, find the instantaneous


velocity at F. What is the velocity at P? (i) -0.75 ms-1
(ii) zero
16.

8.
9. A particle starts from rest and moves along a
straight line in the positive x direction. The a-t graph
of the particle is shown. (i) What is the velocity after
2 s ? (ii) What is the velocity after 4 s ? (iii) Is there
any reversal motion by the particle. Ans: (i)8m/s (ii)
zero(iii)no

10.
11. The x t graph starting from rest and moving for a
particle in a straight line is shown (fig. i).
12. (a) Draw v t and (b) a t graphs assuming the
acceleration between 04, 48, 810, 1012 S
to be constant.

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17. The x - t graph of a car moving in a straight line is


shown . The curve from 0 to 10 s is of three
degrees, from 10 to 18 s is a straight line and from
18 to 20 s it is an inverted parabola. The car comes
to rest after 20 s. Draw v - t and a - t graphs.

28. A ball is dropped from a height h and a second ball


is thrown vertically with a speed After what time will

18.

h
g
they meet and at what height? Ans:
, h/2
29. A cyclist covers half of a journey between two
places with speed v1 and remaining half with speed

2v1v2
v1 v2
19. A particle moving along a straight line has x - t
curve given by x = t3 6t2 15t + 40 where x is
expressed in metres and t in sec. Find (a) the time
at which the velocity is zero, (b) the position and
distance travelled by the particle at that time (c) the
acceleration of the particle at that time (d) the
distance travelled by the particle from t = 4 s to t = 6
S. Ans: t=5s corresponds to zero velocity at t= 0
x=40 distance =100m (c) a= 18ms-2 9d) 18 m
20. State the three equations of motion. On what type
of motion are these equations valid?
Ans: V =-0.5t+5.

21.
22. The velocity time graph of a particle in rectilinear
motion is shown. Write the equation of motion.
23. Two balls, of different masses are projected
vertically upwards with the same speed. Which of
the balls, heavier or light will pass the point of
projection with a larger speed?
24. A balloon is rising upwards with a velocity 4 m s-1
and acceleration 2.5 m s-2. A parcel is dropped from
the balloon, what is the velocity of the parcel and
what is its acceleration? Ans: 4ms-1, 10ms-2
25. A car is travelling with a speed of 100 km/h. When
a shell is fired in the direction of motion of the car
with a muzzle velocity 200 km/h, the velocity of the
car is reduced by 40 km/h. What is the velocity of
shell w.r.t. the ground? Ans: 260 km/h.
26. A ball is thrown vertically upwards and it reaches a
height h after t1 s and after t2 s it again reaches the
same height. What is the height h in terms of t1 and
t2? Ans: h= g t1 t2
27. A ball dropped from height h reaches the ground in t

t
2
s. After what time it has reached h/2? Ans:

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v2. What is his average speed? Ans:


30. A particle is moving along x-axis with x = 2 - 5t + 6t2
? where x is in m and t in s. What is the initial
velocity? Ans: -5m/s
31. A 100 m long train is moving north at a speed of 16
m s-1. A bird flying south flies over the train at a
speed of 9 m s-1 . What time will the bird take to
cross the train ? Ans: 4s
32. A ball dropped from height h reaches the ground in t

t
2
s. After what time it has reached h/2 ? Ans:
s
33. Draw approximate x t graphs of two objects: (i)
with equal velocities moving rectilinearly in parallel.
(ii) with unequal velocities showing the time of
meeting moving rectilinearly in parallel and starting
& with a certain displacement from each other (iii)
with velocities in opposite directions showing the
time of meeting. UPTO PAGE 3.16
34. Two bodies begin free fall from rest from the top of
a tower within a gap of 1 s. How long after the first
body begins to fall will the two bodies be 15 m
apart. Ans: 2s
35. Discuss the motion of an object under free fall.
Neglect air resistance. Take acceleration due to
gravity equal to 9.8 m s-2. Draw the a - t, v- t and y -t
graphs.
36. The reaction time of a truck driver is 0.6 s and the
truck is travelling at 72 km/h. When the driver sees
a child at a distance of 120 m. he applies brakes so
that a deceleration of 2 ms- 2 given to the truck.
What is the distance travelled by the truck before
stopping ? Will he be able to save the child? Ans:
112m , yes
37. A drunkard walking in a narrow lane take 5 steps
forward and 3 steps backward, followed again by 5
steps forward and 3 steps backward, and so on.
Each step is 1 m long and requires 1 s. Plot the x-t
graph of his motion. Determine graphically and
otherwise how long the drunkard takes to fall in a pit
13 m away from the start. Ans: 37 s
38. A jet airplane travelling at the speed of 500 km h -1
ejects its products of combustion at the speed of
1500 km h-1 relative to the jet plane. What is the

speed of the latter with respect to an observer on


the ground? Ans: 1000kmh-1
39. A car moving along a straight highway with speed of
126 km h-1 is brought to a stop within a distance of
200 m. What is the retardation of the car (assumed
uniform), and how long does it take for the car to
stop? Ans: 11.4s
40. Two trains A and B of length 400 m each are
moving on two parallel tracks with a uniform speed
of72 km h-1 in the same direction, with A ahead of B.
The driver of B decides to overtake and accelerates
by 1 m s-2 If after 50 s, the guard of B just brushes
past the driver of A, what was the original distance
between them? Ans: 1250m
41. Read each statement below carefully and state
with reasons and examples, fit is true or false: A
particle in one-dimensional motion

50.

42.
( a) with zero speed at an instant may have
non-zero acceleration at that instant.

51.

43.
velocity.

(b) with zero speed may have non-zero

44.
( c) with constant speed must have zero
acceleration.

52. Figure shows the x-t plot of one-dimensional


motion ofa particle. Is it correct to say from the
graph that the particle moves in a straight line for t <
0 and on a parabolic path for t > 0 ? If not, suggest
a suitable physical context for this graph.

45.
(d) with positive value ofacceleration must
be speeding up.
46. A ball is dropped from a height of 90 m on a floor. At
each collision with the floor, the ball loses one tenth
of its speed. Plot the speed-time graph of its motion
between t = 0 to 12 s.
47. Explain clearly, with examples, the distinction
between ( a) magnitude of displacement
(sometimes called distance) over an interval of
time, and the total length of path covered by a
particle over the same interval ( b) magnitude of
average velocity over an interval of time, and the
average speed over the same interval. [Average
speed of a particle over an interval of time is
defined as the total path length divided by the time
interval]. Show in both (a) and (b) that the second
quantity is either greater than or equal to the first.
When is the equality sign true ? [For simplicity,
consider one-dimensional motion only].
48. A man walks on a straight road from his home to a
market 2.5 km away with a speed of 5 km h-1 .
Finding the market closed, he instantly turns and
walks back home with a speed of 7.5 km h-1. What
is the (a) magnitude of average velocity and (b)
average speed of the man over the interval of time
(i) 0 to 30 mm. (ii) 0 to 50 mm, (iii) 0 to 40 mm ?
49. Look at the graphs (a) to (d) (fig.) carefully and
state, with reasons, which of these cannot possibly
represent one-dimensional motion of a particle.

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53.
54. A police van moving on a highway with a speed of
30 km h-1 fires a bullet at a thiefs car speeding
away in the same direction with a speed of 192 km/
h . If the muzzle speed of the bullet is 150 m/s, with
what speed does the bullet hit the thiefs car ?
(Note : Obtain that speed which is relevant for
damaging the thiefs car). Ans: 105m/s
55. Suggest a suitable physical situation for each of the
following graphs (Fig.):

61. A stone is thrown vertically upwards with an initial


velocity of 14 m/s. Find the maximum height
reached and the time of ascent. Given, g = 9.8ms -2.
Ans: 1.428 s
62. The velocity-time graph for a body moving along a
straight line is as shown in Fig. Find the
displacement of the body in 8 s of its motion.
56.

57. Two stones are thrown up simultaneously from the


edge of a 200 m high with initial speeds of 15 m/s
and 30 m/s . Verfy that the graph shown in fig.
correctly represents the time variation of the relative
position of the second stone with respect to the first.
Neglect air resistance and assume that the stones
do not rebound after hitting the ground. Take g =
10m/s2. Give the equations for the linear and curved
parts of the plot.

58.
59. The speed-time graph of a particle moving along a
fixed direction is shown in fig. Obtain the distance
traversed by the particle between (a) t = 0 s to 10 s,
(b) t = 2 s to 6 s. What is the average speed of the
particle over the intervals in (a) and (b)?

60.

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Ans: 23 m
63. A man walks on a straight road from his home to a
market 25 km away with a speed of 5 km/h. Finding
the market closed, he instantly turns and walks
home with a speed of 75 km/h. What is the
magnitude of the average velocity and average
speed of the man over the interval of time (i) 0 to 30
min, (ii) 0 to 50 min and (iii) 0 to 40 min? Ans: (i)
5km/h, 5km/h (ii) 6km/h (iii)1.875km/h,5.625km/h.
64. The position-time graph for a dancer demonstrating
dance steps along a straight line is as shown in Fig.

(a) What are the average speed and average


velocity for each dance step? Ans:
1m/s,0m/s, 1.33m/s, 1.33m/s, 2.75m/s,2.75m/s, 1m/s,1m/s
(b) What is the average velocity of the dancer
during the time interval between t = 4.5 to t
= 9 s? Ans: -0.89m/s.
65. Fig. shows velocity-time graph for the motion of an
object. (a) Compute the acceleration for each phase
of the motion. (b) Describe how the object moves

during the last time segment.

66.

the car is 584 m. Find the value of acceleration,


retardation and total time taken. Ans; 0.8m/s2,
-0.5m/s2, 86s.
71. A body covers 4 m in 3rd second and 12 m in 5th
second. If the motion is uniformly accelerated, how
far will it travel in the next three seconds? Ans: 60m
72. The velocity time graph of an object moving along a
straight line is as shown in Fig. Find (a) the
distance covered and (b) the displacement by the
object in time interval between t = 0 to t = 5 s. [Ans.
(a) 50 m (b) 30 m/s.
73.

Ans: OA 0,AB- 4m/s2, BC- -4m/s2. DE3m/s , EFa=0, v=-4m/s.


2

67. The velocity-time graph of an object moving along a


straight line is as shown in the Fig.

Calculate
the distance covered by the object: (i) between t = 0
to t = 5 s and (ii) between t = 0 to t = 10 s. Ans:
80m, 130m.
68. The velocity-time graph of a particle moving along a

fixed direction as
shown in Fig. Obtain the distance traversed by the
particle between (a) t = 0 to 10 s, (b) t = 2 to 6 s.
What is the average speed of the particle over the
intervals in (a) and (b)? Ans. (a) 60 m ; 6 m/s (ii) 36
m ; (iii) 9 m/s.
69. On a foggy day, two car drivers spot each other,
when they are just 80 m apart. They are travelling at
72 km/ h and 60 km/ h respectively. Both of them
simultaneously apply brakes, which retard both the
cars at a rate of 5 m/s2 .Determine whether they
avert the collision or not. Ans: the collision will be
averted.
70. A car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for
10 s to a velocity of 8 m/s. It then runs at a constant
velocity and is finally brought to rest in 64 m with a
constant retardation. The total distance covered by

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74. The velocity-time graph of an object moving along a


straight line is as shown in Fig. Find the distance
covered by the object in time t = 0 to t = 7 s and the
maximum value of the acceleration during this
interval.[Ans. 170 m, 40 m/s]
75.

76. A balloon is ascending at the rate of 14 m/s at a


height of 98 m above the ground, when a packet is
dropped from the balloon. After how much time and
with what velocity, does it reach the ground?
77. The displacement (in metre) of a particle, moving
along X-axis is given by x = 18 t + 5 t2. Calculate (i)
the instantaneous velocity at t = 2 s, (ii) the average
velocity between t = 2 s and t = 3 s and (iii) the
instantaneous acceleration.(i) 38m/s (ii) 43m/s (iii)
10m/s2.
78. A parachutist bails out from an aeroplane and after
dropping through a distance of 40 m, he opens the

79.

80.

81.

82.

83.

84.

85.

86.

87.

88.

89.

parachute and decelerates at 2 m/s2. If he reaches


the ground with a speed of 2 m/s, how long is he in
the air. At what height did he bail out from the
plane? Ans: 111/7 sec.
A ball is allowed to fall from the top of a tower 200
m high. At the same instant, another ball is thrown
vertically upwards from the bottom of the tower with
a velocity of 40 m/s. When and where the two balls
meet? Ans: 77.5m
Ball A is thrown upward with a speed of 35 m/s from
ground, while at the same time another ball B is
dropped from a height of 100 m with a speed 10
m/s along the same straight line. By choosing
positive direction of X-axis and origins for position
and time, find the height from ground, where the
two balls meet. Take g =10ms-2.Ans:53.09m .
A stone let fall from the top of a tower traverses a
distance of 245 m in the last second of its fall. Find
the height of the tower. Ans: 44.1 m.
A body travels a distance of 2 m in 2 s and 2.8 m in
next 4s. What will be speed of the body at the end
of 10th second from the start. [Ans. 0.1 m/s]
Show that the distances traversed by a freely falling
body during equal intervals of time stand to one
another in the same rati3 as the odd numbers
beginning with unity i.e. 1 : 3 : 5 : 7
Two bodies fall freely from different heights and
reach the ground simultaneously. The time of
descent for the first body is 2 s and for the second
is 1 s. At what height was the first body situated,
when the other began to fall? [Ans. 14.7 m]
A boy on a cliff 49 m high drops a stone and one
second later throws a second stone after the first.
They both hit the ground at the same time. How fast
did the boy throw the second stone ? Neglect air
resistance. [Ans. 1207 m/s]
A stone is dropped from the edge of a roof and is
observed to pass a window, vertically below it. The
stone takes 0.1 s to fall between the top and the
bottom of the window. If the window is of 2 m
height, how far is the roof above the top of the
window ? [Ans. 19.4 m]
A stone is thrown vertically upwards with an initial
velocity of 14 m/s. Find the maximum height
reached and the time of ascent. Given g =9.8 m/s2.
[Ans. 10 m, 1429 s]
When it is at a height of 98 m, a packet is dropped
from it. What is the velocity of the packet, when it
strikes the ground ? [Ans. 44.1 m/s]
From the top of a tower 100 m in height, a ball is
dropped and at the same time another ball is
projected vertically upwards from the ground with a
velocity of25 m/s. Find when and where the two
balls will meet ? (g = 98 m/s2 [Ans. 4 s, 784 m
(from the top)]

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90. Two balls are thrown simultaneously. A vertically


upwards with a speed of 20 m/s from the ground
and B, vertically downwards from a height of 40 m
with the same speed and along the same line of
motion. At what points do the two balls collide ?
Take g = 9.8 m/s2. [Ans. 15.1 in (above the ground)]
91. A ship is sailing westward at 8 m/s. While trying to
fix a bolt at the top of the mast, the sailor drops the
bolt. If tire mast of the ship is196 m high, where will
the bolt hit the deck? Ans: At its foot.(16m)
92. A projectile follows a parabolic path. At what point of
its path, the speed of the projectile is minimum ?
93. A bulb is accidentally dropped, from the ceiling of a
train moving with constant velocity. What shape of
the path will be seen frorn an observer on the
ground?
94. At what angle be a projectile thrown with the
horizontal that its horizontal range is equal to the
maximum height attained?

3i 4 j
95. A projectile is thrown with a velocity v =
in
m/s. What is the velocity at the top?
96. A body is projected at an angle of35 with the
horizontal. At what other angle can it be thrown to
achieve the same horizontal range?
97. A ball is dropped frorn the top of the tower and
another ball is thrown horizontally at the same time.
Which ball will reach the ground first?
98. A ball is dropped frorn the top of the tower and
another ball is thrown horizontally at the same time.
Which ball will reach the ground first?
99. A ball is projected with a velocity I 9.6 rn at an angle
of 30. After what time will the bull move at right
angles to its direction of motion?
100.
There are two directions and (90 - ) for
the same range for a projectile. For which direction
more time is taken by the projectile?
101.
A projectile is thrown at an angle of 45
with the horizontal. What is the horizontal range of
the particle ?
102.
A man can throw a stone upto a distance x,
to what height can he throw?
103.
Two paper screens A and B are separated
by a distance of 100 m. A bullet pierces A and then
B. The hole in B is 0.1 m below the hole in A .

104.
at the time of
velocity of the

If the bullet is travelling horizontally


hitting the screen A, calculate the
bullet, when it hits the screen A.

Neglect the resistance of paper and air and take g = 98


m/s2.
700m/s.
105.
A projectile is fired horizontally with a
velocity of 98 m/s from the hill 490 m high. Find (i)
time taken to reach the ground, (ii) the distance of
the target from the hill and (iii) the velocity with
which the body strikes the ground. Ans:

2
t=10s,x=980m, 98
m/s.
106.
A ball rolls off the top of a stairway with a
horizontal velocity u m s-i. If the steps are h metres
high and b metres wide, show that the ball will hit

2hu 2
gb 2

the edge of the nth step ; if


.
107.
A body is projected such that its kinetic
energy at the top is 3/4 th of its initial kinetic energy.
What is the initial angle of projection of the
projectile with the horizontal? [Ans. 30]
108.
A shot is fired with a velocity 100 m/s in a
direction making an angle 600 with the vertical.
Calculate its time of flight, the maximum height
reached and its horizontal range. Ans: 10.2s,
127.55m, 883.67m.
109.
A projectile is thrown from a point 392 m
away from the foot of a building 19.6, m high and
just reaches the top horizontally. Find the velocity of
projection and the angle of throw. 27.72m/s, 450
110.
A cricketer can throw a ball to a maximum
horizontal distance of 100 m. How much high above
the ground can the cricketer throw the same ball?
Ans: 50m.
111.What is a projectile ? Obtain the formulae (a) for
time taken to reach maximum height H (b)for
maximum height H (c)for time of flight (d)for
horizontal range (e)for the equation of the trajectory
for Find the angle of projection at which the
horizontal range and maximum height of a projectile
are equal. Ans: tan = 4.
112.
Prove that the maximum horizontal range is
four times the maximum height attained by the
projectile, when fired at an inclination so as to have
maximum horizontal range.
113.
A man can jump on moon six times as high
as on earth. Why?
114.
An aeroplane is flying horizontally at a
height of 490 m with a velocity of 360 km /h. A bag
containing ration is to be dropped to the jawans on
the ground. How far from them should the bag be
released, so that it falls directly over them ? [Ans.
1,000 m]

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115.
Find the angle of projection so that a body
when projected has the horizontal range equal to
the maximum height attained. [Ans. 76]
116.
Prove that a gun will shoot three times as
high, when its angle of elevation is 60 as when it is
30, but cover the same horizontal range.
117.
A projectile is thrown horizontally from the
top of a tower and strikes the ground after 3 s at an
angle of 45 with the horizontal. Find the height of
the tower and speed with which the body was
projected. Given g = 98 m/s2 [Ans. 444 m ; 294 m
s]
118.
A ball rolls off the top of a stairway with
horizontal velocity of 1.8 m/s. The steps are 0.24 m
high and 0.2 m wide. Which step will the ball hit
first? Given g = 98 m/s2 fAns. Fourth step]
119.
What is the angular velocity of a flywheel
making 300 r.p.m. in rad ?[Ans. 10 rad /s]
120.
The blades of aeroplane propeller are
rotating at the rate of 600 revolutions per minute.
Calculate the angular velocity in rad/s. [Ans. 20
rad/s]
121.
Obtain an expression for the centripelal
acceleration in a un(form circular motion.
122.
The angular speed of a wheel is 88 rad/s.
Calculate the number of revolutions made by it in
one second. [Ans. 14 r.p.s.]
123.
An insect moves in a circular groove of
radius 12 cm and completes 7 revolutions in 100 s
at a uniform pace. Calculate (i) angular speed, (ii)
magnitude of velocity and (iii) magnitude of
centripetal acceleration. [Ans. (i) 044 rad ; (ii) 528
cm/s ; (iii) 232 cm s-2]
124.
A stone tied to one end of a string 70 cm
long is whirled in horizontal circle with a constant
speed. If the stone makes 10 revolutions in 20 s,
what is the direction and magnitude of the
acceleration of the stone?[Ans. along radius of the
circular path, 690.87 cm/s-2]
125.
Read each statement below carefully and
state, with reasons, if it is true or false: (a) The net
acceleration of a particle in circular motion is always
along the radius of the circle towards the centre. (b)
The velocity vector ofa particle at a point is always
along the tangent to the path of the particle at that
point. (c) The acceleration vector of a particle in
uniform circular motion averaged over one cycle is
a null vector.
126.
A cyclist is riding with a speed of 27 km/h.
As he approaches a circular turn on the road of
radius 80 m, he applies brake and reduces his
speed at the constant rate ofo.5 rn/s every second.
What is the magnitude and direction ofthe net
acceleration of the cyclist on the circular turn?