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HANDCRAFT

IN

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PREFACE

In

of

been

the

it

had

been

The

and

together

with

the

do

much

will

work,

bilities
possi-

indicate

its

been
value

pupil

or

student.

in central
craft
It

and
is

and

suggestions

and

authors

almost

As

they

aid

hope

further

data,

rather
that

special

endeavoured

tabooed

the

limited

to

In

the

early

it will

in

primarily

for
such

subject
and

teachers

place

historic

in

the

on

teacher,

the

make

the

to

as

the

among

in

schools.

useful

helping

in

construction

displayed

as

of

phases

prehistoric times,

handcraft

the

of

from

art

craftsman,

find

the

in

will

least

for

guide

the
side

technical

books

some

joints and

regarded

produce

to

aspect

one

i.e. the

past,
the

be

attempt

an

the
for

embody

work

than
at

merit

meaningless

mechanical

class

that

believe

any

to

too

pertaining

education.

entirely neglected

claiming

of
the

or

has

historical

types

tools

of

prepared

treatment

an

of
of

value

to

schools

in

the

upon

applied

the

been

interest

general

hoped

simple

has

render

schools,

of

increase

to

to

of

study

based

growth

the

educational

an

"handcraft"

development

and

than

physical

"

work

manual

"

".

lessons

the

in

work

the

work

have

the

briefly

to

so-called

or

that

carpentry

that

metalwork,

Whilst
has

"

think

furniture

result

the
as

particularly

from

value

with

classed

authors

craftwork,

The

show

to

and

subject,

handcraft

against

more

standpoint,

frequently

to

endeavoured

have

educational

an

prejudices

that

cultural

aim

as

authors

aspects.

One
has

the

craftwork

of
cultural

work

this

preparing

design

artistic

of

artistic
collection

of

the

merit
of

collection

series

of

handcraft
side

models
in

as

the

models.

has

and,

of

been

whilst

not

dealt

with,

they

designs,

and

joints which

have

have

only

value.

stages,

accuracy

"

whilst

being

encouraged

"

should

PREFACE.

VI

be

not

proportionately
The

"

effort

and

subject

directed

opinion
and

regard

even

whether

to

the

been

should

that

necessarily

after

adds

the

early
the

to

the

object
and

is

better

of

right

inevitable.

3.

idea.

is

stages

individual

and

interest

of

value

the

methods

is

tendency

has

and

and

the

doing
class

been

always

based

be

is

in

but

processes,

be

teacher

done

In

well-

must

or

craft-

education.

general

can

handcraft.

in

vocation

in

to

the

traditional

upon

or

education,

essential.

A.

191

authors

the

to

Thinking

this

construction

models

"

correlation

when

the

of

simplest

London,

of

neglect

this

of

at

attempt

means

HOOPER

JOHN

June,

progress

any

according

acceptance

which

and

handcraft

the

tradition

has

follow

not

work

"

methods

traditional

from

toward

elementary

In

models

"

together,

work

must

in

upon

correlation

"

linked

be

it

room

said

been

handcraft

perforce

past

does

pupil,

which

phase

whole.

has

Much

the

deplore

the

of

is

pupil.

handcraft

of

part

as

this

would

they
feature

the

on

in

but

side,

main

the

decoration

or

mechanical

The

of

impression

curves

It

upon.

skill

"

experience,

the

the

to

general

freehand

the

insisted

strictly

too

J.

SHIRLEY

depart
authors'

lines,
due

NOTE

of

Many

models

the

and

designed

and

prepared

in

connection

in

Technical

Shoreditch

treated

lessons

and

they

to

Principal,

the

To

help

Mr.

A.

P.

and

Wells

the

on

most

also

assistance

courteously

of

Many
due

to

and

iA.lbert

being

given

the

the

record

the

path

to

the

"

the

press.

Co.

Balfour

of

kindly

Oxford

progress

by

the

the

publisher's
the

much

kindly

Teachers'

of

MSS.

partment
De-

and

proofs

of

work,

of

the

authors

in

the

of

of

the

these

desire

ungrudging

which

has

tools.

prehistoric

authorities

source

stone
grind-

Museum

University

reproduced

the

conclusion,

of

examples.

illustration

some

craftwork

their

the

thanks

Kensington,

of

revision

illustrate

to

for

Handcraft

lent

the

of

afforded

In

the

and

decorative

text.

appreciation

Rowan

L.C.C.

their

these

gratitude

been

the

at

express

reproduce

their

preparation

South

during
its

the

A.

facilities

Museum,

their

in

of

excellent

in

Mr.

to

to

have

pages

duties

desire

extend

to

following
authors'

permission

permission

examples

noted

to

Mr.

201.

page

wish

Nurse

Messrs.

press.

for

Hicks,

they

criticism,

for

for

S.

Mr.

the

with

Institute

the

materially

are

Victoria

examples

to

help

book

place

and

smoothed

on

sideration
con-

CONTENTS
CHAP.

PAGE

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

AUTHORS'

PAGE,

TITLE

NOTES

HISTORICAL

FIRST

YEAR

MODELS

PREFACE

WOOD

AND

METAL

i-vii

(WOODWORK)

lo

"

"

"

"

"

"

19

THIRD

MODELS

SPECIAL

FIRST

(WOOD)

YEAR

MODELS

31

STUDENTS

EVENING

FOR

OTHERS

AND

45

(METALWORK)

57

SECOND

72
,,

"

"

"

THIRD

85
,,

IX.

AND

SECOND

"

VIII.

ON

NOTE,

SPECIAL

MODELS

(METAL)

STUDENTS

EVENING

FOR

AND

OTHERS

X.

XL

XII.

XIII.

95

HISTORIC

CRAFTWORK

MATERIAL

USED

DRAWING,

DESIGN,

HANDCRAFT

IN

TO

CLASSWORK

109

WORK

115

ETC

LETTERING,

PROCESSES

DECORATIVE

APPLICATION

ITS

AND

IN

135

AND

WOOD

METAL

WORK
.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

THEIR

TOOLS:

TOOLS

OF

TO

ACTIONS

CUTTING

TEXT

AND

FOR

FOR

OBJECT

TECHNICAL

143

162

LESSONS

172

AND

187

CENTRES

THEORY

INDEX

DATA

AND

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

DEVELOPMENT

HISTORICAL

AND

PROCESSES

SUPPLEMENTARY

HANDCRAFT

XVII.

FORMS

EARLY

ILLUSTRATIONS

OF

TOOLS

222

231

HANDCRAFT

CHAPTER

NOTES

HISTORICAL
Note.

illustrations

The

"

of

described

illustrations

are

illustrations

"

I do
in

those

if he

purpose

of
the

craftwork,

prehistoric

when

defence,

will

museums

on

Age

this

general

of

all

practically

Japan,

and

having

definite

the

fairly

can

his

primitive

decoration

period

or

could
he

even

do

anything
be

would

antiquity

extreme

be

stated

have

to

and

weapons

much

general

of

commenced

implements

America,
national

the

are

Copper,

agree

world,

growth

of

for

of

including
prehistoric

characteristics,

and
I

periods

these

all parts

of

in

work
of

close

the
taneously
simul-

proceed
the

Europe,
each

named

so

Although

not

of

study

or

"

conjectured.

Ages,

periods.

preceded

stone

worthy

Iron

did

able
consider-

authorities

to

be

only

can

and

Palaeolithic

according

Bronze,

national

simultaneously,

The

craftwork

that

to

proceeded

years

during

decorative

and

authorities

of the

the

7000

dates

various

the

advanced

production.

some

the

skill

manipulation
their

of

roughly
them

artistic

and

and

in

craftsmanship

chiefly employed

constructive

part

of

e.xamples

with

countries,

every

art, and

indicate

to

which

of

back

materials
of

growth
in

in

in

dates

Age

the

is

manipulative

subject, although

Following
because

"

the

on

Morris.

William

existing examples

from

Stone

this

their

Progress

is evident

the

on

numbers

own

to

sustenance.

show

degree.

Early

man

prehistoric

of

references

Diagrams

highest genius

of ancient

"

chapter

the

of

one

fashioned

and

attack,

study

it."

beginning

very

(8).

their

by

to

diagrams

separate
Thus

pages

WOOD.

study

much

lacked

ihis

but

man

any

without

hindered

The

as

that

days

12

The

rest.

the

and

chapter,

(6).

thus

think

not

the

page.

f.

xiv,

referred

simply

I.

"

each

on

Ch.

(e.g.)

are

of

figure number,

one

each

through

independent

onwards

one

follows

as

discussion

under

figure

have

number

as

consecutively
is

chapter

illustrations

collected

being

each

CRAFTWORK

ON

numbered

are

of

numbering

the

of

use

Egypt,
those

by

metal

China,

countries
students

of

HANDCRAFT.

of

Space forbids

handcraft.

modern

than

more

rapid survey

very

of animal

artistic treatment

Fig. 1, an

bone

engraved

British

the

employed,

Flint

it should

Early
Trou

of this aspect

to

appear

been

naturallyacted against the preservationof objects fashioned


Neolithic

the

During

material

the

to

common

material

new

and

of flint.

use

increased

an

and

The

degree

find

we

collections

flint knives

of

handles

for

extent

Age

examples preserved in

Actual
some

Stone

later

or

chief media

that

marks

workmanship

has

this material.

instances
wood

generallyas
Age

wood

of

from

more

show

axes,

Bronze

of

Age and is now


the

perishablenature

that the

in

Forges, Bruniquel,

des

have

is shown

Age

Stone

the Palaeolithic

belongs to

It

bone

and

remembered

be

the

ivory from

mammoth

or

Museum.

but

during

forms

F"rance, of exceptionalartisticinterest.

subject.

our

The

in

[chap.

of woodworking.
used

was

to

supplementary

introduction

the

of

artistic skill,due

and
some

of

use

the

to

measure
more

in

thetic
sympa-

material, having
less limitations than

preceding

interesting

An

which

celts,

or

handles

binding

fine

of

timber.

of

earliest

the

Fig. 2,
at

Egypt,"
thus

Prof.
"

says,

of

the

indicatingan

Petrie

also

the
states

of

eyes

latter is

which

Petrie,
excellent

of
not

the

of

thongs.

end

of

the

this
intro-

is

^^^^^

material,

^^

of

room

point to

also

artistic

reliance

British

the
an

extended

examples, especially

in

his

form,
and

stone

and

Art
but

crystal in
with

with modern

original figure

was

the

by

in

tomb

Ancient
technical

copper

frame,"

artistic

tion,
apprecia-

ideas.

covered

in
of

Crafts

affected

skill combined

in accordance

study.

are

One

illustrated

that

Beled, found

el
"

of

source

is

wood

Shekh

in

technical

in

safely placed

be

can

fertile

art

so-called

eyeball

with

enamels.

Egyptian

the

are

amount

that

on

in

by

period gold

gold

the Swiss

they provide

of

Flinders

inserting the

though

records

the

especiallyrich

highly coloured

specimens
statue

is

and

in

dwellingsof

Age

Egypt,

wood

Sakkara.

detail

Iron

with

Ancient

of

lake

prehistoric art.

exhibited

being

the

first historical

The

those

The

decorated

metal

of

and

Canoes

in

forms

of this work

examples

Museum.
use

ot animal

-Examples

Fig.

"

or

secured

hafts, and

At

were

hafted

"

wooden

to

bronze

of

number

attached

is

this age

of

feature
the

the

media.

Prof.

with

Flinders
coat

of

I.]

CHAP.

HISTORICAL

coloured

British Museum,

the

of

seat

show

the

of

use

small

acacia, cedar,

Ebony,
woods

all

were

obtained

the

Mummy

cases,

caskets,

and

and

In

beds

decorated

painted

evidences
"

Odyssey

of
is

later
was

parts of

this

regarded

of

evident
from

from

Book

the

Penelope

lightwood

Next

hewed

root, and

the

adze, well and

it into
all with

headpost,
until I had
with
and
us

Solomon's
The

finished

gold,

The

Bible
of

made

bored
at

bedstead
it fair

made
and

it
this

to

Fig.

2.

One

"

of silver

of the

sculpture

earliest

examples

of

in wood.

alsO' affords

woodworking,

being noteworthy,

ark, according

Times,"

the

it,and

evidences

took

of

temple

with

fashioned

so

Beginning
at

to

from

it round

wrought

".

olive,and

and
skilfully,

auger.

numerous

bed

upwards

bedpost.

ivory."

is

as

off all the

leaved

And

in

Odyssey

bride

and

inlaid work
of

"

I sheared

smoothed

the

ences,
refer-

Craftwork

the

line thereto

the

in

importance,

trunk

the

straightthe

able
consider-

quoted

book.

long

the

in

Homer's

are

of

of the

arms,

decoration.

describing the
"

and

following quotation

XXIII

Odysseus

rough

as

interesting,
showing

are

carving,
inlaying,

especiallyrich
which

fitness

inlaying.

find

we

examples

handcraft, viz.

3.

executed

stucco

or

factor in modern

artistic merit, and

ivor)*

side

craftwork.

of

some

with

with

literature

Greek

for

were

stands, a foldingstool,and

sycamore

hippopotamus

chairs

in

Two

Fig.

and

utilized

was

and

in

employed, whilst

from

elephant

wood

manipulative

handcraft.

examples

numerous

displayremarkable

these

of

of

are

of

cating
work, indi-

illustrated

are

important

turned

degree

skill in this branch

"examples

These

joints,evidences

tenon

glue, and

no

the

there

stools,vase

Technically also

purpose.

and

ivory.

CRAFTWORK.

furniture

including workmen's

appreciation of

given

mortise

OX

Egyptian

inlaid with

ebony

due

for

""

ancient

Of

stucco.

NOTES

James

Napier

twenty-five thousand

as

the

is also

in his

loads

descriptionof

of

"

the

the

descriptionof

Manufacturing

timber

building of King

in

Arts

his throne.
in

Ancient

its construction, and

the

HANDCRAFT.

4
instructions
material
also

ancient

and

Eastern

been

have

and

centuries

for

of

these

not

is the

work

Gothic

English Renaissance, beginning in


developed through
early Georgian

which

era

successive

and

observation

as

rich

the

in

our

historic

Inigo Jones,

Omitting

produced

here, craft-

have

periods

cannot

be

English furniture

craftsmanship

from

and

the

Brothers

the

ChristopherWren,

to

all of
in

them

national

our

left

writings and

libraries and

II.

While
time

same

besides
The

of

study

the

view,

in each

workers
practical

no

apology
of

jeweller

craft

essential

the

to

the

watchmaker

jeweller as

as

to

and
operationsefficiently
class

of "skilled

metal

in

our

various

plays

"

labourers

part.

museums

authorities

so

The

show,

the

to

England,

each

nearly
studied

be

can

tributed
con-

and

of

the

the

of

story

chisels

of

use

decorative

or

wide

the

chance
of

knowledge
dates

probably as

back

to

far back

of

as

of

or

many

separates

even

metal.

etc.,

are

metal-worker,

performing
industry in

the

to

these

in

the

which

specimens

many

times ;

is

It

Only

places him

entering any

n.c,

that

punches,

capable

early historic

4500

of

dealing with
and

metal-working, as
very

origin

gap

the

here.

metal-worker.

possessingthat proficiencywhich
has

at

apparently

many

the

architectural

student

the

all branches

to

common

indirect,and

an

decorative

the

shipbuilder.

the

designer-craftsmen

its introduction

for

properlyappreciatethe

can

to

is necessary

and

Filing,drilling,
turning, hammering,
as

such

workshop practice.

on

metal-working, and

interest

operations are

many

architects

which

value, it has also

direct, bearing

very

adds

the

to

common

them, but

tradition

of

voted
de-

METAL-WORKING.

sentimental

development

divergent points
processes

AND

METALS

and
interesting,

very

by personal

museums.

historyhas always
through

drawings

their own,

of

Anne.

treatises

Great

in

the

to

Queen

than

Heppelwhite

of artistic woodwork

generaldevelopment

have

and

and

Adam,

but

period the

Cromwell

excellent

includingGrinling Gibbons, Sheraton, Chippendale, and


the

and

objects.)

bination
com-

of

English woodwork

saw

studied

numerous

decorative

and

and

followingthat

Mary

better

developed

exhibitinga

craftwork

crude

in stone,

work

metalwork

Elizabeth, James,
William

or

and

until the

headway

noteworthy

Wood

by

much

some

British

of

with

began

made

exception,and

of

to

by the Romans

reign of Henry VII,

periods

museums,

Sir

the

applied

in abundance.

produced.

early pieces

the

is possessed

decoration

other

i.

produced

to

appear

materials, characterized

littleartistic merit.

to

work

much

been

simultaneously,most

(These

gopher wood,'' etc., indicates

century, although previous to that date

had
chiefly ecclesiastical,
almost

of

carvings,inlay,and

does

metal

ark

an

countries,notably India, craftwork

in England, and

in wood

sixteenth

thee

traditions ; fine

metal

work
prehistoric
work

In

employed.

of

wood

"make

Noah,

to

[chap.

according

earlier.

to

Fig.

Fig.

4."

Early

3.

"

Ancient

Egyptian

Egyptian

chair

and

stools,

one

settle, British

with

hide

Museum,

seat,

made

showing

of

inlaid

mortise

and

wood.

tenon

joints.

I.]

CHAP.

used, although there


but

B.C.,

the

Age.

hammers

It

this.

art

stages

this

the

and

made

advances

such

the

During

this time

suitable

two

can

of

metal

various

the

the human

and

marks

metals

the
one

but it is obvious

race,

equally acquainted

be

increase

would

their ores,

from

with

these

early workers

who

attention.

part of the time known

"

Age,"

Bronze

in

been

have

to

seem

"

the

as

which

lasted

Copper
this

and

general use,

roughly about

cast

be

Greeks

in

cast

for

as

piece,but

one

nailingthem

small

then
portionsseparately,
hands

face and

Statues

ivoryadded,

wooden

often

were

known

castingthe

core,

carved

by

from

plated with

bronze

The

of

hands

and

and

nails.

gold

handles

cast

large

size

embossing plates of

or

ivoryand

sheet

and

Statues

cramps

ing
combin-

made

Museum.

skill.

by shaping

attachingthem

in this way,

made

were

to

on

made

body

British

of

examples

were

beaten

in the

skilfullyexecuted.

pieces were

many

with

vase

room

artistic

are

design, and

wrought, and

example, a

and

The

as

bronze

in the

seen

the

of

well

as

in

their excellence,

for

remarkable

are

beautiful

purpose,

metal

way.

one

as

developed by

material

new

extracted

by

in metal

works

the

processes,

can

not

be

not

later

the

as

Oxford

at

use

naturallybe

would

shaping this

would

tin

far

as

appreciationand

made

the

and

their

for

Many objectswere

mirrors

stone

years.

During

which

has,

of the

discoveryof

possibledeserve
"

and

collection

Nevertheless, the efforts of the

period known

the

to

thousand

the

shape by

into

ore,

could

world

Age," gold,silver,copper,

being

conjectured,

Age.

of

The

time.

same

Age.

Bronze

bringsus

be

copper

metals

metals

in the

people
at

were

for

evolved.

be

discoveries

Stone

methods

arrived when

time

all the

that

the

greatest steps in advancement

of the

Age
only

Pitt-Rivers

in the

now

piece of

search

the

uses

metallurgy

of

from

people livingin

of

until the

can

5400

of Copper.

beaten

stone, and

smelted, but it is evidence

Following
slow

implement

made

was

been

race

the

inspectionof

judge, not

as

in

in Egypt

use

the

first discovered

was

malleable

in

was

is known

of metals

uses

as

gold

pounders.

or

An

that

generallyknown

be the first metal

to

appears

copper

evidentlyknown

but it was

by

How

"

CRAFTWORK.

ON

evidences

are

beginning of the

Copper

proves

Copper

Gold."

and

Copper
and

NOTES

HISTORICAL

attached
and

feet

or

other

in the

same

portionsof carved

Chryselephantinework.

as

Phidias, the sculptor of the Parthenon,

speciallyfamous

was

for

statues

of

this kind.
Metals
from

taken
eleven

of

kinds

many

Homer's

hundred

"

years

were

early very
is

Odyssey," which
before

our

era,

and
plentiful,

supposed

point

to

to

the

have

The

verses

refer to the
Meanwhile

Palace

of Alcinous

Ulysses

There

stops, and

Fixed

in

amaze

at

the

anxious
before

the

:
"

palace waits
with

been

high degree

metal-workers.

his soul

royal gates.

debates.

following verses
written
of

about

skill among

HANDCRAFT.

The

front

Bright
The

as

walls

Blue

plates of gold
pillarssilver, on
the

lintels

gold

Two

descriptionof

names

the

Among
modelled

with

statelydogs

on

and

door

either hand,
silver stand

shield

divine, to wait

art

Alcinous'

at

and

gate.

made

in the

bronze

bronze

by

Vulcan

Achilles

for

mainly

about

600

of

kinds

many

from

worked

to

Museum

are

is full

can

wooden

chest

animals,

and

in low

seen

in the

back
be

finely

some

iron, a bronze

fantastic

the

B.C., and

400

with

probably from

mounts

with

embossed

British

belt-plateinlaid

pale bronze

bosses

dated

objectsare

encase,
;

the

laboured
with

formed

iron cores,

some
silver,

simple borderings
all these

command

objects of

thin material

of very

and

high,
sky;

deep projecting o'er.

ringletsthat

arms

gay,

processes.

many

inlaid with

handle

of the

base

i.

day.

folding doors
brazen

guardians

the

and

handles

the

of

the cornice

of

Vulcan

Immortal

of metals

sculptured gold and

In

of

brass

in colours

the

rows

These

splendid

orb

or

massy

The

radiant

night

crowned,

Rich

And

with

of

lamp

were

metals

Silver

The

appeared
the

[chap.

some

relief;
bronze

room.

of

remains

The

carried

means
by pictorial

824

all in the

bronze

Iron

have

and
have

Age.

to

buildings,in

material

was

from
In

of the battles
; it

Uzziah

the

on

ment
base-

teachingof history
these

bronze, and

on

date

back

helmets,

was

also

put

known

these

of the

to

the

of

been

have

famous

early ages

same

the

habergeons

Bible

(2

at

as

iron

Chron.

the

of

holes
xxvi.

by

it did
the

displace
"

Bronze

Ages.

as

in

day.

present

through

cramps

agricultural
implements

being

as

ability.

not

the

ninth

to

taken

century

iron and

is of

great value, and

14)

wax

historyfor strengthening

made,

its

the lost

later

speciesof

were

of

enamelled

shields,and

bronze

wootz,

is made

or

but

Bronze

B.C.,

400-300

some

executive

overlapped

swords

pieceswith

(coatsof mail

or

in Assyria about

use

raritymade

Egyptians,mention
in

of

uses

in

Damascus

its

form

period of Greek

celebrated

The

cast

ships,chariots,and

of

the

much

earlier.

even

which

spoken

and

later

were

use,

and

Stone, Copper,
the

of

into

Age

castings,handles

to

which

"

about

museum

same

beauty

early "Iron

in long, wedge-shaped

was

is

the

with the

bronze

the

dated

are

graduallycoming

now

as

and

figures,
etc.,
for

bronze, ivory,bone, marble,

wood,

lathe

surpassed

that

in

life at

vases,

was

so

in

partialconstruction

fact it

antiquity.

Roman

largelyduring

as

the

in India

and

and

been

way

used

objects,such
; in

turned

many

Iron

"

same

was

Iron

been

never

extent,

any

in the
Iron

war

work

of work

examples

of Greek

room

and

bronze

B.C.

in repousse

out

some

that

ornaments

process,

Age

also

are

alabaster

"

object lesson

quite an

are

in the

are

B.C.

There
and

II, which

gates of Shalmaneser

bronze

British Museum,

of the

to

the

very

the

great

in accounts
as

spoils of

facilitate transport.

making shields,spears,

breastplates).Also

in Genesis

(iv.22)

I.J

CHAP.

read

we

Tubal-cain

of

in brass and
the metal

the

iron ; "brass

now

Tubal-cain

of the

Bible, and

many

Lead

Zinc.

and

calamine

in

Steel.

Steel of

"

known

figureof

crescent

The

Gauls

was

craft

great

as

that of the

the

Hnamel.
been

first

water
or

of the British

Museum,

century

warrior

the

the

work.

silver

and

but

was

the

Britons

the

objectsin

the

realize the

can

the

Nos.

cases

of

degree

it is

as

51-60

the years

between

Constantinople

or

of their

evidently as

was

made

were

industry

the

implements

the

Second

and

in Britain

pipes and

excellence

called,

now

many

used

giltof the

for

the

then

of

second
lead

from

to

A.D.

"

with

bronze

the

with

the

the

choir from

and

there

worked
when

a.d.,

by

they
iron

used

the

made

grilles

are

some

cakes

of

the

fourth

into

the

design.

body

there

or

century,

fingerrings of

some

by

as

Greeks.

church.

symbol

are

well

of the

were

at

recognizedby

of the

the

worked

symbols

may

mines

British Museum

earlyChristian

be

in relief,
and

richlycast
the

in Britain

done

palmette

third centuries

and

often

the

trappings,

chariot, horse
work

chariot

as

as
interlacing,"

Copper

"

known

are

to

in this

articles decorated

work,
"

from

a.d.

separate
In

Keltic

as

derived

lightingthe Catacombs,

These
bronze

period.

same

During

been

during

in their churches

lamps

The

surfaces,and

Centuries

ingotsof pewter stamped

pottery.

is said

origin,and

what

and

his

Kelts, known

Third

Century

of

rounded
have

ancient

very

buried

often

vessels

or

to

coffins

is of

early Egyptians. Many

were

some

Gauls

believed

churches

they

in Britain,in tombs

flowing curves,

Fourth

were

from

representedby

was

died

which

we

metal

on

the

found

of scroll

cancelli

also

a.d.,

Byzantium,

practisedby

been

period by

its graceful

Romans

cured
pro-

difficult to

very

purposes,

writingsit

skill of

The
examine

and
jewellery,

weapons,

form

was

used, being obtained

decorative

when

if we

reached.

burials, for with

this

zinc

that

1720

also known

was

by simply fusing

manipulation of metals,

and

them.

Enamelling

"

have

manner

it

used

was

for its artistic metal-work.

noted

have

with

third

craftsmanship had
was

era

of brass

it was

of carbon

their

In

skilful in the

Gauls, and

saloon

and

B.C.

250

luna.

as

lead

chemist.
and

known

largelyfor

by "Freemen,"

buried

in the central

used

were

very

on

often

were

was

B.C.

455

but
alloys,

a.d.

Testament

moon.

were

only carried

German

Vulcan.

as

Old

the

early as

as

manufacture

also

large j)ercentage

alchemists

the

to

some

bronze

Gold, silver,and

kind

Homer

to

Christian

of the

until about

not

was

by J. Henkle,

it contained

As

known

least

at

it in the

used
It

metallic state

wootz.

who

colour

yellow

or

".

in Roman

zinc firstappears

and

with copper.

the calamine

written

beginning

the

At

"

Greeks

the

to

instructor

an

was

lightbrown

metal-working in

and

metals

to

portionswere

these

largely
by the Romans,
as

was

references

are

of

known

then

not

Zillah, who

and

probably the mythologicalGod

was

There

Lamech

probably bronze

was

brass

called

of

son

CRAFTWORK.

ON

NOTES

HISTORICAL

the

reign of

being

elaboratelyworked

Constantine

built.

in relief.

They

were

altars
made

were

of wood

made

for

covered

use

with

in

the

silver

many

plates

HANDCRAFT.

inlaid with

King
is

Franks

of the

characteristic
cloisonne

of

the

Some

925-988,
the

that

note

Century

in Venice

beautiful

is the

with
figure,

form

of rejas

an

erection

iron

cast

scarcityof

being

and

use,

then

of

furnaces

the

making
by
a

use

the

and

of

the

pit,or

from

coal

Darby,

large scale began.

by

Andrew

first

were

is of
stones,

specialadvantage
made

Abbey,

early example

an

used,

machines,

that

century
and

by

bronze

finelymodelled

twelfth

the

dral
Cathe-

precious

to

crestingbeing

the

there

stillin

are

stamping machines, screw-cutting

Leonardo

Vinci,

da

Yarrenton.

in that

Italian craftsman

the

The

of

was

as

invented,

the
art

commencement

of

the

above

was

in

charcoal

in

done

was

fourteenth

the

Wood

"

reign

century

Sussex,

large

Elizabeth

certain

end

of

the
of

it was
middle
the

tinningiron platewas

becoming
of

production

of

not

of the

iron,

century,

general.

until the

purpose

seventeenth
more

scarce,

cast

limitingthe

size for this

the

called,became

small, and
about

rich ironwork

county.

until the
it

very

About

the

Between

"

ironwork

charcoal) for the

wood

Iron.

exceedingly

some

Centuries.

decreased
coal

was

that

of

Cast

"

with

smelted

was

form

use

sea

A.D.

littledecorative

passed during

was

quantity produced

coke

Abraham

of

skilled smiths.

Eighteenth

(in

used

Parliament

very

being produced
and

of

the

is used

in Westminster

Centuries

; but

consequently tlie production


when

of Canterbury,

St. Mark's

at

with

encrusted

Spain produced

screens

into

Seventeenth
to

or

the

to

came

quantityof

Act

various

to

twelfth century, and

metal

and

by

drals
cathe-

to
interesting

It is

front

the

It consists

drawn

centuries

sixteenth

England owing

owing

altar

or

and

by water-power,

were

exported

Dunstan, Archbishop

cityduring

during

Sixteenth

and

and

iron

d' Ora

sawing,
drilling,

centuries

fifteenth century.

Fifteenth

cast

of

century

for various

doors

was

founders.

Eleanor

was

niello

tenth

eleventh

great skill.

of
own

Pala

above

It

jigs,that

many

of the

twelfth

niello.

or

in 1294.

Buzzard

the

Constantinople, and

Queen

to

worked

drawings

lathes,and

in the

English

were

of

craftsmanship where

punch-work.

of which

existence

The

"

which

of

with

the

and

tenth

The

"

many

wrought-iron crestingabove,

decorative

some

A.D.

metal-worker

in the

monument

Leighton

of

Thomas

of

of

example

fine

high degree

plate,embossed, enamelled,

silver

and

A.D.

made

was

in

Inlaying of gold

"

during

usuallytheir

sculptors were

Twelfth

gold

English

an

nomination
de-

Dagobert

copy

of excellence.

inlaid with silver

were
was

were

their

century,

628-638,

centuries,and

founding, and

this time

about

made

were

countries.

ninth

Centuries

of bronze

great age

giltbronze

A.D.

reached

gold

on

of

the

i.

Museum.

and

Eleventh

and

sixth

during

Centuries

eighth

enamelling

Tenth
were

the

in

use

niello

bronze, with

Byzantine weights

throne

Albert

Ninth

and

Eighth

and

inlaid with

Silver spoons

"

of

silver,were

possessed a

in the Victoria

now

A.D.

fifth century, and

the

during

used

Centuries

Sixth

and

Fifth

[chap.

Even

method

of

eighteenthcentury,

manufacture
introduced

of

cast

from

iron

on

Germany

CHAPTER

FIRST

YEAR

RULER,

Object.
The
1 2

be

should

for

be

to

marking

Set

3.

out

Plane

4.

5.
6.

Finish

with

15

Stick.

3.

bottom

Rack.

Key
in.

Plane

the

wood

plane

jack

material

on

off

width

for

(straight

ends

step).

stage).
circular

to

finished

to

thickness

and

thickness.

and

(second

second

planing

width

to

semicircular

also

off

corners

Prepare

section.

length.

piece

one

yellow

deal,

4.

Pare

down

5.

Set

compare

with

firmer

latter

chisel.

American

of

by paring.

whitewood,

10^

2}

cm.

edge.

semicircular

the

out

top.

top,

piece

one

face, side, and

up

Mark

3.

finely set

marks

diagram

per

saw

by cutting

i.

i"2

Plane

2.

and

"

26x6x

as

(see diagram,

and

paper

notches

Execute

4.

of

piece

one

face

material

the

end,

shape

end,

pointed

out

Saw

each

i.

work,

sawing.

and

planing).

plane complete

"

planing

in.

Set

2.

gauge

glass

in

student.

Pencil

above

gauge,

octagonal

each

la.

the

on

class

(Fig. 1).

process.

edge.

and

smoothing

Flower

and

"

RACK

exercises

For

to

testing

octagon
to

With

issued

for

employed

Set

2.

side

KEY

introduce

to

Ruler.

planing

the

face

up

chiefly

be

should

(WOOD)

AND

Round

square

used

Plane

1.

edge

designed

Process."
in.

MODELS

FLOWER-STICK,

Models

"

II

ends.

and

Plane

2a.

Cut

3a.

with

same

width

to

gauge

ness.
thick-

and

dovetail

(see

saw

Fig. i).

Note.

and

out

In

"

as

designing

same.

small

chisel.
their

large keys,

to

of

work

class

suggest

The
the

rack

extra

hooks

showing

is, of

can

be

course,

piece

one

placed
also

(10)

or

wood

of

them

fixed

in

as

effort

individual

of

the

shown

horizontal

and

issued

be

can

to

vertically

fering.
cham-

use

types
or

is

chamfering

above,

different

two

of

file.

permits

and

specimen

with

dealt

limiting

treatments,

with

rack

examples

ornament,
an

demonstration

efforts.
when

kind

Prepare

4a.

key

on

third

and

second

For

chisel.

firmer

chamfering

simplest

pupils encouraged

with

execute

the

the

employed

lines

to

of

in
the

file and

should

horizontal

position.

cede
pre-

for

CHAP.

FIRST

II.]

YEAR

WOOD.

MODELS:

l?TSTAGE

"

"

"

"

"X'-"STBP

()

2""STflGE

Fig.

I.

II

HANDCRAFT.

12

HALF-LAPPED

Object.

half-lappedjoint, to

(Figs.2, 3,

FRAME

applicationof

illustrate the

To

"

[chap.

4).
joint,i.e.

previouslyconstructed

model.

simple woodworking

and

The

decoration

opportunity

an

provides
tasteful

for

and

treatment,
various

II.

of

be

can

kinds, viz. gouged,

chiselled,inlaid,or stencilled.
The
first

made

follows

"

Plane

1.

in.

3i'5

same,

width

Mark

face

gauge

and

Pencil

with

Repeat
be

made

The
X

1^in.

Plane

2.

Cut

i.

"

4-5

2*2

4.

plane

marking

Saw

Fix

all

half-thickness

7.

Cut

8.

Fit together and

9.

Mark

The

inside line with

rebate

executed

American

of

lines

piece.
i2ii

whitewood,

if

piece.

width

pieces to
stop.

and

thickness.

(A, B, C, D, E, F, Fig. 4) on

Set

out

lines

on

two

pieces on

for

jointsfrom

on

edges

on

up.

face

Square lines

side.

When

must

is

work
at

by holding

the

gouge

level

back,

on

an

cuts

in

off

cut

(seealternate

such

single gouge

dry

face side.

with

waste

remove

saw,

inside of frame

with decorative

shown

edges (gauge

on

of each

waste

remove

of each

edge

dovetail

glue

Decoration

first kind

knife.

marking

side.

back

Gauge

Proceed

across.

piecein stops,

one

with

across

half-thickness

pieces

Separate pieces. Square lines

10.

centre

knife.

6.

is best

up

and

face, side, and

pieces in bench

pieces on

to

cm.

Fix all

two

lines

square

gauge

saw,

out

Gauge

with

plane

side).

dovetail

3.

5.

The

up

centre

edges, and

on

and

edges

on

3i'5

piece at

face

from

Frame.
=

edge, shoot

piece.

lines

lines with

Cut

6.

other

second

Square

5.
must

the

2.

4.

of

5"7

cross

line in wood.

width

thickness.

and
3.

mark

12^^

cm.

2.

Fig.

piece

one

up

whitewood,

2"2

as

American

2i

is

which

for

procedure

exercise,the

an

as

be

should

Joint

on

with

treatments

early stage
on

both

same

the

be

edge

positionwith

the

chisel.

firmer

sides.
chisel.

oppositepage).

on

easy
of

the
left

of

execution.
frame

this

hand, striking

II.]

CHAP.

THE

FIRST

JOINT

YEAR

MODELS:

WOOD.

13

IS
HA.l_F

DRAWN
SIZE

FULU

"

18".2.-"/1-Kstlf.L"Lpjaed

"

Joint

"

6xerci/-e
.

Pecov^'vsjQ"TTreaCt'TneTft/
CENTIMETRES

tI

Gouge

Chiseu

"Worjc

"Rle

and

g^j.lj%%"^^
0

VlEVX/
t:7
OR.

^7-

Frame

OF

THE

cxjmpuete

Wax

Inlay

"*^!^^^^,
v^.V

Q^opo

/-\

^^

-*

Stencil.
Painting-

NX/OOD
iNLAV

Fig.

3.

INOIES

HANDCRAFT.

14
it

smartly with
to

corner

form

the

palm

the

device

of

the

[chap.

righthand,

Eight

cuts

then

are

made

in

II.

each

shown.

The

second

shown

is

edges
the

treatment

executed

with gouge

and

chisel ;

simple

have

corners

recessed

the

on

device.

The

third

stencilled pattern,

which

lustrate
il-

treatment

be

can

executed

by

drawing
design on paper,
cuttingthe required portions
the

by

away

of gouge

means

refer
(for stencilling
Fig.

The

four in

fourth

into the

"

should

These

of

be

third and

of the

Outlines

finished

geometricallyand

Object.

as

in

Material.

piece

piece

whitewood,

American

"

,,

Saw

i.

"

Mark

bevel at bottom, cut

semicircular

the

out

head

Cut

3f

support

these

vary

should

be set

chisel.

x
X

^ in.

20-3

9'5

material

9-1

cm.

cm.

above.

as

width.

piece.

with

same

dovetail

saw.

5.

Fig.

per

up

Metric.

\ in.

plane to

of front

head

as

2|

and

shape, removing

to

3|

smooth

front,gauge,

of

edge

8^

and

out

4.

Set

firmer

English.

out

with

corners

saw

; pare

away

to

line with

chisel.
Cut

8.

Nail

Decoration,
on

is then

dabbed

upon

Notes.
stencilled
with

dovetail

together, holding back

executed

paper

with

straight back

7.

The

green

glued

arranged
like mosaic

"

(Fig.5).

"

Mark

firmer

be

woods

and filing
simple sawing,planing,chiselling,
undesirable
line can
be substituted),
a straight
also

3.

6.

and

page).

introduce

one

5.

examples

with

STAND

Plane

2.

in. wood

to

stencilling.

Process,

The

to

is considered

of back

model

"

exercise

an

fourth

by paring

WATCH

(ifcurve

from

cut

of this

coloured
differently

two

also

groundwork.

The
out

consists

treatment

square.

bottom

cuts

stiff

cartridgepaper,

placed

upon

it with

"

For

the

or

class

red

front

then

and

with

gouge.

vice.

simple stencilling
; the design should
cut

held

out

with

sharp penknife.

perfectlyflat

whilst

the

The

colour

is

brush.

work, simple vee

design. Painting
white

in bench

illustrated,is

as

finish bottom

saw,

the

whole

are
stencilling

tooling could
stand

suitable

would
treatments.

be

substituted

improve

the

model

for

the

; dark

CHAP.

II.]

FIR'^T

MODELS

YEAR

WOOD.

MODEL

THE

DESIGNED
AS

AN

ER.C15E
SHAPING

Sketch
Peprpectt^J'e
of

3^

^a.1:ca b^"jid
be 6xec^^ed

Oa.k

OP

ia

dtfiep

KQLpd\""oo(i

Fig.

to

=;,

"

"

EXIN

HANDCRAFT.

simple geometricalarrangement

i"- holes

by boring ^V

done

Nos.

"

and

type, involvingthe addition

moulding

hollow

ebony

combination

colour

illustrate
first

No.

required for

and

piece

piece Ebony

The

is

the

and

edges, which
is

ebony

could

suitable

5 and

Nos.

similar

introducing processes

of this type

further

tray proper

top

groundwork.

or

proceed

6
to

the

upon

tray.

(cuttingsizes):
"

Metric.

2^

in.

26-6

6-4

2-25

cm.

whitewood,

10^- x

2^

in.

266

6-4

2-25

cm.

2|

in.

28

7-3

4^

3i

""

i"-

ii'4

^"2

2-25

cm.

10^

2^

in.

26"6

6-4

2*25

cm.

4^

i|

;^in.

11-4

32

,,

whitewood

mahogany

Process
Saw

Square

4.

Prepare

5. Gouge
Finish

Process

pencil lines

the

semicircles

in. cardboard
the

away

(forpin
out, and

-6

cm.

1.

2.

Draw

3.

Prepare

4.

Gouge

centre
a

away

5. Round

plane
lines

paper
the

edges
of

plane

5 and

material

semicircle

width.

centres.

in No.

2.

templet.

finish the round

and

edges.

6).

face side, mark


and

cm.

i.

shown

to finished

describe

inside part and

and

in No.

templet as

trammel

glass paper

considered

as

Nos.

on

thickness, length,and

corresponding to
shown

-6

2).

finished

to

glasspaper,

tray.

and

part, testingfrequentlywith

centre

inside with

Saw

Nos.

tray.

plane material

across

3.

use

(forpen

out, and

Describe

year be

No.

cavetto

The

four models

piece Cuba

6.

base.

Satin wood

the pen

II

2.

with

advanced

more

10^

,,

5 and

1.

pen

whitewood,

piece American

Nos.

of

introduce

to

view

English.

piece American

in order

round

for the

development

the

is

first year,

piece American

No.

further

wax.

illustrate

suggested for the pen

be worked

is used
the

in connexion

above

Material

for

designed

thin moulded

p. 146.

mahogany
model

The

example.

lines indicated

Nos.

when

coloured

p. 17,

detail for this model.

should
on

on

sectional

Mahogany

edging

described

alternative

an

3 is the

bevellingand

types.

with

be

(Fig.6).

perspectivesketch

No.

of

mosaic

illustrated and

is further

the

feet.

TRAYS

suitable alternative

the above

of

development
with

is

in
deep, filling

whitewood, and

gouging.

sawing, planing,and

effective,this could

ii.

148, 150.)

pp.

the

in American

be executed

to

and

2,

in.

PEN

AND

PIN

Note.

on

is also

of spots

about

described

is further

(This process

tray,

[chap.

thickness, length,and

axes

of

width.

ellipse.

ellipse.

finish with

glasspaper.

finish.
in connexion

undesirable

and

with

omitted.

the

above

models

may

in the

first

i8

HANDCRAFT,

[chap.

]/ometpic^7Levi"of
EACH

PIECE

NOT

An

EXERCISE

IN

THROUGH

"COMMON"

LE55

THAN

"5'/2.

1NCHE5

LONG

ORDOVETAILING

PINE
WOOD

WHITE

TO

BE

USED

e)ed:ion",i Plsv-n

GEe

of

OR.

a.

K-nife ^ox 1*0 be

6xecC7ted

in

Pine

"

=1

oeciMETieE

CENTIMETieES

/l|9plic"Ction
ILlO/tpgCtiD^
of

PoOelsLilinb
Gxepci/^e

Fig.

I.

III.

CHAPTER

III

YEAR

SECOND

MODELS

KNIFE

knife

The-

Note.

"

detail

box,

BOX

(Fig. 1).
which

of

drawings

(WOOD)

are

shown

in

made

of

wood

or

used

for

The
It

Joints

with

the

with

the

2^

2.

3.

permits

The
to

up

that

ends.

viz.

comers,
one

through
be

comer

model.

complete

Plane

the

at

is recommended

housed
for

procedure
thickness

and

dovetails,

taken

as

joint is used
this

square

is

as

to

follows

size

two

to

the

connect

more

inside

the

baize.

opposite.
proceeding
centre

piece

"

whitewood,

American

pieces

^ in.

Square
Cut

two

away

lines

across

blackened

thdentrance

of

piece A,
part

dovetail

of

diagram
saw

in.

deep

^ deep

with

gauge

and

allows

saw

on

cuts

edge.

Remove

waste,

cut

shoulder

on

piece B,

(19)

and

fit

chisel.

firmer
to

depth.
4.

be

green

before

If

forks, etc.,

would

material,

exercise

an

pine.

illustrated

are

be

white-

yellow

with

lined

should

American

spoons,

suitable
2.

perspective

Fig. 2,

mahogany

Fig.

1,

Fig.
in

sketch

together.

be

made

This
the

quired
re-

20

HANDCRAFT.

Descriptionof Fig.
The

Process.

[chap.

{continued).
i.

"

Saw

and

out

plane to

thickness

the

followingmaterial

English.
I

Bottom

Ends

Sides

Division

8|
ft.

ft.

for

y^i iri-

"

i^

y^ in.

o^

4I

y^- in.

Gauge

4.

Set

out

and

5. Set

out

division,also

6.

Glue

7.

Round

hand

Object.

To

"

produce

cut

hole

as

level

and

screw

CLOCK

33-5

"

,,

3i'5

utilized for the movement.


sides

the

(see sectional

bottom

The

The

curve

of

imperialsheet
Saw

Prepare

cartridgepaper,
and

out

back

plane up

embodying
three

Front

Sides

Back

Top

wood,

small

of each

and

Place

edges,
6.

Mark

7.

Saw

8.

Round

if necessary.
of

from

sheet

model

the
and

upon

sectional

view.

drawing.

the

followingmaterial

:
"

Metric.
x

5^

in.

27

14-5

cm.

10^

31

'""

27

5^

in.

27

14-5

,,

10^

6f

in.

17

10

cm.

,,

5I

"

in.

15

cm.

2f

9*5

cm.

cm.

of all.
each

piece on

shooting

Square also

board.

one

end

sides, back,

position of

also

bottom
and

and

shoot
three

top

all

bottom

and

grooves
to

together,

(to receive

of

mark

length

across

the

bottom).

finished length.

pieces to length;

edges

and

top,

cut

gauge

and

plane all piecesto

circular hole

grooves

and

front

between

for face

width.
in front

back.
9.

top

fixing.

necessary

piece.

5.
three

the

,,

side of

face

Shoot

4.

edges

flangessoldered

or

providesfor

is

clock

"

face

American

An
ears

timber

10^

Bottom

Shoot

elementary processes,

very

nailing.

English.
white

same.

(Fig.4).

elevation

the

work

box.

to

same

viz. full front

smooth

cm.

above.

per

working drawing

1-2

fix in division.

view) which

cuttinglist or

as

off and

have

must

21-5

width.

Fig. 2 ; and

per

model

dispensed with

i.

"

Prepare also

3.

and

be

may

Process.

2.

This

"

same.

CASE

useful

21

sawing,smoothing, shooting,grooving,and

viz.

to

and

dry,

of bottom

34-5

jointsin division

; when

edges

pine

pieces,plane to lengthand

housed

cut

model

up

y^

mark
dovetailing,

3.

Metric.

in. yellow

8^

face edges of all

Shoot

2.

ft. i4

hi.

Nail

sides

on

to

bottom,

then

sides.

Follow

by nailing

down.
10.

Fix the clock

movement,

and

complete by nailingin

the

back.

SECOND

MODELS:

^'EAR

WOOD.

21

) Pepfpe"Sti""e
Sketch
Clock

of

Cev/eComplete.

nil

Fpont
a.

6le'^Q::tionof

Clock

Ca/e Aodel

too bemeLde

in

Wfiit'e^ood

ojnd

Pd-inted Gpeen

Sectional
ca?)e
tiqm

Fig.

4.

view

shewimo
of
movement

of
p05i

22

HANDCRAFT.

OR

GLOVE

Object.
year

second

introduces

pivot

or

first

screws

are

back

box,

fixed

tooling with

vee

nailed

simply

are

through

the

The

first

the

inlay.

wax

with

secured

or

into the

ends

; when

shown)

corner

model.

applicationof through dovetailing,and

the

example

simple

stencil decoration.

panel

lid,acting

lid is raised

as

back

the

edge

slopes slightlybackwards.

and

Processes

with

together

shows

in

processes

hi.

(Fig.5).

BOX

decoration, viz.

the

of

plan

against the

of

form

of

pins

(see also

The

elementary
nailed

example

year

Joints

small

pins ;

embody

simple

The

HANDKERCHIEF^

is whitewood

example
The

rests

To

"

[chap.

for the

model.

first year

Etiglish.
1.

Cut

out

,,

,,

"

"

,.

"

4.

Draw

[a)

with

Nail

screw

in

cut

the

and

on

Other
15

or

on

pencil ;

hard

this

in.

both

pieces together

back

edges

in bench

file.

Nail

the

bottom, finallyfit

the

is based
a

the

is then
Year

drawn

ends

on

of the

the

to

top, mark

the

specimen,

1 2

9.

then

with

on

simple

upon

convert

top.

front, insert back

centres

as

and

removed

coloured

decorative

patterns

the

diagram,

per

is used

(see also
for

wood

use

p.

with

cut

when

through
to

should
be

can

in

placed
the

cut-out

dry.

transferred
to

Pupils

suitable stencil ; this

slightlymore

first,then

tool

wax

growth.

paint allowed

illustrates

vee

to

on

the

cartridgepaper
A

natural

sharp-pointed knife, and

is dabbed

colour

Example

filled with

suitable
and

be

front and

and

follows

lined

Place

finish with

and

as

should
side.

other

with

the outline

over

go

which

wood,

box

box,

paper

be

coloured

complete outline,duplicate

of stiff"
tracing paper.

piece

over

previously described.

manner

pages

into

outline

from

Second

should

half

draw

bottom.

and

pin.

the

the

The

be

outline

ordinary cartridge paper

portion ;

back, front, top,

"

the

Fix

on

and

the edges of bottom


up

sides.

thickness

end,

on

bow-saw

outline

an

both

on

and

Decoration

position

This

line

on

fine

or

prepare

width

to

the

same.

The

all material

half

Repeat

7.
fix

Back

and

tracingpaper

Round

and

Top

mark

6.

and

follows

as

vice, cut

Bottom

centre

{U) Turn

5.

up

Trace

will leave

P'ront

up

Square

side

,,

3.

other

Ends

,,

Smooth

2.

Whitewood,

difficult ornament.
to

pattern,

the

which

box
can

in the
then

148).
this model

are

illustrated

on

CHAP.

SECOND

III.]

Glo\)e

3v,de

"

23

WOOD.

\Tie\^ o"f

Sectioned
8^-

MODELS

YEAR

"

"

S"ox

^o

"

be

inL\^hlTeMc"ood

c5f-5iTnple
"

ISecordCtiOe

StenciUnb.

Ghe

"

DeoQ-paCtion

Vee ^oled

"

itb.
\ji"

"

"'^eoc-Fil-

Coloped

lin".

....

So
'"""", """-*

\n

"

"

be "xec^ed
Heopdvx^ood

^
Fig.

"

"

"

[chap.

HANDCRAFT.

AND

KNOCKER
Note.

specimens
Wales.
while

one

is fixed

button

into the

cut

which

knocker,

actual

Gwydir Castle,

at

is the

outstandingfeature,

chiselled

pleasingapplicationof

the

below

lion's head

strikes

excellent

some

work.

iron

An

iron

against an

plate

door.

Name
wood.

rendering of

shows

example

knockers,

in this material, notably those

conventional

another

(Fig.7).

for door

generallyused

not

executed

been

have

In

is

wood

Though

"

PLATE

NAME

III.

such

Plates,

either recessed,

be

well

example illustrated,can

the

as

can
lettering

The

left in relief

or

be

executed

by gouging

the

in
line
out-

(seeexamples. Fig. 6).

Fig.

is suitable material, left in natural

Oak
Lime
is

easier material

is an

wood

given to

drawing

upon

Lewis

Day's

planed

design and

Alphabets

"

surface

producing

is cut

outside

section

down

as

is

Geometrical

constructions

used

to

carbon

of

executed

are

between

paper

in

mended.
recom-

transferred

outline,which

the

trace

be

by

given

styles are

prepared, it can

round
of

part

be

the

effected,then

cuts

is then

to

the
leaves

parts

shape.
removed

are

Fig. 6)

pared down,

in relief.

standing up
V

in

section

in. deep, square


gouged -j\t

back

the

in

shown

gouge

letter

the

shown,

(as

in section, leaving a

shown

best

in various

insertion

the

coloured.

painted. Necessary boldness

letteringis

been

has

high parts

groundwork.

the

; the

gouge

process
out

on

illustrated

by

"

with

contrastingcolour.

The

".

pencil is

hard

the bottom

gouged

"

wood

be

examples

New

letter Q illustrated should

The
then

and

Old

the

of

wood.

letter

sharp

Good

design
satisfactory

corresponding marks
with

Plate.

cartridgepaper.

the

The

but should

use,

Name

The

"

When
the

to

condition

etc., by painting with


lettering,

the

Processes.

F.

6.

with
In

with

groundwork,
similar preliminary

a
a

grounding-

the

sharp edge

"

tool.
The

letter \\ is the

outside

of the

For

The

1.

Plane

2.

Draw

simplest to

part being removed


Knocker
up

material

centre

line

the
to
on

Vee

execute.

with

wood,

of

are

made,

chisel.

followingprocedure
thickness

cuts

is

:
satisfactory
"

\ in.

freehand

straj^workdesign on

one

side, com-

26

HANDCRAFT,

Description of Fig.
plete
with

carbon

back

parts

of

eye

as

"

Object.
Also

to

ft.

cartridgepaper

on

model

and

bow-saw

over

simple carved

TABLE

BOOK-STAND

exercises

involvinggood trainingof

"

(Figs.8

and

9).
simple

moulding, shaping,and inlaying.

convenientlyrange

from

11

for

the

in. overall

Joints.

Mitreing is

"

used

base

size

moulding

variation

The

best

through
and

model.

The

length

(as per example)

to

Then

1.

Plane

2.

Square

divisions should

angles to

same

4.

Space

5.

Cut

firmly in position. This


a

plane
the

mark

shoulders

or

upon

with

Process,

"

i.

be drawn

the

right

at

then

can

length of

divisions

one

be
can

if desired.

"

piece.

Press

in each

two-thirds

than

more

with

same

with

thickness

of socket

bevel.

the

piece in
the

the bench
mark

gauge

instance.

The

then

cuts

place

are

made

out
Complete by chiselling

up

to

width

and

length :

"

end

cap, and

of

held

of the dovetailed

in cut, and

guide piece

saw.

Plane

end
saw

The

chop.
of the

by placing the

firmlydown

piece reversed,

the wood.

dovetail

equal parts ;

thickness.

best be effected

can

socket

4^ in. long.

slidingbevel

for the

1, Fig. 9:

fix the thick

block.

will result

mark

removed, and
leaving the

and

lined up

be

then

piece should

No.

dovetails,marking

dovetails, and then

piece upon

best

angle is to

pieces.

both

on

out

and

substituted

length of dovetail,rather

3. Decide

forward.

width

of each

end

one

exercise

the

pieces to

up

piece,gauge

For

"

it into six

carcase

The

6.

correct

Fig.

of these

be

Procedure.

in

in

CD

divide

to

in 6 ; the

adjusted. One-eighth

8.

Fig.

line

common

dovetailing,either

obtaining the

of

draw

is

or

tailing
dove-

18,

p.

for

angle

lapped

through

on

dovetails

secret

; and

of

lapped,

or

method

The

down

cut

file.

dovetailingillustrated

cut

and

gouges

applicationof lapped dovetailingto

an

simple chamfered

can

chisels and

finish with

and

is

thin

transfer

all size.

The

the

and

strikingplate.

complete

show

introduce

design with

model.

To

"

with

introduce

To

"

of the

draw

or

section.

shape

hinge, button,

Object.
and

in the

outside

5. Fix

hand

inside part of the

the

shown

as

Cut

4.

tracingpaper,

paper.

Outline

3.

{continued).

half with

the other

[CF

with

draw

then

can

dovetail

sockets

and

be
saw,

waste,

HI.]

CHAP.

SECOND

YEAR

MODELS:

WOOD.

"X31NT

THE

27

IN

ISOMETRIC

PR.0JECT10r"
fl

TAILING
DOVE-

L"\PPED

EXER,C15E.
RN

WA1_NUT

AND

WHITEWOOO
.

HALF

SCALE

|A^".^^s.ww^^^^^.^y.^s.".\^iitiii,timTw"

"b be

GxecC/ted

in

HVpcl\"()ood.
.

BOTTOM
TAILED

"

DO^^yE-

INTO

SIDES

PecorsCted
yi)C\?i

Stand

'

TOOLING.
"

"

SIMPLE
I

CARVING.
I

^^B^a^a^^s^ss^s
3SESS^^SSSE

IlL

'

"

GOUGE

Inlso/lnd.

WAX

^=^^

INCHES.

DEC1METR,ES).

Fig.

9,

ltMLAVl^XJ.

28

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

hi.

Description of Fig. 9 (contimied).


English.

pieces for

Saw

2.

and

out

Ends

7|

plane

up

Moulding,

3 ft.

length

3.

Shoot

bottom

4.

Plane

moulding

length

to

i9"5

15-5

cm.

"

6^

in.

28

15*5

cm.

2\

in.

97

cm.

width, plane ends

and

11

in.

6^

thickness

to

Bottom

piece for

Metric.

width, and

to

square

one

end.

5. Dovetail
Mark

6.

and

paper

into ends

bottom

lines

centre

7.
8.

Set

and

inlayingas

(see bottom

Sandpaper
mitre

edges, and

shape

half,and

on

up

the

useful

"

tongueing.

diminished

work, when

and

Prepare

of

the

of

is

suitable

more

the

cuttingsizes

thickness

length on

be

then

as

be

follows

adopted

with

\ in.

50

2.

Sides

ft. 5

i|

\ in.

48*75

Ends

ft.

2|^ X

-^ in.

33*1

2.

Place

3.

Gauge

width, place

also

the

in bench

ends

First year

model.

:
"

togetherin

same

to

grooves

vice,set

advantage in

some

cases

"

13I

edges, and

third

to

and

viz.

Metric.

ft. 8

sides

for second

followingmaterial

the

Plane

shown,

"

Bottom

if

detail

view).

1.

3.
1.

would

and

attained.

been

sectional

and

full size could

of one-fifth

bottom

off

simple angle joint,

constructive

proficiencyhas

elevation

to

up

level

dry

applicationof

the

alternate

this
dovetailing,

plane

when

English.

scale

stencilled

(Fig.10).

showing

model

(formain

Process

glue together ;

TRAYS

greater degree

same.

up

moulding.

case

housed

and

The

the

In

paper

diagrams).
all parts ;

round

Object.

duplicatewith tracing

perspectivesketch, or carving,tooling,or

per

TEA

year

(as per preceding detail).

ends, draw

on

regulate shapes,

out

decoration

viz.

thickness.

and

templet.

Cut

9.

width

to

receive

out

36-25

1*25

cm.

1-25

cm.

5'6

1-25

cm.

vice, mark

bench

finished

tongue.

finished

length on

edges,

also

shoulder

line.

on

sides and
4.

Set

5. Bore

on

thickness

fit the
out

frame

shape

of

tongue,

cut

with

same

dovetail

saw.

together.

of end,

as

per

diagram

holes for handles, finish with

on

this page.

keyhole saw

and

files.

Cut

grooves

CHAP.

YEAR

SECOND

III.]

of 3^
\)ie\3^-

Seo^

to be Tn
Opso/
of "^hltevy)ood
"

MODELS:

29

WOOD.

IDpgoj^n

"

"

One

QOso^tep-FOll

a^-de

Si^e.

"

vx^rtfiGv^l'-J'^pplied
"

DecopsCtion.-

"

"

ye

Ss,p

Model

6xecOTed

Hda3dwood-6r'
DecopaC^ed.

^on^C'ed.Joint
"

GL'Oed.-QsXid

Diav.'bpdan-5he^-

inJ-IcioOet^iled
-JoinT.
Fig.

10.

HANDCRAFT.

30

Cut

6.

plane

is
leave

to

is

work

of

in

design

the

cut

is

slightly

the
also

outline,
shown

together,

when

and

dry

second

cuts

or

Its

tooling.

vee

by

cutting

effect

is

executed

model

year

the

For

the

third

if

year

groundwork

enhanced

restricted

be

should

slightly

away

the

surface

to

strap-work

of

the

so

strap-

hollow.
be

also

could

Shapes

indefinitely.
data

glue

introduced

round

framing,

in

suggested

as

sketch.

Alternate

definite

spokeshave,

or

relief.

decoration

perspective

first

gouge

which

shown

Simple
the

of

arrangement

with

hi.

round.

all

Decoration

design
as

finish

curve,

framing

up

The

simple

top

[chap.

for

the

subject
suitable

For

hand
of
for

the

for

class

work

holes,

and

to

course

ends

moulded

illustrated;

are

it
be

criticism
bottom.

is

recommended

allowed
and

to

these
that

express

guidance.

pupils

their
Alternate

mented
supple-

be

could

own

be
ideas
details

given
for

are

IV

CHAPTER

Object.

with

working

and

saw,

chiefly

designed

model

A
"

BRACKET

LAMP

HANGING

(WOOD)

MODELS

YEAR

THIRD

spokeshave

introduce

to

and

(Fig. 1).

file.

shaping,

Also

as

cutting

exercise

an

with
in

bow

simple

recessing.
The

in the

Decoration
side
The

of

the

background

The

1
.

with

Process.

Prepare

right-hand

Shelf

one

5.

Plane

one

6.

Gauge

4.

and

finish
7.
8.

Fix

9.

piece
line

edge

of

bracket,

blue,

6;^

with

elevation).
or

green,

red

piece

Draw

design

11.

With

small

12.

Clean

up

Paint

in

all

on

15

in.

23

20*5

2-^

in.

16

"25

cm.

cm.

6*5

cm.

freehand

the

shape

out

set

only

curve

with

width.

to

on

left

side,

duplicate

and

compasses.

with

shape

out

set

to

on

vice,

and

and

with

back,

firmer

surfaces,

background

back

reduce

tenon

compasses.
on

bracket.

Bore

in. hole

chisel.

firmer

bracket

each

(both sides)

bracket

bench

10.

13.

back

on

with

in

of

one

paper.

shelf,

screw

Finish

on

shades

tooled,

vee

front

35*5

back,

on

of

the

process

outline

section

in.

thickness,

to

tracing

mortise

back

secret

,,

edge

mortise

Slot

Repeat

each

with

Plane

14

Bracket

centre

and

Metric.

,,

,,

side

(see
certain

effect,

Back

for

piece

3.

for

simple

English.

"

Mark

joint,

tenon

oak.

up

is

removed

edge

sharp

Plane

and

"

2.

illustrated

coloured

be

can

well

harmonizing

mortise

simple

example

the

having

cut

are

below.

described

fixing

screwed

introduced

Joints

the
saw

shelf

(see later).
{^^

curves

in. outside

line) with

bow

saw.

shelf.

spokeshave,

file, and

glass-paper.

and

with

tool.

chisel

and
of

outline

one

merge

screw

the

recessing.

(31)

vee

line

model

of

the

together.

cut

on

to

the

ground.
back-

32

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

DT'su:ket

"to be

GxecOted

THE
BE

DECORATION
IN

SUQHT

in OaJc

TO

RELIEF

VIEW
BACK.

TO
THE
SIZE

-I4.X

OVERALL.
OF
(o

BE

OAK

BACK

MADE
WITH

BACK:GR.oursD
TO
R.EUEF

INCHES

FlU.

I.

OF
BLUE

OF

IV.

HANDCRAFT.

34
MIRROR

OR

PICTURE

Tooled,

Object.

show

To

"

jointto

tenon

simple

gouge

simple

inlaid

^d

The
from

from

7. Mortise

width

2.

stile,cut

thickness

Place

stiles

Square

across

rebate

3.

Square

shoulder

Return

tenons,

tenons

then

cut

in.

thickness, and

across

haunch

set

out

of rail AB.

line CD.

rail piece EF

on

side, F

and

rails

on

then

fit

\\

in.

back

on

side.

(see dotted

lines).

together.

(first
example).

out, and

Saw

i.

"

plane

to

up

"

togetherin

bench

vice and

with

and

haunch
lines

both

Firmly

plane

5. Repeat

together.
other

6.

(Iron stops
rail.)

of

bench

as

this

Glass-paper

used

for

one

stile

one

and

the

to

in

width

until

fit same

rail lies

stile.

process

of the

remaining corner
^'*^'-4-

the rebates

tight,and

are

cut

tenons,

tenon

in mortise

same

backs.

Fig. 10).

194,

secure

reduce

shoulders

in the

and

shoulders, work

plane (see p.

same

lines, gauge

rebate

mortise

Mark

then

of rails,

face, edges, and

on

bench, then
test

sight lines

across

square

4.

across

is best

(Jrd approx.).

chisel

stile and

face

on

same,

cramp

illustrates

example

whitewood

line and

3.

the

end.

rebate

frame

shows

"

stile piece to width

on

lines

then

glue

of

Fig. 4, below.

2.

for Frame

Process

and

on

are

The

arrangement

exercise

an

as

and

lines

mortise

to

mortise

shapes

shaping

third

the

mortise

features.

an

without

or

width

to

Three

ornament.

pine

across

4.

5. Set gauge

planed

shouldered

constructive

"

and

Square

""/",,,
'"iimiul

of

short
frame.

first type shows

treatment,

illustrated in

as

similar

cuts, the second

pieces

are

The

tenoned-up

Joint (see diagram)

two

These

,^^^^"""",,J

and

applicationof stencilled

the

yfi

(Figs.4-6).

long

IV.

Stencilled.

is varied ; the

ornament

Mark

and

Inlayed,

illustrated,embodying

of-lhe

6.

FRAMES

applicationsof

and

Stencilled
PsCtTern

[chap.

with

each

frame.

inside

end, with

edges

and

lightiron

IV.]

CHAP.

MODELS:

YEAR

THIRD

35

WOOD.

Frame/-

LO^

"

of

"

\7e^r

introducing
"ohs.pe/'-

Differerrt'-DecOTartL\:'e

GresCttnent/^.

"

e8ffiffl^"9

"

ILl^traCtm^-the

Lon
:^ppLtcscf
thelbn^ "-

"

of

"

Short
ShoOldered-Aor"

QQqqqpqQQ

tj/e -o-Genon-Jant
"r-

Shaqoin^
"

"

QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQPQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ
'F"T.
CENTinETRea".

Irom^rlc

-line -IndlcsCter

DoTted

Finlrhed

Frojectior^

"

lenblh

ot-Sti[gr.

ot-Joinr
I""

Co

"

"

"

"f

foe-6xec^ed-tn

\5^s^lnCn'.lnl"JW'ot

6bony

"

s^nd

"

loox
.

Section

"

tbe-Frajne.

GTiix^CQh
"

"

"

Section
Hon2,or5te".l-

fhroVghFrscine.
"

\\\

~T^

r-'

Fig.

5.

"

Frames.

"

36

HANDCRAFT.

frame

dry, the

When

7.

is

planed

[chap.

down

level

line drawn
traced

on

paper

transferred

side ; the

face

on

half

sides,and

both

on

from

the full-size

at

time

then

are

and

drawing

side

each

centre

curves

IV.

of centre

line.
is

Frame

8.

just outside

cut

filed and

the

and
irregularities,
9.
drawn

used

tool

to

the

this part, and

spaced

6.

shaving mirror

"

upon

wood

Executed

wall.

to

The

down

screwed

and

The

Process.

is

concludes

Papering
of

back

in.

from

(Fig.7).
the

of
possibility

woodworking

bining
com-

in

processes

one

in the woodworking

joint,with singleditto

shelf.

to

model

The

i.

up.

candle

The

sconce

on

bracket,

is intended

bracket.

the

to

and

scribinggouge

Joints employed

tenon

bracket

secure

"

and

mortise

double

screwing to

secret

be

lumps

model.

in white-

painted.

and

portion are
and

hang

to

show

To

"

then

with dividers and

BRACKET

Object.

saw,

the model.

CANDLE

metal

from

out

surface.

the addition

pine completes

Fig.

freed

the wood, then

upon

bow

finallypapered
is

vice, shape

bench

line with

regulated,viz.

Tooling

in

placed

be

to

drawn

on

cartridge paper,

full

size.
Saw

2.

out

and

plane

thickness

and

width

to

"

Metric.

English.
10^

4^^ x

fin.

Bracket

ii^

^ in.

Shelf

6^

3I

I in.

piece Back

I
"

I
"

Draw

3.

outline

with

4.

Set

in back

and

centre

Set

out

out

7. Execute

The

Square

lines for

across

mortise, and

mark

shoulder

and

tenons

bracket, cut

on

same,

also

mortise

and

tenon

fit together.

shave, file and

together.

back.

on

tracingpaper.

5. Execute
6.

line

true

of bracket

shape

glass-paper

to

Decoration

and
of

bracket
and

and

shelf

shelf,cut

same,

(see p. 33).
also the back

spoke-

line.

inlaying as

P'it sconce

alternately,be

screwing in

the secret

per

below, then

clean

up

all surfaces

and

glue

fix.
the

example

entirelyomitted,

or

under

review

is wood

inlaying;

this can,

or
simple carving,strapwork, stencilling,

CHAP.

IV.]

THIRD

YEAR

MODELS:

Fig.

7.

WOOD.

37

38

HANDCRAFT.

found

substituted.

be

toolingcan

Procedure
size

suitable

ideas will

be

144.)

p.

for Inlaying.

Trace

1.

the

in correct

pattern

It is assumed

"

that

the ornament

is drawn

full

unit

one

tracingof

heel

the

of

units

tracingsof

these

Gum

down

leaves and

the

inlay;cut

units in

into small

up

to

taking

veneer,

pieces,each

described
have

to

care

on

Glue

145.

p.

the

taining
con-

grain running

with

stems

fret

saw

or

keeping justoutside

gouge,
the

line ;

remove

the line.
and

cores,

glue

position.

5. Bore

glue in previouslyprepared

spot units,and

the

The

6.

the

to

leaf.

Gouge groundwork, cutting justinside

4.

paste this down

or

as
design (or alternately),

pointof each

to

3. Cut

tracing paper.

to

on

position.

Prepare another

2.

from

on

latter with

the

cartridgepaper.

on

back

(Referencesto

and

oppositepage

on

{chap. iV.

units

square

with

cut

are

FINGER

Object.
manipulation

of

PLATES

(Fig.8).

exercises

in

tools

grounding

and

gouges

in. chisel.

various

introduce

To

"

sticks.

complete model, involving

specialpractice for

as

hand

and

eye.
Note.

lock

and

handle

the

to

as

plate,and
be

vice

door, and

the

arrangements
When

versa.

readilybe

length can
be

can

effected,such

extended
as

Process.

in

full-size

"

in the

of working
difficulty

boxwood,

sycamore,

First

ebony,

Example.

i.

"

drawing

selected.

wood

the

then

cartridgepaper,

Bottom

2.

ornament

plate

of

order

satinwood.

Cut

out

and

first be

plate should

followingwoods

The

and

to

width

are

plate i piece
Draw

Clamp

5.

With

and

on

"

^in.

;^in.

each

piece.

Trace

base
"

half

28

7-6

-Gem.

20-3

7-6

-6

the

outline

on

cm.

plate and

drawing.

from

4.

11

"

line

centre

walnut, oak,

thickness

and

on

suitable,and

given, viz. Mahogany,

plane

made

Metric.

hardwood

piece

3. Transfer

keeping

top of
is such

ornament

English.
Top

for upper

carving on

length is desired,the

extra

beneath

placed

readilyadaptable.

The

range

of

alternate

plates. Many
upper

fifth examples represent those

third,fourth and

The

"

this
wood

sides of

on

both

on

bench,

grounding-out

and
tool

centre

outline
remove

lines with

tracingpaper.

design with carving gouges.


interior

parts

to

uniform

depth,

sharp.

corners

the

6.

Cut

7.

Complete

sandpaper

face of the ornament

up

the

model

to

give an

effect.
interlacing

by cutting outline, rounding

the flat surface.

of

same

on

face

side,

CHAP.

THIRD

IV.]

Carvimg

YEAR

MODELS:

WOOD.

39

Carvip"j

TOOLIMG.

-f

"Is

"

iatPodv?ciiQ.a-

-meDts.

Tooled

"

"

"

"

etc.

mkM
WoOollNLAV

Fig.

8.

STtnciLur

46

HANDCRAFT.

Fourth
from

Example.
with

drawing
The

2.

material

Prepare

r.

"

[chap.

(as per above) and

IV.

transfer detail

tracingpaper.
should

stems

be cut

from

and

veneer,

into the

cut

groundwork

and

glued.
The

3.
cuts

in

Two

gouge
to

cuts

the

remove

Units

4.

and

made

are

next

are

leaf of veneer,

suffices

units

leaf

be

may

the

They

cut.
cut

made

into the groundwork

required depth, and

by

in

slightturn

two

gouge

similar

manner.

of the tool

usually

core.

glued in position,holes

are

best

are

bored

are

for the

PeT^Tped'iOe

berries with

small

J^rra-nbemen^ for

Q)ke1'cfi
Fig.

twist

and

be

can

Inlaying is
The

design for

glued

further

ornament

into

hole

described

in

and

second

gouges,

and

stationerycase.

in diameter

off level with

cut

chapter on

in the

shown

"

then

Decorative

example

the

to

should

bevelling as

berry,is

dovetail

".

Processes

be

pared,
pre-

saw.

executed

indicated

by
with

first
flat

tools.

Object.

"

To

speciallyvaluable
followed,

there

introduce
for

is

good

ample

(Fig.10).

PLATTERS

BREAD

are

model.

simple carcase

cylindricalstick,equal

ellipsewith

outlining the
carving

"

bit,and

centre

or

9.

bow

sawing

and

exercises.
filing

and

eye

training.

hand
scope

for individual

taste

These

Whilst
on

the

models

general

are

features

part of pupils.

HANDCRAFT.

42
with

Commencing

recessing,individual

for the

chamfering, and
considered

the

to
liability

cast

Plane

in

and

inner

an

developing

circle

outline,

the

and

softer

satisfactoryfor
Fig. 10).

i,

i.

"

easier

to

class

work

size of

overall

average
No.

for this model

wood

12

limewood
work

may

than

owing

to

the

its

in. is recommended.

Prepare

drawing

of

the

cartridgepaper.
material

the

up

An

(example

platter,full size,on
2.

for outline

encouraged

excellent

is least

twist.

Process

The

can

an

whitewood
and

be

best ; it is both

next

American

former.

plain circle

IV.

rim.

is

Sycamore

"

of

effort
of

ornament

Material.
be

drawing

the

[chap.

both

on

sides and

strike

diagonal lines.

rovUir.
e
St-PWr^-j/^lfa

n^va^OD.-

"

Half vve{5Ma?tt"r'
viec^; itJhieKi
i He^lf"

-^

set ovion-(j"jj)d

c"ji--1n-ovf[iae.

'"

Viecb

Fig,

3.

Transfer

4.

Execute

it should

the

5. Cut

be

6.

to

to

(see

II.

material.

this should

gouge

with

depth

bow

flat gouge.

ally
(Occasion-

templet (see diagram).


depth (see

sketch

above).

up.)

saw,

cuts

the

uniform

finallysmooth
with

with

be done

recessing to

shape

section

the

correct

carving with

Execute

levelled

then

for

used

outline

to

recessing;

finish the

to

Glass-paper can

design on

tested

be

is used

router

the

teStindj
I'^mj^ls^.

and

square

above), leaving

the

finish with
to

face

file.

side ; the

strapwork

or

groundwork

is

leaves, etc., in

relief
7.
file this

Complete

the

part, and

finish with

model

by spacing and
sandpaper.

pencillingthe

chamfer

decoration,

CHAP.

IV.]

THIRD

liiiiiiliii

pLAN"-

-BRACKET

-ALTERNATE

"

-SHAPES-

"

"

CI

[I

Sketch.cSf-the. "

"

"

"

com]alGte-

).

rj

=1-

"

43

CENTIMETRES-

SHETWNG

12.

\VOOD.

'""
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"X*
-.
iiiiiiii^lillli'illliliiiliil

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KHES

Fig.

MODELS:

YEAR

An

adjustable towel

rail

to

S^'EW-

"

SKE-WLNG-

CCNSTEUCT^ON

""-"-. ^~^eT.;E-

-OF-

RAILS-

"

t,.jg.:lk"S.

be made

in teak, sycamore,

or

American

uhitewood.

"

HANDCRAFT.

44

10

of Fig.

Description
Notes.

The

first

basis,

geometrical
specimen

has

intervening
between

leaf

the

ornament

at

No.
also

rim

is

the

or

5
last

is

the

ends

shows

an

specimen,

groundwork.

third
be

to

upon
of

the

the

example
the

centred

being
the

worked

strapwork
is

example

lines.
into

converted

based

upon

with

are

octagon,

an

second

The

curves

decoration

circular

upon

diagonal

upon

of

small

in

spaced
and

the

recessed.

slightly

with

outline,

circular

is

above,

sides

elements

The

intended

based

is

form,
main

The

diagonals.

decoration
No.

hexagonal

detail.

described

decoration

the

iv.

{continued).
example,

"

[chap.

simple

conventional

floral

diameters.
worked

decoration

upon
in

this

circle

case

and

being

diagonal
in

slight

lines,
relief

as

from

does

the

CHAPTER

MODELS

SPECIAL

joints, and

carving,

strapwork

mortise

and

"

the

upon

of

use

Mark

and

geometrical

chamfered

for

Standards

2.

Feet

the

various

parts

is

illustrated

example
pieces

following

pieces

Rail

Capping

piece

5.

Stiles
Rails

7.

Glass

8.

Plane

9.

Gauge

and

Tenon

11.

Set

fit

in.

if

in.

3J

in.

y%

ft.

i^ in.

in.

in.

ft. 4

and

edge

pieces

all

plane

follows

as

"

1^
of

to

material.

all

thickness

width

and

per

diagram

as

drawing

per

(with

back).
into

standards
shoulder

out

on

(as

feet

rail

cross

Fig. 1)

mortises

and

on

and

glue

up.

standards.

Cut

these

and

when

together.

12.

dry

and

ft.

face, side,

up

of

10.

piece

,,

Back

pieces

exception

similar, i.e.

are

Metric.

ft.

,,

6.

decoration,

"

5f in.

ft.

"

4.

tenon

ornament.

joints connecting

complete

the

out

saw

1.

Cross

and

painted

English.

3.

mortise

tenon.

Procedure

The

the

of

All

OTHERS

(Fig. 1).

simple

of

and

recessing

or

Joints.

The

application

the

show

to

chiefly

designed

model

"

WOOD

AND

MIRROR

TOILET

SWING

IN

PUPILS

EVENING

FOR

Object.

Work

cappings,

in

cramp

clean

rail, testing

cross

all

up

pieces

carefully

for

for

stand.

Fix

squareness

cappings,

leaving

before

to

dry

(see Fig. 2).


13.

illustrated
14.

each

side

Set

out

on

p.

When
to

stile

rails

for

glass

frame

(details

as

for

frame

door

35).
the

be

and

glass

allowed

for

frame
screw

is

dry, plane

movements.

(45)

up

square

and

clean

up

y^

in.

46

HANDCRAFT.

Sv)"ind

GxecC'led

[chap.

Coilel"

MVi^dN^ood

in

v""i1'fiGeometPLC

pecoPsCtloTi

pistpep.

kill

"
,

/A'ippop

\X^fiLtevZroodPcs^inTed.

OP

""!

II

/\_"_

B-M"

C-

INCHES
I

mil

V,

_^Foo7..

11'^

DeCINIEJRfi-

Fig.

I.

15.

Cut

platesin

16.

Fix

glass in frame,

2, by glueing blocks
shown.

WOOD

IN

MODELS

SPECIAL

V.J

CHAP.

stiles of frame

in.

in

as

bore

and

PUPILS.

47

standards

diagram Fig.

in the

long

EVENING

FOR

position

back

Complete by screwing on

as

per

section.

The

is based

shown

This

pattern.

into

four

out

are

first

(refer

which
and

hair

sable

is followed

second

variation

show

examples

Note.

The

"

The

is

whilst
of

simple

the

outline

is based

Fig.

four

with

ornamented

STOOL
upon

stools

easy

chamfering.

(Fig. 4).

of the

Queen

Anne

period

far

so

as

cerned.
con-

treatment

under-railingis

the

essentially

modern.

for

Turning

work

from

old

detail.

The

apted
ad-

are

Queen

connecting

amples,
ex-

first and

the

third examples
from

of

is best

character

studied

Anne

method
the

p. 53 in connexion

occasional

on

with

tables.

Wainscot
for

of

under-

railingis described

used

opposite.

UPHOLSTERED

model

general outline

this

paints

procedure

examples represent

AN

of

various

illustrated

also

are

recessing forming strapwork,


last

formed,

for the standards

Treatments

rail

cross

first and

The

finallya
the sides

for the standards.

Alternate
and

circles
Semi-

thus

similar

brushes.

and

touching

in with

be coloured

should

then

drawn,

(seeA).

simple diaper is

in

shown

as

(see B)

originalsquare

C).

simple geometrical

set

circle in each
to

complete specimen

parts

described

then

are

be

Squares

is divided

each

upon

should

elevation.

front

of the

Decoration

oak

may

models

type, but

turning are

Italian

be
^'"-

of this

walnut

is

preferable.

3-"

swing toilet mirror,

Various

illustrated in the diagram Fig. 5

on

methods

p. 49.

of

building

up

the

48

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

Inches.

'

a.

OCALEfti-

doooooooo

_r\_

-I

"

i| I

Fig,

4.

"

An

!"

il DEanETR.E5.

oo

'Hg.lf-Fporit

III

6nd

"

SecStion"d

upholstered stool

of

Queen

Anne

style.

v.

HANDCRAFT.

50

[chap. v.

0000000000000000000000000000000000.00

gooaoDooQOOoa

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odv

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DETAIL

VIEW

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HANDLES
DR.ANX/N
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THREE
SIZE

^^'
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in.

Oak

amd.

FR.ONT
THE

VIEW

OF

1NTER.IOR.

1^

Fig.

6.

=^

DECIMETRES

VIE'W

CHAP,

v.]

Interior.
2

Vertical

Central

4
I

ft.

Divisions

Side

in.

in.

in.

in.

in.

in.

5^

,,

"

in.

Arch

1.

Plane

2.

Set

top, bottom,

up

in.

in.

51

to

joints at

15

"5

cm.

"75

cm.

"75

cm.

13-5

"75

cm.

"75

cm.

"75

cm.

18

15

"

width.

length and
corners

"75

18

,,

ends

and

dovetail

mitred

out

holly 31

"

in.

2^ in.

Arches

Central

PUPILS.

EVENING

FOR

o^ in.
9j

"

"

and

WOOD

IN

"

Divisions

Horizontal

3
2

MODELS

SPECIAL

exercise

per

following on

B.

(a)

mitre

Mark

Fig.

7.

and

(c)Gauge
(d)

Mark

on

B' in

in

Fig. 7.

inside of both

Diagrams

"

rebate

on

Dovetailing.
shown

as

across

pins

out

A'

(e) Place

lines

lines

(d) Gauge

Mitred

in

Exercise

An

pieces.

method

showing

of

settingout,

etc.

lap.
A',

cut

and

same

waste.

remove

positionshown,

and

with

chisel out

cut

mitres

marking

awl

mark

tion
posi-

of sockets.

(/)
3. Fit

Cut

sockets

Mark

and

5.

Clean

up

6.

Clamp

grooves

cut

the

inside surfaces

together

in

grooves

the

and

front

and

rebate
to

carcase

and
to

same

receive

the

glue together,fit and

(tongue

worked

on

fit

together.

receive

back.

interior divisions.

screw

back

in

position.

part, fittinginto

centre

clamps).

7. Glue
8.

same,

together, take apart

carcase

4.

on

and

Fit up

together, level
the

off when

dry, and

interior,all pieces are

housed

fit in

opening.

in.

deep

into

top divisions.

52

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

v.

Decoration.

The

Veneers

p. 146.

outline

inlaid level with

and

indicated

outlined

or

148) ; the

p.

spots

is then

whole

are

lipped with

be

leather

Rim.

type of furniture
a

the rim, a board


rim
in

set

out

in.

be

pine

This

pieces

is divided

spokeshaved exactly to

board
and

and

pinned

secured

with

layer,which

in

fashion.

As

glued

and

handscrews.

planed

and

fitted in the

turning.
Fig. 8,
the

the

prepared
short

into

it will

which

foot

as

an

the

form

of

an

rightthrough
When

be

cut

The

sandpapered.

11).

The

templet

layer,and
Next,

each

three

the next

bottom

is

segment

layeris

to

then

can

completes

spaced

the

fitted in

are

layer,usually called

of

mark

is fitted to

segments
This

shape

duplicated

is used

piece

one

proceeds.

one

the true

of which

one

the rim,

building up

When

true, 'and

this

for

treatment

so

one

that the

brickwork

are

layer
the

up

for
in
that

seen

ing
introduc-

glues through
legs.
should
X.
to

One

to

of

be

piece

receive

two

tenoned

this is fitted and

alternative,a pattern
is

The

with

planed

(see diagram. Fig. 2)

same.

shape

of

marked

by

into the

together the design is traced

the

be

Under-framing

rails

toothed

positionas

size,then

to

in the

is mortised

jointsas

the third

and

should

under-framing
The

are

below).

which

pinned

and

and

up

remaining

and

applied

under-framing is secured
a

planed

size.

the

detail of the foot is shown

from

to

this layer is also

relative

Legs

perfectlysquare

composition.

work.
elliptical

each

the

fitted,they

dry

same

first (see diagram


The

true

pressure

toothed,

on

cut

the leaves

forking the legs into

of

templet.

templet

those

are

When

the

position,then

between

these

down

the

planed

jointsfall midway

be

composition (see also

suitable

into four parts,

four for

pins,glueing

is then

shows

plan

first be

should

segments,

or

dry

filled in with

scraped

the method

constitutes

and

mahogany

When

(Figs.10

feature of circular and


in.

it.

upon

twelve

out

of

should

| in. wide, the groundwork covered

veneer

and

half-planshows

general constructive

is then

TABLES

elevation

The

"

these

skiver.

or

OCCASIONAL

The

53

stringingis described

wood.

drill and

and

by

mosaic

filled with

and

cuts,

with

stand

to

fall should

morocco

tool

vee

PUPILS.

device;

of the

surface

executed

EVENING

ornamental

the

the

with

allowed

inside of the
with

for

used

FOR

inlayingthe

of

Method

"

are

WOOD

IN

MODELS

SPECIAL

v.]

CHAP,

glued

the wood,

or

Fig.

9.

"

Plan
various

one-quarter

in cardboard, the

remaining

three

and

elevation

mosaic

ol

rim

and

stringings.

parts being marked

from

this.

HANDCRAFT.

54
The
sides

only

Top

either

can

be

[chap.

solid

from

cut

laminated, viz. five-plymaterial

or

to

necessary

the

veneer

side.

top

material
be

can

The

veneered
in

adopted,
of the

veneer

top shown
of

variety; eight pieces are


the

centre

between

secured

of

pieces

cutting;
with

the

planed.

They

glued

stretched

may

down

to

paper

glueing
they

the

the

are

after the

of
^,

Sketch

"

"

of

circular

connexion

the

in reference

to

of

straightrails

to

the
and

for the

wide

lap

dovetailed

into the

short

showing

the

construction

Process.

"

:
"

two

should

prevents

following sizes

Fig. 8

in

ments
treat-

for the tops

different

only
of

these

This

legs.

described

and

on

p.

types

is dealt

with

56.

(Fig. 11).

those

to

and

tenons

and

and

the

knee

for hall,

necessary

the

shoulders
under

1.

First

the

tenons,

rails

"

table

struction,
con-

draught, chess,

the

the

near

be

used,

ones

from

opening

or

it has

also

can

the

of

be shouldered
latter

is very

advantage

of not

The

underneath.

case

side-rails,small

the

long rails

the

In

legs.
of

centre

the

type being utilized

"

stubbed

rails with

of under

connexion

effective

The

Various

"

simple general principlesof

similar

all mortises

are

rails and

mortises

laid

etc.

example, showing

second

through
and

Joints

Cross

is best

of top

feature

parts of

TABLE

introduce

to

principlesbeing

writing tables,
The

the

model

"

the

p. 55

on

OCCASIONAL

Object.

toothing

table.

table illustrated

the

then

and

dried.

has

Tables.

constructive

being

as

is

top

tables, the

square

ing,
band-

down

with

glue

shown

are

10.

damp

completed

hammer.

Square

Fig.

of

built-up work

edge

on

separated

segment

this

is

shape

cross

The

is removed

banding
with

each

with

paper

plane

curved

fitted.

veneered

top is

; the

round
by fitting

V
be

sheet

of

is finished

the
then

be

process

edge

file and

to

V-shaped

the

during
curved

fine

and

wood

curl
form

should

thin

two

on

the

used

These

part.

it is

case

be

to

both

on

which

circular

is intended

52

p.

and

v.

ordinary circumstances.
saw

out

the

wood, either mahogany

or

walnut,

to

SPECIAL

v.]

CHAP,

WOOD

IN

MODELS

FOR

EVENING

PUPILS.

55

g^^^S^!;iJ^;S^a^t!:y;^?i"Sii5Jiy^

6le^a.1
ion-

Gnd -^ie^i^-

Vie^- of-fm.min6

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fpom- N"nder"oe8tlT

"

Scales-'fes'-^ie^-eiboOe

"o

Section-

CENi-iMcyets-

HMM

Section-of-le^

E
\^io\"5-ecl6int)i

u
U

Fig.

II.

"

An

occasional

table.

56

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

English.

Metric.
in.

in.

in- 79*5

3"S

4I

in. 58

12-5

2-2

cm.

4f

in.

i2'5

2-2

cm.

16^

42-5

1*6

cm.

2-2

1-3

cm.

2-2

1*3

cm.

4-4x1

pieces legs

ft.

long rails

ft.

short

ft.

in.

top

ft.

2\ in.

short

ft.

i^ in.

\ in. 35

ft.

9| in.

^ in. 58-5

in.

6
10

if

"

bottom

long

rails
"

"

4 tablets

Plane

2.

and

3.

Gauge

4.

Square

5.

Place

6.

Separate

7.

Place

shoulder

four

the

rails

Separate

front.

lines

square

top and

together,two

Cut

mortise

thickness.

to

bottom

mortise

inside

square

lines.

faces.

rails in each

bottom

two

cm.

together,then

same

adjoining

on

cm.

if curved.

top and

when

the

When

glue between

the

elevation

and

Cut

11.

bottom

to

and

and

set

off

set

plane top side

and

and

; fit two

shoulders

all parts and

up

the

up

measured

glue

various

the

on

long
up.

pieces

diagonals

of

being properly square.


off

saw

of

wood

spare

pockets

Prepare

true.

be

faces, back

pieces.

rails,clean

should

tablets, then

in

glue

tenon

whole

the

ensure

It

all wide

on

lines and

clean
satisfactorily,

sides.

long

all

on

fit in all short

dry

are

the

saw

adjusted

latter

lines

tenon

and

lines

shoulder

return

and

the mortise

out

sides together, and


10.

pieces,and

the

mark

Then

9.

plan

handscrew

then

3*5

tablets to width,

shape

to

length, and

total

legs and

the

rails and

cut

and

legs together

edge,

lines.

8.

and

required size,or

to

top

up

in. 16

face

bottom

legs, top, and

plane

i|

36-5

in. 69

face, side, and

on

required lines, viz.

all

across

all material

up

v.

legs

at

and

top

screwing through

for

rails

into top.

inside

from

The

on

carving,which

Four

set

two

or

centre

of

below

the

tooling.

gouge
to

outline

from

the

legs

face

side.

is shown

and

arrangement
a

The

when

modelled

inlayingin

mother

of

This

piece.

in combination

are

design

then

shows

slipsof

single terminal
used

out,

example
of

the tablet

shows

second

grounded

third

The

of

with

pearl,

tion
decorabrown

walnut.
are

The

shown.

difficult construction

moulded

rail,as

alternate

effective

very

Italian

more

back
the

cut

second, with

details of moulded

involve

farther

an

in the

fairlysimple,and

oak, American

would

the last

woods, and

is

simple

of

first be

would

in top row,

three

by pocket screwing

decoration

for the

treatments

berries,etc., with gouges.

leaves, stem,

various

Various

"

first consists

The

fix

and

up

rails.

the

Decoration.

shown.
for

required,clean

if

inlay top

and

Shape

12.

generally, the rails

sides, those
The

in the

chamfered
elevations.

introduction

below

of either
would

being spaced

example

should

have

of these
to

exactly in
be

be

the

stopped just

58

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

VI.

CHAP.

VI.]

FIRST

YEAR

MODELS:

METAL.

!cO

O^rS^^
o
o

59

[chap.

HANDCRAFT.

6o

Fig. 3

."Models

for

forge practice.

VI.

Features.

Special
it is

how
to

"

MODELS

Although

the

and
difficulty

add

possible to

there

simple form,

YEAR

FIRST

VI.]

CHAP.

are

is taken

escutcheon

as

operation in

tool

new

objects which

other

many

METAL.

successive

be treated

can

of

example

an

in

steps
similar

manner.

MODELS

METAL

Object
No.

This

Tommy

tongs, is
No.

wide

width,
up

cut

with

bastard

point to

temper
No.

hammer

the

for
the

hammer

with hammer
on

emery

use

filed up.

spreading the
in. square

first,then
much

as

the

not

for

bob,

down.

without

be used.

portion down
off

drawn

and

i, but

rod, should

Shape

been

holding

No.

as

way

files,finish

This

"

is

and

work

the

point.

out

first.

the

iron.

Draw

length

; round

No.

forgingexercise, and

Should

No.

end, bend

up

Wrench.
down

fuller

out

possible,

as

then

and

harden

file should

be

and

Hook.

be

used

heat

and

not

No.

weld

7.

drawn

be

and

this

in the

comes

while

No.

bastard

make

and

off

round

littlemore

middle

of

and

away

down

required,so
end,

choose

then

oft'

cut

drift through
holes, drivinga parallel

Draw

down

the

to

size

for hook.

end

shown

as

iron.

on

page

length, then

weld
difficult,
the

set

finish,drawing

for other

end, repeat

67, Fig. 7,

correct

to

up

part); draw

reversed, that is,the point drawn

in. square

page

twist

and

Cut

"

To

shape.

shape

Staple.

6.

down

in centre

Heat

out.

on

Shape

with

to

file.

Use

"

off,and

welding

the size of the holes

to

the

to

difficult

Cut
be

one

up

with

shown

as

eye

hot.

could

punch

touched

lengthrequired,draw

cool

round

heat

flatten.

(thisis the

According

"

iron,

anvil and

on

processes

and
ends

up

the

end

in.

while

hole

the

punch

Cabin

5.

in.

projectingpiece

up

not

place

preferredthe

Tap

4.

finish.

the

If

of

piece

end, then

the

roughly point,and

not

in

brown.

suitable

slightly
up-set

and

same

round

tang.

smooth

and

the

Draw

down

draw

Holdfast.

3.

Have

the

left from

in the

Made

"

off until it has

cut

long, suitable
be

Should

size.

dark

exercises

as

it.

on

to

in.

ft. 6

be suitable.

off,and

suitable

uses.

not

part, a fuller,placed lengthwisedown

trim

to

about

Screwdriver.

2.

steel and

from

convenient

(Fig.3).

models

easy

their

convey

ETC.

Lever.

made

steel

steel would

tool
to

tool

names

or

be

of

collection

"

various

should

in. round

of

Uses.

Their

forging.

and

TOOLS,

bend, then

Bend

and

round

required.
up

the

Cut

off

the hook

and

74.

draw

down

the ends

and

piecestogetherand

two

draw

out

the ends

bend
that

see

bend

and

to

cold.

Centre
down
smooth

to

Punch.

shape

"

and

harden
files,

put in the lathe

to

make

This
cut

should

be made

off

the

to

and

temper

the

end

from

j^,

in. square

length required.

point

to

dark

circular,it should

brown.

be done

tool steel

Trim

up

This

by

with

should

hand.

62

HANDCRAFT.

preceding models

The

practicein the

good

use

most

important, for

done

efificiently.
(i) Illustrates

is being upset
it should

The

This

(2)
into

the

hand

shows

obtained, and
This

(3)
bottom

and

all kind

on

tools,hot

held

grip

in the

when

give

possible.
ing
perform-

(i),(2),(3)being
work

be

cannot

tongs while the end


in

working iron,and

that it cannot

so

bending
is

operator

By

this

can

be

method
The

of

iron.

slip.

holding a

done

is

of power

cold.

standing,arid using
be noticed

It should
should

top tool

fits

in the left

scroll

plenty

means

fork

The

operation being performed

iron ".

setts, etc., the

take

in

the work

when

work

the

littleas

vi.

bar of iron.

the

in. square

piece of f

tenon

of top

being

righthand.

of curved

as

standing correctlythe

be taken

sledge hammer.

is

holding

illustration shows

swage

positionto

correct

the feet for instance

fit and

anvil and

largeamount

be used

operationfrequentlyoccurs

tongs

in his

scroll wrench

file should

iron

positionto

the

in the

hole

square

and

up

the

that

positionapplieswhen

same

the

square

This

thickened.

or

show

positionof

piece of

elementary forging exercises,and

; the

the operator

unless

noticed

be

The

operations.

various

all the

hammer

Fig. 4

illustrations in

The

involve

of

[chap.

be

top and

is

ing
round-

"

in

that

using

rightangles

to

chisel

ping
chop-

at

the

work.

(4)

Shows

assumed

when

the

an

The
as

Joints.

Process.

The
chest

on

and
2.

should

with

hold

Cut

be

out

Punch

4.

Anneal

5.

Bend

6.

Polish

tracer.

position

natural

Plates.

strengthening of

and

chests

also

form

of surfaces.

bent

platesare

up

hand

that

so

up

made

be

and

from

for

material

shape

to

This

and

the

that

vice and

plateswould

of

required.

be

drill holes

or

number

shape, either

to

they form

is known

what

16

bending
or

mark

chisel

14

test

with

be made

saw

pierce.

and

punch

from

or

furnish

to

some

Lay

thin sheet

be scribed

metal.

I.S.W.G.
it with

is soft,and

necessary

lines could

round
or

screws

could

be

through.

the

templet

scriber.

ornament.

engrave

dress up.
set

square.

lacquer if necessary.

Decoration

form, piercing,and
a

the

high

CHEST.

Corner

corner

arranged so

should

These

3.

The

As

"

template would

metal, and
1.

the

shows

lifted up

joint".

close

FOR

for the

Used

"

When

"

and

it is not

when

skilled craftsman.

Introducing development

feature.

ornamental

"

Uses.

and

by

and

is that

hammer

MOUNTINGS
Angle

hammer

reproduction

The

is used

METAL

Object

of

use

work.

hammer

holding

of

fault in the

its proper

do

to

method

correct

usual

The

out.

enough

the

is either

by punched

engraved lines which

can

holes, raised
be

done

with

ornaments
a

chisel,a

of

simple

graver,

or

(i)

Upsetting.

(3)

Swaging.

(2)

Bending.

(4) Chopping
Fig.

out.

64

HANDCRAFT.

Features.

Special

simple settingout
a

templet

to

the

would

not

and

are

joints; No.
joints;No.
The

angles

10

brazed

12

butt and

tools, 110"

of

flat

piece of

to

indicate
No.

shape,

Make

2.

Make

rightout

set

on

introducingmany

No.

in the various

plainlap and

and

models

solt-soldered

riveted,halved

riveted

and

Grinding Gauge.

Is used

"

for chisels

and

for

testingthe
70"

punches,

centre

4.

Lay

Drill.

edges

and

with

of the

files.

cloth

surface

held

and

the

with

bevel, or

smooth

emery

to

6.

Cut

7.

Drill

out

over

lines
the

leg and

or

glued

punch figures

with

transfer

lines with
the

metal
of

centre

stone.
grind-

on

up

with
small

File up

both

with

required.
to

piece of

on

thin metal

for

in the

centre

No.

as
12

compasses,

accurately as possible.
iron the

I.S.W.G.

two

legs,

line in.

of

each

the

joint of

legs and

slipthem

pin.
8.
9.

Flatten

the

legs while
legs

and

they

face

are

them

together on
up

both

sides

the

pin.

with

bastard

and

smooth

files.
10.

material

If
as

right sized
that

used

washers

for the

cannot

legs.

be

tracing,layingon

circle with

the

describe

drawing

the

to

of the

scriber.

jointand

chisel,leavingthe

hole

to

point.

bone

scriber

brass

length,file up

grind cuttingedges

chalking the back

or

paper,

on

off to

cut

out,

the size

calipersto

templet, working

Centre

templet just made.

the

"

one

the

Draw

"

brown

dark

Calipers.

punch

out

and

protractor,
bastard

polished iron

on

gauge

to

temper

the

the

and

with

out

lines just showing, file down

try square,

face

iron ; mark

I.S.W.G.

12

sides with

both

finish

of carbon

over

out

with

on

up

No.

Use

angle with figurepunches.

going

Centre

using

models

involved

tenoned

chisel,leavingthe

Test

wood.

means

3.

cut

be

APPLIANCES.

joints;

drills,60"

follows

tracing of

5. Mark

on

Face

drawing

Go

then

for

with

and

and

metal,

60"

as

Outside

3.

1.

being made,

was

thing could

graduated

11

Diamond-pointed

harden

templet by
the

and

size of

2.

No.

i.

drill hole, fine

and

No.

files.

protractor.

on

one

clippedjoint.
"

out

lines,using bastard

punch

only

variations.

joiningmetals

of

lapjoint; No.

be made

cut
scriber,

bevel

gives good practicein

difficulty.

riveted

vi.

turning tools.

It should

brass

whole

of

of

methods

If

METAL

course

order

3 and

Nos.

the

of many

WORK:

"

The

"

Processes.

80" for

and

Uses.

Joints.

follows

as

OF

arranged in

and

The

admits

which

model

of surfaces.

but

necessary,

model

SCHEME

Object

simple

very

development

be

This

metal.

processes

and

"

[chap.

obtained

make

them

from

the

same

VI.]

CHAP.

FIRST

YEAR

MODELS:

65

METAL.

ii. "

T3

00

0.0

20

iiiiiiiiin

/J\

'

'

'

"

'

"

^^0

66

HANDCRAFT.

6, JVo.
J^ig^.

vi.

{continued).

Cut

11.

[chap.

off

-|in.

of

piece

iron for the

round

the ends

rivet,square

and

it.

anneal

Drill the

12.

the holes

legs,and

the

washers

fit the

to

rivet,and

sink
counter-

the sides that will be outwards.

on

rivet

Put

13.

in the

holes

in

burr

position and

with

over

completely

light hammer

the countersinking.
filling

and

14.

Face

No.

4.

the

Picture
from

rose

Suspender.

18

or

should

metal.

I.S.W.G.

20

back

The

"

caliperswith

fine finish the

The

from

be made

flutingof

cloth.

emery

I.S.W.G.

16

rose

could

be

it up

from

the

the

if necessary.

left out

2.

Mark

3.

Cut

4.

Mark

out

file up

and

out

out

rose

5. Cut

Fig. 7, No.

drill holes

and

work

in back

and

and

rose,

Hand

in

Chisel.

"

hollow

tool which

Should

be made

rivet.

the

anneal

lacquer as required,includingthe

Cold

I.

pitch,and

the

metal, place on

togetherby placingrivet

Rivet

7.

shape.

to

on

Polish, stain,and

6.

rose.

punches.

out

rose

and

back, using templet.

the

front with

and

back

templets for

Make

1.

back

of rivets and

off the outside

rivet.
is held

from

vice.

in the

hexagonal

tool

steel.
Take

1.
2.

off to

Cut

3.

convenient

Trim

up

length of

steel and

draw

the

out

point.

length.
ing
angle,using the grind-

file cuttingedge to correct

the end, and

gauge.
4.

5. Finish
No.

and

Harden

2.

off

off the

material

2.

Engrave
Set

out

dark

brown.

from

12,

be made

Could

"

the

to

then

line

over

go

top, raise it

ornamental

14,

or

material.

16 I.S.W.G.

size.

correct

the line,face up,


the

to

bob.

emery

Plate.

Cut

3.

on

Finger

1.

cuttingend

temper

on

again.

lead block, cut

it out, drill the

holes.
4.

P'it ornamental

holes

slightlycountersinkingthe

and

the

to

top

Polish,colour, or lacquer

6.

Put

on

plate; put

to

lightlyburring over
No.

Steel

3.

Scriber.

1.

Cut

off material

2.

Cut

off to correct

3.

Make

eye.

4.

Twist

centre

the

at

and

as

rivets in, one

draw

and

shown

and

drill the

plate,

at

time, holding rivets in

cup

back.

length.

Figs.4

holes

the

required.

as

Should

"

off

back, drill fixingholes.

the

at

5.

top

plate mark

be made

down

both

Bend

one

Fig. 2,

p.

from
ends
end

5.

in

74.

as

at

in. square

shown

in

steel.

tool

Fig. 2.

rightangles (Fig.3).

tool

CHAP.

VI.]

FIRST

YEAR

MODELS:

67

METAL.

CD

-Q

^'cO^^O-

.-J

u
u

if)

Ij
V
J"

(O

2:

"

"

"vS

ci
-

3S3MDNI

""II'''

Mi"i"'i

S3tti3

IXM3D

68

HANDCRAFT.

5. Clean
metals

to

No.

to

1.

Set

dark

if for

brown,

use

soft

on

2.

Cut

them

Bend

of the

with

clean

out

22,

I.S.VV.G.

26, 28

24,

and

body

lid

the

sheet

the metal.

on

the shears.

shape, using a foldingmachine, bending clamp

to

up

No.

for this.

development

the

out

Box."

Rectangular

I.

be used

should

3.

point

temper

vi.

lightbrown.

Fig. 8,
metal

and

harden

up,

[chap.

or

hatchet

stake.
4.

Tack

examine

Wash

7.

Polish
2.

in

well

6.

No.

lid fits true, then

the

hot

the

the

soldering iron

and

neatlytogether.

seams

neatly.

seams

and

water

solder

dry

in sawdust.

out

if required.

Cutter.

Pin

one

1.

Spread

end

2.

Round

the

with

shank

and

be used

to

from

be made

could

for cutter

depends

in. square

on

tool

the

size of

steel.

top fuller.
off to

cut

length.

the taper square.

down

3.

Draw

4.

File the

cuttingend

5.

Harden

and

6.

Finish

the

shape.

correct

cuttingend

to

dark

brown.

grindstoneand glossup

on

Corner

I.

the

to

temper

cuttingend

Fig.9, No.

Size of material

"

illustrated

; the

cutter

solder

solder

and

potash

places with

few

etc., then

it for squareness,

5. See

the

part in

bottom

the

Clamp.

No.

"

on

bob.

emery

would

metal

18 I.S.VV.G.

be suitable

for this.
1.

Set

2.

Punch

3.

development

out

Cut

metal.

on

the holes.
out

4. Bend

to

to

shape.
angles, and

correct

the

see

they overlap lie close

where

corners

together.
5.

Braze

6.

Finish

No.

them

2.

the

Grille.

Iron

2.

3.

Make

4.

Make

the

tenons

tightlyto

the

holes, seeingthat

drawing

the frame

8.

by

off and

bars.

make

holes

required.

little longer than

all the

settingout
on

the centre

7. Drill the
all centre

material

off all the

6. Mark

to

the

size

Make

Cut

5. Twist

file.

the

various
the

Note,

the halved

in the

protectingwindows.

for

Used

"

1.

required.

as

An

off with

clean

and

corner

halved

bars

actuallyrequired.
holes

necessary

by sawing

shoulders

two

is

come

jointsfor

see

they

fit

part together.
Put

on

(J. Rivet

the

up

frame, rivetingcorners

other

tenons,

and

up

trim off

first.

excess

one

metal.

and
filing,
Check

fit

sizes.

left handed.

togetherneatly.

rivets,anneal

the

and

square.

and

righthanded

joints;

down

up

them.
drilling

and

them, and

rivet

CHAP.

VI.]

FIRST

\^AR

MODELS:

69

METAL.

..CO
o

^..

9.
rO

c"^

'

.-

^8

Do

O
(U

Q^

ti

SL

:^
2

CD

Ji:

/.

(Do,

01

"i

-b

T-

=3"X3WIXfJ3D

[chap.

HANDCRAFT.

70

Fig.

9,

(continued).

Coat

10.

with

Paint

11.

No.

3.

For

3.

the

Raise

4.

handle

5.

Bend

6.

Fit

7.

clip

Drill

8.

Chamfer

9.

Polish,

10.

Put

ring,

up

distance

equal

of

off

and

screw

in.

back-plate,
the
file

ring

from

boiling

applied

the

shape

size.

and

round

for

the

ring

and

for

the

slot

punch

hole

the

pin,

and

slot-hole,

make
and

the

clip

it

that

see

as

14

clip,

I.S.W.G.

then

illustrated

hangs

square

back-plate.
in

back-plate

and

smooth

it

up

back-plate.

together,

No.

for

out

cut

to

templet.

to

holes,

colour,

hot.

suitable.

be

this

be

back-plate.
shown

centre

marking

shape,

required

the

to

of

would

should

Handle.

Drop

templet

which

desired.

drawing

back-plate

oil

colour

Ring

Make

2.

boiled

the

Make

1.

the

No.

vl.

and

lacquer

and

tightly

back-plate
bend

over

and
the

ring.
clip.

if necessary.

on

p.

and

74.
at

an

CHAPTER

SECOND

finished

Process.

I.S.W.G.

metal,

The

made

ring
The

1.

Fig.

"

The

"

and

the

(METAL)
suitable

most

are

if made

in iron

and

should

hole

rectangular

be

now

and

cut

made

for

punched

illustrated

methods

be

now

in

the

reception

of

16

or

14

clip.

the

2.

Fig.

together,

sprung

first from

and

the

filed

pin

for

ready

clip.
handle

clip should

The
in

Fig. 2,

and

the

and

together
Note.

but

place

where

of

clip

for

is

hammer

hot

are

Uses.

and

bending

Joints.
The
work

to

the

work

is then

than

necessary.

filed to
the

fit

for

screws

"

be

handle

it is

when

put

hanging
by

frequently governed

limit

and

the

kind

the

by

preferred,

shown

are

of

use

all

marked

over

texture.

twisting

and

bending

metals, either

of

fitting.

of

GRILLES

obtained

are

be, if
of

amount

(Fig. 3).

windows.

small

they

designs

the

could

that

methods

the

to

plate, but

could

the

are

small

is

then

These

practice

excellent

provide

riveting.
Halved,

on

bent

while

of

The

shape

be

can

The
on

full-size

be

shape
not

riveted

but

should

frame,

(72)

to

now

the

bend
be
tenons

strong

on

frame

them,
put

ends

an

and

the

together
marked.

first

made

The

together.

for

paper,

be

must

cold, leaving the

heated

and

drawing

; the

done

frame
the

it into

Fig. 3,

should

corners

laid

in

this

neatly together.
work

making

working

illustrated
to

riveted.

and

tenoned,
consist

laid

manner

interior

illustrated

as

lacquered,

handle

the

holes

screw

obtaining

protecting

Processes

all in

the

holes

metal,

and

polished

be

practicallyno

the

These

state, and

For

"

of

back-plate

so

"

I.S.W.G.

18

or

effective, though

The

punch,

cold

of

very

tools.
or

16

underneath

is

IRON

in

the

fixed.

There

"

Features.

or

be

to

decoration

the
and

Special
in the

and

back-plate

now

come

position

the

handle

from

-plate should

should

course

executed

the

on

pin.

the

back

quite elementary
with

laid

made

clinched.

Decoration.

adopted

easily

round

screws

the

The

be

and

The

"

down,

be

now

now

bent

handle

The

be

could

drilled.

and

marked

and

These

back-plate

the

by

next

should

ring

The

of

MODELS

bright.

armour

The

the

YEAR

Handles.

Drawer

VII

inch

interior

longer

cross-overs

temporarily,
The

tenons

CHAP.

Front

Xhe^

MODELS:

YEAR

SECOND

VII.]

6nd

5ect^

73

METAL.

"O^ievy^.

Jitter nsCt'e GresCt'ment'/'tor-

Rin^.

"

j^tternaCte

RinJ-Gi^rnedOp
ree^dy-tor- COTring,
"

"

"3f

"

"

V\"b

dovy)n

Iron
^cpecce,

"

"

Q"nd

"

RoOnded

^K

Centte.Cr\x"y^ed.
Scsde

Fig.

I.

"

OreeCtmer^

Ibr-Da.ck-PLsCt'e-

length

"nd/--Dr"^n

"

Suggestions for

handles

and

their

development.

should

be made, the

now

the

riveted together,then
be

[chap.

HANDCRAFT.

74

painted. Fig. 2

cold

whole

other parts riveted

to

frame

of the

corners

grillecould

The

frame.

the

for

the method

63 shows

plate facing page

on

the

thing put together,and

VII.

now

bending iron,

hot.

or

The

Decoration.

"

designs, etc., according

the

to

lines,geometrical

straightlines,curved

consists of

This

skill of the

is

who

craftsman

going

to

it.

make

SSSSS3

'A

of

method-

French -in-l^or
Po/;rtion

RinJ.
Making-

Cold-

Bright

Vio

-Red-

He"t.

De\"elopmenf
"

of

Rm^

Iron.

RoOadReceof

"

CLlp.
Heuidle

ri

rs?3.

N95

N^SL .DeOelopment-of- CLip. N93.5ideN^i.Recta.n^Ola.r


Hole POnched
N?4.Pla.n-otClip "in-Po/'i- \?ie\i(^otCLip
"

"

"

in-E"ek.ckpLeCte
N"

5.

Seer

tlon

to

Rea^dy

"

Processes

in

BenfroOnd

"

"

"

twistingthe metal, using metal

the

-for Fixing

ot CLipFixed
Lona^l -Vievic^-

Fig.

Also

"

making

"

in

ion,
-Pgrrf

Hos-ndle.

handle.

of different thicknesses

and

sections,all adds

variety.

Special

Features

of

these

grillesare

the

good practicefor simple designing and drawing


of bending see Fig. 2 on
platefacingpage 63.

bending

of easy

and

forms.

fitting.It
For

one

is also

method

cMaP.

Vii.]

YfiAR

SECOND

MODELS:

METAL.

75

Iron- Grilles.

blrodvcindji"
bendia^v-dnllCa^ortw

"X2d

"

SCnak.

rivetioTi.

Fig.

3.

"

Suggestions for grilles.

ScreO

botes

HANDCRAFT.

7^

0(X)O(5OOOO0OC
OOOOOOOOOOOO:

oocx)C)oooooooa
OCXDOOOOOOOODO
OOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOQOOOOCOCO

JOOOOOOOOOOO
0OO0O0(3OOOO'J
:)Ocxv.oQooo)'.:)
^OCX)0OOOOO3O

riOtlOO-xi

-).^

-.

PlD::te
e/1 Fingep
execOted

Hodel

in Kammered-

Ipon

"

Ppoce/T^e,^.
,^^0

^'^ -'o'^"^^

"'jo.-:)3o:'ooo'^

ojjo^

jo
^"
-/:"':)
:)oooc)()OoO'j"--

oooooo(Kyjo^"
003

J0CK)C)()(:)"^

c)C)Uc)".) 0
fUKKX)OC.)0^,

00(^)00
"

,jC"

Fig.

4.

"

Some

suggestionsfor finger plates.

[chap.

VII.

YEAR

SECOND

VII.]

CHAP.

MODELS

FINGER

Object and
paint is

Process.

leaving\

with

Raise

2.

be stuck

on

line in

Put

3.

on

the

on

Cut

4.

various

the

out

of

I.S.NV.G.

i6

or

metal,

metal.

block, or
raised

with

with

shaped

hammer.

could

They

chasingpunches, working

chisel,and

hammer

or

shape

drawn

the

plateto

edges with

up the

Drill the holes

6.

iS

features.

from

required hammer-

where

punch.
by

of

means

fret

saw

with

or

chisels-

shaped

5. Trim

from

that the

so

front.

or
by tracing,

either with the ball pane

mark

the

on

lead

pitchand

of

dressingdown

and

back

be drawn

punches
block

made

doors

fixingon

all round.

extra

design should

The

1.

the

in. of metal

for

decorative

form

to

be

should

These

"

used

Finger platesare

"

TJ

(Fig.4).

PLATES

disfiguredby handling,also

not

The

also

Use.

METAL.

file and

fixing.

for

nicelyflatten.
the size of the

Know

before

screw

drilling

the hole.
7. Polish

The

and

is obtained

Decoration

raised surfaces

Plates.

Based

"

on

chiselled lines.

or

historical

namely, shaped outline,

styles and

suitable

for

vanced
ad-

more

(Fig.5, overleaf).

students

Processes

The

by verj' simple means,

simple forms, and engraved

of

Finger

if required.

bronze

lacquer,or

all similar for the

are

Tudor, German, Celtic,and

modern

examples :
"

1.

The

design is

2.

The

metal

3. The

not

to

stuck

The

5. The
and

plate should
the

shape, and
Final

6.

and

marks

leave

and

tool

from

the

pitch,

the

being

front,care

taken

marks.

nicely flattened,cut

polish,colour, and lacquer.


from No.
plateshould be made

German

platesshould

The

modern

plate from

The

Celtic

The

Oriental

The

Elizabethan

The

Oriental
After

platefrom

XII

18,
22

out

to

the

correct

size

No.

been

20,

I.S.W.G.

22

from

No.

or

I.S.W.G.

22

18

or

16

I.S.W.G.

I.S.W.G.
14

or

No.

Elizabethan

having

Ch.
,

No.

platefrom

and

pitsin it,as
I

be made

No.

platefrom

finished

chamfers

No.

from

up,

Tudor

Fig. 9,

plateremoved

flattening.

The

like

down

rough

be

now

The

filed up.

in.

holes drilled.

dressingup

7. Clean

scribed

and

the back, the

dressed

now

to

or

metal

pitchagain,face uppermost.

is

modelling

the

the pitch block.

on

the

on

sharp tools

use

to

on

is raised from

ornament

cleaned, and
4.

first drawn

is stuck

14

16
or

I.S.W.G.
12

plates are

filed up

I.S.W.G.
cut

the Elizabethan

by hammering,

but do not

this

effect.

spoilsthe

this is obtained

with

out

put

Examine

chisel and

plateshould
a

number
the

have
of

effect

by judicioushammering.

the

then
face

honeycomb
as

shown

in

78

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

Tudor.

Fin^ep PLsCte

Pecopd^ion

"xe-

cOtedhCopjoep.

fpom

R,-Q

iLb^tpsCte^evPL0^ dtftep PecoPsCtiOe

ments

'S'-r'edCt'"to foe

Confideped

"

"

o^r

Mode]/:
(oBe

Pe/^i^nr

bsv^ed'Opon
Ki/topic^opk.
3o?e

^P'lu.5.

"

I'ingerplates based

on

historical

styles.

vii.

8o

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

VII.

VII.]

CHAP.

Centre.

Loose

finished

Drill

3.

in.

5. Fix

dog

of lathe headstock

shake

jump

Turn

to

Drill

4.

Countersink

the centres

in.

the

the

the

and

bolts

to

that

as

of

set

of the

This

brought

could
the

ends,

nose-piece
out
freelywith-

runs

lathe

so

that

the

in.

to

off

piece of i|

be

could

from

turned

welding

in both

deep

that

the

and

heat

iron

i|^in.
the

square
down.

swaged

ends.

of countersink

ends, angle

note

them.

centre

rest, and

the slide

Cut

i.

"

plug.

be

it

on

screws

the

on

the

be

to

same

that

as

of

used.

freelybut

dog

does

on

and

end,

one

lathe

the

between

run

centres

that

so

shake.

not

accurately to shape, taking a lightcut

Turn

same

work.

of the

Plug.

in. holes

or

lathe

ends.

seeingthat

centre,

shape, using

centre

length
end

both

being

5. Fix

6.

be

than

longer

turned.

being

size and

it,square

3.

it turns

in.

carrier chuck

screw

the

tighten up

Drilling

the

Anneal

in both

deep

of countersink

it between

while

or

the taper

or

in.

end, and

one

and

correct

than

longer

on

hold

out

Block

Vee

2.

steel

them.

centre

ends, angle

of tool is at

cuttingedge

stock,

and

oil centre

cannot

6.

in,

of

piece

METAL.

used.

lathe

ends,

in. holes

or

both

being

the centres

the

square

Countersink

4.

off

Cut

i.

"

MODELS

length.
Anneal,

2.

work

YEAR

SECOND

only

the

over

of the

corners

square.
7.

out

accurately,and

hack

saw.

that

see

of

the centre

the

is in

angle

the

centre

plug.

9.

Finish

off with

file,
taking care

6.

Head.
head.

Turn

method

to

Proceed

7.

File the two

8.

Mark

9.

Chip

without

centres
a

small

running
Drill

10.

as

hand

both

wrapped

2,3,4,

hand

tools

turning iron

shown

as

once

round

exact

shape

flat

head

sides of centre

on

or

metal
5 of

for

to

loose

the

centre.

curved

steel,see

portions.

Fig. 8,

p.

83.

plan.

on

sides of hammer

level surface

thin

of

out

in Nos.

shape, using

tools when

flat surfaces
on

templet

instructed

size and

holding

of

Cut

i.

cloth

emery

file.

the

"

exact

fine

piece of

rock

to

not

Hammer
of hammer

For

piece with

vee

File up

8.
of the

Cut

for

two

marks

y'^in.
so

holes.

that drill

start

can

off.

in.

or

y\

in. holes

right through by drillingfrom

each

side

alternately.
Drill the

11.
or

brass

before

12.

from

each

Clip

^^

in. holes,

commencing
and

side.

file out

to

the

plugging

the

drill the

second

oval

hole

to

first hole

the

drilled with

piece

of iron

hole.
correct

size, tapering it slightly

82

HANDCRAFT.

13.

Finish

off hammer

Bring

hammer

14.

with smooth

head
head

[chap.

slowly

to

files and

red

heat

cloth.

emery
and

vii.

quench

oil

in

out

or

paraffin.
Fit the

15.
which

is called
Heat

16.

of

end

polish up

the

eye

and

the

end

of

head

white

heat

the

head, this draws

the

or

Fit with

17.

them,

Anneal

Drill

3.

of

fitted to

Cut

the

in

eye

keep reversing

face

the

as

in oil.

out

off

handle

the

iron

in. round

piece of if

piece for

hole

wrought-iron wedge.

i.

"

been

portion,and

quench

shaft and

tempering.

for

has

shaft

for the

hole

ready

the centre

the ends, centre

proper.

them.

countersink

and

head

the

to

quickly in the

hardness

length,also

square

holes

the

long

iron which

place

Swape.

or

ft.

hammer

temper

ash

finished

the

and

correct

hickory or

in. longer than


2.

the

to

Handle

Balanced
I

tempered

are

pane

to

the

piece of

the

the hammer
hammer

iron about

piece of

them

in

described

as

previous

paragraphs.
them

Hold

4.

5. Drill

Drive

6.

in centre

in. hole

yV

previouslydescribed

as

7. Drill and

of

drift
parallel

"''"

tap

sizes.

the correct

to

turn

with

bar, file it square

cross

file.

square

through.
end

smaller

the

and

of

bar, but

cross

hole

the

not

must

go

rightthrough.
8.

with

Screw

Finish

g.

Notes

off with

Figs.7

handle

and

the

of

danger
with

held

be

the

enables

necessary.

The

graver.

and
the

is

fit into

and

(Fig.8)

piece

of

order

to

tempered
that

the

similar

or

its

tenacity

tool

should

off

the

to

fulcrum

colour

is

rest

for the

mandrel

for

close

as

opposite

is

with

diagonally at

straw

tool

firm

being turned,

of

turning down

steel ground

square
and

provide

the

work

the

on

pressure

shows

that

to

in

holding

large handle, giving a good

the

of

the

turning

shown

tools

steel, owing

or

of

turning brass

when

iron

kinds

different methods

the very

hence

will be noticed

It

turning

holding

the

in," it is necessary

govern

40", hardened

to

steel.

work, in

to

user

illustration

graver

angle of 35"

iron

the

of

turning

running

"

solidity
;

utmost

grip,which

various

steel, and

or

When

tool

the

objects involve

be useful, and

noticed.

be

methods

turning iron

when

tool

metals, should

doubt

no

all these

As

"

materials, the

8 will

and

turning

the

to

small

the

oil.

cloth and

fine emery

Turning.

on

in different

and

an

dies

and

bar.

cross

adjustablestocks

the

about

turning
possible

as

of

corners

the

graver.

turning

When
that

the

and

also

turning

tool

has

sufficient space

XVII,

Fig. 22, Nos.

brass

and

be

brass

similar

arranged

so

14,

metals.

that

the

(see Fig. 7,
free

83)

p.

play, thus

the

enabling

for

working

around

15,

16, 17,

illustrate the

Another

point

cutting edge

of

rest

the

when
the

the

should

shapes

turning is
tool

to

turner

curves,

will be

be

placed

shoulders,
of

tools

that
at

the
the

the

feel

etc.

for

so

cut,
Ch.

turning

rest
centre

should
line

VII.]

CHAP.

of the

iron

or

No.

be

should

is for

applies when

^3

METAL.

cuttingby

screw

hand.

When

roughing

p. 216
No.

used.

shoulders

or

No.

19

finishingoff.

for

Lubrication.
This

is

"

tant
impor-

most

in all

factor

ting
cut-

and

operations,
it varies

considerably

different

under

The

will

table
various
while

are

for

the

from

heat,

warping,

rusting

machine,

and

the

of

hours

oil referred
machine

to

work
and

This

cutting edge.

for three

the

soap

here

is

oil

should

thoroughly

use

good

water

the

prevents
soda

before

commonly

ripper.

mixture

The

the

with

parts, soda

purposes.
and

brass

the

to

A
2

Turning

7."

gives

parts, forms

30

general

away

prevent

as

worked.

being
oil

it

lubricant

the

and

parts, soft soap

parts, and

lubricant

useful,

found

100

carries

Fig.

following

be

they

work

ditions.
con-

metals

of water

the

MODELS:

the

rest

on

angles, and

also

YEAR

steel and

slide

using the
tool

This

work.

down

SECOND

and

soap

and

the

lubricates
boiled

be
use.

The

known

as

oil.
Fig.

Material.
Tool
Soft

Turning

"

mixture

The

as

above,

iron
11

iron

Dry,

no

))

lubricant

at

all.

Brass

Gunmetal
etc.

Copper

The

Aluminium

mixture

Paraffin
.

Lead

or

steel

Bronze,

iron

Lubricant.

steel

Wrought
Cast

8.

Candle

or

wax.

or

oil.

turpentine.

oil.

with

graver.

84

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

.lia;
r

N'?!

SECTlOfN

THR.OUGH

LirNE

A.".

"\
-

AVodeLy
LTitpodvi'cincS

jimpLe
alternative:

METHODS

OF

OECORATIOrN

IM-?!

FOR

EfMLARGEO
AINfD

PLAN

S"

SECTIOrX

ATB

METHOD
RAISING
OF
BEAD
AT

"

"X
'

WIPE

:7-x:

EDGE

ACTS
GUIDE

ENLARGED

PIECE

SECTION

BOX

AT

AINO

THIS

FlUCO

Fig,

I.

OF

WOOD

"

TO

SECTION

Examples

of

AFTER
HAMMERED

simple raised work.

INTO

BEING
GROOVE

VIII,

VIII

CHAPTER

THIRD

These

models

standing

trays,

nice

make

The

they

The

2)

I,

"

of

Method

bowls

be

if

dishes

flat

tinned

for

silvered

or

brass, gilding metal,

of

made

(Fig. 1).

the

puqjoses,

simple

could

hammered

plain

the

from

up

soldered,

the

of

BOWLS

card

inside
copper,

silver.

or

the

worked

are

silver

joints

the

-In

variety

They

etc.

silver,

Joints.

joints, as

etc.

on,

bowls,

German

for

used

glasses

sugar

aluminium,

be

can

AND

PATER.E

OR

DISHES

HAMMERED

(METAL)

MODELS

YEAR

with

fixed

or

Procedure

there

not

are

with

those

foot

any

have

rivets.

small

very

for

but

material,

flat

bowls

and

plates

making

dishes

the

plates (Fig. 1,

or

Nos.

:"

Make

1,

Cut

2.

full-sized

metal

drawing.

templet

to

of

shape

exact

raising, depth,

width

and

of

rim.
Cut
I,

2,

3,
4-

Cut

5-

Fig. 1, Nos.

out

nails
true,

shown
the

edge

of

wood

of

the

act

as

the

in.

about

that

shown

or

Repeat

7.

it with

Now

and

over

all

the

if the
be

metal

little

or

two

mallet

Ch.

stake
XVI,
9.

Fig. 1,

Xos.

and

f. 21
The

fix

with

up

bench.

the

to

double

ball-

is

true

against
a

time.
the

round
a

Fig.

flat

surface

it.

No.

until

the

plate

is

depth.
planish

it

smooth

and

true

Fig.
on

2.

with

flat-faced

planishing

"

^Raising

di ;h

on

a
a

round

for

extra

2.

edge

down

courses

on

Fig.

raised

at

in

hammered

or

in

that

must

anneal

operation

required
8.

as

of wood
one

raised

shown

so

part

piece

metal,

be

wood,

drive

taking

like

wood

would

guides

as

you

flatten

you

2,

hammered

After

6.

dish

of

I,

of

the

on

circular,

and

allowing

out,

piece

hammer

The

the

metal

4-

ended

cut

the

wood

mould.

hammer,

(8).
rim

is

now

made

flat

and

the

again.
(85)

edge

trued

up,

and

the

plate

annealed

86

HANDCRAFT.

Make

10.

3 in.

larger all

tallow

with

make

it flow

bed

and

the

grease

down,

Now

12.

the

some

of air bubbles

the

plate on

trace

in the

Clean

11.

on

pitch

to

the

hammer

toughen,

board

bed

pitch,pour

it,then

with

f. 21, No.

it

put
from

pitch when

design

some

mark

(Ch.

tracers

3.

Plate

is to

in. thick.

pitch block,
and

the

plate;

on

4,

Fig. 1

would

the

out

xvi,

No.

worked

it

weight

this prevents

and

10

would

only

plates Nos.

2, 3,

be worked

to

in

shown

manner

but

have

Nos.

21,

P'ig.1,

i,

back,

design.

on

up

sides.
After

13.

the

embossing

Fig. 1, the edge

2,

or

and

tallow

block

in the

them

be

both

metal.

9),holding
Fig.

the

the

on

the

on

cold, and

the

about

this about

underneath

the

vin.

plasterof Paris

common

of

underneath

the

(Ch. xvi,

some

base

and

more
on

thick wood

harden

pitch is pressed out

warm

formation

the

1) and

the

Lay

prepare
some

mix

plate,and

plaster is

it.

soften

plate,pour
that

so

the

The

pitch.

the

pitch, consisting of

of

than

round

until it sets, then

Wait

up

[chap.

wired
but

shown

as

Nos.

centre

and

part

wired

plateNo.

be trued

would

bottom

at

the

4,

Fig. 1, would,

the

designs

page,

the

when
the

edges

rims

the

on

and

up

of the

finished,have

was

and

of

bossed
em-

last.
14.
Fig.

3.

Method

"

holding

of

Fig. I, No.
carved

of

out

ball-headed

place

line it in, as

and

side

This

would

piece

of

it,bottom

be

up

raised

and
on

platesNos.

up

would

planished on

up

lacquered if required.
of
a

it into

hollow,

trunk, with

tree

round

pitch,clean

stake.

it,draw

design,

the

Fig. 1.
it in the

bed

be cleaned

now

by beating

piece

the
i, 2,

it,and

pitch,clean

These

polished and

usually

upwards,
for

described

and

wood,

smoothed

then

it off the

Take

3.

chasing

tool.

I.

"

solid

hammer,

Now

2.

3.

pitch again, the

hollow

upwards.
it up

4.

Work

5.

Flatten

6.

Clean

to

shape

it,cut

the

out

finish it off.

and

it up

smooth

and

edge

with

half-round

smooth

file.

Fig.
to

the

then

4-

This

"

the

Draw

be

would

go

the
3.

over

the

Scratch

the

design on

placing a piece of

2.
over

I, No.

polish,lacquer

and

it if desired.

made

in

different

way

to

the

others

with

emery

owing

design.
1.

and

it up

transfer

blue

design with
the

design

an
on

by cleaning the

metal

paper

the

between

metal

drawing

and

the

cloth

metal,

ivory scriber.
the

metal

with

steel scriber,working carefully

existinglines.
Lay

the

metal

on

sand

bag

and

work

the

design up

with

the

punches

88

HANDCRAFT.

take

it,driving the

round

course

[chap. Vilt.

metal

direction, using
These

round

the

round

be

not

flattened

on

and

the

It should

7.

Raising

4.

suitable

bowl

both

well

edge

of

the

interior of the bowl, and

9.

When

the

pitch is

and
10.
11.

If

it with

required
it

it

Bowl
5,

that

parts
with

ammoniac,

sal

the

with

6, Fig.

2.

Fill the

and

and

do

on

(Ch.

stake

are

the

let

not

difficult

very

draw

the

on

f. 21, No.

xvi,

pitch,and

design in

to

remove.

design for
Then

10).

pitch,and

I.

This

"

when

tinned

water

with

or

emery

whiting,heat
tin, swish

melted

some

surplus tin

is

little

off with

it

some

previouslyfor
draw

on

for the

bowl

No.

bowl

difficult than

more

brazing.

cold

the

clean

be

and

sal ammoniac.

described

as

sand

the

wipe

described

as

with

in

solderingand

foot

the

with

the

Remove

and

bowl

the

Trace

silver

involves

bowl

over

sawdust.

to

pour

and

bowl,

powdered

Foot,

wanted

not

are

and

the

nealed,
an-

bright.

hammer

and

(Ch.

inside

the

tinned, scour

No.

Raise

4.

with

bag

tracer

then

pitch.

paraffinand

in silver sand

1.

sand

thin

clean

again, heat

Fig. 1, and

3.

be

over

out

on

are

No.

21,

rouge.

to

the

over

bowl, rub

dipped

with

pitch,and

remove

Polish

pour

it in

line

banding, and

it

set, rest

f.

xvi,

smooth,

up

even

very

fill with

be

now

planishing hammer

the

marks

should

two

planished all

8) seeing the

these

as

the

round,

No.

bowl,

the

Grease

cloth, paint

tow

keep

mark

hammer

blows

The

should

(Ch.
off

be

now

marks

hammer

the

8.

warm

the

XVI,

polished,and

the

f. 21, No.

stake

dipped

stake, with

on

^i^^e-

bowl

the

trimmed

pickled,and

edge, and

the

place.

of

edge

evenly, gradually

another, and

polished

illustrated.

being given.

same

bottom

The

6.

22)

in the

given

downward

as

towards

slightly
overlap one

must

Fig.

done

of blow

weight

same

mallet

be

and

in

and

you

boxwood

must

courses

working

from

away

the

5,

design to

5,

described

as

No.

Fig. 1.
be raised.

Fig. 1.
for the

bowl

No.

5,

Fig. 1.
5.

Rest

inside with
6.

the
the

flat while
7.
the

bowl

the

wire is in
it up

into

f.

xvi,

raise
slightly

the

21, Nos.

16).

wire

tool

(Ch.

braze

the

side flat,or

xvi,

the

that

same

one
by filing

circle and

13,

21,

ends

No.

from

ornament

Repeat this

9.

File the
Place

for the

notches

hammering

the

rings in

ringsas

their correct

side

28).

together so

that

it fits

illustrated.

positionand

of.

one

foot.

in the

the

is made

bowl

tight.

8.

10.

and

material, the

grooving

bag

(Ch.

tools

round

from

some

sand

half-round

some

Bend

the

on

embossing

Obtain

If not, make

bowl

silver solder

them

on.

on

to

U!

"5

0)

"

go

a!

Ji

IS
(U

rt
c

*=

Ta
c

VIII.]

CHAP.

11.

Pickle, dip, and

12.

Polish

The

with

it,and
the ornamental
to

band

Features.

Special
combination

of

paterae, bowls,

Museum.
kind

the

The

follows

being

The

piece.

The

affecting

simple raising,the
of

stiffeningthe edges

for the

thumb

lid.

the

Now

finish the

Now

foot

and

cast

join the

finish

clean
off",

piece on

up,

decorated
in

then

one

with

the

body, load

the

pitch,clean

Unload
take

apart,

polish. Lastly

metal.

if in

as

appear
to

together,then
and

as

in the

while

and

up

plasterand

details.

Plate, Fig. 5 (2),needs

date

1650,

Cup,

Silver

in

made

together,the junction
decorated

hammered

neck

handle

same

involves

lines, and

hinge, which

and

ornamental

the lid and

similar

on

piece being

the

piece

of the

and

simple construction

silver soldered

and

but

work

Albert

and

designed

core,

Victoria

the

up

fix the

and

lid on,

fix the

polish.

Silver

centur), and

gracefulin form,

Fig. 1

be

in

advanced

more

beading, the neck


iron

Fit up

final

of the

in

halves

an

body.

be reduced, and
without

out

of

of

objects

of

joined together;

or

up

from

are

could

in two

on

up

the

The

One

and

foot.

give it

and

shown

piece of

up

touch

to

left

methods

and

is of silver,is of ver)-

made

modelled

fix the

handle

by

Hammer

pitch and
and

bowls

this process

Repeat

be

plifying
sim-

be omitted, thus

Fig. 1, could

2,

only simple

involves

could

introduction

the

are

examples

as

which

body

bent

handle

Fig.

processes.

hidden

plateNo.

embossing,

shown

are

Jug(i),

flat,then
the

in

platesand

only simple

required.

as

etc.

They

as

Fig. 1,

i.

Fig. 1, could

5,

They

"

raisingand

illustrations

The

inside

extent.

great

any

plate No.

on

over.

simple lines,and

No.

in

of flutes

the number

all

up

on

plate

on

89

METAL.

silver the

or

is all

This

decoration

The

tin

and

"

MODELS:

the bowl

clean

rouge,

Decoration.

processes.

them

YEAR

THIRD

lent

the

to

styleof

the

of

example

an

(3),is

Fig. 5

was

and

is

and

It is of

comment.

no

of the

half of the

second

decoration

simple and

ver}-

teenth
four-

It is verj'

by J. C. Robinson, Esq.

Museum

manship
work-

decoration.

punch

prize cup

English

pleasing.

TRIPODS.

and

Subject
a

be

useful

most

kept

and

Uses.

article for
The

warm.

could

be

The

Joints.

cast

or

riveted,flush
The

or

plan
If

metal

of

number
would

top

riveted

are

hearth,

to

in

varietyof

is

Fig.

thus

kettles,plates,etc., can

as

great

illustrated

geometricaldesigns,

jointsof

kinds, namely, tenoned

three

and

riveting,
simple riveting.
Make

"

strong paper

ring A, plan

of the

be

on

tripod

or

pierced.

Processes.

the

the

itself

lends

These

secret

separate drawings

footman

standing on

top

"

The

"

same

of the

of the

pattern

advisable.

drawing

The

are

next

full size of

side view

of

the

stand,

leg as

shown

supporting ring B,
being made,
step

would

and

quarter
be

to

make

from
in

this make

Fig. 6, also

tracingof

templet of
the

the

thin

top.
sheet

legs ; only

the

HANDCRAFT.

90

[CHAP.

S'^ggest'ioas
for

14

"7^ Fbdtman
iQ

be
^O
E)re^55 exnd

0(2

IS

WG

C"RA55

GxecN^ledft^"*
Iron.

^ree^menl'5
^'/ax^^'
PerV

5ide

JoioT

JoiDtcJt'
A
p-iG. 6.

footman

\7ieNX"

c5f FoormeMO.

Sketch
"

TeeV

^'

Upped
"^^^^

Tor

5ecl-.

or

tripodwith

alternate

suggestions for the top.

VIII.

foot would
A

at

and

filed.

The

anvil

of the

round

the

be transferred

might
for

be

the

out

trimmed

as

design.

The

with

for

holes

rivets.

the

be

now

of the
saw

up

It should
-^

plate, but
B

Special

the

final

for the introduction

"

in

The

be

polish.

This

Joints.

this

it

as

other

metals

gives

such

to

the

opportunity

fine

inlaid.

be

might

OIL-CAN.

most

necessar)-

and

object in

useful

large varietyof processes

They

"

top,

adds

piercing if preferred,and

be without
even

ring

where

it all

turned, but

even

metal.

by putting a pierced band

made

is the

in

piercing^

Saw

"

originalgeometrical design.

an

oil-can, a

making

top

strongly or

very

7'

1.

shaped, twisted, or

"

of

An

"

FiG-

the

AN

and

top

..u

in

be

could

engraved

Feature.

Subject.

necessary

should

brass top plate could

The

be

design could

tracing

the

where

now

be

now

mainly

is

be

legs could

of work.

amount

legs to

anneal

can

"

"

This

"

great variation

the

is,or

"

rr.!

Decoration.
.

step

drill

and
and

the

top should

now

be

lacquered.

be

not

given

and

next

rivet

brass, or

be drilled

should

trated,
illus-

should

The

the

the sheet

beak

Fig. 7.

painted,and
plate

to

saw

the

over

ring B

Now

tracing of

The

hack

together as

The

B.

tenon

then,

in

of the stand

top

ring

hot

shown.

together as

in the

should

ring A

fixed.

not

riveted
and

blade, and

files,mark

or

up

stand

the

to

riveted

holes

ornament

ironwork

plate polished; the


riveted

and

transfer paper

illustrated

rivetingto

cleaned

fitted

then

ring B.

Small

saw

small

The

while

ring but

the

to

direct.

on

fret

the

shape

legs

of carbon

means

gummed

holding

the

by

insertion

the

cut

in the

rivet them

then

ring at A,

into

former, fitted and

be to drill the holes

would

be bent

the top

to

with

down

cut

or

the

cold, and

be done

could

lathe,

sugar-loafmandril,

legs fitted

the

cold

up

on

now

91

in the

cutters

two

ring should

top

or

then
bent

between

down

cut

METAL.

forged,the bending

be

require to

MODELS

\^AR

THIRD

VIII.]

CHAP.

have

be

to

shop,
work-

metal

through.

gone

lap, folded, cramped, riveted, soft soldered,

are

and

screwed.

The
the

Processes.

for

patterns

could

while

shrinkage
be

the

other

development
metal

snips ;

parts

of the

being used,
the

burr

the funnel

and

be

full-size elevation
and

the

handle.

of

out

which

sent

the

to

and

use

should
be

be

boxwood,

rubbed

(Ch. xvi,

it
be

as

26

or

of the

size.

full

working accurately
with.

be

in

cast

The

next

24
a

24).

I.S.W.G.,

file,and
If the

and

the

jointin

two

brass

to

cut

it

this is

drawings.

cut

body

bent

two

gunmetal,

or

the

body

patterns,
the

the

to

this

from

Then

step is

templet,or develop

out, and

set

drawings

made

foundrj' to

off with

f. 21, No.

be

should
The

turning, should

being proceeded

are

body

should

stake

body

turned

patterns should

These

on

of the

development

allowing

The

"

out

up

going

on

out

the

to

the

with
to
to

the

shape
be

the

92

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

Holes /or

Sbao
QeadecfrivCTS./Os.

Vlll.

_.

ISor^OBV.G.
Sbe^-raCTftl.

"leV^OT2.

/ievelolament"
o/- Handle.

Oil-Cao,

At2

"

"

^hoOin^-methods
SVraec)

boxuaod

Woodcrz

Cu**

3-YeC

"

op^- cou6\-pvQ^ion.

joaHfera

Tobc-pfWritedoa
"

LDoocI

ncrtfera
.

yarc^c"rx."

HBilf-m.a"Q
v

BwiisciDA joa'lteT'ta.
yor CollCiPS

'

ST"K-e.

Svpticd

p.

lOoTtDra.

dividiag^it)

eleve\lToTa.
o?^.CoT2ej/roTO-'iT"TievelopmeTJI*
"

cbbich.- i5-rovatolv
ScC^le

"

Fig.

8.

"

An

3'/r-Tta

"

dieMiaeter.

III

oil-can, showing

Dov/awiagop ed^eC3rita.
aamraer?
Ii^kfr
"

methods

of construction.

iKchjea

[chap,

HANDCRAFT.

94

Fig.

I."

candlestick

construction,

in

turned

thick

black

brass.
lines

Shaded

section

being sections

of

shows

method

castings.

of

IX.

IX

CHAPTER

PUPILS

EVENING

FOR

Object.
application

of

and

screwing

suitable

model

Useful

"

and

pattern

Required

second

in

turning

making,

student

third-year

or

shows

and

wood

metal,

"

for

iron

Sheet

Method

of

Fine

plaster

Iron

rod

Ch.

zinc
of

for

for

templets.
for

Paris

box.

core

strengthening
Make

i.

"

box.

core

of

templet

pillar, Fig.

for

(i),

ample
ex-

vii.

of

pattern

base,

for

templet

Turn

patterns.

or

Procedure.

Fig. 6,
Make

3.

for

box

core

Boxwood

see

(Fig. 1).

drilling.

Material

2.

OTHERS

AND

CANDLESTICK

BRASS

TURNED

METAL

IN

MODELS

SPECIAL

Fig.
1

pillar. Fig.

(5),

and

Fig.

nozzle,

(3).

projections

(i), including

shown

dotted

by

lines.
Turn

4.

by

print

core

inside

to

line, Fig.

(i), including

shown

projections

lines.

dotted
See

5.

that

projections

and

pattern

shown

dotted

by

print

core

lines

both

are

the

are

the

length

same

size

same

on

and

that
and

pattern

the
core

print.
Lay

6.

level

with

the

is removed

all

pattern

7.

Remove

round

for

8.
9.

on

and

centre,

is
and

pattern
metal

to

the

nozzle,

Turn

the

base. Fig.

Turn

pan,

Make

1 1

Fig.

core

box

the

method

of

making

lay

this

and

sand

pack
is flat

sand

print in,

core

(5),

to

and

so

all

that

it and

it and

round

when

the

pattern

save-all. Fig.

described.

(95)

iron

test

is sufficient

outside

the
1

space

again.

line, including

first, then

with

if there

see

outside

the

inside

plaster

is also

correct

not,

(3),

(4), and
in

of

surface

If

Fig.

sand,

seen.

run.

Turn

10.

that

see

outline

sharp

the

moulding

some

the

and

dotted
cut

line.

off.

(2).

stays

as

shown

on

p.

96

where

96
Get

12.

about

the

fit

together.

turning tools
15.

rough lumps

them

Turn

14.

parts in brass

these

off the

Polish

to

the

method

For

suitable

and

with

Coat

Decoration.
or

lacquered,this
Method
Have
.

2.

required.

for this work

colour

down

Bury

This

in weak

of
a
core

"

of

pickle for

Fig. 7,

see

so

that

Ch.

vii.

xvi.

is desired.

box.

core

in itself,
but
of

made

was

it could

brass,then

well

be bronzed

polished and

be necessary.

Plaster

moulding
to

parts

put together.

would

print in

tools

of colour

shade

article is decorative

Making

box

2.

various

Figs.22 (14-17),Ch.

see

whatever

to

If this candlestick

is all that

the

screw

holding turning

of

lacquer and
"

giltif required.

as

immerse

castingsand

shape, and

correct

Fig.

16.

bronze

or

IX.

hours.

two

they

castingsof

Trim

13.

For

[chap.

HANDCRAFT.

Core

sand

depth

and
of

Box."
level

off the

one-third

or

top.
little more,

but

not

half.

3.

Cut

deeper

than

Stick these

5.

Take

Do

face

of

97

and

3 in.

about

replace.

consistencyof

little more

and

of

print out

core

and

print.

core

and

cream

; let it set

pour

bit,then

put

plaster.
sand

off the

or

the

round

the

to

face

cut

plasterexactlyhalf-way ;
take

not

box

water

in.

with

fill up

set, take

in the

8.

of about

depth

in iron wire stays and

embedded

PUPILS.

length,breadth,

sand, well grease,

of

print out

plasterof Paris with

up

7. When

the

metal

sand, forming

in the

core

printto

core

flat thin

EVENING

require.

you

Mix

FOR

METAL

IN

pieces of

some

4.

6.
over

MODELS

SPECIAL

IX.]

CHAP.

down

hollows

cut

plasterbut

that

so

for

well

printis

core

guides.
print,and

core

grease

plaster.
this half of

Place

9.

the

sides

When

set

tin round
10.

box

core

before, mix

as

and

sand, face uppermost

plaster on

pour

and

off sand

take

the

on

trim

off

this

as

put pieces of

before.

rough edges

and

square

up

to

shape.
Wait

11.

it will

apart in

come

box

until the whole

is

thoroughly hard, then give a gentle tap

halves, then

two

remove

WROUGHT-IRON

Object.

To

"

print.

core

CANDLESTICK
various

embody

processes

and

(Fig.3).

in

simple model,

suitable

for

second-year student.
Shows

applicationof chopping

the

out,

and
bending, brazing,screwing,fitting,

Materials

Required.
7 in. of
in. of

54

in. of No.

in. of

14

i-^in.
6

of

2^ in. of
in. of

2^
2

Method
1.

Head,
2.

in. of

No.

to

fit centres

No.

22

B.A.

iron for shield.

14

I.S.W.G.

iron for

14

I.S.W.G.

steel

in. iron for

in. wire

iron washer

thin

6, Ch.

Dress

in.
X

of spear.

clip.

for

spring.

filling.

I.S.W.G.

for save-all.

(ironor steel)for

iron round-headed

taper

pin.

screws.

^j.in. hole.

of Procedure."

Make
f.

No.

4A in. of No.

iron for base.

steel for spear.

I.S.W.G.

22

in.

in. of ^

I.S.W.G.

12

I in. for base

pillar.

iron for feet.

in. square

6 in. of No.

iron for

i:^in. round

riveting.

"

in. round

i^

drilling,
filing,
turning,embossing,

up

metal

vii, p. 80

ends

templet
:

also

of iron

half
for

of

pillar,as

templet

of base

shown
and

pillar,
centre, drill small

of lathe.

in

Fig.

of

Hammer

shield.
hole

and

countersink

98

HANDCRAFT.

DET/\ll_

Fig.

or

3.

"

[chap.

FEET

candlestick

with

adjustableshield

reflector.

IX.

SPECIAL

IX.]

CHAP.

Drill

3.

hole

drill a hole

then

4.

as

Dress

countersink
6.

Turn

feet

end

and

turn

vii, f. 8.

Ch.

the

to

PUPILS.

99

depth required for

fit the

to

the

For

templet.

turning tools,see

For

iron for the

of round

Ch.

Centre, drill

feet.

templet, cuttingthem

to

off with

hack

base

Mark

out

Upset

and

7.

one

EVENING

socket,

method

of

f. 22.

xvi,

hole, and

small

before.

as

cuttingthem

lathe

the

see

ends

up

in

FOR

in. diameter.

turningiron by hand,
5.

METAL

IX

guide

iron in

the

Put

MODELS

nearly

off but

quite,then

not

finish

saw.

No.

on

I.S.W.G., using templet. Cut

12

out, file up, and

chamfer.
8.

9. File base

braze

of spear

of the

out

steel for spear

in. square

piece of

head

and

fit

spear

| in. and

file to
to

shape.
then

same,

together.
shield

Cut

10.

and

of

spread end

bend

up

11.

Take

of No.

out

trim up

and

I.S.W.G.

22

edges.

Emboss

centre

the scrolls.
the

in. of

in. and

fit

hollow

to

of

shield, and

braze

in

position.
Make

13.

Drill

shield

clip

with

tap with

and

clip for pinching spear

springand

12.

holes

No.

clear

to

B.A.

screws,

and

Taper

shield and

to

drill

fit them.
holes

tapping

plug tap,

trying the

in

of
filling
when

screws

finished.
Make

14.
a

piece of
braze

and

tube

7. Fit

of save-all.

pan
over

Mark

hole for spear

and

fit the socket

to

in

No.

22

and
pillar,

make

iron round

simple lap joint

to

on

holes

base

from

fit socket

just made

and

roll

and

pillar,
using templet,filing

file.

square

plateand

to

the underside.

platefor feet,spear,

rectangularwith
to
pillar

hole

out

braze

and

pan

base

on

Cut

washer

underneath,then

mark

hole for

pin

drill.
18.

Fit feet and

19.

Put

rivet them

the whole

Take

on

to

base

plate,leavingheads

thing together,and

if it looks

see

clean

square

apart,
up thoroughly,dull polish,and
lacquer,and put together.
20.

Decoration.
and

heads
form

I.S.W.G.

together.

of socket
16.

by rollingpiece of

of save-all

iron rod

or

Emboss

15.

edge

socket

simple
the

on

of

"

curves,

base

decoration
also

form

to

decoration

and

The

as

is ornamented
of that

by using
decorative

well

is obtained

as

by

the

construction

feature.

the scrolled

ears

and

The

and

upright.

lacquer with

by forming the

shield,which

such

as

raised

on

an

centre

less
colour-

outlines of
the

ing
pleas-

raised rivet

chamfering is also

is based

simple

Elizabethan
which

was

ample
ex-

acteristic
char-

period.
HINGES

Subject"

the

semicircular.

The

character, but the

hinges which

largeone

is

(Figs.4
are

and

5).

illustrated in

Dutch.
distinctly

Fig. 4

are

Elizabethan

in

lOO

HANDCRAFT.

[chap,

IX.

102

HANDCRAFT.

illustrated

Those

suit

to

The

Processes.

3.

Cut

the

4.

Cut

out

the metal

the

Fig. 5,

the

8.

Lay

the

9.

Raise

be

could

fied
modi-

of the

hinge

transfer

or

selected.
thin

to

on

gum

and
be

pin

fit the

tools

brass

for

fit them

do

the steel

notice

should

mandril,

trated
illus-

as

two, in

be

taken

in

that

one
five-jointed

the

knuckle

with

it up

files.

burrs.

if knobs

going

are

drilled,tapped, and

Ch.

see

it out.

trim

file off the

knobs

the

f. 22, and

xvi,

polished,coloured,

be

now

not

Decoration.

bear

be used, the

to

turned.

for

For

shapes

of

holding

method

the

and

lacquered.

it; re-lacquer if necessary.

scratch

to

not

to

on

knuckle, they

chamfering,while

like those

Note.

"

hinges

or

with

must

screw

down

tighton

iron

the

in Ch.

in many

made

be modified,

particularpurpose

knuckling and

for which

various

and

types,

Uses.

"

In

involving many

little alteration they could

They
placed

most

be

of

difficult.

giving the

used

making

sections

in ink.

gives them
be

done

over

kind

of

carefullyand

consequently careful fitting.


suit varied

to

adapting,

illustrated

are

and

processes,

difficulty.No.
Before

various

finished

the

for many

suggestionsshowing

are

in their order

all

conditions, these

or

designing to

suit

handles

of

(Fig. 3).

Fig.
be

hammered

required.

they are

HANDLES

Subject

it must

9, but

opportunityfor

an

which

hammer,

different forms,

giving

so

be

should

hinges

of

will be the result.

introduce

models

f.

xii,

pittedappearance

by embossing, piercing,shaping

polished face

shown

These
are

is obtained

This

"

chamfers

judgment

should

flap,allowing

pin.

texture,

made

using

mark

shape, and

it together, taking care

the face and

is the

the

togetherneatly.

and

hinge

for the

set

parts should

outline and

very

outside of knuckle.

and

vii, f. 7.

Put

The

could

hinge

other

the

equal

fixingholes, and

that the knobs


the

cutting,and

the

to

screwed, and

The

13.

on

it out

cut

or

Ch.

12.

knuckles

ones

templet

Cut

see

centre

the

1 1.

turning

with

againstthe

for the

5.

for

knuckles

file and

Drill the

should

the

drawing

butt up

shape

to

the

knuckles,

10.

them

for

i, 2, 3, 4,

hinge the

Cut

7.

As

these

the three.

equal

the

of

any

side, and

ornamental

roughly

metal

Nos.
the

out

three-knuckle

to

the

full-size

templet out, allowing it to

up

Set

6.

See

and

knuckle.

in

of

Make

i.

"

tracingof

5. Roll

pin

modern,

arc

metal.

for the

two

Fig. 5

ix.

existingconditions.

Make

2.

sheet

in

[chap.

is the

any

through

of

other

of

many

metals.

purposes

besides

and
reallypractical,

easiest

these

the

of

use

is

what

number

to

make,

while

working drawing

different

parts.

The

With

plements.
fire im-

they are
No.
must

12

be

drawings

CHAP.

IN

MODELS

SPECIAL

IX.]

Svrrjedia

/^

dvOd

cbood

"cdvrvQGl,'
N\e"bod

"to

"

ipoa

s?'

reiia

1-bea ceNsIlameVdvL.

Fig.

"

6.

"

EVENING

PUPILS.

12,.

U.

to.

"

FOR

METAL

"B/pned-in.

Modelled

cbood

IQ"cl2"iJor"\ire\x

a^nd

ca^pved,
Thiea'CdNSTin. roete^l.

Webcast
ia-naete"l.

loc-

Suggestions for handles

in various

metals.

103

HANDCRAFT.

104

The

Processes.

1.

Draw

2.

Bend

This

2.

1.
a

piece of

in

is made

at

to

the

requiredlength.

twist

v, and

it round

the

stem.

heat.

red

bright.

armour

of iron.
y^- in.

^ in. round

or

(experiment with

cord

in. round

or

ix.

iron.

of

Fig. 7 (3),Ch.

while

is made

piece of

in.

^^

finish it

and

This

Heat

piece of

be done

to

This

i.

illustrated

it up

Clean

3.

it as

would

No.

with

down

have

No.

"

[chap.

the

iron

cord

tie

and

and
first),

knot

only

as

the

you

would

hammer

and

anvil is necessary.

with

2.

On

the

3.

After

the

been

has

with files and

Clean

up

3.

This

No.
1.

Practise

2.

Draw

length,then

is also

with

out

shut

illustrated in

as

raise to

on

welding

Fig. 7,

heat

and

No.

3.

it

shape

roll up

Bend

4.

Clean

up

4.

This

the end

Draw

out

3.

Bend

to

4.

Clean

up

5.

This

2.

No.

is also
with

drawing

3.

Put

4.

Draw

5. Now

ends

8.

between

the

collar

10.

Shape

the

11.

Clean

up

No.

6.

filed up, then

This
a

from

piece of

the

to

the

mark

it

off, then

and

the

required length.

sufificientfor

allow

off for

marked

length

the

loop,

on

as

and
could

with

finish
be

end,

on

cool

and

in

top and

madeiof

castingcould

be

each

corner.

to

together.

piece of |
end

hold

in.

in the

j\

in. rod.

vice, place

twist.

thicken

armour

bring ends

weld

prevents the

This

collar

to

on

round.

the

to

iron and

illustrated

better

flat

portion.

round

loop and

of the

centre

square

centre

and

loop

be

be.

to

the

down

end

iron in the

going

loop

together,scarf, and

collar it would

collar is

round

slightlyof

twist this

and

round

of

corners

each

heat

Weld

size

chisel cut

7. Weld

9.

-J^in.

or

of iron.

made

four

down

Heat

in.

welding together.

deep

piece of round

first.

cord

marks.

the

Bend

6.

is also

the

required

the flat solid scroll end.

finish off.

and

and

justpast

the

shape.

Flatten

2.

form

together to

have

you

of iron.

piece of

the exact

down

until

bright.

armour

made

piece of ^

Measure

1.

weld

this.

commencing

in. round

y^

or

and
tightly

finish

and

Experiment

bright.

armour

shape.

to

up

before

cord

-^ in.

of

finish it

of iron.

piece of

cloth, and

emery

made

piece

3.

No.

on

collar

collar

hammer.

4.

and

piece that projectsshut

Fig. 7,

No.

3.

actually welding

Before

by upsettingit,just where

the stem

wasting justwhere

stem

bottom

tool

or

with

the

collar

the
is.

file.

bright.
iron,or
made

in

pattern could

wood

brass

or

bronze,

and

be turned
this could

and
be

IX.]

CHAP.

brazed
used

SPECIAL

to

forgingit

e.xercise in

as

an

1.

Have

Draw

the

follows

as

in. round

length of |

convenient

made

be

and

I05

PUPILS.

If it was

filed up.

then

would

EVENING

FOR

METAL

metal, and

of similar

rein

IN

MODELS

of

made

and

iron

:
"

the thickest

it where

upset

part is.
2.

bottom

fullers and
off

Cut

4.

shape

and

top

material

excess

collar

with

the hammer

knob

the

up

with

or

thin

and

top

only.

scarf

and

bottom

at

tools

bottom

nearly to size.

fullers until

bottom

with top and

part away

in with

neck

Put

3.

lower

and

weld

to

on

the proper

size rein.

shaping

5. Finish
round

No.

handle

the

on

and

the

flats into

the

work

Get

iron

in. square

pieces of f

stripof

metal

Yellow

inlaid.

copper

be used.

also

forgingcould

two

file.

of iron with

is made

This

7.

with

up

polish.

off and

will stand
1.

flat surfaces

the

7. Finish

flats

gradually.
6. True

that

the

up

with

half-round

them

make

and

in. top swage.


Place

2.

weld

together and

flat sides

the

with

them

them

the

at

and

top

bottom.
Weld

3.

Fig. 7,

No.

4.

6.

bottom

end

piece of

metal

the
the

littlewider

Heat

than

7. Now

8.
wooden

it

with

and

knob

the

in

illustrated

as

wish

tongs

has

inlay; thin

to

got

over

little

pieces of

two

it all up

leave

and

down

out

with

half-round

thin

tight.
end

place one

in

vice, and

the

holding

it.

plierstwist

or

the ends

pieces.
close

carefullyall

If the handle

the rein.

on

separate the

stripand

the

weld

you

and

metal

heat

end

Finish

No.

of

shape straightenit while

with

hot

8.

off and

polish.

The

method

This

should

of

making

this is shown

in

and

Fig. 7,

explained

p. 108.
No.

The

9.

is done

shaping

bending

it clear

bronze,

copper,

bent

back

of

again

Take

down
2.

with

the

of iron and

hammer.

the

Shape

the

to

its

of

and

bend

and

them,

difficult

more

they

annealed

and

of

away

the

from

ring at top simultaneously.

cross

If
is

as

it

this in
be

can

neatly done
as

follows

the
:

"

length required
the

centre.

and

over,

from

filed up

procedure
off

be used

cast

are

together.

mark

working

they

If

method

piece of forging.

it could

just where
it.

brazed

:^in., roughly

round
the

been

of iron the

-i^x

finished

side

leaving

have

originalshape

is

When

side, so

If made

piece
ends
and

other

brass, after they

or

jointhardly shows.
1.

be made

casting from, by cutting one

pattern

for

draw

form

to

mallet.
9.

on

end

top

half-round

the

handle

the

chisel ; insert the

the other

the

at

on

3.

Scarf

5. Get
it

collar

and

I06

HANDCRAFT.

Finish

3.

length,close
Take

4.
as

them

Shape

5.
6.

the

up

7. Clean

up

No.

This

10.

in any

1.

Turn

2.

Carve

5. Turn

be most

it to

the

remove

all the

Stain

9.

Lacquer

with

This

II.

material,then

chase
and

brown

dark

be

or

varied

also

wood,

such

boxwood.

as

portions.

lathe.

above,

154.

p.

described

core,

on

p.

described
iron

an

say

plaster
; this would

be

10,

but

as

plastic

some

; this should

in

cast

finish would

The

core.

rod, in

be the mould

pattern could

the

177.
for No.

be

this,but
the

same

it
as

in bronze, but

well

finished

No.

as

An

10.

it would

have

excellent

to

exercise

be
in

be
the

if all in

suitable

most

handle,

POKER.

COMPLETE

bit ; these

the

rein,and

the

it would

iron,and

be made

in three

finished would

when

all

together.

The

Handle.

where

the

3. Scarf

end

5. Weld
Dress

7. Curl

ends
two

up

the

two

from

the

loop

the

handle

where

of

work

^'m.; shape and

collar.

where

weld

grip,and

bend

it,and

j|in.

to

the

for the

away

thicken
rein.

loop piece.
iron,cut

round

them

off, and

handle.

put tlie grooves

loO[)of

it has

draw

in. square,

thickest.

they are

the

piece of f

tlie

on

tail piecesfrom

handle, and

off

from

the collar, and

up

tail pieceson

tails round

handle
the

the

the

the

is and
of the

down

scarf the bottom

Cut

grip part

collar

the

Draw

Make

together.

the

Shape

i.

"

ends

two

just below

collar.

round.

would

pieces,namely,

look

and

THE

8.

the

taste.

also

would

described

as

on

iron

an

according to

modelling in the

6.

end.

in bronze, but it could

exactlyas

soaped, then

soft

This

made

be

parts in

No.

12.

carved

in the

modelled

in three

cast

strengthened with

4.

hard

explained on

as

be

it up

on

lathe.

the

crocus

should

2.

collar

pattern suitable for casting.

some

in the
up

could

one

greased, or

scarf the

it is

transparent lacquer as

alternative it could

be welded

shut

sand.

plainparts

8.

This

right

ornament.

Polish with sand

modelled

piece projectingat

suitable if made

outline in

the

7.

No.

and

piece projectingbeyond

similar metal, and

and
Chisel, riffle,

10

scarf the

to the

would

6.

be well

the

to

in bronze.

Pickle

No.

the ends

polish.

and

the

off

leavinga pieceprojectingthrough.

3,

on

shape, trim

for the rein,upset the end

collar and

exactlyto

3. Cast
4.

No.

the handle

Weld

be made

an

Fig. 7,

iron

of

piece

it to

ix.

scarf them.

togetherand

the

illustrated in

working

and

bending

[chap.

tlie handle

lieen

drawn

in with
and
away

top and
see

bottom

fullers.

they set nicely.

for the

rein,and

scarf it

CHAP.

IX.]

SPECIAL

IN

MODELS

FOR

METAL

EVENING

PUPILS.

107

Elcvtl Section
lirach.-

A--

lb

"

loaO).

3ecf\\onan.

Section
,

A-r5^

"TttK
-lop itavr

l"eep-C3ir"es-

ora

Wipes.

P)"ia.

Mcfhod

"

y-

"

con3l-pvcf1:ia(l5cd\le
o

TT

TT

Fig.

7.

"

Processes

in

making

cage

handle

08

HANDCRAFT.

Rein.

The
with

bottom

top and

Shape

2.

The
draw

ready

Bit.
the

down

3.

Cut

4.

Hold

end

the
it

5. Weld

The

and

the

end,

bottom

rein should

centre

bit.

surplus material

off.

to

on

rein and

the

handle

work

round

up

fullers.

have

of

end

bit

the

left

been

roughly to shape,

the rein.

to

on

bit into

the

the other

to

on

work

square,

ready for welding

scarf

the

the

each

away

with top and

groove
of

ends

piece of |^in.

and

by

draw

scarfing.

Get

the rein

Weld

2.

for

i.

"

boss

centre

end.

each

little thicker

in. square,

piece of |

ix.

swages.

the

up

Scarf

3.

Get

i.

"

[chap.

shape

finish off.

and

the rein

seeingthat

the

overall

length is correct.
Examine

6.

it all over,

OF

METHOD

Subject
making

and

Uses.

finish off

and

MAKING

in

is very

HANDLE.
7

Fig.

suitable

bright.

armour

CAGE

drawings

The

"

handle, which

cage

it up

clean

for

lire

illustrate the

method

implements.

This

of

is

cellent
ex-

practicein lightsmithing.

short

The

Joints.

The

Process.

pieces,and
Weld

2.

weld

ends

together

and

scarf

Shut

collar

5. Heat

Heat

end

up

bottom

evenly

to

handle

Regulate

I o.

Clean

The

the

up

have

wire, but

rightand
a

the

Special
done
and

with

form,

a
as

holding them

or

of the

in No.

3.

the

knob

form

and

handle

in No.

as

and

4, then

carefullytwist

it.

evenly.

"

not

as

the

to

slow

flat and

thus

knob,

handle

pliers,

in.
{"].;

from

handle

so

on.

need

it could

could

you

have

riched
en-

from

been

twisted

in

one

twisted

to

finished three

When

be

be made

not

that has

square

six wires

are

left and

The

kept circular.

are

itself is decorative, but

engraving it.
there

round-nosed

files.

cloth, seeingthat the wires

emery

be made

Features.

hammer,

or

that

with

with half-round

The

knob

next

end

one

slowly, slightlytapping the

formed

so

"

it could

gradual

very

i.

little.

with files and

Decoration.

drawn

and

twist

unwind

collar

oppositedirections,so
the

2,

two

it by.

hold

to

as

heat

it will not

and

cage

by shaping the
round

No.

as

required place (see No. 5)

in the

Shape bottom

g.

as

bottom

and

in No.

shown

collar.

Carefully heat

shorteningthe

bottom

welding

heating is important,or

8.

top

length required,also

the

wire

binding

something

top and

on

the

round
slightly

7.

rod

y^ in. round, scarf

piece of

together. This givesyou

6.

piecesof

the

at

joints.

bit tongs.

Upset

4.

The

off six

Cut

i-

"

all welded

are

tie together with iron

the

in the hollow
3.

These

"

wires

would

twist.

This
filed.

is the
It is

templet or guide is not

welding ;
a

good

used.

and

test

the

for the

ball

knob

should

appreciationof

be

line

HANDCRAFT.

no

development

Reber

Von

the

pier at intervals.

square

that the

corners

second

The

column.

sectional
for

octagon,

doubling.

of

process

last

The

preponderance
desire for

ornament

also

would

stage represents the

parts of

column

are

The

If the

with

column

which

Egyptians

rigidity. A
this

side, and

consider

the

that

into the

develop

Composite

and

jected
re-

displayinggreater

one

later to

was

simple
column

The

orders.

ing,
shaft,neck, capping, base, frieze mould"

entasis

"

terms

and

order

cornice

with, viz.

"

module

"

of the

corresponding parts

also be dealt

would

followingterms

of

the

authorities

Some

form

variouslynamed

scrolls.
flutes,fillets,

the

"

the Ionic, Corinthian, Doric, Tuscan,

of

columns

that

improve

the

to

the

on

to

by

suggested channelling each

proto-Greek

"

column

thinks

in favour

vertical line effect.

the

accentuate

desire

suggests greater strength and

have

to

appears

irregular
octagon

an

naturallylead

would

solid

octagonal

improvement

regular.

or

circular column,

line,which

of vertical

to

an

was

Reber

Von

eight-sidedor

an

sixteen-sided

the

to

development

plan, for

rotundityof

sleek

the

led

have

to

above

in size

equal

were

circular in sectional

almost

last

sides

this type is believed

upon

indicated

third

the

plan, and
all the

from

carved

provided by leaving a

similar

been

have

to

stage appears

primitivesquare

the

chambers, he considers

these

forming

gists,
archaeolo-

German

were

ceilingwas

or

thus

away,

of

These

facilitate moving about

To

chamfered

were

Nile.

the

along

x,

deal at great length with

works

account
interesting

for the roof

support

necessary

The

buildings.

in their various

gives an

chambers

rock-hewn

the

rock, and

in

Reber

Von

Greek

famous

of the

Winkelstein,

and

early columns.
pier in

time

the

to

[chap,

with, then

dealt

are

duced.
intro-

also

are

entablature, cornice

or

frieze moulding, modillion, guttae,dentil,pedestal,base, surbase,


moulding, frieze,
abacus.

plinth,and

be difficult to find

It would

mentioned

parts corresponding to those

portico is
in every
of
its

classic orders

reversa

cyma

"

"

torus

To
one

hollow,

or

and

further
has

moulded

"

frieze

that

ovolo

"

fa9ia".

base

from

Above

things.
are

the

ogee,
"

quote
to

of
friezeor picture-rail

and

of

of

or

"

elements
terms

as

piece
a

occur

room.

of

furniture, the

Ordinary

room

drip,
"

or

"

recta

cyma

bead,
in

"

board
"

architrave
doors

to

round

have

or

fillet "

or

and

"

room,
a

square,

"patera".

domestic

of

scotia,

illustrated,

features,
"

"

be

elements

"

the cornice

terms

has

right ogee,

or

trochilus

"

could

of various

up

the

things

cornice
It

etc.

"swag," "husk,"

applicationof architectural

"skirting,"the moulded

as

the cornice

to

portico

"

fillet, astragal

these
such

as

of

commonplace

the

made

are

"

corona

roots

same

applies also

moulding

mouldings

all

distinct

columns

the

in

seen

cornice

the

the

"

Some

illustrate the

only

of

has

have

unique opportunityis afforded

of architecture,such

frieze part introduces

to

"

whilst

reversed

or

"

cavetto

whilst the

lesson

"

"

real

did not

term

plasterceilingcornice, sideboard, cupboard,

"

"

bookcase,

or

in another

out

in the

found

the

Thus

parallelsin

pointed

that

seen

cornice, adaptations of which

the

home.

wardrobe

be

each

as

derived

are

many

with

culture

linking up learning or

for

it will

words,

commonplace

more

and

above,

separate evolutionaryinterest,and

and

building which

or

plinth,"

door, and

the

stiles," muntings,''
"

Fi3.

I."

Portico

and

railingsat
By

Chandos
R,

and

House,
J. Adam.

Queen

Anne

Street, London.

lancet

shapes,

originwith

root

other

parts of these

The

between

connexion

discussion

arched

tops,

of

pointed arch

the
have
few

as

connexion

suggestionsin

and

notes

with

opportunity

with

semicircular
with

be

tiles.

semicircular, and

doorways usually have


built

those

is

door

the

should

also

Gothic

the

and
pillar,

usually made

buildingsare

and

mention

those

as

and

flat lancet

".
pilasters

column,

fanlightabove

such

decoration.

arch, like

Tudor

reference

"

fine

subject of doorways,

construction,

carved

supporting

gives another

the

common

upon

"pila," a column,

feature, whilst
distinguishing

characteristic

and

monastic

and

with

massively built of stone

of terms,
the

Roman

in churches

doorways

Norman

Fig.

seen

parts of the

the

itself in

be

two

word

directlydealt with,

one

feature

door

\Vhilst upon

the

than

of others

and

Latin

the

comparison

and

period.

feature of the
made

The

portico has

similarlyto

very

pilaster

be noted.

pilon,should
for the

named
"

"

will

It

words.

or

indicatinga

is valuable, as

terms

of the

back

the

are

the

terms

common

that

photograph

the

to

analysisof

An

etc.

Ill

trefoils,
cinquefoils,
tracery, quatrefoils,

have

windows

Gothic

panels ;

rails,and

CLASSWORK.

TO

APPLICATION

ITS

AND

CRAFTWORK

X.]

CHAP.

Below

shape.

object lessons

times

during Tudor

based

given

are

the

upon

going
fore-

matter.

Lessons

Object
It is

shown,

or

has

of

drawing

largecharcoal

visited

has

the class

suggested that

Doorway.

on

one

doorway, similar

to

the

example

the wall.

displayedupon

Apparatus.
(a) Large
(c) Plaster
the frieze shown

First

with

of

Examples

stone

earliest known

the

rolled in

block

or

doorways

and

ancient

of

example part

and

doorways, giving as

an

ample
ex-

position for security.

gates,

shown

as

doorways, photographs

by

Biblical

and

diagrams

or

of

ancient

specimens.

museum

Identityof doorways.

Teacher

deal with

to

historical

examples.

Lesson.

(a) Roman.
principleof
by

for

as

quotations.

Second

used

with

deal

of ancient

Egyptian remains,
4.

to

hole

Evidences

classical
3.

high.

notes.

(such

ornament

5 feet

to

photograph).

teacher

simple

a
2.

in

typicalpiece of

feet

Lesson.
The

1.

of

cast

about

doorway

sketches, diagrams, and

etc., for

(d) Blackboard,

of

sketch

charcoal

the

With

"

the

Greeks.

Teacher

slides,existingremains

{^) Norman.
Note

the

Deal

also with

decoration
term

semicircular

arch, which

Roman

With

"

"

Norman

work

semicircular

of these

types and
"

and

Noting

superseded
indicate

to

of Roman

head.

by

showing

the post and


means

these

head, but built


deal

historic

characteristics

with
matter.

of

such

as

the

lintel construction

photos, diagrams,

or

features.
up

with

examples

sections

of

stone.

in old churches,

etc.

HANDCRAFT.

112

Third

semicircular

Pointed

with

(d) Tudor.
times

With

between

to

time.

the

Norman

and

development

note

Illustrate

Gothic

construction.

by

of

means

moulded

The

from

doorways.
of
fireplace

open

corresponding to doorways.

Characteristics

1.

Entrance

2.

Portico

3.

Without

4.

Names

with

doorways,

Georgian doorway.

fanlightabove.

cornice

supported by
with

portico,but
and

photograph (Fig.1).

per

of the

of the

classical columns.

and
pilasters

outstanding work

of

consoles

supporting pediment.

eighteenth-centuryarchitects.

some

Georgian period,and

link

of

use

extinguishersattached

etc.

Description of

applied

terms

to

the various

to

domestic

way,
parts of the Georgian door-

pilaster,

column,

etc.

Indicate

Fifth

as

with

door

5. Customs

7.

of

notes

flat-pointedarch

Georgian Doorway

6.

construction, class

Lesson.

(a)

applicationof

terms

objects.

Lesson.
outline

(a) Simple
and

difference

"

with arch

Fourth

to

arch

brief historical

the

largediagrams

x.

Lesson.

("r)Gothic."

Tudor

[chap.

arched

Tudor

diagrams

be drawn

to

of the Roman,

Norman,

Gothic

or

doorways.

or

indicated,such

It will be

devised

of

the

Georgian doorway

cornice

column

capping

frieze

pilaster

the

from

seen

the

pediment

doorway

as

above
a

that

basis.

is

of

passed through
side of
literary

The

when

work

can

life now

definite

and
gate, railings,

know

we

be

parts

quite as
whilst

working

well

as

terms

scope

backwards

from

applied,will

afford

From

the

political
history.

all of which

lightingstructures,
cannot

be

can

interest and

have

properlybe separated from

the

history.
(Metal)

period,and

the

and

developments

photograph reproduced

typicalof
only

is the

Lesson

Object

of

names

of object lessons
much

technical

the

opportunitiesfor introducing craft historyas


side there

number

the window,

discussion

quite a

There

fireplaceand

the

piece of furniture,with

ironwork

with

as

dealing with

when
a

with

diagram

outline

{d) Simple

used

to

in

like much

something

of

illustrate and

Gates.

Eighteenth-Century

Fig. 2

of

of

our

more

the
to

life of

help

the

us

to

eighteenth-centuryironwork
older

work

is fullyunderstood

Indeed

time.

understand

is

such

phase

pieces of
of London

past.

Life and

pr(;i)ertyare

safetyis reflected

now

secure,

more

in the

way

our

and
houses

feelingof

the consequent
are

built.

The

doors

parative
com-

of

our

Fig.

2."

Ironwork

at

Xo.
44

Great

Ormond

Street,

Bloorasbury

(170S).

HANDCRAFT.

tl4

hang
the

out

diminished

brutal
of

the

thoroughfares
lamp

torches

are

of

iron

in the

with

are

form

of

chiselled
is

carved

man

work

good

of

The

Necessary

the

often

spikes

reminders

This

in two
with

off

is

to

been

and

greatly improved

well

de

its purpose,

serve

as

statement.

driven
of

on

of

bracket

Albert

the

holds

the

There

Museum.

that

such

made

pin

visitors.

fact

the

walls
Palace

chiselled

Victoria

and

or

supporting

of

mourn

links

and

mouth

horses

Berkeley

into

wrought

the

of them

Strozzi

the

The
a

the

again

not

riveted

vertical

by

into

Addison

but

serving utility".

an

the

fine

and

gas

examples

says

alliance
The

ends
The

of

the

old

may
two

shown

be

is

stray dogs.

days.

known

the

lyre form.

the

as

these

collar

railings
"

rail

screwed

uprights
the

of

appearance

finished

pilastersare

separately and
of

the

position by

in

the

of

follow

features

some

bins,

on

have
is

work

the

alternatelyplaced along

leafy arrows

Craft

photograph

forged

lower

base.

of

tops

of

pilasterswhich

held

are

of

were

and

dustmen

hundreds

on

usually

dogbars.

as

suburbs, they

the

palings (usually called

The

and
"

remark

form

known

are

things

The

been

have

for

repasts

The

the

of

days

centre

stone

spikes

moulded

Wolf

of

uprights.

the

on

leaded

our

shall

we

the

one)

of

less heroic

of the

tops

gate
London

craftsmen.

are

in

centre

the

rich

through.

The
a

some

and

aspect

and

the

before

pleasant

scrolls

and

forged

J.

less

knobs.

bar,

tenons

As

rings

of

which

The

1700.

of

side

in

standards

walls

are

in the

of

provided

streets

proportion

pieces

left rough

tops.

Some

standards, have

in

to-day

interesting to

The

cast-iron

be

historical

be

may

good

horizontal

the

iron.

face.

reins

on

into

from

unlighted

each

trumpets,

lamp

the

human

and

bar

city where,

the

the

is obvious.

made

kept

of dark

one

sheet

in

fits,and

now

bottom

might

the
of

now

that

of

are

fine

These

the

cast-iron

or

of

into

seen

date

were

brackets

must

ugly

in the

into

Dropping

ramps

for

torch

craft

in the

bars

such

as

photograph

interesting

seen

unnecessary.

necessary

are

the

ring

these

their

offal thrown

They

which

studded

his

small

still more

torch

of

horns

which

holders.

into

loves

with
electricity,

link

or

be

can

the

cemented

with

and

who

in

winged dragon

ring

citizens,and

to

be

to

reminiscent

made

on

pitch-pine

Florence

torch

specimens

many

The

entrance.

dangers
still

are

houses

looking

mansions
of

or

In

magnificent

some

old

some

still remain

the

resin

houses

extinguish it,are

to

Squares,

on

curious

examples

and

tow

the

body

torch

Actual

old

some

extinguishers, which

These

his

Grosvenor

inside

link

the

are

thrust

lids.

and

on

lessened

of

standards.

lamp

standards.

link-boy
had

old

but

x.

authorities, the organization

municipal

provided lamps,

have

crimes

the

of

interestingfeature

Another

the

work

education,

police, and

examples

The

lantern.

[chap.

practised
of

means

proves

the

without

art

and

still

giving pleasure
truth

of

Addison's

as

CHAPTER

IN

USED

MATERIALS

"

After

of

Mother

"

all

HANDCRAFT

Blue

Pearl

Pearl
"

"

the

been

have

trees

WORK

DESCRIPTION.

DISTRIBUTION,

CLASSIFICATION,
Timbers

XI

Japanese

Pearl

it

be

down,

cut

(i6th

Palissy

cease."

will

"

Tortoise-shell.

Ivor)-

"

"

for

necessary

the

arts

to

cent.).

TIMBER.

is

Timber
from

the

the

inward

of

exogenous

partridge
divided

and

lacewood

'into

needle-leaved

to

the

of

other

the

of

on

handcraft

this

growth

of

types,

for

instance,

it will

be

found

are

above
feature

to

of

timber

be

course

the

again

are

broad

and
for

commercial,

needle-leaved

though

texture

commercial

the

by

class.

belonging

botanical

and
of

exception

rather

beech,

yew,

tion
classificaand

poplar,

of

6500

growth

Thus

in

ft.

on

is further

of

for

accounts

spruces

examination
altitude.

One

"

This
and

misleading

classification

timbers,

of

indefinitely.

Conditions.

Europe

and

the

extended

pines, firs,

North

sea-level

show

is climate.

upon

compensated

belonging

than

to

in

soft

are

the

with

are,

I will

Climatic

timber

of

poplar

indicates

page

which

Chart

to

of

and

belong

yew,

trees

as

work.

list could

Effect

the

as

rather

of

use

commonly

respectively,

trees

is botanical

general

more

Exogenous

softwood

ing
form-

or

botanically.

next

timbers,

Reference

the

the

and

distinct

as

growing
the

to

known

palm,

markings.

peculiar

such

of

trees,

palms),

only exception

use

classification

texture,

class

some

in

used

its

whitewood

hand,

hardwood
Chart

and

hard

the

growing)

included

are

is the

hardwood

This

trees.

woods

On

Practically

from

classes,

two

which

(in

woodworking

in

(outward

exogenous

growth.

timber

"

"

varieties

"endogenous''

wood

some

of

product

are

general
the

the

Sierra

dealt

with

(115)

wide

pine
it grows

Nevada

in

Chart

of
II.

is

of

generally
at

Southern

many

distributed,

differences

that

in

factors

distribution

universally

conditions

Norway

important

most

the

almost

northern

Northern

the

in

and

zones

regarded

height

of

Spain.

as

700

ft.

This

ii6

HANDCRAFT.

CHART

SHOWING

BOTANICAL
OF

CHART

II

ILLUSTRATING
GROWTH

AND
SOME

EFFECT
OF

COMMERCIAL

CLASSIFICATION

TIMBERS.

OF
TIMBER

[chap.

CLIMATIC
TREES.

CONDITIONS

ON

THE

XI.

Reference
of

the

fact

The

qualityof

illustrate

timbers, and

some

climatic
particular

conditions.

the rich soils and

humid

slow-growing,and

well- figuredand

favourable
not
as

the

richlymarked

so

wood,

the

qualityof

the

applicableto
which

from

ranges

upward growth,

an

Those

grown

advantage, as
value

from

exposed

winds

high

its
grain,affecting

considerablytwisted
or

compression.

from

this

For

relative

reason

of situation

effect

the

to

grasses and

numerous

of colouring,and
; whilst

wood
of

elms.

Zealand

of New

New

Zealand

kauri

or

Coniferous

"

There

are

no

be discerned
pores
under

in

show

various

lines

as

hard
in

botanical

on

oak,

and

soft woods

Soft

no

Woods

show

the

than

fine and
When

If

exhibits

wood

tensile strain

to

interesting
study
sub-tropical

favour

the

growth

exceptionalhardness,
and

Australian
favour

The

the

ness
rich-

tulipgrowth

temperate

more

the medulla

clearlydefuied
inner

the

examined

group

(i) By Transverse

ol

the

showing

and

of the

or

pith.

can

tinct
dis-

section,viewed

transverse

best.

Oak

and

beech

medullary rays

This

general characteristic

beech, although

less

pronounced

have

pith and
the

they

pith rays

woods

groupings and geometricalarrangements

constitute

cut,

rings,

annual

but

Hard
on

tion.
Sec-

ring or spring growth.


wood,

numerous.

definite

spring

in

section

transverse

eye.

when

apparent
have

its

its situation.

The

Australia

pines,exhibit

of this feature

radiatingfrom
and

and

growth of moderately hard timber, such

in colour

pores

timbers,

woods,

as

the naked

studies
interesting

of many

valued

to

the

an

growth.
of

best

to

favourablyregarded

atmosphere

trees

tree

timber

the

afford

timber, i.e. jarrah.

the

good glass,very

microscope, these

afford

visible

and

darker

being

to

the

favouring
branches.

the

pine.

visible pores
under

timbers

belts in Western

to

timbers^such

growth

autumn

conduces

by

not

grain,including silkyoak

coarse

of

submitted
is

humid

tall,slender,

of

qualityof

The

quality and

upon

ridge

of Hard

Identification

the

beauty

ironstone

the

strengthwhen

Australian

any,
mahog-

familiar feature,

and
is characteristic,

in addition

of

remarkably strong, though

climate
as

palms

The

development

proper

jungle forests with heavy undergrowth and


of

is

branch-wood

also

standpoint.

woodworker's

instance, Honduras

displaythe full characteristics

erratic growth

texture

material, whilst

softer

standpointis also directlyaffected


an

so

material.

hard

land

oaks, ashes, and

our

commercial

to

in

seen

as, for

moderately

acting against a

situations

in open

are,

in

hard

are

ever,
how-

generalprincipleis especially

This

in closelywooded

trees

and

climates

sub-tropicalcountries, produce

order,

same

soft to

very

of

straightgrowth

and

the

belongingto

trees

nor

hard,

very

trees, which

"

generallyproducing

richlygrained woods.

grainedand

hard, close

producing

important factor affecting

is another

tropicaland

of

oak

by

important factor,

woods, whilst the temperate

trees

land

swampy

especiallythose

rich soils,and

soil is another

the

exception of the

with the

"

largelyaffected

are

tropicalcountries

marked

situation of timber

The

former.

timbers

most

moderately rapid-growingtimber

of

growth

the

to

that

of

atmosphere

II

WORK.

graphicallythe general distribution

will show

chart

above

the

to

HANDCRAFT

IX

USED

MATERIALS

XI.]

CHAP.

is

silver

grain,or

which

figure,so

conspicuous. Generally,

figureor markings, but

there

are

excep-

1 1

HANDCRAFT.

tions, such

and

Leaves.

(2) By

medium

leaf of the elm


five upon

arranged

Some
as

leaves

the

on

and

intervals

few

as

speciesof

far

is

examples
With

which

of

the

the

end

of this

to

differences

the

have

Europe

broad

of

Pines,

on

into any

or

the

spacing of

the

male

in

the seeds contained

in

seeds

walnut,

from

are

structor'
in-

the

lessons, introduced

object

objects,tools,and
of

the

processes.

altitudes characteristic

northern

being

compensated

are

frequentlygrowing

equator

certain

at

latitude

pine,
also

almost

which

of

flourishes

the Sierra Nevada,

on

identical

in both

cases.

growths

will be found

but

number

of

distance

to

yearly temperature,

location,Mr.
the

upon
to

Dryer
the

towards

which

the

poles,up

length and
any

partlyby

leaf-shedding trees, including


horizontal

season

other

leaves

power,

with

hand,

thin

with

to

their

mountain

the

upon

of the
of

side, or

temperature

average

variations

extend

may
the

average

year."
leaf

surfaces

beech, oak, plane, and

epidermis or

viz. sustainingand

lasts, by exposure

speciesof plant

at the hottest time

conditions

"The

says:

region,depends

hot
relatively

six weeks
to

working

growing

acorn,

that exactly similar

mean

distance

The

or

maximum

and

familiar

growths

extend

may

themselves

"deciduous"

etc., and

near

for the year

period about

adapt

leaflet

contained

from

germination

and
generally,

season.

twig.

or

complicated reproductiveprocess

Northern

similar

stem

terminal

alternate

an

typical example

chapter.

follow
necessarily

equator,
of

Trees

the

the

on

thirteen

fascinatingpursuit. Flowers,

of

the leaves

striking.

least

growing

sycamore,

the

other.

is the

apart with

at

the

with

stem

especial interest for

botanical

speciesof plant

temperature

whilst

is also

cold region,depends
relatively

towards

thus

and

regard

any

into any

from

one

altitude, countries

not, of course,

the

on

exhibits

horse-chestnut,

temperature

mean

places

being

cones

from

growth

preceding chart, differences

other

Sweden,

Spain, the
in

and

trees

in Norway,

It does

the

edge serrated, and

in their

example,

seeds

least, of

the

of

latitudes.

northern

Botani-

groups.

beech, oak, cherry, etc., have

apple, cherry,almond,

the

as

at

in the

differences

by

or

larches, and

pointed leaf,growing

more

other

alternatingwith object lessons

is shown

As

for

simpler process

the

suggested at

are

and

the

to

trees

standpoint
at

the

sycamore,

seeds, ranging from

shells,such

and

birch,

flowers

fruit,such

edible

for

lime, alder,

has

"

has

ash

equal distances

at

study of

female, fruit

husks

the

stem

of coniferous
an

whilst

ash,

The

and

The

stem.

the

tree

spaced exactly opposite each

are

in the

on

book.

bunches

soft woods,

as

leaves, varying in shape and

distinctive

each

classed

are

of the

works

pines,firs,spruces,

in small

growing

hardwood

"

whilst

stem,

upon

trees

the

as

end

standard

reproduction.

of

The
are

coniferous

all

such

Soft woods,

"

the

xi.

further study of this

For

various

to

Bibliography at

needle-pointed leaves

cedars, have

cally also

in the

of this tree.

is recommended

reader

given

trees

burrs

especiallythe

yew,

subject,the

absorbing
timber

the

as

[chap.

skin which

nourishing

the

mits
pertree

"

the air.

spiky, needle-pointed

leaves

are

CHAP.

XI.]

MATERULS

m^"^

SfToot-fpom

USED

IN

H-\NDCRAFT

WORK.

119

irte^Je

RooV.obfoaa-

OeOeloro-^
menT'OT

of"Cd^yledQn/:

Fig.

I.

HANDCRAFT,

120

peculiarly
adapted
exposed.
the

the

The

Growth

of

tree, leaves, etc.,

readily

is not

data

white

To

paper.

Fig.1

of
small

these

mounted

upon

in oak-trees.

coming
The

year.

in search
is

and
illustrated,

also in the number

fourth

The

root.

of them

means

spread

over

small

the

The

tree.

of

the

roots

flowers

and

definite flower
fruit

the

and

their
colour

system
at

to

seeds

or

takes

form

"

return

downward
than
of

in

turn

later to

the

are

unlike

the

in

latter

those
a

less

course.

parent growth, as

of

be

can

the sap

known

as

in various

leaf

in size and
the

to

shows

in age

the

main

main

roots,

and

size,the

and
roots

the

and

The

stem.

During

buds

be

the

of natural

various

During

has

thick autumn
in

tree

to

bright

no

after
diff'erent

layerof

tions
condiin

wood

woods, darker

most

Characteristic
".

pear
ap-

summer

the autumn

juicesin

natural

to

salts and

parts of the

noted,

the

risingsap,

degree by atmospheric
a

of

ascending juicesin

in search

ramification

the oak

the

secondary roots

flower.

some

ring.
"

wards
down-

diagram

twigs,causing the

cases

in

the

spring of

turned

feeders

as

the

upon

clearlyseen

the annual

shown

by

-seed-bearingtrees.

changed

extension," otherwise

sprayed

istics
character-

increased

feeding the

themselves

liquid form, forming

springlayerof

act

oak, it should

The

third

specimen,

and

some

the shoot

has

root

is formed

in

return

This

of

the increasingdemands
satisfy

to

the branches

other

have

be

bursting with

after

the

increases

the tree

being deposited

rightangles to existingtwigs,hence
the

an

in order

fruit.

most

large sheets

on

occurring in the

roots, which

conveyed through

mature

are

place ;

this,the

constantlyextending

are

which

elements,

just

In

of the

substance

these

tions
the illustra-

of the main

stage with

actual

As

into leaf,and

burst
finally

and

the

one

reaches
juices,finally

natural

season

from

root.

woody

spring growth, some


or

with

larger surface

much

parent

suggested

are

they should

use,

course

second

secondary

or

stage, drawn

the

the

coincident

hair roots, each

secondary and

light,this of
nourishment.

and

of small

future

is shown

acorn

shows

of moisture

charcoal

drawings illustrating
some

the

diagram

scientific

growths by

thirtyminutes,

or

themselves

much

followingdata

in

millboards.

An

towards

next

twenty

drawings for

various

shown

are

growth

shoot

shoot

preserve

fixative and

On

by

growth.

chapter.

be dealt with

interest in botanical
The

oak-

an

preferablyfrom
2 of this

object lessons,too

arouse

old

tree.

readilylending

previouslysuggested, with

being prepared,as

the

is to

of

specimen object lesson, lastingsome

with

aim

of timber

features

walnut-trees

the purpose

chief

advisable, the

indicatingthe main
for

For

made

could

trees

the

the growth of

on

Figs. 1 and

familiar

of

factor

before

the

to

diagrams

drawings in

the

oak, ash, plane,apple, and

the

effective demonstration.

to

largecharcoal

number

any

objectlesson

An

considerable

nourishment

xi.

leaf surface

aggregate

leaves appear

new

supply of
"

from

or

that

seen

the

the aid of

It will be

and

evergreen,

Oak-tree.

an

the actual

this way,

are

sustain

to

be given with

could

tree

growths

in order

shed

are

virtue of the small

drought,by

tropicalcountries atmospheric evaporationis a

In

majorityof

ones

resist

to

[chap.

of the oak

New

growths

is

in
"

its

appear

branches, practically rightangles


at

diagrams

in

Fig.

2.

The

oak

is

CHAP.

MATERIALS

XI.]

peculiarlyliable
oak

apples, and

foreigngrowths, such

to

currant

Suggestionsfor
1.

objectlessons

characteristics of timber

General

hard

and

woods

Soft

etc.

trees,

on

in

illustrated

being

galls,these

galls,"shown

"cluster

as

121

WORK.

HANDCRAFT

IN

USED

in

:
"

trees

"

Introducingneedle-pointedand

woods.

leaves.
2.

The

of

growth

from

tree

seed

:
"

(a) Pine.
(seealso Figs. 1

(d) Oak
3.

Identification of

trees

and

leaves.

4.

"

5.

"

"

"

fruits.
"

"

general outlines

6.
"

"

7. Commercial

,,
"

and

value

(a) The

oak.

(fi)The

beech.

(c)The

apple.

(J) The

cherry.

8. The

some

English trees

((a) in
-^
[{p) m

(c)Second

:
"

:
"

seasoning.
seasoning.

{(f)Desiccation
conversion

kiln

or

drying.

of timber

"

(a) Felling.
{/")Lumbering.
(c)Shipment

of timber.

("/)Cutting mill,machine
10.

By-products of timber

and

hand.

:
"

{a) Charcoal.
{/")Tanning

(r)Natural

bark.
oils

("/)Paper pulp
Gum,
(t')
11.

12.

The

turpentine,resins,etc.

"

from

rubber,

formation

(a) The

plant.

(d) The

sapling.

{c) The

tree.

illustrated

Geographical distribution
{a) Australia.
(d) Russia.
(c)United

States.

{(f)England.

:
"

timber.

etc., extraction

of wood

of timber

of.

by

"

the

growth

of:

summer.

"

/,x

seasoning.

(d) Natural

The

"

of

uses

timber

seasoningof

(a) Water

9.

2).

their barks.

from

Fig. 2,

Fig. 2.

"

wmter.

broad

HANDCRAFT.

122

Shown

by graph

decorative

13.

Trees

14.

Afforestation

as

xi.

ratio.
illustrating

chart

or

[chap.

media

:
"

Box, holly, etc.


Need

statisticsof colonies

for,and

foreigncountries.

and

conditions

of climatic

Effect

15.

re-afforestation.

and

certain

peculiarto

Timbers

the

upon

of timber.

growth

zones.

countries.
,,

"

"

their function.

and

Leaves

16.

pine needle

The

leaf.

timber.

Deciduous

Tropical growths.

the shell of the

from

its relation

of lime

produced by
of

oval

an

shores

of

they

parts

some

are

grit or
until

not

was

good- coloured

branch

much

are

Australia,the

of

of

that

years

these

after

feet

many

that

For

peculiarly

Indian

Ocean,
been

subject,the pearl is
in time

stone-like
were

deep.

Now,

and

for

pearl
thick,

purposes

after.

the

however,

demand

the

commercial

gem

in to

dealt

being opened,

to

of

detached

shell, which

the

pearl shells

pearl fishingowing

sought

shells in

of

in the

this

on

usuallydiscarded
with

and

coloured
beautifully

because

is almost

pearl fishinghas

entering

inlayingmaterial.

articles,and
shells

recent

were

strewn

were

important

an

buttons, fancy

North

It

irritant

obtained

carbonate
crystalline

found

are

authorities

to

named

so

and

of

Ceylon, where

secretion,forming

commercially ; they

extent

any

with

shape.

of

piece

small

covered

becomes

According

being

exceedinglyhard

pearl oysters

California, etc., and

of

materials

are

shell

layers

It is

of

the

numerous

matter.

kinds

for centuries.

on

of

Pearl

kind

inside

forms

composed

best

The

colour.

carried

pearl

littleanimal

but

Sea, Gulf

Red

which

Blue

former

pearl oyster, the


"

"

shell is

Pearl

with

lustrous

the

to

it.

from

and

Pearl, Japanese,

of

Mother

fisheries lie to the

Important pearl
suitable
being
particularly
part

for

mercial
com-

needs.

Ivory,
milky

colour

handles.
and

the

An

of

product

extensivelyfor

used

these

veneers,

decorative

inferior substitute is walrus

Ivory in

costly material.

more

elephant tusks,

being

in diluted

acids which

be restored
of

ivoryinlay;

as

mosaic

by

similar process.

patterns.

It

tusk,

successful
can

be

It

much

can

used

material

and
used

is used

fairlyeasilyworked

by

plasticby

shows

pieces
means

knife

sion
immerever,
how-

can,

fine

with

of

better

chieflyin

originalcolour

in small

peculiar

especiallyfor

be rendered
The

of

in place of the

woodwork

Italian craftwork

Old
when

beautiful

purposes

it transparent.

makes

it is most

decorative

by machinery.

sawn

is

examples
woods

some

saws,

files,and

glasspaper.
Tortoise-shell
shell

of the

cabinet

tortoise.

work.

Boule

is

It is
work

beautifullymarked
extensivelyused
of the Louis

XV

and

coloured

in fancy and

period

is

material

ornamental

from

turnery

notable
especially

the
and

for the

ornamental

the underside
underside

Tortoise-shell

obtained.
is

the

not

with

case

jointswhen

connecting

be

can

ivory

decorative

which

gilded,by

be

also

may

WORK.

effect is

123

produced by painting

colour, this showing through the

vermilion

HANDCRAFT

Added

of tortoise-shell.

use

IN

USED

MATERIALS

XI.]

CHAP.

and

thin

brilliance

added

means

in

advantageously employed
It

pearl.

should

not

be

joined

with

is

effect

of

which

largemasses,

spliced together,which

pieces,but

The

lighterparts.

butt

square

effects

neater

junction.
1

METALS.
The
means

word

pit

applied to

is derived

mine, whence

number

well-defined
The

or

"

metal

"

of

definition

of

follows

'

and

which

are

most

Greek

word

"

possess,

it is

"is

"metal

follows:

as

which
a

term

generally,certain

and
lustre,malleability,
ductility,

as

"

metallon

Technically

which

substances

and
possessinga peculiarlustre, fusibility,
Those

the

get "metal".

we

elementary

such
characteristics,

broad

from

solid

fusibility.

opaque

body,

conductivity.
in

frequentlyemployed

and

commerce

the

arts

are

as

"

In

it is

the
so

workshop

used

in these

the

name

pages.

"

metal

"

is

apphed

to

both

the

pure

metals

and

the

alloys,

HANDCRAFT.

124

[chap.

XI.

ALLOYS.
When

mixture

two

or

is called

non-metals,

usuallybelow

that

as

It is

as

the

not

necessary

varied

as

the
are

is

mercury

for

number

to

of

The

the

give the

special purpose

the

resulting

of metals

melting-point of

and

alloyis

an

constituent.

of

one

unite

to

for similar mixtures

steel.

easilyfusible

in this work

made

are

permanently

is also used

carbon

most

When

amalgam.

of metals
be

of

an

of them

many
are

"

caused

are

term

iron and

as

Amalgam.
known

Alloy. The

an

such

metals

more

metals

the

mixture

of all the known

names

industry,and

or

is

alloys it is possibleto

continuallybeing invented, only

make,

the

and

more

alloys,as

these

as

generally

purposes
tions
combina-

new

common

will

ones

dealt with.

followingtable gives the alloy and

The

CHARACTERISTICS

THE

of

useful.

Weight.
^

All

composition

AND

METALS

OF

"

ALLOYS.

bility,
fusiconductivity,tenacity,ductility,
weight, lustre, malleability,

It is their

power

its

hardness,
solidifying,
A

"

short

account

-It is not

alloys vary

within

necessary
certain

and

of their
to

softness

that

propertiesis
what

is

tlie above

may

explain

limits, but

make

given
meant

the

metals

so

tremely
ex-

below.

by

be taken

as

the

weight

typical.

of

XI.]

CHAP.

CO

"J

"

W
^

".

g
W

Q
z

on

'^

MATERIALS

USED

IN

HANDCRAFT

WORK.

12:

26

HANDCRAFT.

metal.

But

Gravity

"

Relative

"

or

given

any

useful figurein connexion

volume

of

conditions

exact

of

textbook

heavy

weight.

It must

62^

lb.

cub.

in.,i.e.

is 7-4

lead

or

example

be

remembered

(nearly).

iron

An

we

mean

is

given

of

that

plate

the

This

'3 times

11

as

figure in calculating

weighs
in

in. has

weigh

would

to

relative

the

say

lead

of water

the

For

is referred

we

this

of

use

foot

ft.

when

times

of

water.

reader

is 7*4 and

iron

ft.

of

xi.

Specific

"

number

the

the

that

out

cubic

cub.

~-

is made

point

to

weightsis the

equal volume

an

comparison

11-3

An

water.

as

the

of

figure expresses

than

Suffice it here

physics.
or

This

is heavier

which

under

iron

density of

with calculation

Density ".

metal

[chap.

48

oz.

2000

or

oz.

1000

it 72

lb.

125

or

1720
if it

water, and

were

If it had

been

Lustre.

The

"

higher degree by
which

exhibit

quickly
hard

metals

not

then

less

tendency

the

without

pressure

cracking or

by

the

temperature

by

the

structure

For

example,

becomes

hard

crack.

as

steel

this

heated

heating is

red

metal

hammering

is
or

manufacture.
Some

becomes
iron

not

cooled

of the

metal

is also

metals

fibrous

used

that

metal

they
is

in

their

malleability,as

when

hammered

out

kept

in

state

carryingloads
by
into

the

the

factor

have

of
of

be

to

form

structure

heated

strain
as

they
gold

steel

certain

tant,
imporbe
crystalline
non-

line
crystal-

hardened
the

by
of

process

tenacious.

storeroom

be

but

must

When

of time.

damp

annealed

Brass

wire

; wroughtto

restore

crystalline.Gold

become
leaf

crystallineor

and

in process
a

eventually

to

become

".

great deal

into water,

during

malleable

occasionallyto

known

it will

be softened

metals

by

condition

cooling is also

of

annealed

tension, or in

have

constant

gases

altered

be considered.

to

generallyvery

undergo changes

brittle when

chains

so

mosphere.
at-

working, also

or

hammered

gradually.The

very
a

being

to

all malleable

malleable, but

very

the

is affected

metal

by being plunged

hard, and

very

then

working,
A

become

be

may

is continued

method

red heat

of

because

molecular

"

been

has

The

annealing.

shape

its

regain its malleabilityon


from

cause
lustre,be-

by hammering,

out

hammering

is termed

hammering

and

heat

the

of the

which

copper

if the

called

would

structure
a

or

be cooled

may

this method
to

gold

and
brittle,

or

copper

by

of

it will,however,

But

degree ;

piece

what

itself,
or

of the metal

beaten

of
malleability

time

the

be

to

which

The

breaking.
at

not

are

their surfaces.

on

mobilityby

of the metal

easilytarnished

alloys

sufficiently

are

the constituents

by

less

property of being able

internal

an

affected

not

are

condense

to

is the

possessingof

they

which

air and

much

and

considerable

have

platinum

and

metals

those

are

same

125.

p.

The

acid in the

highly polished are

when

Malleability
or

Gold

on

The

"3.

possessed in

lightis

substances.

carbonic

and

11

table

longest time

for the

oxygen

hard

very

rays

125

See

of

lb.

925

been

7*8.

non-metallic

by

high polish.

125

7*4

have

reflectingthe

than

the

by

Metals
have

weighed
of

125

would

weight

greatest lustre

attacked

though

the
have

power

the

receive

to

lead

steel would

plate of cast

since it is iron

therefore

is

^^.o'oooP^*^*-^^

^^^

128

molecules

of

of another

Softness.

tends

This

"

separationby
the

considerablyby

often

metal

their

to

is affected

and

body,

metal

of

in many

but

of

another

impurities. The

brittleness and

the

relative term,

penetrating action

presence
both

increase

to

is also

the

presence

hardness.

instances

is

of

test

purity.
Aluminium."
takes

bluish-white

good polish. Can

unaffected

by

Difficult

owing

soft

atmosphere.
There

pipe.

metal, very

in caustic

Annealed

only

of oxide, but
insolubility

to

oxy-acetylene blow

the

somewhat

by immersion

cleaned

the

to

exposure

solder

to

be

but

are

at

be

can

potash and
low

soda

temperature.

welded

patent solders

many

malleable, and

by

for

of

means

solderingthis

metal.

Aluminium
be

can

Bronze.

forged
in

immersion

at

red

be

copper

Antimony.

largelyfor type

broken

Bismuth.

"

Brass.

in

immersion

annealed

be

brazed,

and

Britannia
and
on

be

can

exposure

'

contract

by

by

a
nor

bright red.

other

the

to

red, then

plunging

or

solidifying.

on

fine and

give

to

in

brazed.

ingot of antimony,

an

by

atmosphere.

coppered by dipping

metals

sharp

and

the

malleable

very

black

turns

at

red

-A

and
red

heat.

of

lead, tin, and

bismuth.

fine

Cleaned

on

and

heat
be

Can

soft

polish.
to

exposure

on

melting-point.

lower

takes

green

nearlywhite metal,

immersion

Can

only

iron

Some

the

to

by

atmosphere.

leaving to

cool

slowly in

soldered,

silver

soldered,

oxy-acetylene blowpipe.

the
"

metals

other

fusible,is composed

in strong

is not
metals

expand by heating.

be

very

soda

Annealed

atmosphere.

Althouf^h wroui;ht
to

acid

when

boilingwater.

above

heated

the

Cleaned

brittle ; expands

will break

by bringing slowly to

cleaned

joint

air to

been

has

metal, very

hammer

is very

Metal.

to

an

alloying with

if moved

welded

exposed

iron rod, silver soldered,

alloyingwith

and

yellow metal,

dipping

air ; will break

when

burnished.

largeshining facets.

for

"

brown

after

with

with

solder, which

Pewterer's

polish if

pinkish-whitemetal, brittle,
very diamagnetic ; expands

solidifying.Used

Can

metal

exhibits

surface

gold, is fairly
malleable, and

of

bright red heat, cooling in

bluish-white

slighttap

castings.

rich

colour

beautiful

soldered

touched
A

"

; takes

soft

sulphate and

alloy the

acid ; goes

dipping
Can

into water.

Used

heat

by bringing to

Annealed

An

"

potash ;

or

; takes

malleable

darkens

bringing to

by

a
a

fine

polish,

very

temperature

little

just

soft soldered.

cast, it

expand

on

contracts

to

cooling, and

about
some

this

extent

nickel

after
steel

having been

alloys neither

Bronze.
be

Can

cleaned

on

green

in dipping acid ; goes

air.

Can

metal

with

cooling[slowlyin

; takes

dark

be annealed

Can

atmosphere.

to

colour, malleable

rich brown

immersion

by

exposure

and

heat

alloy of

An

"

WORK.

HANDCR.\FT

IN

USED

^L\TERIALS

XI.]

CHAP.

high polish.

eventually

and

brown

29

by bringingcarefullyto

red

soft soldered, silver soldered, and

be

brazed.

Cadmium.

white

"

manufacturingpurposes.
Wood's

Chromium.

alloyingwith

white

difficult to

very

cleaned

the

to

cleaned

in

and

Metal.

largelyin

brazed

be

soft

"

eventually

by bringing

used

to

green

on

heat

and

red

be

can

welded

be cleaned

tarnishes

on

high

Gilding Metal.
Gold.

"

by

by

in the
be

the

air;

soft

be

red

brazed.

and

Can

be

Used

non-magnetic.

black

; turns
a

be

extruded.

alloy ; takes

ver)- malleable

be

is

and

Can

air.

Can

be soft soldered, silver

Can

by

high polish,
to

exposure

cooling in

and

heat

air.

largelyfor imitation

Used

easilydistinguishedfrom

by

immersion
to

electrical

real

gold,as

it

"

Can

be

and

water

Can

alloy ;

takes

in

then

be annealed

high

dipping

by bringing

soft-soldered,silver soldered,

and

resistance.

in

propertiesto
metal

in

alloy. Used

Can

or

but

metal

dip consistingof
this is called

be annealed

be moved

lightbrown

Dutch

largelyfor

extremely malleable

nitric acid ;

atmosphere.
not

atmosphere.

lightbrown

part of

must

the

immersion

in nitric acid and

in air.

cooling

"

malleable
yellowish-white

or

soldered.Jandsilver

Gunmetal.

red heat

dipping acid

Can

white

"

brightyellow

acid and

air.

by bringingto

powder.

gilt. Similar

is cleaned

affected

in

polish.

tarnish in moist

not

engineering.

brightyellow

exposure

and
.

Has

afterwards

fine

in nitric acid.

polish. Can

heat

does

at

takes

alloy;

soldered, silver soldered,

Silver.

brazed.

forged

marine

be. annealed

German

Can

and

coolingin

and

immersion

by

Can

readilysoluble

red

heat

be

can

either in leaf or
gilding,

acid, but

red

cleaned

atmosphere.

and

black

annealed

be

dipping acid

in

Metal.

be

can

Can

be soft soldered, silver soldered, brazed, and

shipbuildingand

Dutch

to

takes

high polish,and

takes

turns

yellow malleable

"

by bringingto

soldered, and

is

acid ;

dipping

can

immersion

by

annealed

Can

tenacious

oxy-acetylene blowpipe.

Delta

the

for

mostly

seldom
electroplating,

in

Used

malleable

metal, very

atmosphere.

in water,

quenching
the

red

"

immersion

by

exposure

and

Used

fuse.

manufacturing arts.

Copper.

by

most

metal, malleable, ductile, and

bluish-white

the atmosphere.
high polish; unaffected^by

in the

one

largelyfor

used

fusible alloys,i.e.

electroplating.

silver for

metal

of the

Comparatively rare.

"

of

component

alloyedwith
hard

"

steel.

Cobalt.
a

Forms

alloys; it is also

Not

tinge,soft.

bluish

when

; takes

"

by bringing
a

red heat

bright polish,

by weight
regia".

aqua
to

at

as

are

malleable.

quite so

not

parts

articles that

of

Gold

red heat

it is liable

and
to

chloric
hydrois

not

ing
coolbreak.

gold soldered.
alloy. Generallyused
9

in the

form

of

castings;

HANDCRAFT.

30

takes

high polish.

soft

be

air.

to

exposure

be cleaned

Can

by

by bringing to

Is annealed

soldered, silver soldered,

Gilding

purposes.

dipping acid

in

red heat

brazed.

and

this

matches

metal

immersion

Used

be

can

black

by

air.

May

engineering

for

largely

in colour, and

xi.

; turns

cooling in

and

[chap.

in sheets,

bought

rods, etc.
Iridium.
Used

fuse.

"

mostly

for scientific apparatus,

Iron, Wrought.

part,

water

destroyed.

Is

method

by

or

the

rusts

on

exposure

by bringing

annealed

"

"

called

it is

malleable

on

the

atmosphere

red

heat

water.

May

soldering or
be

pipes can
heated.

be

soft

made

soldered

water.

of

form

the

When

iron is

cast

it is
brittle,

less

instead

forgings,

of

"

largelyin pyrotechny
it will

latter form

hydrochloricacid
A

"

alloyingwith iron, copper,


mild

steel ; has

is

Manganese

the

is malleable

acid ; is not

soldered, and

can

or

Manganese
and

tough

by

bronze.

the action

in the

"

autogenous

as

Wire

of

form
It is

match.

and

when

powder

or

readilysoluble

of

sea-

screw

brittle.

be

of very

known

form

Is

cleaned

by
be

May

water.

propellersand

metal

to

mild

mostly
steel

hard
the

quality.

ferro-manganese.

as

takes

alloywhich

forged at

greyishwhite

Used

generallyimproves

and

equal in strength

cold, but should

boiling

brightflame

very

manufacture

the

in the

lightbrown

It is

of

work.

high polish and

immersion

in

ping
dip-

soft soldered, silver


marine

strength,toughness, hardness, and

sound.

Steel.

in

but

largely for

Used

transverse

be cast

either hot

pure
A

"

tinge,very

reddish

toughening

called white

corroded

brazed.

its great

to

it

Bronze.

sometimes

of

effect

aid of

further

sulphuricacid.

nickel

and

usually used

not

Manganese

with

metal

grey

the

lightby

no

pressure.

with

Burns

photography

in dilute

and

is known

in chemical

used

metal.
and

and

temperature

what

joined by

vessels

silverywhite

the

slightly

; darkens

this it is permanent

after

is often

only be brought

can

caustic soda

by extrusion, squirting,or

of lead

Manganese.

strong

only in

used

paper

by raising to

annealed

Is

burning, especiallyfor

in the

but

atmosphere,

place.

Used

in dilute

worked

in

blacksmith's

the

softer and

it is often

is eventually

and

stronger.

Used

hard.

by scrapingor

be cleaned

Should

Magnesium.

which

is the

by

sulphuricacid

cooling

either

welded

metal, very soft,marks

malleable

the

to

takes

owing

and

largely for machinery.

in this form

iron," and

grey

polish.

exposure

and

high

very

temperatures

in

to
to

brittle and

very

all

at

immersion

by

carbon, thereby leavingit much

cast

"

change

for

to

cheaper.

dull

ribbon

withstand

objects to

the former

iron used

crude

of its

some

Lead.
a

method

metal

grey

castings,is reallythe
deprived of

difficult

and

rare

malleable

be removed

can

oxy-acetylene

Iron, Cast.

to

for

be soft soldered, silver soldered, brazed, and

May

as

scale

parts;

15

and

greyish-whitemetal,

"

good polish. The

metal, is very

be crushed.

Cannot

temperatures.

takes

hard, white, britde

very

engineering
with
facility

the

steel, and

can

be

cherry-redheat.

; takes

toughness is improved by quenching

in

good polish. Very


water

from

white

XI.]

CHAP.

heat.

MATERLVLS

Cannot

while

hot.

Mercury

Quicksilver.

Tvelded

and

hardened

into

forged

like tool

tempered

or

brazed,

oxy-acetylene
Muntz

Metal.

Really it is
in

called

bottoms

of wooden

affected

Nickel

has

Can

be

Used

cent.

takes

Is

in

cleaned

produce
but

names,

is

be

not

nickel

cleaned

by

marine

forged at

; has

of

not

in

as

structure

than

more

the

heat.

red

and

quickly by

so

is

It

resistingshocks,
three

sea

per

shafts.

readilydiscolour
dilute

varieties

mersion
im-

work,

fibrous

corroded
is

ham.
Birming-

like brass.

and

be

great power

on

nitric

of white

mostly similar to German

are

Muntzof

tubes

colour

crank

not

of

number

has

immersion

by

F.

largelyfor covering

Can

extent.

steel,and

Does

the

by

or

metal, malleable, ductile,tenacious, and

high polish.

alloy to

an

platesand

armour

it is

soldered, silver

method

soldered
used

was

white

proportion of

brilliant white

it

great

any

carbon

if the

welded

"

atmosphere.
different

limit than

largelyfor

Nickel.
welded

to

and

for condenser

specialsteel of

be soft

high polish. May

annealed

used

be

iron, which

wrought

Can

Cannot

stronger.

sheathing,as

it is now

than

cold, easily

or

polish.

good

patentee, Sir G.

takes

be

can

sea-water

"

high polish. Verj- strong, tough,

water.

as

by

higher elastic

and

ships;

Steel.

brass

metal

yellow

it is

takes

malleable

by

hot

blacksmith's

the

is the

former

malleable

very

purposes.

called after the

So

"

dipping acid,

sometimes

not

; the

be done

should

metal, liquidat ordinar)peratures.


tem-

Stronger

either

welded

and

method

steel.

shaping

considerably.

hot ; takes

for constructional

gradually superseding
soldered,

while

shape

131

in scientific instruments.

and

greyish-whitemetal,

"

; all

white
silver)-

making amalgams

in

Steel.

WORK.

welded

or

contracts

"

Used

Mild

castingsbut

sound

or

HANDCRAFT

like tool steel

be hardened
Makes

IN

USED

exposure

acid.

which

metals

silver.

Used

It is also

can

be

to

the

largely
go

used

under

largely

electroplating.
Ormolu.

The

"

Osmium.
furnace.

for filaments

points of gold
Pewter.
Cleaned

which

low

become
and
where

by

Infusible

rare.

and

in the electric

except

alloyed with

iridium

for

the

metal, very

grey

by

the

Bronze.

immersion

Used

abrasive

malleable

substance
Can

atmosphere.

in

largely

it is difficult

to

lightbrown

dipping acid.

be

repeated shocks
a

spark

from

metal

Can

engineering

for

obtain

takes

dull

polish
.

; turns

soldered

trifle darker

with

but

specialsolder

be

soft

purposes,
or

; takes

high polish.

Can

be

soldered, silver soldered, and


mostly

cast

work

jars ; resists corrosion

it,consequently it is

used

by

does

not

sea-water,

in the factories

made.

explosives are
"

"

crystallineunder

Palladium.

some

soft and

fusing-point.

Phosphor
brazed.

metal, ver)-

electric lamps

pens.
"

unaff"ected

has

cleaned

of

by polishing with

otherwise

brass in all respects.

as

bluish-white

"

Used

same

white

metal,

of scientific instruments.

very

rare,

untarnishable.

Used

in the

facture
manu-

HANDCRAFT.

132

Platinum.
the

by

in aqua

be

welded

Silver.

at

malleable.

is not

but

in air.

and

May

Different

metals.

Solder

(tinman's).

temperatures.

Used

iron,blow-lamp,

bunsen

aid of

the

Steels.

can

for

the

processes.

dull

solution

the

to

exposure
a

in

or

of

atmosphere,

red heat

burner,

grainsof

Used

and
melting-points,

Used

only

and

cooling

is often

called

sizes.

in colour.

vary

be

can

fused with

in many

Made

various

it

and

only for joining

joiningmetals.

for

cadmium

or

tinsmiths

etc.

Zinc

"

yellowishtinge.

alloy.

largelyby

of

on

high polish,very

sulphuric acid

ing
alter-

By

fusible

made

the aid of

at

ing
solder-

qualities.
A

spelter.

Used

for

white

yellow or

joiningmetals, fused

blowpipe.

See

"

with

bismuth

brazing).

metal, usually in the form


with

white

"

in

It

glass.

is -used

It

; takes

by bringingto

different

have

grades

Spelter (used

of

in chemical

work

metal

any

blue-black

metal

proportions or adding

the

various

that

as

silver soldered.

and

white

"

of

be annealed

Can

Solder.

high polish,unaffected

same

by single acids.

in dilute

; turns

soft soldered

be

Silver

immersion

water

corroded.

the

high temperature

perfect white

by

potassium cyanide

unaffected

; takes

xi.

heat.

most

Cleaned

expansion

and

lamps

red

The

"

of

regia;

in incandescent

filaments

malleable

metal, very

; coefficient

atmosphere

only be dissolved

Can

white

"

[chap.

Tantalum.

pp.

172-174.

white

"

metal,

very

malleable.

rare,

Used

for the

mostly

ments
fila-

of electric lamps.

Tin.

white

"

Can

polish.

be

care

it may

and

is therefore

as

in

of

Plate.

been
which

in

coating

by

air

and

good

With

water.

ordinary temperatures,

at

iron

sheet

takes

malleable;

hydrochloric acid

It is little affected

largelyfor

is

rollers

is small

thin sheets

tin

to

which

melted

protect it from

to

adhere

the

to

off the

squeeze

that

so

tin,and

excess

the

rust,

The

the top

on

of metal

pass

is

tallow

The

is then

metal

flux

passed

dried

then

they are

steel,which

tin

sheets

tin.

molten

mild

or

in molten

dipped

sheets.

metal

iron

wrought

tallow

enteringthe

before

tallow

of

bright,and

pickled,scoured
quantity of

melted
the

causes

through

This

"

annealed,
there

through the
and

by

be soft soldered.
used

yellowishtinge,very

immersion

culinaryvessels.
Tin

have

metal, with

cleaned

in clean

sawdust.
it is called,

tin,as

Block

dipped twice,

having

so

polished hammer
dipped

They

example.
225

mixture

sheets

are

in

No.

box

tin

They

or

them,

on

are

tinned

of
the

then

20-25

tinned

than

have

that

planished

usuallyfrom

plates are

size of the

is marked

weighing

steel sheets

been
with

I-S.W.G.

plates,are

plates

tin.

and

names

by

of

coat

iron

are

duller in appearance

are

named

Common

thicker

polished anvil.

of lead

commercial

The
vary.

plates,which

Terne

in

on

doubles,

or

108

confusing,and

sheet, the quality,and

I.C. and

lb. ; the

very

the size is 14

thickness

is No.

30

10

the

thickness.

in.,and

I.S.W.G.

there

sizes
For
are

Another

MATERIALS

XI.]

CHAP.

called four

DXXXX,
in.,

or

17

takes
and

Steel.

heating slowly to
be

called crucible

Tungsten.
produce what

shops.
a

Can

white

do

Zinc.
certain

"

equal parts
and

metals

called
; takes

and

can

and

usuallyconducted

sulphuric

that

manner,

is,the

ores

is

taken

in the

steel

engineering
to

last much

for

castingtype

ing
print-

up

have

to

The

extraction.

stage

through

go

other

metallurgy,

as

science

of chemical

they

often contain

and

is

which

used

in each

smelted.

more

or

similar

such

as

Advantage

particularmetal
under

broadly classified

are

in

preliminaryprocesses

some

inherent

are

two

treated

all

are

roasting,before being

methods

galvanizing.

usuallydescribed

earthy matters

certain

with

by warming

METALS.

is

ores

in

in

high temperatures.

at

with
to

as

at

immersion

by

largelyfor alloyingwith

OF
their

large scale

propertieswhich

of the

rust

fairlymalleable

cleaned

annealed

special branch

crushing,washing, dressing,and
also

Is

Used

iron from

from

generallymixed
forms

acids.

EXTRACTION

of metals

on

in various

metals

for

metal,

be

polish. May

fair

metallurgicalchemistry

are

in

Cutting edges

only

bluish

spelter.

protectionof

for the

extraction

Ores

alloyingwith

steels.

tool

be soft soldered.

THE

The

for

by bringingcutting edges

is hardened

soft. Used
metal, fairly

nitric and

of

burner,

times
Some-

welded.

cuttingtools

for

Used

cold blast of air.

carbon

than

grey

Used

hard.

very

by

gradually. May

be

can

care

annealed

Is

lime very

or

tough;

of nitric acid

mixture

and

solidifying.

on

temperatures

bunsen

cooling in

Sometimes

"

12-^

steel.

tool

steel.

and

heat

red

work

rare,

very- hard

"

and

more

Metal.

expands

33

self-hardeningsteels.

as

forged at

melting heat

Type
;

known

Steel.

be

longer and

is

strong

very

atmosphere.

With

steel, carbon

metal, very

in

sand

brazed.

soldered, and

grey

are

Tungsten

cooling in hot

steel,cast

"

the

to

exposure

on

red and

dull

soft soldered, silver

to

size of sheet

immersion

by

cleaned

be

Can

Oxidizes

black.

lamp

I.S.W.G.

22

metal, malleable,

greyish white

"

high polish.

doubles, is No.

cross

WORK.

in.

25

Tool

HANDCRAFT

IN

USED

the

is

assist

to

following

headings :

"

Smelting.
various
heated

kinds

mixing

By

"

of

The
copper,

tantalum,

with

ore

raising it

furnaces, and

blast of air sufficient

pouring

the

reduce

to

flux

to

the

a
ore

sometimes

and

high temperature
to

with

by

fuel in
of

means

liquidcondition

and

then

it into moulds.

following metals
chromium,

be

can

extracted

from

their

ores

cobalt, lead, nickel, iron, magnesium,

in

this

manganese,

manner

silver,

tin, tungsten.

Liquation.
separatedfrom

"

more

In

this process
infusible

one

metal

that

liquefiesat

by taking advantage

low

temperature

of their different

is

melting

HANDCRAFT.

134

fusing-points,

or

and

bismuth,

metals

be

can

this

vapour

is

with

distilled

mercury,

heated,

which

has

which

drives

The

ores

metal

the

in

to

aluminium,

and

following
platinum,

metals

furnace

are

tantalum,

be

is

be

the

of

in
metals

owing

to

ores

by

by

this

silver.

by

fusing

to

bring

required
in

extracted

are

dissolved

are

process

addition

the

extracted

this

metals

way

heat

great

leaving

the

gold,

produced

are

is

amalgam

vapour,

this

contact

this

way

chromium.

tungsten,
in

the

into

ores

resulting

The

extracted

where

following

The

the

form

the

following

The

precipitated

Zinc

Method.

heating

then

volatilized,

treated

is

this

condition.

can

and

combine,

special

in

the

zinc.

bringing

metals.

some

can

By

"

or

by

in

off

of

method

acid,

another

in

nickel,

salt,

cobalt,

acids

various

or

or

The

gas.

gold,

palladium,

zinc,

with

silver.

Lead

they

mony,
anti-

way

driven

state.

cadmium,

mercury

This

The

then

this

are

solid

"

magnesium,

are

in

metals

or

mercury,

for

the

metals

"

salts

liquid

accomplished

Methods.

Methods.

Wet

off

following

fluid

afifinity

an

electric

an

to

ores

is

This

Electrol5rtic
the

their

from

"

behind.

metal

obtained

solid

the

ores

condensed

then

Amalgfamation.

then

be

can

certain

heating

By

"

of

metals

xi.

silver.

lead,

Distillation.
form

following

the

[chap.

leaving

furnace
in

to

this

the

the

manner

behind

metal

it.

refine

alloys

It

iridium,

is

fusing
so

that

in
then

osmium,

the

the

spongy

poured

with

ore

lead

lead

and

which

mass

into

platinum.

zinc

mould.

or

are

is

either
then

The

which

liquated
smelted

following

in

Oftho^rev.phio

PLctoTlsy.1

PTOjecTtion.

Projection.

"

"

DeTinrtion.Detinltioa

j^-dOe-fTDnt-CleOaCtion
^'C\h "ZhioWnerr-Uner

Pls\n-

6le"C"3vl:ion-s\nd

Sec?t!on-in-

ConProjectecL-eCt-e^-

Geometnced

Oenlent-"inble-Drac^n

Hg^lt-FOll-lfent^th.

orRiQl1t-Pro}ec1:ibn.
ObllqvJe

I/om"tTtc

"

Projection

"

ProjecSticn

D^finition.-

Definltioa-

Lenqth- Breadlh-

c^-t^rOe- Froat6Lev"5vtion
vj^ith

"

Ghickne/r-

Ghi6k.ne/r

line/

Fv^ll-LenWJ
Proieeted
ect- sv- Con^enLeniT

l/om^r

i^xnqle.
Figs,

i,

2,

3, and

A-D

Ai2)-

4.

"

Illustrations

of various

systems

of

ss-nd.

liner

-PkrevlleL

Drecwn

"

"

Lc

"'fixer
svnd

projection.

A-c.

"

-Ire

CHAPTER

DESIGN,

DRAWING,
APPLIED

This
to

is

chapter

and

intended
wood

demonstrating

of

practice

freehand

shade),
drawing

the

plate opposite.

right projection,
of

representation

representation

Projectors

The

method

of

the

real

elevation

at

It should
in

former

in

be
the

and

noted
face

method

instead

of

involving

thickness.

lines
the

of

The

joints,

oblique

of

three
the

viz.

can

ordinates

small

models,
dimensions

latter

45"

or

system

(135)

real

be

parallel

lengths

are

45"

It

is not

drawing,
recommended

the

simple
An

the

thickness

represented.

corresponding

on

when

is

the

the

jected
pro-

for

occurring
satisfactory

detail, and
viz.

from

suitable

also

are

lines.

is

side

projected

it differs

also

in

of
a

the

marked

constructive

is

"

to

represented

and

bb.

suitable),

their

to

are

surface

projection

guide

or

are

b'

tal
horizon-

given object.

lines
most

back

the

30'' and

of

is transferred

and

up

Angles

curves

of

use

showing
use

and

(30"

of

then

to

and^',

the

required

(see Fig. 2)
view

plan.
as

elevation

a,

and

aa

views

three

always

are

represents

half-lengths.

representing

advantage

joined

particular,

one

the

one-half

and

lines

latter

Fig.
in

then

lines

projection,

angle

is divided,

the

the

thickness

pictorial

correct

orthographic

are

below

the

as

into

line

ing
mean-

and

An

numbered
XY

trated
illus-

as

drawing,

geometry.

pictorial projection

convenient

any

that

model,
for

for

as

side.

only

points
then

solid

of

geometrica'

the

working

point being

completing

called

"

obtained

Compass

thus

in

as

each

these

drawn,

next

object

system.

method
added

the

points

lines

this

of

line,

from

of

case

are

projection,
or

and

kinds

special

elevation,

side

and

of

(light

cast

handcraft

(an angle),

front

the

same

approximately

an

drawn

The

lines

system

first

thickness

lines.

next

is

in

as

the

XY

an

shown,

as

size,

exactly

on

ab

obtaining
is

elevation

is

full

dropped

line

The

projected

object.

from

then

are

plane.
is

may

is first drawn

(see Fig. 1)

view

be

the

orthographic

gonia
in

teaching

knowledge

The

of

subject
in

joint

surface

from

acquired.

the

(right) and
plane

been

tee

that

presumed

drawing

of

effective

the

to

drawing

with

dealing
1 shows

orthos

upon

procedure

The

scale.

Fig.

from

solids

when

has

aid

an

is

geometry,

drawing

pupils

to

as

It

WORK.

special application

the

and

work,

solid

iMETAL

with

subjects.

and

model

and

necessary

on

The

above

AND

chiefly

metal

practical plane

elementary

deal

to

and

ETC.

LETTERING,

WOOD

TO

of

the

XII

has

the

length, width,
for

large ob-

136

HANDCRAFT.

of

jects, having the disadvantage


Various

drawing.

suited

well

objects,these

with

A, DA,

parallel

the

front

elevation

then

from
; the

The

subjects ; they
in the

based

theoretical

perspective shadow
From

an

as
a

accurate
strictly

much

in

decided

Fig. 5,

eye

the

an

angle

depends
the

Vanishing points

next

must

method

of

obtaining same;

another

at

50" as

30" and

60" may

should

in all

square

is

then
of

shown.

short

also

be

cases

placed

on

be

the

projectorscan

intersection

50".

of

the

upon

nearest

be
one

the

to

angle
station

of the
the

line is drawn

adopted,
The

produced

but the

perpendiculars are

at

or

they

dropped.

it suffices

an

first is

scale

is first

line

be

cut

The

the

HL.

first to

of

tance
decided, its dis-

projected;

HL.

the

the

by

be

so

suitable

the SP

vanishing

and

From

and

Angles

in the

plan

it may

necessarily.

not

40" with

of

legs is shown
the

tance
dis-

touching

corner

object, but

point of

at

it,the adjacent side

to

subtended

Next

height

average

is next

angle

for

the

drawn.

eye

front

until they cut

positionof the
until

proficient

large diagram showing

angle

drawing, touching one


be drawn

object

be

may

with

point

the

size of
corner

are

plan

transferred, the

practice in

The

system.

40"

drawing

perspective is

correct,

representingthe
of

will

graphic demonstration,

height

the

an

decided,

These

90".

be

then

making

line

front

below

immediately

ground line, this

plan should

the

GL

key

of

Architects'

elevation, side view, and

the

the

subtending
from

the

shows

book

kinds, of which

three

into

divided

(seekey diagram), then

The

line, with

course

be

also

ft. above

spectator'seye.
of

which

line is drawn

ground
of

be

then

and

upon,

It may

of

requiring perspective

of

for purposes

this

become

simpler system, and, although only approximately

illustrated

the

or

of

bodied
principlesem-

and

study

student

or

course

those

to

is a branch

to

absolutelyessential.

is not

method

practicalpurposes.

ideas

expression of

aid to effective

in

order

and

important part

an

much

erected
BA

of

similar

drawings

the

of teacher

of the

also be represented.

may

the

in

sent
repre-

width

they are

are

Perspective

projection

standpoint

the

system

it demands

and

geometry,

To

to AC,
parallel

of
application

to

of the views.

knowledge

draughtsman.

reference

and

suggest suitable arrangements


upon

extended

reallyan

are

example,

first

drawn

are

jacent
ad-

Parish.

parallelto

drawn

constitute

Drawings

oblique projection. Working


handcraft

picture.

connected

when

their

perpendicularis then

then

latter

of the

limitations

and

uses

with

Professor

Curves, simple mouldings, and bevels

axis DA.

the

parallelto

and

woodworking

projection,the
A

are

is particularly

all lines coincident

the

objectillustrated

them,

upon

axes,

in isometric

head

by
and

length upon

regulatingpoint A.

lines of the

marked

lengths are

true

invented

was

true

lines of the

and

the

to

measure,

architectural

isometric

the

piece

tee

equal

xii,

described.

as

right-angledsolids,or

system

drawn

the

thickness

respectively
;

DA

This

are

of the

axis DA

the

parallelto

of

drawn

work,

metric, meaning

constitute

axes

be marked

should

stem

these

to

C A

this

representationof

right angles.
and

unpleasant tilted-upeffect

an

in

and

usuallybeing composed

planes at
lines B

isos

the

for

giving
shown

are

projection,from

Isometric

The

details

[chap,

plan ;
also the
these

drawn

of

lines
a

set

SP,

points
is the

Fig. 5.

"

method
Diagramsjllustrating
when

of

placed below

Fig. 6.

showing objectsin perspective

the eye

line.

XII.]

CHAP.

DRAWING,

line of the

nearest

this line all


method
the

of

will be

horizontal

completing

the

ordinates

large curves

noticed

from

views

the

direction,whilst those above


shown
as

as

that

the

employed

the lantern

this

in

as

Fig. 6,

both

The

cases

provides

The

case

light are

the

the

left-hand

work.

as

With

depths of

wash

is increased

another

colour

or

value

tone

is also the

Various

decreased

or

if pencilsare

case

is facilitated if a
shown

in

Fig.7.

by 8, giving an
the

The

real

small

proceed

work

distance

used.

The

is

employed,

height is approximately8

heightof 3 ft. 4 in.,which

handcraft

This

models,

parts.

the
of

measure

lightand

lines

tones

required,

objects in

spective
per-

book-rest

the

in. ; this has been


the

from

one

are

example,

the

in various

up

of the

enables

line-

from

half the

of small

for

as

full

made

dark

rendering

certain

farthest
a

be

should

the

should

for this part of

employed

the washes

from

cident
position coin-

object

the

according as lightor

previouslydescribed.

of

be

can

ink

largescale

assumed

method

media

and

which

by shading

top receives

the

point of

nearest

from

of

cides
plan coin-

the

shading the completed

of the table receives about

drawings

with pen

to

distance

perpendicularraised

If

parts of

whilst

front

The

HL.

obtained

diagrams

Those

The

half-tone.

the

same

the necessary

preliminar)measurements,

can

stronglyshaded,

point in

is

lantern

is the

the

before,and

as

the SP, and

be

in the

VP.

drawn

It

upward

an

that

nearest

the elevation.

from

effect

good

is left clear.

is shaded

line for

in

run

eye

downwards.

run

; in

greater accuracy.

preparatory system

of below

7 ft. 6 in. from

considered

therefore

lightingand

instead

necessary

been

lighthas
with

above

be transferred

is desired,

drawing

Projectors are

be about

the

for

the

freehand

added

are

upon

show

diagrams

it is assumed

HL.

drawn

should

also in this

the

point on

perpendicularsare

by

features

employed

diagram.

In

Both

all lines below

eye,

for the table.

be

137

length the elevation,and

spectator from the objectis similar,therefore the


with

as

Decorative

that

the

in

measured.

are

may

in the latter

example

an

equal

lines

drawing.

ETC.

LETTERING,

this must

leg in plan ;

heightsfor

of

case

DESIGN,

multiplied

objectto

be drawn

is particularly
well suited for the representation

including handles, finger plates,

bread

etc.
platters,

Desig^n.
"

for this elusive

tradition,and
itself is

well

with Sheraton's
the

use

whilst
to

definite purpose,

best

are

work
of

of the

of

of

decorative

inlaid work,

similar character.

employed.

Oak,

wood

in

bold, decided

or

lighter

the

This

guiding

metal

peculiarfreedom

mouldings

work

and

of

ment,
treat-

duced
projectionsre-

dainty in design,or
important factor in design is

lightand

Another

strong grained wood


10

custom,

In the former, heav)'proportions

carving with

and

detail.

of Elizabethan

eighteenthcentury.

by

be varied, and

detail,whilst

decorative

dainty rendering of

can

objectswith

or

elegant proportionshave

with
a

proportion

Models

comparison

largemouldings

minimum,

material

design.

suited to

exemplifiedby

Sheraton's

painted ornament

of

objectshave
but

decided

been

formula

certain

down

to
difficulty
lay

sizes of

corresponding boldness

of craftwork

principleis

the

subject.

Certain

important element

an

demand

of extreme

matter

fitness for

outline demand
forms

It is

of

coarse

texture,

requires

138

HANDCRAFT.

heavier

by

the

treatment

character

tone

even

values

American

There

are

7.

of

utilized in

woods

varieties

be

of

pearl

colouring and
cannot

look

lustre
be

by
of

too

the

best
the

in

of

combinations

the

to

way

harmony

to

advantage

also

of
in

silver

strongly urged

study

; and

to

the

Italian

also

satinwood.

and

success

is

of

use

natur-

by experiment

Tortoise-shell

of

and

and
Ivory,tortoise-shell,

the first material

with

masses,

material.

possiblein

ebony,

or

do

as

snakewood,

of colour.

to

for stencil effects.


use

design ; rosewood,

objectsin perspective.

small

surest

an

Colour

ornament.

combinations,

most

representing

of

success

purplewood, ebony,

employed

groundwork

the

is obscured

ebony, having

or

lighterproportionsand

upon

well

with reference

relieved

and

bearing

alone, and

pearl can
dark

Method

"

detail in the former

moulded

conversely, satinwood

pleasing colour

numerous

observation

in mass,

and

; fine

and

itselfto

harmonize

walnut

allycoloured
mother

material

oak

FiG.

careful

material,

again a

ebony, holly, and


or

satinwood

the

colour, readilylends

or

have

than
of

[chap. xll.

is very

due

looks

best

should

be

rich.

regard

to

historic work, and

understand

decorative

used

various

The
the

when

beautiful
even

historic,
pre-

craftwork.

HANDCRAFT.

I40
white

on

especiallyif of

paper,

work.

working

The

sketches.

turned

should

and

work

prints,core

afterwards

(and

patterns

three

are

All

which

laps

they should

difference
is

cast

iron.

workers

drawing

it

it,and

draw

to

ever

as

be

not

wrought
in these

model

to

necessary.

suitable

the

of

processes

model

if made

though

and

measured

be

can

be

with

done

of
possibility

Many

of

12

on

p.
and

ways
p.

and

them,

they
as

from

correct

and

copper,

would
It is

particular
purpose.
for metalwork
than
relief,

blacksmithing(seep.103),

should
metal

Fig.

be
as

11.

be

could

be

in

suitable,such

be cast

in brass

copied
shown

good

or

largelyfor

used

are

described

modelled

when

made

in the
in

and

or

consequently

would

on

p.

have

plastic material,

a
as

Ch.

ix,

could

6,

They

sunk

practicalexercise

and
would

filled with
be

to

be

draw

of material.

Nos.

11,

10,

10,

in various

but

6, 7, 8, 9,

11,

on

12

in the

raised
wax

letter

10

on

taken

plaster cast

coloured

there

model,

models

be treated

also

applies

the

signs,shields,nameplates, etc., but


could

not
canmore

size,and

Nos.

then

metal,

correct

modelled,

Fig. 6, Nos.

Letters

bronze.

be

to

less waste

The

Models

106.

it

from

the

all.

at

bossing.
em-

relief,
etc., which

Working

easily modelled

early stages.

Fig. 8,

more

in

be made

to

realistic,but

work.

drawing

Fig. 9,

on

as

thus

being

going

heightsof the

hammered

without

model

No.

materials

could

letters

the

and

103,

78 could

drawing.

mistakes

is

It

is

and

various

for the

objects shown

the

modelled,

been

gauged

is less

made

has

cast, raised,and

to
particularly

work

that

design

in
for

(see p. 89),casting,chasing,and
coppersmithing (see p. 84), silversmithing
A

of

is a wide

as

appreciationof form, bulk, and

largelyinto

metals

there

design

ture.
fea-

latter metals.

suitable for the

easier

decorative

that

p. 107,

on

or

make

most

much

better

gives a

It enters

can.

and

well

be wrought,

should

iron

features,

of the various

would

ditificultto

more

form

it will be found
what

cast

as

names

illustrated

of

students

and

the

manufacture,

fingerplate (p.67) ; only

they

decorative

and

handle

is proper

is possiblebut what

It is for many

than

wrong

because

more,

but

examination

made

the

on

in, wrought iron

made

be

metal

core

be added

to

decorative

as

and

for shrinkage,

allowances

during

as

cular
parti-

cast

patterns,

necessary

be utilized

can

have

be cast

If

the

Often

well

that

used.

work.

are

pages

on

should

69

p.

instance, the cage

For

great deal

what

not

; and

what

between

on

the

necessary

be dummies,

in these

be made

iron, would

wrought
a

tin box

the

the

be

for

have

pieceof

could

rest

designed for,and

that

cost

the

be

as
figures,

suitable
to

is

drawings (where

sizes in

material

sketches

in the small

pieces that sometimes

in themselves

the raised

hold

on

holding the

which

articles shown

the

showing

full-sized

the

xii.

useful in metal-

coloured

overlooked

most

would

the

small

of

are

the

design, there

for

removed)

necessary,

The

of

fitting
together,and

rivets which

consist

detail with

name

be drawn,

to

designsarise

or

e.g. the

the

boxes, etc.,

turning,and

the

from

points often

many

and

large scale,are

drawings

(joints,etc.),which

show

into

enter

to

or

should

particularpart

details

constructive

part,

workshop

working drawings

The

practicable)of each
the

largesize

it brings forward

practice,as

excellent

of

out

[chap.

p.

same

of
103,

way,

good examples
from
as

about

thin sheet
in

shown
4,

5,

or

take

This

wire.

it

in

drawing

Fig,

its

of

in which

of metalwork

and

mahogany

covered

or

tablet

thus

stars

the

surrounding copper.

rest

of

The

The

itself is made

of

in which

art
on

Some

green

of

the

red

is

lid there

of the

colour

marble

lettering
of

wax

is emblematical

whole

etc., any

giltleather,mounted

filled in with

and

colour, and

good examples

casket

copper

silver inlaid.

of

is sunk

back,

the

(Fig.11) is

are

the

work

rangement
ar-

obtained.

are

centre

forming a

and

The

preciousstones,

The

the

In

the

(Fig.11) are

feature.

lock.

modified

be

on

each

as

179-180.

pp.

highly artistic effects

tablet

trophy in Fig.8 (i)is of

design is
and

"

making
an
light,

based
the

pierced
sixteenth
the

the

on

laurel

wreaths

or

is
electrolier,

lock
and

cast

and

plates,see

have

They
not

"

The

the

turned

which

of

the

tint
man

been

posts and

the

ball used

by

the

used

were

base, and

wood

on

chandelier, or if fitted

in the

ancients

for the

Dutch
eighteenth-centur}-

an

one,

for

electric
and

is

brass. Fig. 8 (2).

Fig. 9 (i),made

are

and

net

brass

reproductionof

mounted

copper

bay-leafbranches

applied ornament,

century.
marks

hammered

apparatus

victors.

for the

entirelyof
The

and

of

crest.

his life.
The

made

enamel,

and

on

richlytooled, painted,and

the

and

often

can

giltleather

enamelled

metalwork,

dependent

metal

important

an

memorial

The

embossed,

from

different from

game

is often

hinges, and

in translucent

crest

It is

is raised

is

with

painted and
and

decorative

this

memorial

the

tooled
mounts

described

are

another

and

colour

feet,handles,

bronze

predominant.

the

Fig. 10

for

and

colour,

with

bronze

designing

possible,and

is

colour

illustrated in

base.

with

enamelling,inlayingof another

arrangement

heraldic

and

with

metal

one

include

casket

enriched

methods

The

by colouring.

covered

Casket

"

characteristic

own

of

and

drawing

when

10.

and

also

should

has

altered

is

be

also

considered

with

for

wood.

Colours

of

the

Patterns

in

we

and

from

could

metal

turn

the finished

to

articles.

be

in

ing
complet-

letter

the

made

to

up

finished, thus

letters

this

could

metal

filed

be

could

to

which

This

made.

be

from

it,and

from

plastercast

pin

by

be

would

from

pattern

casting

take

it and

model

with

prickingthrough

tracingand

galvanizediron

of

means

of

means

letter,

of the

cast

strengthening

by

modelling medium,

the

if

it

high, transfer

inches

141

ETC.

LETTERING,

DESIGN,

DRAWING,

XII.]

CHAP.

are

of

polished
taken

out.

of

wrought steel, with forged handles,

design based
and

have

These

been

on

Elizabethan

in the

hammered

give the metal

work

of the

making

rich appearance.

HANDCRAFT.

142

The

companion,

fireside

of

on

page

modern

be

they

as

made

and

sometimes

are

dragons'

the

be

cast

would

or

and

it could

with

or

(2),

steel,

treatment

wrought-iron
intricate,

not

too

and

suitable

and

character.

the

of

wrought

called,

heads

been

cast

brass,
and

handles

copper

have

and

wrought

effective.

very

while
tnd

two

is

small

modelled,

ones

12

on

and

while
then

the

(2),
the

they

as

The
welded

Examples

given

are

palm

of

in
been

has

vary

in

larger
on

to

12

(i)

is

example,

good

conventional

welded

separately

thickness,
leaves

the

manner,

scrolls,

thick

from

cut

are

been

have

they

with

wrought-iron

leaf,

and

treated

grille

of

quite

the

conventionally.

to

on

bar.

bottom

is

Fig.

treated
leaf

hot.

and

on

Fig.
based

forms

Each

hot,

in

shown

gate

natural

shaped

and

illustration.
This

use

all

are

iron

bar

of

of

material.

modelled
of

The

the

the

They

from

pediment

of

for

stem.

forged
plate

is

polished

of

copper,

last

Fig.

stand,

xii.

103.

The

each

cast

This

reins.

steel

also

This

and

wrought

and

are

chiselled.

and

forged
or

implements

fire

[chap.

different

ception
ex-

Fig.

I.

"

Fig.

Part

2."

of

Dutch

Diagram

cabinet

showing

illustratingmethod

marquetried

of

floral

inlaying leaves,

ornament.

etc.

XIII

CHAPTER

DECORATIVE
WOOD

IN

is

"Art

is

Inlaying
Latin

the

to

of wood,

pieces

design.

This

inserted"

processes

temporarily

implement
different

of

down

this

it

former

an

Fig.

imposed
that

permit

the

of

by
based

considerable
woods.

lesson

in

the

the

of

use

units

reference
upon

charm

the
can

To

an

to

this

produced

produce

prevents

the

to

either

certain

by good
of

the

(143)

is

etc.

be

motif,

grouping
panel

are

of
and

centres

of

effect

is also

good
a

shape

parts

be

twining
interbetter

inlaying

some

is inevitable,

colour

shown,

harmonies
the

as

vious
pre-

it is
will

of

inlay

shaping

when

shown

the

floral

composite

principle

This

3 ; here

stiffness

such

and

of

use

is

limitations
of

of

and

with

that

designs

the

cutting

natural

the

fact

axiom

an

From

frontispiece

and

should

processes

illustration, Fig.

rose.

It

of

the

material,

example

cabinet

Dutch

the

in

then

are

good

saw

from

frame.

continuous

inlaying
of

material.

stalks, leaves,

the

wild
be

the

resemblance

curved

latter

inlayed pattern

during

close

too

of

in the

handling

from
shows

are

of separate

composed

marquetry

The

brittle

Obviously

sharply

stems,
understood

executed.

be

must

veneer

and

mirror

the

mar-

latter

interchanged

two

"

special

colour

design.

examples

two

and

be

in.

the

best

are

handling

easy

with

designed

natural

by

of

can

various

glueing

to

example

of

of

head

of

are

the

The

with

then

are

whole

the

of

design

contrast

the

at

to

pieces

necessary

design

the

that

effects

devices

the

frontispiece

the

comparison

object

excellent

designs

I.

various

The

complete

to

paper

seen

stencil

symbolical

design

be

".

but

word

sheets

more

and

adhesive

other

mark.

or

certain

design

the

or

thin

out

chisels

French

spot

or

of

inlaying,"

the

to

six

where

effect

to

meant

of

glue
"

from

comes

cutting

with

units

with

equivalent

as

units

cut

with

fixed

of
the

and

prepared

simultaneously

cut

characteristic

process

design

to

units.
in

shown

in

clearly

can

of

sheet

is shown

inlaying

distinct

and

to

in order

layers

work

donkey

"

with

originally

and

and

together

called

correspond

confused

Marquetry

decorative

to

fixed

the

glued

distinct.

proper

being

is often

regarded

consists

the

groundwork,

marquetry

be

may

groundwork

which

into

marqueterie,

applied

and

the

to

the

"

"

totally

are

is

in

term

hence

queter,"
term

"laid

The

"

term

Inlaying

upon

Bacon.

"

The

material

cavities

leaves

or

medium.

insert.

to

WORK

nature."

to

antiquity.

marked

are

METAL

added

man

other

or

veneer,

These

gouges.
"

interserere,"

"

AND

of great

art

an

PROCESSES

but
with

design

is

HANDCRAFT.

144

Fig.

3.

"

Various

designs for inlaying based

[chap.

upon

the

"

Wild

Rose".

XIII.

sped mery

Fig.

4.

"

Various

specimens

oi

pictorialoverlaying from

iiaLaid
'xJcbrK^,
op"

Bethnal

Green

Museum.

first

prepared

see

A,

Tracings

2.

Fig.

the

flowers,

leaves
Ch.

XVI,

Ch.

to

as

leave

the

with

cut

are

xvi,

pencil mark

design when
diamond

in

shown

from

the

work

in woods

Fig. 4,

Bethnal

Green

and

small

groundwork

(thisis described

this

The

work).

of each

yet

laid down

another

kind

the

lacquer
"

with

crusted

tendency

The

peel

to

originalcoffer

pearl
it

and

Plinyalso

horn

and

bedstead

the

silver,and
18

"

In

in the

of

of the

finished

ivory".
There

23

followingterms

till I had

Moreover

best gold ".

Book

the
are

king

and

it,and

several

of

other

box

line

to

this and
kind

"

in-

was

until

having

the

mastic

has

the

photograph.

There

Museum.

various

are

mentioned

ivory.

by

Vitruvius

"cerostrata," meaning inlaid


"

Ulysses describes
from

this head

it fair with

of
to

post,

ivory and
this and

found

arts

of
in

overlaid

other

with

Penelope

to

inlaid work

inlaying is

to

of

manship
crafts-

stand

in the

seen

and

references

mastic

is that

precious metals

great throne

the

at

of

surface

Chests

reference

saw.
fret-

Inlaying

the whole

literature.

word

made

be

can

Albert

classical

the

as

Persian

of

allowed

this process

to

outside

taken

is commenced

the finished

down,

part of

with

the execution

then

the

upon

completed.

until

was

Beginning

"

Biblical
made

It

previously

out

cut

preparation of

The

tracingis

example

In

embedded

"Odyssey

work.

groundwork,

inlaying,using

fine

with

ivory.

Victoria

is

wood.

veneer

cut

design

whole

is

design

with inlaid work

refer to

wax.

bridal bed

This

inlaying in

to

the

drawback

the

the

The

away.

until

be

should

selection

in another

and

and

veneer

examples

those

of

amples
ex-

decorative

good

of the

veneering

groundwork

unit

levelled

The

from

is in

the

piece

small

inlaying,the

from

vary
a

of

pieces of

were

or

was

lay

heading

covered

was

when

ornamented

were

cut

of

specimen

away

first

to

Fig. 5.

of

interestingreferences
Homer

in

inlaid work.

of

to

to

down

the prepared units

mother

thoroughly hardened,
appearance

down

just

groundwork

and

this type

and

chisel,afterwards

the careful

markings

natural

of

the

piece by piece

is shown

the

inlaying,each

outline

beautiful

similar work

of

process

groundwork

and

and

of

design is glued

in the

the

corner

under

unit, these being glued


As

and

and

work

to

spots and

of
possibilities

by

ground

tried

be

admirable

are

of effect is obtained

general principle is

The

These

the

illustrates the

The

as

line,"that is,

should

Fig.

vice

upon

hole and

awl

".

overlaid

Richness

attached

processes

described.

in

inlaid.

been

the
illustrating

Museum,

veneers.

piece

with.

with

on

or

the

cavities

the

square

so

of

case

[see illustration

Although generallytermed

"

really

are

outside

Each

proceeded

material,with due regard to colour

executive

with

cut

unit, and

design have

composition.

coloured

be

"

flowers,

the

and

veneer,

fret-saw

cutting board

small

line ".

the

units of the
best done

shapes are

filled with

of

main

the

of

45

panel,

or

In

veneer.

hand

small

with

the

glueing is

before

groundwork

unit, i.e. stems,

thicknesses

should

upon

inside

"

first

gouges

fitted if necessary

out

They

each

of

with

conjunction

f. 15.

the

to

suitablycoloured

to

cut

are

in

(i)],used

in

illustrated
so

These

made

for three

tracingserves

one

f. 8

down

down

glued

then

are

being glued

stalks.

and

and

cartridgepaper

on

leaves, these

and

PROCESSES,

DECORATIVE

xm.]

CHAP,

the

wrought
gold
i

and

Kings

it with

in the

at

of
x.

the

Bible.

146

HANDCRAFT.

Various

London

ancient
and

Assyrian

and

perfectionof

used.

Processes

decorative,

importance attached

medium

in

Thus

boys

should

Fig. 6

be limited to the

by
of

of

arrange

to

Fig. 6 will show

the

The

be
same

it should
inside

The

the

edges
introduced

of

refined in appearance.

It is

capable of

is

the

of

end

and

into which

the

In

and

"

mosaic

"

is

manipulate and

to

proceeded
wood

pieces of

each

up

piece

is then
and

edges being

finelyset

plane. They

is

planed, and

are

from

smoothed
are

then

piece

when

and

veneer,

trasting
con-

planed
cut

with

alternately to

as

thickness

to

stripsgauged

down

with
of

-/g-in. thick

and

planed

ration,
deco-

dry

stripsgauged

of

the
off

edging.
of

each

illustrated in

piece,the

indicated

as

diagram Pig. 7.

decorating the

each

edge
Building mosaic

this process

a]|,traditional
type of

Two

knife-cut

"

models.

of

It is easy

and

glued

hand.
with

receptionof

for the

is that

models

gauged

position

the

woodwork

colours

7.

with

easilyremoved

method

variations

follows

Fk;.

units in the

the

degrees of manipulative

Anne.

across

hand.

various

handcraft

many

in

applicationsof

simple

during the period of Queen

When

in outline, it

Further

frontispiece. This

patterns.

Reference

work

smartly
be

instructed

it is placed in

illustrated in the

Another

Gouge

cut

when

embodying

6."

to

of

cuts.

gouge

drawn

is used

then

leaf units.

skill are

Fig.

and

chisel,leaving cavities

small

two

the

struck

can

of

to

and

be

the

into

arranged

down

gouge

groundwork,

and

simple treatments.

two

pasted

through

of units and

design is completed

should

be devised, and

simple design.

pupil's

unlimited.
practically

discussed

is taken

into

them

to

or

suited to the needs

certain number

is

inlayingcan
be

media

boy's ability.

imposed by

simple action

the

chief

constructional
of

value

inlayingbest
unit

inlaying of

the

range
are

can

of

xiii.

ingenuity of design

were

culture

or

definite

use

the

times

styleof

is made

ivory

practicalside

development

for

lessons, either

in ancient

art

The

leaf

and

educational

is that in which

centres

design.

this

both

within

and

the

to

historyor
to

classic literature.

of

handcraft

The

the

ebony,

simple

physicalstrength,the
on

display specimens

handcraft

strict limitations

Lessons

Louvre

Metal,
with

necessarilybe

Whilst, however,

the

the

Egyptian origin,remarkable

execution.
connected

must

capacityand

and

museums

[chap.

these

designs it

inlayis glued

and

is necessary

levelled

off.

by
to

the
work

This

lines

dotted
a

small

process

in

rebate,

is further

Fig,

5.

"

Fine

examples

of Eastern

inlaying.

Mother

of

pearl and

mastic.

illustrated
be

on

purchased

shown

on

most

illustrated

by

which

method

the

follows

as

as

is the

butt

or

piece,

and

is connected

the

stock

by

to

bolt

passed

through

and

The

B.

fly
butter-

C is loosened,

nut

then

can

pushed

shows

piece

or

^^^-

be

the

along

view

the

stop.

with

by pressingthe

instrument

to

when

and

dr}-they

this process
connexion

fro to

with

as

with

the

in natural

oak

For

and

American

or

box, and

pear,
rosewood

Japanese

processes

the

of

the

previouslydealt

not

desired

one

(i))should

soap

rubbed

regulatedwith

of

cocos

rosewoods,
wood,

holly,

species

the
a

varieties

ebony

of

fine

preceding

f.

cut

the

cut

can

and

then

small

with

facilitates working, and


file.

rosewoods,

holly,

Before

they are

these

pearl, blue

demand

fret
the

fix it in
frame

saw

blade

the

and

the

tremely
ex-

plan
of

jaws

(see Ch.

horizontal.

if necessar}-

certain

the best

time, and
to

and

bined
judiciously com-

ver)- brittle substance


at

pearl,held

be

can

All

be cut

pearl
15).

of

mother

woods.
is

Pearl

only

xvi,

to

and

holly.

metals, all of which

Ch.

blade

"

"

the

on

to

shapes

be used
on

of combinations

wood.

with.

thickness

vice (seediagram
parallel
f. 8

walnut, and

inlawing include

for

various

majority

hard, hence
trace

purple

used

pearl, ivory,and
the

in

occur

"

varieties

oak, ebony, purple,ivory,and

materials

with

they

give pleasingeflfects:

Various

groundworks

various

groundworks

Brown

Other

as

"

American

walnut

oak, the

Brown

For

applicationsof

other

with

dealt

the

and
stringings,

the

glued

stock

ebony.

Italian

For

scratch

inlaying:

of

ebony.

brown

chestnut, Italian and


of

practiceare

The

like

material,drawing

Various

followingwoods

the

groundworks
Green

of the

are

groundwork.

for purposes

woods

edge sharpened

followingare given as examples

The

the models.

into which

of

edge of the butt

ordinar)scraper.

an

sectional

The

concave

in. steel,the

againstthe edge

channel

E.

of cutter

edge

into the
fitting
"^

involvingslightvariations
with

of colour

form

the

from

of B

end

levelled

are

is made

produced

is operated

from

stock.

illustratinga scratch

Diagrams

"

edge

convex

cutter

burr is

^-

required distance

stock

The

chisel,and then

be

is

this is effected

inlaid

are

represents

stock,

to

These

p. 53.

on

is first prepared.

Fig. 8)

and

are

can

(see

stock

stock

stores,

veneer

and

54,

p.

scratch

the

at

which
stringings,

mosaic

of

good specimens

few

50.

p.

147

PROCESSES.

DECOFL\TI\'E

XIU.]

CHAP.

is
a

xvr,

little

piecesshould

glued in, the pieces should

be

148

HANDCRAFT.

with the

roughened
is treated

in

above.

obtaining

Ivory is

best for

Inlaying.
in

unjustlyabused
be

may

wrong,

this

For

design is

of wax,

media

three
the

with

grooves

be

should

given a

being taken

care

and

composition

half

combination

on

p.

to

not

of

used

now

this

deal

in

one

or

can

wood

with

accentuated

this process

colours,

where

they join.

the

superfluous

greens

wax

on

pp.

as

colour

and

33

ingenuityin

it is

design,and

27.

(seeFig.6

suitable
preparation is particularly

this

for

inlaying,and

effective treatment

an

for this

be utilized

can

shown

are

composition

more

yellows,blues, or

be effected

wood

the

combinations

Colour
;

The

discoloration

the

to

in the other

for oak

position
com-

put into

is then

prevents

owing

executed

scraper.

greens

for

mixture

the

insertion of the wax,

one

The

hardening element.

as

polishwhich

inlayingis also

of scope

inlayingwood.

after its application,


and

so

of colour

veneer

Museum.

cavities filled with

the

the

to

merge

steel

filled with

work

to

in

the

the extent

the

practiceof

of furniture
in the

it will be
veins

seen

that

of the

with

the

leaves

and

Albert

whole
are

has

seventeenth

been

for

particularly

century,

the

this process.
Museum

outline
executed

is

are

The

one

vee

cut

of

the

fine

Fig.9,
and
vee

tool.

amples
ex-

Tyrolean

from

then

it
all

excellent

some

details of

tooled

where

Scandinavia

and

illustrated in

simply

with

Jacobean work,

abroad,

nor

show

museums

of

noteworthy example

no

Switzerland, Germany,

this art, and

decorated

Victoria

the

time.

same

There

it deserves.

since

England

about

type of decoration,a familiar feature

This

"

in

art

excelled

cabinet

is evinced

as

manipulate.

flourished

The

and

wax

Recessing.
is

or

of natural

tone

pupils,givinga

young
easy

of
Punch

50).

and

be

can

to

applicationsof

Various

schemes.

design

with

and

shrink

Edinburgh

when

effect in the fine lines

hour

contrasts

generallyspeaking,the

the

rather

inlaying

wax

thingsoccurs,

case

together,and

reds, blues,blacks, and

Stronger

mahogany.

of

latter acts

Previous

them

an

be removed

can

include

process

allow

to

not

composition is dry

The

The

mixed

ragged

grain.

end

soaking into the

is the

gouges,

resin.

stick.

pieceof

practically

design is possible,there being practically

coatingof ordinary French

groundwork

of the

and

well

and

melted

shades.

decoration,

of

is liable to

composition

better state

of

tool

dry colour,and

are

its

of the material, as
vee

decoration,

is

applicationof

(periodsixteenth century)in

much

varying

of metal

use

chemically

for

and

type

that

treatment

use

with

out

cut

traditional

contended

free

limitation to the

no

is another

quarters.

cabinet
a

the

fret

enrichments.

however,
practice,

example

charming

with

cut

effects

masses

colours

Theoreticallythe

being

French

fine

some

In actual

fall out.

by

it

in

Ivory

described

acts

and

grease,

xiii.

assist adhesion.

glue

to

treated

decoration, and

and

This

"

of

when

is also

sharp point to

glue.

thicknesses,as

more

garlicadded

traces

its

of

mosaic

spotted or

restricted to small escutcheons


W^ax

all

pearl is best

full effect

the

or

of the

in. thick, and

^~-

turpentineor

of

Mother

one

being picked with

surfaces, removing

joint.

stronger
thus

Venice

quantity of

metallic

upon

be about

inlayingshould

for

assist the adhesion

to

is also cut,

and

described, the underside

small

file in order

similar manner,

Metal

as

saws

of

end

[chap.

which

recessed.

Simple

HANDCRAFT.

150
outlines

geometrical designs and


very

effects

opposite,exhibited

or

good plan is to transfer

outline

the

tooling,for

design

with

imparted

coloured.

painter's
gold

relief part of the decoration


up

and

waxed.

of this

work, imitatinga

"

with the

colour

The
lend

writer has

The

relief part

drawings

themselves

also

Punch
The

observation
the

with

such

This

of

chisel?.

shows

as

skill demanded.

the

constructional

colours.

The

of

red

of the

to

separate the

and

be

proceeded with.

are

made.

diamond

to

fillin the

playof lightand

shaped

spaces,

shade

also

holes
the

are
core

smartly with
in. deep.

jy

spot
has

ed
elongatthe

punch.
made

with

be

moved
easilyre-

Square

with
a

loose

several

when

then

then

can

an

causes

loose

may

be held

should

next

punch

reversingthe

removing

cuts,

the

They

cut

and

usuallysuffices

tool

become

pieces to

be

in this way,

which

attachment

ironmongers.

at

about

wood

The

effected

be

struck

position,and

core,

and

taste

greater range
can

punch

slightmovement

for

work.

of

with advantage.

by

be used

circular

The

cuttingthe

hammer,

cuts

can

contrast

shapes can

be decorated

vertical

circular

Composition

gold

handcraft

much

decorated

when

borders.
a

to

diamond

and

can

conical

Simple patterns
punched work.

specimens

which

obtainable

punch,

square

models

designs for

"

or

work

recessed

designs

Good

washer

leather

10.

surface

with fine

development

units in

dispositionof

in

Fig.

in the

especiallyeffective

are

three

an

effect

brightto

eminently suited

process

circular holes, whilst

and

ing
pleas-

treatment.

advantages

the

of executive

Borders

panels for doors


Fig. 10

has

proportion by

for

the

admixture

beautiful

very

simple designs for

colour

simple

and

simple tool

is used

with

is

is easy,

degree
a

illustrate

39

decorative

to

of

very

paintedbackground

cut

gilded.

p.

Work

designing

than

on

specimens

seen

some

with

to

colour,or simply cleaned

burnished

gildedand

also

also

quickly.

The

gildingthe background

and
effect,

gesso

leaf; the raised portionswere


of tone.

artists produced

German
"

traces

painted with

be

dries

with another

be treated

can

Mediaeval

has

can

useful

then

and

which

which

work,

of

executing this

In

all

artist's colour

dry

chair shown

example

groundwork

background

can

rich

providesmuch

and

XIII.

144

p.

oil colour

necessarilyremoving
the

to

rich

recessing.

the

to

background

The

size and

not

gouges,

is thus

texture

effect when
of

It is

ornament,

design on

the

on

as

painted in

fine Scandinavian

lessons,introducing simple carving and

for

work,

is the

Exhibition.

Paris

last

part is

recessed

traditional lines of Scandinavian

followingthe
detail

the

at

motives

natural

upon

in this way

Decorated

produced.

are

based

if the

introduced, and

be

well

[chap.

and

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small

chisel.

ing
they may be painted in contrastthis
has a pleasingeffect in
type of

or

work.

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by

tiic

like its sister

examples

art

is also
inlaying,

illustrated in

the

of

very

chapter

on

ancient

origin,as

decorative

is evidenced

examples

of

^-Norwegian

Fig.

bowls, examples of peasant

II.

"

modern

Scandinavian

art, carved

chair

shown

wood, the bowl

at

the

Paris

being painted.

Exhibition.

handcraft.
was

been

for

and

marble,

from

produced

especiallyduring
periods.
the

view

of

in

school

Gibbons

aesthetic

opportunitiesfor

the

these

suitable

bureau

and

and

one

down

shapes.
the
be
are

whole

the
with

shape

paper,

these

the

part

by glueing up stripsof
the

grain and

cut

and

along

one

width

fitted to

diamond

In

This
veneers

coincidingwith

the

diamond

in order

to

larger

piece of

the

three

followed

the

by

"

the

of

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satinwood,

required pattern.

and

consecutive

effect

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change.

rows

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One

be

planed

and

half-diamond

and

so

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on

diamond

would

shapes

cuted
expeditiouslyexe-

for instance
end

gauged
fifth

be

secured

bandings

third examples

shape

shooting board.

and

be

wood
rose-

wards
after-

first ; this may

cross

veneering may

ebony

or

drawing,

next,

the

back

fiddle

as

would

diamond

dealt with

and

ably
select suit-

walnut,

ing
draw-

correctlyfitted,and

the

be

upon

pieces

top

first and

type

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the

banding

cross

upon

such

than

plane

mitres

completed, after

panel.

large diamond.

pencillines.

well-figuredItalian

pieces would

was

cartridgepaper

rather

the

be

followingprocedure

152,

of

iron shoulder

being

the

p.

"

would

arrangement

contrastingfigures

pieces
an

then

large centre

centre

on

sheet

and

lay on

to

paper,

complete

fitted into

with

and

doors.

the pattern with

out

cut

size

flush

fine carded
A
panel in
sign,
simple and eftective deEnglish, early sixteenth

"

centurj-.

door
of

stretch

American

or

the

three

of the

fitted to

and

best plan

to

the

to

The

for

piecesneatlyjoined with

by glueing down

12.

show-

shown

example

then

to

the
two

or

FiG.

design

tops, and

veneers

or

"

oak,

found

of

good

Fig. 13

suitable

set
carefully

them

planing

good

slight alterations

mahogany,
brown

be

kinds

affords

in

diagrams

second

veneers

mottled

glued

of

first damp

then

coloured

It will be

and

flaps,table

adopted

board

laid in

true

can

nearly all

veneering

the

lexecute

be

in

models,

with

panels, and
for

It

exercise

The

for

right designs

and

of

oak,

ideas.

colour

To

of

decoration

process.

advantage
advanced

and

furniture

of

form

valuable

with

employed

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"

is

veneering

would

Grinling

feeling.

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and

tion
excep-

devoid

studies,but

period,interestingas

the
the

to

peculiarproducts

the

as

carving,

Educationally,they

England.

regarded

be

should

belonging

work

of

perhaps

Italy

unsurpassed from

technique, with

of

the

Renaissance

and

masterpiecesare

These

point

Gothic

the

and
of

specimens

elaborate

most

pearls,have

France

Mediaeval

this art.

practiceof

carving

historywhen

metal,

utilized in

been

all

their

wood

but

ivory,and

gems,

151

period in

has

only

decoration,

times

earliest

the

had

have
Not

craft.

carved

chosen

stone,

all nations

Nearly

pre-eminent

the

PROCESSES.

DECORATIVE

Xlll.]

CHAP.

can

then

off and

example

with

"

shows

be

moved

inlay-

152

HANDCRAFT.

"

[chap.

Gxanaple"y-

illC'6Tra\l'ir24)%e-dip
plice^ton/xfeirio^s
cdconVei"linO,
"

Veueera.

Fig.

"

13.

"

"

"

XIII,

XIII.]

ing ;

in this

the

the

case

the

inlayingwould

veneeringis best

Caul

rather

the paper

driven

veneered

the process

for solid work

earlier in

in close
of

the

to

the

be

firmlyhandscrewed
least

glue

spare

in

Cabinet

"

Work

Applique
enamels

fixed

often

are

layingon

In

the

Doors

number

either

they may
in

piece of

of

from

cast

iron

or

intagUo,soft

an

aid of

be

piece of

all

vi.

been

fullydealt

and

Hooper's

hidden

piercing the

by

effect

and

manner

very

heightened by

was

fixingon

then
have

must

(secret

ornament

gives a

which

and

velvet

be

rivets being shown

Fig. 7 (3) or

the

or

could

except the enamels

done

kind

in this

be

wreaths, medallions, and

plainbackground,

leather

chisel.

looked

the
very-

the
a

pattern,

steel the

metal

is

small

same

or

reverse

ornaments

stamped

with

shape

that which

to

die

applied,

If the

die.

into the

easilyhammered

be

to

are

design

is required,really
so

without

formed

press.

Another
lead

metal.

When

red

decorated

were

top

METALWORK.

Rosettes,

of this

piece of

to

work

Spanish

some

has

the

beautiful.

Where

very

ironwork

plied
ap-

this process.

IN

illustrated in Ch.

rivetingit on

and

background

piercedwork.
rich and

making

old Gothic

metal

fine effect.

the

are

details of

"

and

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to

and

pressure

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referred

on

caul.

in the handscrews

veneering,cannot

applied to plain surfaces,and

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of thick

is cut

readers

remain

the

veneer

the

and

pins

veneer

the

scrapingwith

and

positionwith
the paper

over

over

run

pressure

caul

it is covered

two

or

placed

should

down
and

Ornament.

as

| in. pine,

glue stickingto

spare

the

one

the
soft soldering,
or
by brazing,silver soldering,
riveting,

riveting).
out

quitedry

in

is laid

glue to

work

PROCESSES

decoration

from

veneer

with

paper

then

the

The

for further

Applied

or

part of the

as

arid

causes

hammer

of

the

prevent

out.

DECORATIVE

veneering,

quitedry

placing the

piece

heated

this size, and

of

be made

when

be secured

by toothing,or damping

work

Modern

to

When

Veneering, consistingof
with

then

together,this

twenty-fourhours.

removed

paper

and

thoroughly

all

forces all the

should

veneer

in order

veneer

sized,and

and

chill before

to

edge,

hammer

be veneered.

is well toothed

The

caul should

veneers.

to

being allowed

latter should

The

surface

uppermost.

back

the

the

groundwork

with glue, this

described

that

to

described,

as

paper

been

of this kind, distinct from

for work

lightknife-cut

largerthan
The

"

had

to

chapter.

suitable only for

at

glued

groundwork

similar

be

then

the

when

153

be fitted and

would

groundwork

inlayingbeing completed
of

PROCESSES.

DECORATIVE

CHAP.

ancient

making

method

is

and

hammer

In

this way

method
the

to

of

die the

squeezingmodellingwax

lay a piece of
both

into the

quite nice

small

progress

can

sunk

thin metal

die, then

clean

making
into the

very

take

ornaments

can

seen

be

by wetting

portion,the
1 1

and

out

die, then
trim

on

This

made.

wax

the

die

this

oft" superfluous

borderings,pearhngs,

ornaments,

be

the

on

is
etc.

slightlyand

impression when

removed

HANDCRAFT.

154

giving the object in

or

enamel,

inserted

setting has

enamel

sometimes

of the

Bidri

^A/'are.

it

as

ware,

articles

The

salt,and
saltpetre,

fixed

is another

and

is

there

the

down

enamel

the

to

on

pendently,
object inde-

the

base, so avoiding the burnishing


enamel.

or

of inlaid work
of

is called Bidri

which

Hyderabad.

designs are

chiselled

rubbed

Niello

background.

silver

and

out

of salammoniac,

solution

is then

design

The

black

burnished

applicationof

the

background,

pearl,stone,

the

xiii.

is of china, glass,

applique

or

but

screws,

which, holding

citynorth-west

by

on

to

by

the

to

the

form

sulphate.

copper

the

made

the

to

in pewter

cast

be

riveted

or

Bidar,

is left in white

ornament

and

settingcan

It is blackened

in.

hammered

When

settingon

at

are

loose.

fixed

setting pressed

the

There

be

also

can

made

screwed

"

made

was

of

of the

edges

be

loose

be

then

can

down

working

to

edges

the

and

Ornaments

their

of
liability

the

always

relief.

[chap.

and

up

is black

white

on

the

background.
Bronzing
results

Metal

or

metallic

on

has

the work

They

certainlyunrivalled

are

to

beautiful

produce

metal, the temperature

the

chemicals

of the
The

they

to

; then

in

dip

If the

sand

strong

solution

solution

of

and

with

piece of

swill well

in two

colour

as

well

above,

and

lead

oz., water

and

hypo

or

as

dip

in
i

solution.

immerse

in

rag

that

varietyof

and

To

as

dip.

dip.

first time
to

dipped

of

purityor

purity
im-

is that

of metals

before

smoothness

of

in

out

and

brought

with

scour

produce
a

clean,

of

Arsenic

soda

scour,

oz.,

with

the
and
blue

oz.,

wipe

acid

produce

water,

shade

dip,as

and

add

and

of the

To

scour,

three

scrub

well

dark

very

sawdust.

part,

ing
gallon of boil-

one

solution

weak

three

in

well

silver sand

the

clean

brightcolour, dip

sulphideto

colour, clean,
:

be

rinsing in

rinse

nice

separatelyand

follows

well

colour,

When

hyposulphite

steel

alloymay

Again

in hot

of brown,

these

produce
made

the

otherwise

parts, sulphuric acid

potassium

dry

shades

Dissolve

solution

part of

Thoroughly

bright uniform

acid
of

boilingsolution

gal.

of

up

been

has

waters

and

similar

or

solution

acid

sulphide solution

three

come

rightthe

come

repeat the dip in the

over

the

not

the

by

as

colour

method

potash

gallon

ounce

an

the

on

bronzing

the

uniform

nitric

of

repeat the

quarter of

water, if it does

with

following

caustic

not

and

water
a

of

chemistry,and

purityor

well

as

ing
colour-

solution.

each

to

object does

and

and

chemical

bath.

the

up

connexion

the

by

hydrochloric acid ^ pint


silver

making

the

by

used,

of brass,bronze, gunmetal,
brown

of

shades

waters.

in

bronzing

article made

object by boiling in
waters

the

used

in the

immersed

many

solution

of

scrupulouslyclean

be

Any

the

this

be well studied.

The

artistic taste

beautiful

very

possiblein

metallurgy and

object is affected

important point in

most

must

being

in

of

colouring

The

operator.

is

should

Japanese

of

possession of

results the

what

of metalwork.

requiresa knowledge

metals

bronzing of

or

the

by

in this branch

produces

insightof

an

executed

which

art

an

obtain

to

been

direction

that

is

Colouring

objects,and

dip ;
blue

described
acetate

lead solution

dip

as

copperas

of
to

before
2

oz.,

56

HANDCRAFT.

metal

of the
end

of

they

as

is

which

tank

the

anodes,
takes

articles back

the

is measured

in the

Work.

which

on

of

fixed

or
loosely"

e.g.

soft wood,

design

is drawn

high parts

the

Hnamelling.
the

chieflyto
is known

the

of metal

In

Basse

relief,
so

enough

by

deposited
time

the

it is

gold, silver,

work

viii.

in various

is

simply

plaster.
ceeds
pro-

stuck

; when
on

and

bed

of

repousse

the Victoria
in

also shown

substances

Fig.5.

applied

styles,and

and

ways

the

or

opaque

etc.

is

design

bag

applicationof

the

give,

to

or

is from

are

is either

it is better to raise

be

This

of

mers
ham-

the work

as

sand

vitrified

to

sand

of hammered

of work

given

pattern,

cut

of

out

the

design,and

the

of

that

so

should

Fig.5(1).

of this kind

and

the metal

bag

in

good example

kind

thin metal, and

looselyon

the

is that

punches

allows

lead, a

scribed

metal

name

of

means

which

It is executed

of

form

outline

to

taille

enamelling, but

is the

cells

leaving

solid metal,

the

formed

thus

filled

are

enamels.

coloured

various

examples

the
eftamellitig

Champlevi

thin walls
with

enamelling^which
in the

through
or

metal

work

high relief is desired

laying the

of metals.

surfaces

colour

translucent

This

"

Plain

as

In

When

punches.

; other

Museum

Albert

and

up

and

deposition are

by

of

then

of relief is obtained
with

the

through

solution,washed,

of the

usuallyon

block

and

visible.

hammer,

the

repousse

substance

some

metal

or

is

work

silver jug illustrated in Ch.

is the

work

with

worked

pitch,and

of

the

on

remains

amount

necessary

on

from

or

electricity

is finished

plating,or

electro

the back

The

pitch, plasticine,wax,

outline

the

raised from

bed

after

then

cathodes,

amount

or

decoration

sizes.

shapes and

many

for

anodes,

plates

the

path

process

taken

and

The

the

the other

at

series of

xin.

zinc.

and

Punch

"

designs are

laid

used

mostly

nickel, cobalt, brass,

Embossed

The

metals

The

the

thickness

The

the article before

the

called

articles,they are

finished.

by weighing

bath.

copper,

work

the

solution

called

when

of rods

set

or

deposited.

are

battery;

or

rod

in the
be

to

plated which

be

dynamo

and

brushed,

scratch

metal

piecesof metal

and

deposited on

been

has

metal

the

to

similar

suspended

of the

articles to

the

to

rods

the

is

There

holds

called,

are

through

solution

deposited.

be

to

[chap.

enamellingthe

in addition

the

same

is gone

process

bottoms

of the

cells

giving greater depth

and

play of light to

enamelling

the

design

through
divisions

or

the enamel

in

as
are

the

champleve
in

modelled
cells

filled

are

with.
Cloisonne

In

groundwork

smooth
or

outliningthe

and
held

then
in

method,

the

Plique

hollows

are

the

obtaininga
a

are

silver soldered

filled with

enamel

enamel

only.

This

result similar to

coloured

network

enamels

comprising
which

by

pieces of rectangular

are

; in

is

or

down
some

really a

of

means

applying

triangularwire
to

on

instances

the
the

modification,

to

forming

groundwork
cloisons
or

are

easier

an

champleve enamelling.

jour enamelling is enamelling

through, simply
various

piece or

design,which

positionby
of

is laid out

the

or

enamelled

design

translucent.

and

When

work
the
the

that

can

be

seen

spaces

filled in with

spaces

in the

design

small

are

made

of

paillons
or

used

often

silver foil laid

this

means

in

Enamel

the

sense

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effects.

is

there

the metal, and

on

the

rightuse

of

good

obtain

the

best

To
furnace

lene

according
The

the

to

required must

is

with

metal, is applied

then

placed

This

Engraved
work
our

The

date

to

very

show

how

early forms

pattern, often
either

from

the

shaped bumps
shaped bumps
form

Museum,

and

earlyexample

Victoria

and

about

is

gas

benzo-

or

the

front

859-824

by

bronze

by

bosses.

B.C.,

of

means

shield
The
of

Fig. 14

much

is

plateor

right
left

in the

ver)-

various
same

in thin

same

dish in

later date, shows

in metal-

objectsin

to

form

sizes

and

II, now

page

then

these

gave

in the

pin shown
also

the

British

manner.

shows

finite
de-

roughly

lines which

in this

punched

manner,

metal

in

metal

simple means.

arranged

engraved

the

and

and

out

processes

and

of

decorated

on

well

the

at

taken

engraved lines is the bronze

silver

the

to

is satisfied.

of Shalmaneser
are

has been

thoroughly dried

is then

Dots

back

which

spatula and

furnace

produced by

with

cesses)
pro-

(scraped for

it adhere
a

Decorative

arranged

from
the

on

can

fineness

important

powder

is

earlytools
be

character.

often

were

up

the

Museum,

metal

decorative

certain

make

of series of lines

bronze-plateddoors

of decoration

Albert

consisted

back

were

decorated

effects

geometric

outlined

Fig- 14, p. 158, and


specimen

times,

hammered

The

by

most

This

It

"

the

to

operator

Decoration.
and

of

the

fused.
the

to

the

with

when

furnace
has

decorative

or

either

work

coating.

even

the

repeated until

of the

front

enamel

were

made

and

remote

of

front

required.

and

decoration

of

with

used, that

scrupulously clean

necessary,

the

Punched

and

back

museums

is

process

one

tragacanth if

of

the

be

also

of

in form

back

muffle

until

beautiful

most

be

must

ground

or

enamel

firm

the

baked

heat, and
cool.

form

to

in

all be made

heated

lump

(thisis

must

and

gum

the

to

it for brilliant and

furnace

and

the

washed

base, which

thin

some

pressed down

this purpose

supplied in

is slightly
domed,
preference),
wetted

design.
is fused

glass that

fingerplates,brackets,fenders,

covers,

enamelling

an

thoroughly

the metal

By

that is desired.

system

be

down

its best in association

at

seen

enamel.

to suit the

work.

results

which

enamel

and

to

arts

enamelled

speciallyfor

constructed

with

compare

rails,candlesticks,etc., could

altar
jardinieres,
grilles,

as

nothing

harsh

brilliant,

so

more

coloured

means

silver,

or

looking

not

with

covered

gold

simply pieces of gold

are

be toned

can

Hinges, handles, bell pushes,switch

work.

by

then

here

to

decorative

of the

one

it is used

in which

these

gold, silver,

them
are

its

support

or

on

on

57

the temperature

at

done

which

metals

which

fuse

prevent

in

enamel

back

obtained

to

design ;

the

on

or

be

can

are

down

enamel, fired,and

lightis obtained

reflected

the

lightenup

to

the

on

toned
other

on

stick

work

results

best

be

to

enamelling

When

raw.
are

have

the colours

often

though

the

but

gilding metal,

and

copper,

be laid

to

will not

Enamelled

hold

to

support

platinumthat

as

melts.

enamel

the

possiblethe object has

such

material

some

fired without

be

can

this is not

where

which

at

and

object

the

place,but

PROCESSES.

DECORATIVE

xiii.]

CHAP,

an

very

in

early

Fig.5, Ch.

viii, from

the

alternate

decoration

bv

158
a

HANDCRAFT.

similar

gold petrelillustrated
another

example

punches

of various

of

wider

the

and

process,

in

in the

of
possibilities

shapes,and

the

sizes makes

of

range

Fig. 14, now

the

[chap.

gold

it most

of the British

room

decoration

by

fingerplatesshown

can

for modern

Fig.4, show

of

and

these

illustrated

are

bosses

with

with other

done

similar

and
of

used

work

hit with

and

tablets

the

Fig.

coloured
old

work,

various
which

is laid in the

wax

however,

widths.
cuts

away

Filigree."

where

the
This

ends
two

of

the

with

is done

groundwork leavingthe
consists

mainly

with

wires, producing

pieces of

or

wire

are

little metal
a

twisted

most

with

letters

or

other

chisel

memorial

by

the

latter

the

on

In

and

instances

some

greater part of

The

machine

section
called

littleleaves

effect.
a

kind

lines ot

Router,

in relief.

ornament

wires, soldered

together forming

design

are

Museum,

balls and

charming

In
cut

leaving vee

gravers

graving
en-

hammer.
is

handle

like

formed.

round

of

into

of

by hand, but in

cutting.

British

so

produce

chisels
different-shaped

of the

in the

channels

chisels

work

modern

patterns, sometimes,

various
the

Some

or

grooves

cut

was

metalwork

Ancient

14."

be

can

it is used

used, depending

shape

some

design

and

method,

design

kinds

tool is fixed

the

kinds

In

5.

it

which

tools

effect.

of wood

cutting

burin, but

or

graver

plications
ap-

processes

Fig.

vii.

is

Engraving

suitable

Further

simple

in Ch.

how

engraved

effective and

requirements.
of

is

Museum,

in Ch. vii,

be made

The

different-sized

of

means

arrangement

an

lines

effective.

XIII.

together
soldered

Variations
of

rope,

in
to

of this is

using this

instead

is

Gilding;

this becomes

gold powder

or

varnish
underneath
and

black.

dip
method

cheaper

properly
by using

way
with

varnished

by

the

for

applying copper,

is used

parent
trans-

the

weather

bronzing,but

as

and

some

of

shown

be

work

be

with

wax,

or

and

Bidri

plate
the

alloy
silver,

it is only

Fig.

and

hammered

are

groove

is

the

work

face

finished

off

the other

graved on
well

lines

againstthe

round,

giving

and

rich coloured

then

design.
cleaned

memorial
could

also

it,then

This

up

with

tablet shown
be used

should
the

in Ch.

in the

same

copper.

and

shaped

shape,
be

en-

pj^,

Method
of holding
engraving chisel,

T5."

The

Ch.

design
be

of

is

xii

cut

are

silver inlaid,and

of

stone,
xii

has

manner.

or

away,

until

so

the

Water-of-Ayr

been

leavinga

brittle character, is

object is warmed

operation is repeated
pumice

chisel

an

show

copper.

inlaid the

which

the wax,

of

threads

have

the

inlaid.

was

shown,

as

could

could

form

finger

could

plate on

tablet illustrated in

is to be

wax

the

Celtic

the

wire,

and

outside

the

to

coloured

of the

embossed

plate after it

cells filled with

in the

inlaid

copper

Tudor

rose

with

of

niello,

with

cut

origin

this kind

Damascening,

example

raised

be

the

to

The

for

pieces

many

Persian

or

metal

is annealed

back

the

metal,

strips or
{parallel

edges

on

from

the

having

memorial

When

the

the

and

enamel.

As

need

then

required.

the copper

in the

stars

of

plate of

as

with

with

being

two

groove

down

planished up

78, instead

have

groove

wards
after-

durable

most

of
possibilities

inlaid

of

wire

cover

ornamenting

of

Saracenic

the

of

inlaying.

The

Fig. 15.

in the

placed

only

method

of

or

gems,

with

out

is the

craftsmanship,and

be

instead

(lo),

worked

in

shown

as

historic
of

can

of

This

required.

idea

an

or

forms
5

heat to volatilize the mercury

Museum

Metal
stones

inla)nng wire

held

that

so

is to
gilding,

expensive.

examples
British

the

are

design

When

and

coloured

VII,

same

ancient

very

obtained.

w^ork

Ch.

most

studied,

well

may

it is also the

This

in

then

polish as

or

remarkable

produced

and

gold

brush

scratch

"

work

of

mercurial

gildingor

fire

gilding,called

amalgam

an

gilding,but

of

should

of

method

Inlaying.

the

when

bronzing.

the article with

up

durable

be

to

is known

and

colours

in

is affected

method

same

of various

powders

Another

and

The

is very

done

this has

this

when

last, and

to

turns

bronze

sham

p.

used.

gold leaf, but

imitation

ground.
back-

by applying gold size, and

This

on.

is also

It

to

deposition,as gates,

electro

by

ornamented

are

leaf is laid

tacky gold

good qualitygold

and

done

etc.,

vanes,

is fastened

work
filigree

the

always applied to metalwork

not

signs, weather
railings,
when

also where

singlewire, and

of the

159

PROCESSES.

DECORATIVE

xiii.]

CHAP,

done

wall

of

powdered

that

the

wax

cells

are

filled ; the

stone, and

in this

manner.

melts

metal

all

fine and
and

fills

plate is

polished.

The

Fusible

metal

l6o

Lacquering.
Objects," p.

Metal

quicker

method

cups,

for

metal

chuck

to

with

and

the

under

prevent
down

chuck,

and

Stamping

avoid

to

spaces

has

to

is the

Niello

are

and

powdered

very

of the

leaving

in black

which

caused

surface
faults

black

filled with

upon

be

could

the

on

ning
spinwork.

the

work

be

of

acts

into

runs

is said

the

pressed on

was

paper

transferred

to

the

paper

inventor, and

the
He

be

to

was

the

etc., the lines

for accuracy,

Finiguerrawas

which

polished or burnished,

method

work

piece

composition

borax

liquefiesand

This

have

separatelyand

up

with

metal

is scraped over,

testingthe

black

is made

the

to

silver which

and

with

the fifteenth century.

of

has

the

etched

as

the

is often

work

Spun

sometimes

gold

filled

metal.

Tommaso

middle

or

compound

design to

reversed

easilyseen.

about

in Florence

the

and

substance

the

applied

the

when
as
origin of engraving (printing),
were

articles of
lines

cool the work

When

design.

design

the

heated,

of

knowledge

stencilled

is known

sulphur, which

is

back

the

by spinning.

engraved

powder

article is then

flux ; the

hollows

This

fine.

burnished

of skill and

called.

are

is drawn

To

articles the metal

deal

acid ; this

those

to

lead, and

silver,copper,

composed

of

they

and

hand

or

spun

against

up

supplanted spinning, but

finished

the

being

spinning deep

with

away

given

name

design engraved,

In

is,a design

extent

then

and

is held

wasters," as

"

eaten

certain

it is

back-

chuck.

the

to

on

or

put in motion,

in the

held

down

wood

and

chuck

is then

and

Spinning requiresa great

etching, that

by

the

while

metal

worker.

the

handle

and

pots, bowls,

turning a

the

lathe

is burnished

of steel

piece

making

partially
stamped

as

of

the left hand

decorated

further

the

flat

frequentlyannealed.

be

in the

formed

The

metal

cheaper

coffee

of

fixingbetween

long

It is a

ware.

consists

It

metal.

of the operator, the metal

the

to

on

of thin sheet

up

reflectors,tea and

then

is in

working

hollow

etc.

piece of

flat circular

being

by

lamps,

shape required,and

wrinkles

of materials

is

and

the

arm

on

metal

such

steel burnisher, which

Finishing

"

chapter

See

the

as

things as

making

lathe

of the

centre

surfaces.

is known

what

candlesticks

of

bases

it reallycomes

decorating metals

deals with

This process

"

lathe,and only appliesto

metal

of

xm.

177.

Spinning.

Metal
on

this is a method

Though

"

finishingor preserving of

the

under

to

[chap.

HANDCRAFT.

to

the

and

any

he

lived

skilled in niello

work.

Piercing.
and

This

"

its thickness.

dies, or

up

material

Thin

with

if

and

castings made
Solder

shown

number

saw

can

the

be

many

ways

punched

or

design

method

is to

in Ch.

viii,

with

various

use

according
pierced by

hand

fret saw,

shaped

the material

to

of

means
or

chisels and

cutting

power

fret-

afterwards

file.

fret

out

Another

examples

The

in

accomplished

pierced by cutting

cuttingmachine.
trim

is

required

were

from

Decoration.

Fig. 6,
a

would

pattern

could

be

be

best

cut

made

out

in

with

mahogany

it.
"

Another

method

of

decorating metal

surfaces

is

to

XIII.]

stencil

out

pattern

that

is

soldering
relief.

is

that

composition
left

by

iron,

on

the
then

not

the

wash

by

and

stencil,
the

fill

object,

affected

l6l

PROCESSES.

DECORATIVE

CHAP.

the

the

varnish

flux

the

apply
off

with

spaces
and

flux

and

heat,
and

the

black

scrape

ordinary
design

in

varnish,
clean

soft
solder

or

the

pattern
with

solder

will

some

be

left

in

Tools

the

of

sixteenth

early

from

century

the

picture

CHAPTER

TOOLS:

EARLY

HISTORICAL

"

smith

The

anvil

tools

and

Durer.

FORMS

"

in

with

nothing,

his

hands

tools

the

tools

wherewith

pincers,

Carlyle.

"

instruments

the

"

well-made

is all."

he

he

his

of
the

wrought

craft,

gold."

"

III.

Book

Odyssey,"

"

is

man

and

hammer

A.

DEVELOPMENT

holding

came

by

XIV

THEIR

"Without

"

Melancholia

"

INTRODUCTORY.
The

to

tools

be

may

countries

conjecture.

have

trace

that

of

development

the

countries

far

so

development

in

classes

the

national
the

actual

solution

Saw.

The
indicated
to

shown

the

examples,

fixing

by
and

saws

in

Fig.

of

range

and

placed
The

Egypt.

of

being

made

of

planes.
1, but

in

is

note

traced

like

very

in

ways

in

land,
Engof

sequences
lessons

that

be

craft
hand-

to

sufficient,

thus

for

siderably
con-

purposes

made

the

from

application

the

to

be

may

object

drawings
by

pure

regarding

interesting

probably

permanent

the

largely

task

remarkable

tool

to

be

dealt

with

is

the

"

many

that

of

some

rollers.

on

first

large

different

developments,

some

charcoal

in

is

which

It is recommended

subject.

the

lines

of

particular country

through

are

and

races

times

is, however,

purpose

subject

the

to

European

the

of

of

evolution

understood

proceeded

exhibit

For

possible,

drawings

It

absence

direct

impossible

an

belonging

above,

instance,

aspects

wherever

demonstration,

and

material.

and

is

implements,

indicated

for

clearly
prehistoric

tools

the

to

and

similar

very

to

early stages.

England

as

design

tools

and

owing

development

be

belonging

of

as

Switzerland

reducing
of

man,

apart

and

Sweden,

has,

along

in

tools

of

"development"

the

that

should

evolution

its

in

necessarily largely conjecture

shows

it

study

the

and

prehistoric examples,

which,

one,

necessarily difficult,

proceeded
But

implements

correctly

To

is

subject

times.
and

tools

is

tools

uses,

this

to

different
of

uses

early

of

presumed

at

definite

their

to

Study

prove.

of

development

referring

records
hard

the

of

study

classical

references,

Illustrations
it should

and

be

of

various

clearly

(162)

there
saws

understood

are

from
that

Its

saw.

earliest
these

are

is

antiquity
in

references

times
shown

Isaiah
are

as

nodeTn
BlaLde-G^'

Fig.

r.

TOOLS

XIV.]

CHAP.

interesting
examples
definite

show

of stone, which

produce

but it is

known,
No.

harpoon,
chert

and

presumed
same

saw.

No.

belong

illustrates

The

earlySwiss

lake

same

page,

is

by

sickle.

dwellings.

The

absence

being

was

this

theory evidences

to

inspiredby
No.

serrated
their

edge.

uses

only

can

consist of

They

in gum.

They

The

second

The

tools

5 is

Wall, and

"

with

comparative
tures
earlystruc-

tombs, hewn

that

assert

which
p"eriod,

the

to

in

from

timber

support of

have

obviously

dwellings.
Egyptian

in the

saw

which

form

of

is the earlier of

7 show

animals'

two

knives

as

into

laced

than

knife with

these two

one

types, and

8,

5,

10,

9,

is,togetherwith

No.

is

origin.

by embedding

particularly
interesting
specimen,
in

handle

all of

are

11,

of Australian

first case

saws.

7,

wooden

knives

saw

fixed in the

teeth

of this type. No.

in Nos.

shown

and

whilst
prehistoric,
attached

by pinning through both


frame

deeping,"or

by

teeth

probably

was

mediaeval

many

so

architecture

'later

suggested

it is secured

for

the

on

been

The

case

in the

used

in No.

have

is not

hole

8, exhibited

ingenious fashion.

most

English origin.

in the Guildhall

The

first

Museum

of

of London.

No.

secured

Egyptian

dwellingsof

more

example

of the latter series

City

used

were

wood

security.

reason

resembles

surmised.

sharks' and

of
consisting

the

be

the

Egyptian

for the

illustrated
to

Ages respectively.

and

appears

It is

in the

prehistorictimes,producing

be decided

cannot

reason

frequentlythe

in

extent

of stone

illustrations Nos.

The

indicates

ancient

on

The

for extra

definitely

of which

is of iron, and

implement

is

blade

to

as

sawing.

employed
Stone

is a

so

not

are

meat

the

saw,

and

example,

as

and

for bone

also

Egj^ptianiron

earlier wooden

It

handle.

probably

illustrates another

2a

to

Chert

British Museum.

Egyptian

Lubbock,

iron ferrule

Authorities
considerable

used

and

was

or,

bone

similar to that

wooden

this type

of

The

an

of stone,

the solid rock.

been

saw,

this

of

blade

made

attempt

an

chipping process

above, in the

after

timber-producing trees

of

than

Egyptian origin.

curious

chieflyfor

European

particularlyfine

by insertion,with

handle

the

to

this tool

of

use

been

fashion

is fixed into

the first example, and


clear.

in

Swiss

by

is, like the

page

of

saw

particularuses

have

to

produced

was

These

periods,rather

chert

worked

been
The

edge.

the

on

1, shows

has

here

serrated

certain

of

163

DEVELOP"rENT.

".

example. Fig. 1, No.

The
kind

characteristic

evolution

"

HISTORICAL

AND

FORMS

EARLY

means

two-handled

pit saw,

cross-cut

splittingsmall

the

logs, the

use

latter

eighteenth century

veneers

will show.

work

No.

handle

by

the

handle

and

tang,

end
of

in

to end

which

10,

also

being
were

The

fixed
cut

as

insertion

9.
a

These

in this manner,
11

were

London

tang, and

the

cross

doubtless

in country

vertical

illustration No.

was

the

by

chieflyfor

planks,etc.,

in

of

is indicated

used

in

excavated

was

still remains

is illustrated in No.

saw

authentic

old

to

example

is illustrated in No.

saw

splitting
logsfrom

of the

the

example.
cuttmg
effected

districts.
used

also

position. During
as

is of

an
a

examination

pit saw.

the

A
for
the
of
use

164
of

HANDCRAFT.

which

used

to

above
The

is

"pit"

cut

is made

compared
can

be

made

No

up-to-date
of

These

backward

stroke

pattern.

Native

tools,

in

cutting edges

interesting

some

of

as

teeth

In

the

Chisel.

Latin

"

"

the

plane, and

of the

metalworking

In

tools.

existingexamples

many

probably

were

"

chisel
British

"

They

Museum.

Museum

the

way

to

being
will

the
the

show

the

found

may

adoption
chief
two

of

of

other

materials

good

Stoke

at

grinding

materials

employed

examples

of

these

grades of
Oxford

are

the

to

early Stone
these

Of
and

France,

both

very

simple

of

of

up

and

than
to

Neolithic

polishingthe
flint and
this
celts

various

time.
of

tioned
men-

double

"

in

are

crude

stone

quartzite,the
One

Age,

haftingwere

blades

Reference

the

character,

later Stone
of

are

which

be

may

primitive

and

flint.

there

Age

which

to

forerunner

collections

other

the

supposed

turning tools, and

Newington

ciseau,"

"

It is the

like purposes.

and

necessarilyof

processes

English

use

at

safelybe

being only roughly shaped pieces of pebble. The Neolithic, or


in tool production ; methods
advance
considerable
marks
a very
introduced, and

of

the

on

the

two

word

and

implements belonging

are

in the

French

and

Eyzies, Dordogne,

Les

at

British

chiselling
"

adepts

Collection

generallygouges,

"

tool

chopping

found

of

"

for

used

the

with

by primitive man.

used

includes

term

irom

meaning,

similar

first tool

practicallythe

been

is made

cut

seen

those

2.

is derived

term

(I cut) having

seco

have

The

"

the

of

tools.

of these

Fig.

The

mention

to

case

Pitt-Rivers

cuts

will be

as

edges, thus combining

both

on

instrument.

one

models

remarkable

are

without

direction

is the

as

one,

process

more

or

Fig. 2, and,

opposite

an

forward

the

craftsmen

have

in

tedious

in diameter.

complete

large carving knives, and

on

Japanese
which

of

some

instead

be

below.

other

twelve

upwards

illustrated in

spaced

are

resemble

They

saws.

teeth

ft. and

brief,would

fashioned

are

the

log

log is wedged

log,the

which

XIV.

stillis

and

was

The

the

necessarilya

sawing, by

frame

end.

to

it is

stroke, and

vertical

end

It

saws.

is above

sawyer

however

saws,

diagram,

English

one

simultaneouslythrough

saws.

the

hole,

and

the downward

on

account

Japanese
from

well

or

with

cuttinga log from

for deep

extent

some

machine

entirelysuperseded by

almost

now

[chap.

two

to

led

the

latter

Fig.

resembles

3
a

XIV.]

CHAP.

TOOLS

EARLY

FORMS

AND

HISTORICAL

DEVELOPMENT.

flint celts- Z
NeoU1-hic

"

flintbo\"^s"5i

"

lpon-cKit.eljf
~^:""y

Hand
mcxie-

bopii-

^\

"Ry
fif
n%'

Fig. 3.

'

^M^^

65

66

HANDCRAFT.

"

"

and

gouge

this type

were

in

of earth

other

put

can

of

be

alike.

small

stone

in

centre

of

part

splitting. In
five thousand

well

as

that

agree
celts

of

they

were

the

the

Bronze

are

reached,

was

in

the

by

for

Fig. 3 (5) is
the

not

celts,that

of the

end

presumably
is

by binding

are

with

This

specimen

(5).

It is

socketed
was

1863

of

received

hide.

of

by
as

of

in

on

almost

the

wrought
to

lines to the

hexagonal

fine

at

the

example,

some

which

(6)

Fig. 3 (7)

firmlysecured
be

the

indicate

sidered
con-

of

Britain, see
Oxford,

at

ment
develop-

the

next

Fig.

and

ample
ex-

in section

(8).

curiously

illustrated in

through

the

Fig.
iron

cutting edge.

This

Winchester

Street,

at

the

corner

of

Great

similar

in

general character

shape

butt

In
"

in

as

the

types may

implement

octagonal

known
in

necessary,

Collection

iron, is

excavation

now

occupation

Roman

identical

is

is

times, although
prehistoric

existingwhich

big jump

Pitt-Rivers

the

is also

still

in

haft

the

Fig. 3

more

was

(5)

celt shown

are

shown

Fig.

casting.

with

the

is accounted

is made

various

of

in

and

(5, 6)

example

celts

Early

prototypes

hafted

core

case

The

implement

swords

war.

means

celt, which

Socketed

The

Museum,

of

Bronze

understand

we

handle

of metal

iron.

of

cuttingedge

some

Authorities

type shown

Fig.

the

longing
be-

productions as

Neolithic

edge.

is the

the

of the

the

British

receives

handle

the

as

its

that

their

in

The

gouges

implements.

the

the

the

effected

provided

relic of

There

in

"

stick

during

towards

greater security.

now

to

it,in

Museum.

mediaeval

belongs also

dressing,as

which

development

the

before

types shown

being

for

obviously of

Wall.

Guildhall
The

and

in

the

socket

this

part, tapering away

found

London
the

is

it is made

enough,

Both

thongs

being

is known

chisels,as

as

harden

to

example

an

implements

shown

than

blade

the

spear-heads and

many

among

of

from

cleft

casting

the

introduction

the

period

copies of

axes

necessary

is,a

the latest

as

there

out

bound

was

earlier one,

an

as

ear-piece was

or

for

haft.

risk of

stage, approximately

marks

This

countries,
"

of Scandinavian

in

origin showing

wooden

based

actions

various

the

artistic character

evolutionarystages

implement,

loop

cases

more

expansion

drawn

which

the

used

to

come

reallymetal

are

originalone.

socketed

for

lessen

to

specimens

now

ago,

in

mounted

order

fine

cutting

Swiss

of

"

the

sustenance,

implements being

differentlyin

of

breaking clods

or

of

xiv.

implements

for

defence

bronze, strangely enough, preceded

used

hammering

used

basis

the

then

in

years

also

many

the

of

Museum

primitive tools.

Age

probably

There

term.

of

use

and

We

extraordinarymoulds

the

forms

two

period.

of

whether

weapons

British

shown

it is remarkable

and

which

horn

six thousand

to

manufacture

the

Age,

is also

Neolithic

but

which

to

uses

"chiselling,"the

introduced

was

Fig. 3

the

to

into

horn

as

of

the

into

fixed

axe

The

Hafting proceeded

interestingexample

one

that

wedge,

chisels

and

planes

chisel ".

cold

only be conjectured,

would

action

the

upon

"

agriculturaloperations or

involved

process

the

[chap.

may

to

also

iron
the

chisel illustrated in

Romano-British

have

been

the

Fig. 3 (10) was

period.
curious

It

was

found

probably

spoon-like gouge

at

used

Wapping,
for stone

illustrated in

Fig.

Fig.

68

HANDCRAFT.

decorated

in

hammer

British

the

of lines

number

of

about

end

heads.

the

metal

was

when

the

metal

had

out

bronze

hammer

been

much

and

pene

or

as

the

nine

club.

iron.

all the
of

other

is

was

found

at

in

usual

of

methods

hurting the

has

In

fitted

to

binding

handle

made

from

the

3, the

to

piece of

tree

is

the

handle

one

tied

by

piece,as

No.

with

on

4,

which

from

means

when

the

Guildhall

hammer,

shape

and

or

to

our

the

it

more

of

made

branch

sennit
of

it is made

stone

has

cord.

leather

head

out

with

head

The

at

of

Sometimes

substance

head

of

kind

of

head,

which

stripsof

flexible

head

grown

thong.
of

the

firmly
a

without

stone

to

with

hammer

stone

obtained

how

the

one

and

flat side

rightangles
Fig. 5,

hide

handle.

branch

No.

the handle

like whalebone

was

various

show

of moistened

means

twice

round

is
a

by
the

that

tree, with

nearly

simple methods

fixed the

shows

2,

but

manner

be

of

branch

small

binding

wrapped

Fig. 5,

head

is in

is

In

very
the

can

Aborigines

fastened

was

drying,so

head

an

making

forming Fig.

i). Fig. 5, No.

No.

centre,

in the

engineer's

of

war

sides with

known,

not

show

of power

the

the

is

tools in

various

larger amount
Australia

round

with

the

peculiarshape

head

illustrations

In

splitrattan.

stone

attached

thin

exception that

the

long, thus

countries

various

The
a

iron

an

has

and

hammer

on

pene.

with

of

hammer

to-day holds

that

claw

It is similar in

inch

an

hammer

from

(see Fig. 5,

Fig. 5, No.

tied with

the

to

contracted

interest,one

cast

it has

iron,and

example
is

is

11,

core

the
practically

hammer
of

the

diameter

in

face and

half

No.

and

Friars.

became

of

and

decorated

fifteenth century.

wrist.

or

arm

groove

which

Austin

smith

hafting,so

cement

or

gum

of

claw

Roman

early centuries.

their hammer

hardened

that

so

mould

Fig. 4,

modern

noticed.

be

the

German

planishing hammer,

face

hammers

the

the

15, is

No.

for casting

this core,

in.

top and

mould

round

claw

at

showr

flow

13, is also

14, is

the

heads

stone

stone-headed

hafting,and

Fig. 4,

iron

an

4, No.

projectingspikesabout

the hammer

How

3^

is

on

de fer,of the

The

This

rounded

square

and

Fig. 4, No.

of steel with

two

are

shaft.

long

Fig.

hammer

called,Martel

faces have
a

12,

made

there

present-day double
of

No.

tool.

dots.

fitter'shammer

it is

Fig. 4,

claws

lines and

Museum

in.

rectangular face.

engraved

the modern

face and

square

about

the

the

soft stone,

piece of clay or
from

at

found

heads

depression will

removed
for

ready

was

limestone

the

hollow

round

The

it would

mould

was

left

mould

the

circular

or

into the

be

head

as

core

solidified and

used.

shape

same

of

No.

to

in

found

was

ception
re-

back

dates

bronze

in

shows

10,

that

cast

Ireland.

from

bottom

the

would

of

is

with

perforated for the


that

shown

That

Fig. 4, No.

poured

hole

hammer

stone

comes

receptionof

for the

was

when

is

xiv.

There

decorated

tomb

Mycenaean

shaft.

No.

At

pattern, and

9, illustrate hammers

simply decorative.

hammer

in

7,

of

insertion

the

are

No.

8 and

Nos.

an

hammer

stone

all-over

found

was

in Suffolk,and

in No.

taken

this

Fig. 4,

Fig. 4,
for

Thorndon

This

arranged

B.C.

1350

portionof

form

to

for serious work.

used

probably not

was

broken

shaft ;

Thames.

top

head, and
Museum

[chap.

or

and
5, is

and
horn

Fig.

5.

"

The

evolution

of the

hammer.

tied round

and

into

Fig. 5,

In

manner.

this is fitted to

and

with

of wood

position by

twice

is wound
1

round

iron

1,

together in
put

through

y"^in.

iron

of

method

and

with

made

is then

head

with

hand

with

the

the pene

heavy
while

between
the

one,

the

subjectalone,
tilt hammer,

tripor

considers

all the

hammer

steam

Forms
hole
of

is

unknown

methods

Fig. 6,
is

the

the steam

and
No.

I, shows

Horniman

the

tiny ones
blow,

necessity.

bone

Museum.

use

the

and

Drilling Appliances."

appliances in

close

from

modern

shaft is fitted to the


A

wedge
a

in the

the

iron is

of

diamondwood

is made

and

heavier

at

positionin

the

necessityof specially

and

study the

blow

slow

with

least lateral pressure,

volume

be written

could

set, and

set

mechanicallyoperated hammers,

hammer,

the

is

it is essential to

and
great variety,

its hundred-ton

antiquity,but

so

collar

A
12,

naturallyassume

gives

that

drilled

edges with

from

in.

-^

of

spreads more.

the

hammers, from

with

of

also

No.

of hammer

light hammer

Fig.

rightangles and

at

the head.

user

piece

then

The

hammer

the

branch,

flatter

clinched.

trade has its own


particular

for each
are

world-wide

there is

bent

farthest and

penetrates the

hammers

There

using a

with

blow

latter penetrates less and

number.

any

sharp

In

are

faces and

relievingthe

so

are

shaft.

kind

This

kept
simple

willow

in the burrs catch

that it will

so

position.

former

Of modem
this

on

end

holes

Fig. 5,

the

on

up

loose.

face downward,

forcingit into that


difference

to

is driven

wedge

readilywork

at

the

on.

the

parallelwith

saw

splitand

the

round

and

over

shrunk

of burrs thrown

When
not

the face than

and

and

rightthrough

flatter.

rods

of the

engineer'shammer

number

does

firmly.

piece

The

hole

withy,or

o,

head

hammer

couplingor ringslippedon.

Two

shaft, bent

the

made

down

cut

pointed chisel.
the

in

twice

bent

ends

shaft, the

fixingan

then

tool

No.

holding

of

and

or

decorative

in it.

hole

of the shaft is

end

iron

an

has

9,

Fig. 5,

In

hot

the

holes

the

in.

the

put through the

was

5, No.
the

method

red

it holds
hammer

Fig.

into

wedged

tightly

sinews

with

on

quite

in

pegged

is fitted

rectangularhole

fixed to it

head

modem

is made

it cools

when

that has

shaft

the cold sett and

is

wood

is tied

6, shows

and

head

end

done

69

pliablecondition.

the

the

It

often

very

piece of

driven

round

shows

5, No.

were

is of bronze, and

taper wedge of wood

and

head.

hammer

Fig. 5, No.

round

bent

right-angledbranch

8,

in

the shaft while

then

and

bindings
No.

DE\TLOPirENT.

HISTORICAL

irremovable.
practically

taper wedge.

which

head

hammer

round

bronze

hammer

the

then

away

shaped

AND

is

the

These

hide.

stripsof

cut

left in

hole

the

FORMS

and

7, is

No.

Fig. 5,

down.

eye

and

head

the

of flexible wood

haft

in

EARLY

it dries,it hardens

When
a

TOOLS

XIV.]

CHAP.

So

pneumatic hammer.

used

by

are

tool

early

reproductions on
in

various

perforator in
All

the
12

appliance

or

the

the

in

early needles

the
at

for

felt that

need
next

countries,
use

marvel

to

and

the
for

sewing

genuity.
in-

making
the

drill
a

is

few

times.
This

ages.
were

one

man's

various

Neolithic

the

mighty

show

page
at

as

When

jewellerto

bound

we

was

the

comprises

such

of

some

I/O

HANDCRAFT.

bone

of

sort

bore

not

when

hole

other

as

bow

its

from

hole

the

in

hammer

some

Fig. 6, No.
used
the

it,the

are
as

in Alaska, North

teeth,

point
The

of

in

the

rod

strap is simply
in

conveniently
end

of the

hole

the

which

this

pattern is now

use

used

being

that

being

connected

they

at

drill in

end,

by

Collection

at

Fig. 6,
It
of the

have

8.

There

is

"

use.

some
no

to

by

the

brass

same

The

instead
a

wards,
forone
same

only diflference

whorl, the

with

piece of
with

called
by jewellers,

rod

top

and

Mexico.

New

action

with

wood

down

and

up

china

down

wood

piece of

is backwards

direction,and

one

the

going through
is obtained

on

and

primitive

with

the
drillers,

similar drill used

continuallyin

turn

bar

downrod

steel

wood

brace, made

in

This

is

bow

1760,

to

be

bar

cross
a

of

fugal
centria

solid

solid brass ball

in the Archimedean

as

in

seen

peculiar,as
This

form

it is in the

that

of

this form

based
of

of
a

is at

fiddle drill.

primitive lathes
doubt

form

of drill stock

it is called

and

fiddle drill of wood

or

work, nicely made, and

is modern

Oxford

with

of

held

by pulling each

tied

bar

cross

Indians

Pueblo

be

can

the

Pitt-Rivers

Oxford.

certain work, and


at

the

that

skin tied to the

piece of

motion, which
the

motion.

piece of

fiat

the

9.

7, is

No.

drill is
in

when

working

and

by

is

take

to

circular

circular

been

between

drill of very

piece of shell

The

contracts.

the motion

No.

held

arc

bone

pump

bar

cross

drill is

or

thin. cord.

Fig. 6, No.

Fig. 6,

ends

point

made

are

and

The

with

cane

the

is obtained

6, is

and
by saw-piercers,
jewellers,

whorl, they

each

the

among

drill,is arranged
brass

and

by holding
in

was

firingby

motion

piece of

stone

or

pieces of

round

manner.

has

top is held
is inlet

Fig.

In

fire-making and
the

is the
method

perforated in this

bone

slippingor

tied

position.

drying

is obtained
hand

in

The

in

is

rod

rod,

rod.

centre

skin

wet

of

circular

The

centre

wedged

take

to

of the

it

hide

been

In

boring.

laborious.

very

shaped piece at

piece

been

boring

the ancient

shows

4,

strap drill for

The

piece of
hand.

have

or

prevent

so

the

; the

whorl

mouth

No.

drawing,

of which

drill,the bow

have

strap alternately. Fig. 6, No.

construction
called

which

shown

instances

and

Fig. 6,

tool

drill,and

while

stool

of

is

there

kind

on

height of

the age

of

of

drawing

at the

of

Oxford

same

sittingdown

3, is

No.

citywas

gained

at

the

fire-makingbow

America.

some

using

man

in stone, but it must

5, is known

be

can

Collection

of hide.

thong

holes

heads

and

as

hole

primitive method

Fig. 6,
this

make

to

xiv.

it does

although

used

the

was

and

idea

some

worker

there is

the

boring

of

Egypt,

with

Museum

for

B.C.,

be

steel.

Thebes,

Pitt-Rivers

the

in

walrus, and

adopted
4

In

chair

800

it could

term,

of flint and

sculpturesat
to

fresco

Horniman

rib of

1600

holes.
drilling

taken
a

the

"Firedrill,"and

available,and

not

were

is

2,

the

the introduction

drill from

prosperityin

for

No.

understand

we

appliances

gettingfire before
of

Fig. 6,

horn.

or

[chap.

on

drill

In

of Indian

The

good shape.
vee,

so

it has

the present time


the

cutting edge

scraping

suggested

of
our

drill

action

largelyused

are

for

collection

above-mentioned

this form

ture.
manufac-

to

be

seen.

lathes, through such

Boae

drill
Bow'
Iromlhe

"

Perforaror

v35eclin
.Neolithic

ScOlptC/res

oqge alrTliebey

b eino

tv^Tl^l^^

holes
ECTION

"

i r"

^^

*"'5r

'lib 5ockeT

ndlejpindle

Drillingo^pplianc

111and

fromme

ndiar\.

Specimei

Fig.

6.

-bow

CHAPTER

SUPPLEMENTARY

PROCESSES
OBJECT

FOR

heating

within

cooling,

rolling.

reason

skin

or

in

is

powdered

charcoal,

with

and

objects

is

mass

may

and

red

heat

the

various

necessary
and

or

colour
to

cooling

fuses

universally

of

in
tool

is

the

brighten
slowly

steel

film
the

of
tool

by burying

the

to

as

vary

oxide

in

the

or

lime.

(172)

to

temper

anneal
oxides

is

rolling

until

seen

these

bright

But

mercury.
the

soften
in

best

degree

proper

It

the

chilled.

to

obtain

in
the

and

temper

to

wards.
up-

reheated

surface.

the

agitated.

kept

then

or

The

brightened

until

annealed,

required

up

hours

by being

and

as

luted

repeated

lead,

to

The

is

case

such

heat

by heating

wax,

be

to

twelve

hardened
and

useful

most

being

be

hardened

To

red

on

to

hardening,

carbon,

heat,

hardening.

hardening.

ashes

be

steel

after
on

heat

the

hardened

reheating

after

be

can

oils, fat,

brine,

water,

by

It

red

by
i.e.

is then

which

tempered,

hardened,

useful.

bringing

toughness
of

be

can

from

has

only

can

at

water

to

operation
iron

Cast

kept
take

surface

the

on

This

water.

of

in

spring

as

article

box

the

may

tank

heating

by

which

Steel

quenching
kinds

hardness

case

cold

Tempering

results.

the

it

make

properties

dumped

is obtained.

Tool

into

etc.

is

The
rich

and

This

carbon.

substances

furnace

case

This

is in

hardened

are

by

soft.

by

steel

is known

bronze,

follows

as

cuttings,

hardened

potash,
in

hardness

Carbon

by

of

quenched

necessary

are

be

prussiate

into

sufficient

objects

done

leather

airtight, put

then

is

longer

What

left

bending,

softened

or

The

hardened

interior

containing

box

bones,

horns,

can

material.

the

stretching,

cooling.

be

of

nature

annealed

phosphor

the
It

iron

an

absorbed

objects

yellow

in

made

have

and

instances.

placed

The
Small

hardened

many

hardened

clay

is

steel

be

it becomes.

softer

hard-rolled
mild

and

the

to

also

can

subsequent

the

and

iron

They

and

course,

copper,

Wrought

surface

combination

of

of

METALS.

by rolling, hammering,

metals.

DATA

METALS

OF

according

ways

hardened

other

ON

TEMPERING

many

temperatures

hard-rolled

brass,

the

of

various

to

in

be

can

addition

the

by

or

metals

all

Nearly

AND

accomplished

be

may

AND

LESSONS

HARDENING

This

XV

is

judged

is

always

by heating
colours

on

air with

of the

oxygen

Steel.

cherry red, and

of
a

to

In

is

cases

preferable.
of

degree

are
ovens

are

In

temperature.

useful and

fire

or

turned

and

sand

hot

stove.

gas

is to

method

heat

bismuth, alloys are


articles to be
with
small

tools

piece

of

and

used.

presence

are

forged at

are

heated

to

ruin

would

the

in

be made

it.

hot

glassy

heat

and

ordinary carbon

For

files,scrapers,

for hard
Yellow
Dark

Lathe
.

yellow

brown
with

Taps,

purple spots

Light purple

cold

Dark

purple

Hand
.

inside

cuttingedges

blast of

cold

engraving tools,
iron and

cast

the

tested
very

until the

their hardness

of the

air.

This

and

lathe

They
tools
ment
treat-

tools

steel.
for iron.

chisels,shears, scissors.

for cast

and

blue
.

For

molybdenum.

or

punches, scribers,drills

cold
Dark

and

for brass.

Axes, planes,twist drills.


Chisels

the

tin, and

be

can

owe

in the

Milling cutters, dies, punches.


Centre

Brown

Lead,

metal

the

Another

is made

the article held

them

laid

accomplished.

tools,dies, planer tools

Brown
Dark

then

on

is

Tools.

be

not

are

Scale.

of Oxide.

Light yellow

any

placed

it.

on

metal

some

known

steel.

Tempering
Colour

in

and

to

and
and

back

right out.

is obtained.

molten

can

by

cooled

tool

tool

tungsten,

harden

with

bath, which

air-hardeningsteels

chromium,
to

sand

fine sand

The

and

Self-hardeningor
heat, and

on

the molten

tempering

of

or

in.

three-quarters

be heated

temper

lay the

and

is rubbed

rightthrough

brightened

correct

of

point

expensive appliances

and

and

chisels

it is cooled

can

blowpipe

bath

can

in them

bright red
white

iron

the

tools

is filled with

until

accurate

very

is obtained.

the

box

from

water

for about
of

depth

rightcolour

where

is used

remaining portion runs

reliable and

gas

immersed

are

piece of pipe

rightcolour
to

over

tempered

pyrometer

over

the

tempering

is hardened

tool
and

in cold

hardening

and

which

steel

is heated

to

out

from

shops
a

metal

The

also

in water

is the

very

small

with

simple.

heat

for

used

available,tempering is done
very

of the

be tempered.

to

for

chisel

The

taken

cuttingedge

the

The

the

bright ;

have

not

adopted

chisel is then

tempering, ovens

oven

follows

as

tool

by dipping rightout

point is placed

; the

when

point,and

the

until

piece of gritstone

73

combinations

are

carbon

simply

sometimes

method

until cold ; the

inch

an

is

implies it does

name

is

cutting edge

the

from

the

is conducted

and

tools

similar

as

hardening

Point

This

"

like tools ; it is hardened

for chisels and

METAL.

metal.

the

Non-Tempering

ON

LESSONS

being tempered

it is

of steel while

brightened surface

the

FOR

DATA

AND

PROCESSES

XV.]

CHAP.

Springs.

sets,

iron, large shear


saws

pit saws,

for metal.

screw-drivers.

blades, table knives,

HANDCRAFT.

74

METHODS

FOR

DISTINGUISHING

fracture

Iron

W^rought
has

fine

reddish

fibrous

Outside

has

like

the

FROM

MILD

IRON.

grain
"

fibrous

Outside

fracture.

Good

is of

appearance

is of

Iron
the

to

Tool

has

quality of

iron ; inclined

dull

quaUty wrought
dull

black

iron
with

colour

the

grain

better

the

grain, until

the

finer

Outside

silky appearance.

the

and

appearance,

grey-white granular

silkyin

granular and

appearance.

colour.

the

finer

intermixed

polished grains

small

be

to

granular

grey

The

have

the steel

bright black

quality.

Steels

with

grey-white colour

wrought

appearance

Cast

of

rough

fracture.

Steel

fibrous

not

has

has

STEELS

xv.

scale.

Mild
and

examination

or

TOOL
WROUGHT

AND

STEELS

By

[chap.

the

air

appearance

the

and

hardening

is of

cording
ac-

better

the

quality.

appearance,

with

varies

grain

steels

bright

very

the

grain

blue-black

colour.

Shear

Steels

have

closely mixed, and


be

can

it does

mixed

Iron

or

with

dull

fracture

To

the

Doubling
and

then

steel

white

faceted

fracture.

grains

These

Steels

Cast

Iron

the

not

Tool

"

steels

Test.

"

it is very

Speed

the

to

be

have

the

steel

and

bright

hardly

can

break

this

open

then

break

the

on

itself

and

show

the

manner.

dropped

note.

lower

it.

over

high-toned ring when

higher

tone

and

dull

ring.

sound.
red

and

filed it is carbon

Steel

in

very

have

dead

is doubled

partly

treated

Iron

dull

very
Heat

it will

when

Wrought

file ; if it cannot

High

bright

very

wheel,

emery

iron

wrought

bend

Steels

harder

and

has

with

grained

chisel,file,or

if

"

break

The

Mild

clean

brittle,coarse

very

Test.

flat at
does

floor.

stone

is

metal, nick it with

Test.

Heat
with

such

grains.

Over

Drop
a

with

break

not

Steel

hammered

fibre; mild

on

with

granular appearance

coarse

welded.

Burnt
facets

be

quench

tool

filed

in water,

out

then

try it

steel.

at

all

in its natural

when

state

as

hard.

The

chemicals

methods
for

above

Warping

and

when

Warping
the

other,

the

object.

or

proper

Cracking

being forged, insufficient


thoroughly

mentioned

testingin the

in

for

hardening
thin

manner

are

of steel

not

is caused

annealing (setting up

preparing

the

rough

are

side

and

always

becoming

by

one

cold

to

but

too

the

necessary

treatment

strains),

when

heating

not

quickly.

side of the article


before

the

hand.

by improper
internal

hardening, or heating

is caused

ready,

thick

being
side,so

cold

before

distorting

AND

PROCESSES

XV.]

CHAP.

DATA

FOR

CASTING
is the
moulds

and
that

art

an

and

the

useful forms,

although

British

the
use

about

and

f. 4.

112

the

mould

Nos.

8 and
are

seldom

making

mould

The

in the

foundry or

woodworking
while

Patterns
which

are

on

to

be dried

mould, which
a

piece of

also

case

the

made

of

wheels,

car

molten

owing

to

metal

its

in

surface

dried, and

an

to

the
sand

flows

for

"

in

There

or

foundry,

Patterns

wax.

in

shaped
of

boxes.

core

up

".

called
and

pegs

castings are
When

the

pivoted on
"

sweeps

the

up

Paris

plasterof

iron frame

or

obtained.

are

flask ;

eyes,

the

which

the mould

moulding, where

iron

brass

is green-sand moulding

"

cuts

or

of metals

iron

rate

Paris,

together with

dried sand

swept

an

the

It is

particularmetal

mixture

shape required and

cast

in

loam

object is

circular

centre

rod and

Cores

mould.

are

up.
of

an

iron

casting

againstthe

moulding.

Its

is wanted

extremely hard,

is made

of

iron it is chilled

and

of the

cold

cheapness, porosity,and

material

fit

Large

oven.

rolls,this part

or

which

other.

by being

of

mass

the

the

on

metal, or

melting

is called

one

and

pattern,

outside

an

cheaper

sand

the

knowledge
in

is

in the

the foundry.

xiv,

Ben-

helped

making

in what

cast

it is contained

iron frames

made

by sweeping

of sand,

axe),

when

case

and

cast

plasterof
of

of

material, and

from

have

castingsat

made

in

was

produced

usuallymade

are

distinct

specializein

metal, wood,

that is not

flat wood

is to

better

is used

is often made

When

times

life at

which

be

the

was

suitable

alloys are

Chou

to the

earlydate.

to

directed

and

other

Victoria

the

(a kind

an

article

as

Patterns

and

made

sand

baked

against a

revolved

the

practicallyalways

cores

are

the eyes

or

is

doing
in

have

When

in sand

castingsof

man,

some

It is

last is illustrated in Ch.

pattern-maker should

of the
so

hollow

frame

one

or

metals

consists of two

moulding

has

by

castingmetal

brick dust.

this flask

is

be

for

one

mental
orna-

cast.

Roman

for palstaves

casting,and
by

In

castingmetal

This

bronze

mould.

Iron

either

made

must

Moulds

pegs

tendency

of metals, and

group

the

the

non-ferrous

The

for

into

be

cannot

and

It

they fill.

fashioned

are

Greek

mould

patternmaker'sshop, quite

foundry practice.

foundry.

and

into

trade, and

all the

into

coinage belonging

figureof Perseus,

this in sand

from

fluid condition

earlytimes.

of

mould

are

cast

1/5

important operationsin castingare

most

the metal

pouring

of

and

his

modelled

it.

and

operations in

metals

very

heads.

page

METAL.

the mould

of

metals

room

bronze

B.C.,

same

made, moulded,

castingof
and

the

on

the

castinghammer

many

Cellini

venuto

for

which

bronze

limestone

eighth century,

stone

In

in

the form

practicesome

cast

some

is

there

in

while

practisedfrom

b.c.

1225

2-

Museum

There
now

there is

Museum

dynasty dated

and

known

been

has

Albert

operationsby

important of

is the most

them

into

harden

and
they solidify

where

ON

FOUNDING

by pouring

metals

working

of

art

OR

LESSONS

mould

refractoriness,is

porosityallows

the

iron, so

as

that

for the escape

of

when

Sand,

hardened.

best and

in the

most

the

venient
con-

gases

7"5

HANDCRAFT.

generated, while

its refractoriness

poured into the


large rivers.

by

or

power

Another

method

is used

for the

sold

with

zinc

or

clocks

anklet

in

crucible

action

left

is

by

candlestick

method

and

some

to

and

away

The

metal.
and

off these
The

but

other

or

oil,and

can

in

used

metals

heated

furnace

by

fire

etc.

Owing

by

The
to

an

iron

are

gas,

coke,

or

be tilted

manual

iron

as

so

trouble

labour.

plumbago

that

oil.

of

then

crucible

by

in

is cored

are

the

top.
pression
im-

links is filed

Rajputana.

work, and

the

be made

for

parts

founders

furnaces

be

of

of

to

have

be faced

with

they

sand

fine outer

will

called

for

pieces

small

come
"

false

receivingthe

artists are

from

in

which

in plaster,

placed inside

are

into the

full of molten

plumbago,

equal parts

the great differences in characteristics and

cupola furnace,

mostly heated

are

poured

crucible

made

to

in

in sand.

crucibles

may

modelled

gives a

ready

turned

better

that

pieces of

the

be

to

be

so

and

cast

by having

usuallymelted

Modern

consists

fills the

have

would

made

are

is

the
lifting

Crucibles

being

at

of

have

is perfect and

the metal

into the

metal

patterns would

chalk, which

It

and

melted

fire.

link

is from

It would

undercut

foundry

is deposited

band

turned

12) would

French

mould

the

than

direct,thus saving the


the

that

so

gradually

absorbed

hot

good example

11,

majorityof patterns received


plaster patterns piece moulds

metal

the

in wood.

various

metal

ix.

cored.

casting,and

fitted to the

replaced

are

10,

such

; the

narrow

and

brass," that is,the mould

cored

pattern be withdrawn

the

f. 8) is

carved

or
plaster,

partingcompound

sand

and

vii

is

anklet, each

object

cast

chain

following.

page

f. 6, Nos.

finished

"

cores

in

v,

fine

moulding

of

on

the

very

surface

the

curb

unconnected

model

connecting the

This

of

example

an

(Ch. xii,

(Ch.

cast

chain.

illustrated in Chs.

in "fine

cast

is

the

the band

patterns showing how

wood

handles

then

when

of

form

94

chandelier

Dutch
The

these

p.

objectsare

The

wax

being

of

Victoria

is placed in the

affair is reversed, the

the whole

it is shown

Castings and

exception of

the

the

the

brass

being

wax

impression of

complete

the

model,

wax

sees

cast

tion
illustra-

good
of

cast

the whole

and

of

cess,
pro-

mostly

link

wax

figuresone

section

each

the banks

lost

are

mould.

containing a
in wax,

mould

model, and

wax

on

making

of

ready

the

the

to

with

is left in the

off the anklet

work.

bronze

Indian

is

metal

by hydraulic

the

or

These

slush

xv.

largelyused.

now
"

the

not

in the

mould

is first made

destroysthe

other

the

the metal

various

anklet

retains

then

from

separate

The

sand

are

Perdu

the set.

as

is shown

attached

of the fire

which

When

7s.

worked

band
along the top. The
except by a narrow
the liquid composition which
forms
the mould

with

mould,

It is

6d.

is known

what

process

of the

model

figurework,

j[^2 1

at

along

others

encased

The

wax

Museum.

the

marked

lead, in

lost

Albert

with

and

of

as

is found

and

Cire

"

the molten

machines

moulding

casting,known

best class

sand

moulding

displacedhand
of

antimonial

of the
and

have

when

shape

moulding

repetitionwork

hand

it in

keeps

best

The

mould.

For

[chap.

of

ladle

or

metal

by

faults which

and
are

gas

mould
out

graphite,fire

clay

of

clay,

graphite.
inherent

in

the

themselves,

metals

Blow

togethertoo

castingsare

:
"

gettingaway.

flasks.
by badly fitting

round,

owing

being pinched

moulds

the

to

being

hard

too

and

allowing

not

shrink.

to

the

the mould

by

caused

Castings,

owing

Corners,

Imperfect
or

not

in

faults

the

for

necessary

lightly.

Seared
the metal

gases

of

instead

Castings

common

\^^

METAL.

of metallurgy is very

most

caused

Castings,

Overshot

the

by

caused

Holes,

Oval

The

ON

LESSONS

FOR

knowledge

metals.

castingof

successful

DATA

AND

PROCESSES

XV.]

CHAP.

of the

corners

the metal

to

mould

not

metals

in

being poured

being pricked

ture
tempera-

the metal

allow

to

low

at too

to

run

up

sharp.
shrinkage of

the

For

CLEANING,

articles shown

the

important, but

most

maker.

be

should

uniform

character

in the

The

followingmanner

The

brass tongs, etc.,


solution

in

grease,

dirt,or

treated

with care,

well

old

placed in pickleto

and

water.

three

washing

object

waters,

should

be

above

object is

polished,or
wire

is

two

be

washing
relieved

burnisher

to

Hand

this and
waters,
or

and

lb.

to

and

the
of

old

for

cold

by

hands.

of

water) to

this

according

dip, then

and

this

then

to

the

brass

remove

all

zinc must

be

The

objectis
It is

water.

strengthof
and

the

scoured

passed through boiling

through

the

brightdip,through

It is necessary

is done

drying

running

it is washed

Then

water

tin,or

out

is then

It

liquid.]

in

washed

work

or

copper

the

aluminium,

by

metallic

the

preparing the

piece of

by

colour

cleaningis carried

gallon

added.)

again in
the

well

three hours,

water

all copper,

be

bronzed,

that the

by shaking

or

or

in hot
finally

lightened up
stale

lathe

stale beer

described

as

scratch

brushes

and

water

water,

on

brushing

off and

with

it about

metals.

brush

made

can

be

bought.

It is then

If the

fine

The

brass
is

work

well rinsed

sawdust.

steel, agate,

lacquered.

of

The

brushed,

scratch

in hot
a

154,

p.

vinegar.
dried

and

by burnishing

beer, wiped

similar

brass, bronze, and

scratch

electroplated. For

with

taken

finally
through boilingwater.

appliesto

required.

brushed

be

with

the

by

taste

hot sawdust.

ready

now

with

quickly dried,

quickly in plenty of
The

to

and

consistent

dissolved
partially

one

through

run

"

be

stained

Articles

for

washed

water,

It is then

(i

sand

dip

to

finish

its surroundings. The

be held

it is not

fine wet

soak

pickle. (This is spent


sand

be

they may
with

scoured

that

so

brass, bronze,

of

forgottenthat

be

not

Thorough

object should

lacquer. [N.B.

as

should

steps

made

possession of good

numerous.

caustic soda

of

the

be

must

objectand

and

colouring or finishing
are

could

it

METALWORK.

OF

pages

on

suit the

necessary

boiled

with

depends

must

wire,or by

then

in these

beautiful

and

the work.

of

for

ready

this

finish chosen

The

127-128.

pp.

PRESERVING

similar metals, and

silver,or

German

copper,
is

AND

FINISHING,

of

Many

castingssee

It
or

can

in

now

bloodstone

object

is

to

be

178

HANDCRAFT.

polished,it
the

on

The

be

may

spindleof
or

mop

called

pressed againsta revolvingcalico


of leather

be

may

bull

sizes,but

thick.

After

washing

finishingand
by dipping

three baths

or

article into

by puttingthe lacqueron
the

lacquer),and

or

brush

It

is

drying, or

it is called.

as

generallyshellac

dyes.

of these

Many

the work

should

Skill and

lacquerand

brush

when

by spraying
is

in alcohol

What

known

are

with

made

are

artistic taste

required for

are

the

is sometimes

work

essence

dirt,dust,

all

of

brushed

over

and

in.

by
after

accomplished
or

in various

with

oven,

colours.

dragon's blood,
which

patents

are

aniline

with

coloured

It is essential

pears.

blending

in

patent air spray

made

etc., before

grease,

emery,

made

(depending on

cold

or

and

times
some-

is removed

be

lacquers(allof

acetate

is

all metalwork

may

coloured

cold

amyl

like

lacquerssmell

spiritvarnish

as

speed.

are

grease

with

lacquer on
and

of

specialroom

is hot

the work

thin

bobs

Nearly

drying in

the

rate

fixed

in. diameter

lacquered. Lacquering

of

high

xv.

bob

carborundum,

The

benzene.

or

or

12

usuallygreasy.

paraffinor

be free from

objects. Figure

is

work

dissolved

by fancy names)

go

Mops

Lacquer

turmeric, saffron, etc.


and

etc.

about

mop

hide, which

wool,

vat

with

very

lime, tallow,

be

walrus

fed with

of

colouring should
the

(rhinocerosor

usually larger than

not

are

at

other

or

and

being polishedthe

in two

revolves

neck), felt,calico, or

sand, bathbrick,tripoli,
rouge,
various

which

polishing head

bob

[chap.

that

being lacquered.

and

lacquering of

with

white

metallic

paraffinwax

or

beeswax.
Iron

and

steel

painting with
the

articles,
structures, etc., are

oil colours,

atmosphere,

such

while

hot

should

or

should

be

be

After

twenty-four

hours

colour

coats

applied,or

it may

plate is wrought iron


bath

mild

or

tin with

containing molten

rollers which

galvanized or
izing, or

zinc

with

coated

be

gilded

about

dry galvanizing.

hot

The

be

of molten

zinc,and

distinguishedby

similar

owing
The

Cowper
work

charged
hours

and

spangled

the

electro

of
difficulty

Coles

invented

process
The

the

its

to

manner

to

process

by

is cleaned
with

allowed

zinc

allowed

Mr.
as

to

cool.

This

and

boiling
the

then

Tin

sizing.

the

top, then

dried

in bran.

Cowper

in this

(see

metals

and

then

heated
the

sand

manner

can

placed in
500"

articles

are

in

155), but
necessary.

are

is somewhat

to

p.

Sherardizing is

this work.

Coles, and

and

removed

for

by

galvanizing is done

other

is

Iron

passed through

zinc, slight modifications

successful

through

is cleaned

It is then

preserved

of

galvanizing,Sherard-

work

Electro

appearance.

is rotated

When

platesare

Work

cool.

previouslydescribed

dust.
to

Shcrard

applied at

repeated,and

on

burning.

deposition

most

by

being protected

the necessary

after

galvanizing the

depositing
is

be

galvanizing,electro

blasting,picklingin hydrochloric acid, or


bath

linseed oil

in. of tallow

hot

by

For

Before

affected

sheets, thoroughly cleaned, passed through

surplus tin.

off the

squeeze

steel

of boiled

operation should

now

is not

to dispelall moisture,
sufficiently

coat

this

which

metal

nickel, etc.

heated

painted with

heat.

preserved from rustingby gilding,

another

tin, zinc, copper,

as

by painting,ironwork

coating with

or

an

as

follows

airtightdrum

600"

found

F. for
to

few

be coated

80

HANDCRAFT.

wash

Immerse,
then

brush
The

be

with

up

obtain

for the above

cleaned

colours

By chemicals

repeat

until

is similar

in

is obtained,

colour

good

nearly

all.

immersed

then

The

work

in above

must

solutions.

little practiceis essential.

patinasmay

or
as

cases

dipped bright and

and

the best results

Surface

and

sand,

xv.

blacklead.

procedure

thoroughly

To

with

off, scour

[chap.

be obtained

"

above,

heating.
influence,

oxidizingor atmospheric
alkalis.

deposition,

electro

in molten

dipping

metals,

varnishing or lacquering.
rolling,that
then

is, soldering a

rollingall

all kinds

is essential.

be

made

piece of

OF

of metalwork

JOINING

knowledge

either permanent

Joints are

metal

together; examples

out

METHODS
In

thin

by burning, autogenous

Sheffield

thick

base

and

plate,rolled gold.

METALS.

of how
or

to

on

metals

be

may

joined together
jointscan

Permanent

temporary.

welding, ordinary welding, brazing, silver

soldering,soft soldering,folding,riveting.Temporary jointsare screwing,bolting,


force
wedging, taper fitting,

shrink

and

fitting. In

brazing,silver soldering,soft soldering,and


with

care

be taken

Burning.
pieces of
of

molten

the

metal

to

metal

When

cool

piece and

it is removed

and

any

placed

are

metal

left

without

burning

between

run

and

up

of

joined
be

may

joint filled

the

be

method

heat ; the molten

same

rivetingpermanent

call

we

joints,
they can

apart again.
The

"

though

cases,

many

that
cool.

to

sign of

the

the

jointtogether is

in

been

so

be

to

The

that

trimmed

stream

be

can

at

is then checked,

waste

in sand.
in

off, leaving the metal


all metals

two

joined are

joint is usually embedded

The

joint. Nearly

flowing to

follows

as

fixed

jointuntil the ends

has

lumps

positionand

joined by

one

this

method.

which

Autogenous

Welding,

consists

finelydivided

which
is

has

of
a

hole

in

placed in positionover

the

or

thermit

welding, is

aluminium
bottom

the ends

and

fitted
to

be

oxide

with

joined,and

done

as

follows

of iron,is
fusible

placed

plug.

the ends

are

The

Thermit,
in

ible
cruc-

crucible

enclosed

in

XV.]

CHAP.

mould

PROCESSES

which

through

has

heat

to

DATA

that

outlet

an

the

AND

LESSONS

be closed

can

ON

after

everythingis

When

joint.

FOR

The

heat

mass

of

generated by
iron ; this melts

the mould.

This

under

are

place in
edges

pressure

metals

of

the

edges

that

is

joint.

depends

Electric

particular
job.
held

are

other

but

be welded.

may
The

by

they heat

temperature,

the ends

Ordinary

one

coal

fire assisted

coke

or

usuallybrought
heat.

There

welds,
A

and

flux is

the action
iron and

alloywith

various

but

generallyused
of

an

the

steel,Venetian
and

heated

the metals

fused

arc

joined

heat

such

the

in the

of

close

the

to

the

at

be

right

hydraulicpower.
of

thickening up

their

subsequent

is heated

work

dull

and

metal
"

the

together

ends

to

in

mild

steels

white

or

welds, tongue

the

oxidation

together with

to

from

welding heat, laying

The

strongest

for tool
of

for

iron and

scarf

as

from

There

allow

to

each

be welded

one

it is

or

similar
dis-

for
fittings

at

consists

steel

is the

borax

consists

manual

Wrought
tool

scarf weld

being joined.

of

quick,and

piecesto

when

together.

and

welds

and

the

perfectionof

is very-

form

pieces to

raisingthe

fuel and

red

Soldering
and

be

to

protect the surfaces

impuritiesin

while

portable,so

The

brought

are

to

smith

the

by

air.

of

The

spaces

insulated

are

outside, and

the

to

is done

the

to

these

electric

blast of

forms

takes

metal

the

The

the ends

hammering
a

fed with

as

The

used.

are

appliancesare

follows

as

them

by

fill

such

of them

bevelled, and

work,
repetition

and

on,

then

which

fill up

to

the

together either by

bright white

jump welds,

mild

are

to

are

Brazing
which

and

and

gases,

mixing

is localized.

guide, and

centre

which

other,and

fluid

application.

requiresspecialplant and

causes

the

rod,

the heat

it

it is called, the ends

of the

to

operator.

or

forced

are

by hammering

top

on

from

and

that

somewhat

arm

This

Welding

as
up-setting,

reduction

of
are

and

is turned

current

welded, and

or

each

quite touching.

not

form

But

operationis

tightlyone

; the electric

match.

enter

to

various

The

joint is

actual

is very suitable for

Welding

metals

filed clean

this method
situ"

of

means

cylinders.

the

the skill of the

on

oxide

metal

specialblowpipes

are

in the

"in

be made

can

now

taking place

advantages of

iron

fairly
general in its

from

joined

being welded,

The

that welds
the weld

is

by

out

of the

be

to

is

drawn

chamber

mixing

the

of

fusion
kind

the

and

is started

be lit with

can

the

passed

aluminothermy.

and

hydrogen,

reduces

has

fusingaction

the

which

plug, allowing the

is carried

Welding

acetylene,oxygen,

action

fusible

the

is also called

Blowpipe

gases

chemical

the

sufficient metal

ready

by igniting
a specialpowder, or
magnesium powder,

l8l

METAL.

are

yellow

welds, split

most

be

common.

joined

silver sand

for

from

wrought

steels.

joining metals
the

edges

are

three

of

by

the

means

work,

essentials

for

so

of

alloys

that

they

this kind

of

work.
The
A

The
A

jointsmust
flux must

solder

be

clean.

be used.
or

alloy used

coal-gasblowpipe

must

flame

melt
assisted

before

by

an

the

material

air blast is

that

is

to

be

joined.

generallyemployed,

82

HANDCRAFT.

but

blow
forge fire,or spirit

difference

The

only

and

silver

be clean

jointshould
held

be

(For

iron dowel

more

one

or

any

shiftingof

now

be

that

no

the

strain is

is

in

borax

powdered

now

heaviest

the

joint;

that

be

both

localized

be

and
have

allow

over

fills up

disappeared;
borax

Soft

applying

kind

some

to

is sometimes

advantage

Now

In
made
pan,

joint.

to

the
and

water

work

the

should

thicknesses

unequal
heat

the

to

up

of heat, otherwise
borax

will melt

it

dry

prevent the solder

to

given until

the

the

flame

should

spelter fuses

is reached

point

while
of

i.e. just sufficient

increases

heat

serve
con-

jointshpuld

The

are

amount

be moved

consists of well

the

remove

until all

see

joint.

(see Ch.

xvi,

solder.

When

the

be

flux,and

of

traces

this

parts
for

Soft

until the

strain and

metals

filter

and

under

f.

soldering

must

16),spiritlamp,
using

point

see

and

flame

heat

red

solve
dis-

177) to

p.

covered

in different

conical

heat

of

bit,as

it

blowpipe, or

gas

or

copper
be

must

solder.

Place

some

aid of

the

heated,

It is very

filed

often

an

first.

add
are

with

done

with

"

stops working, then

it,and
metal

applying just

metal, and
be

be soldered,

to

parts

soldering iron

Soldering.

acid

pieces of

Soft

be soldered

to

the

tinned, that is,the iron

well
the

cleaning

p. 188),heating the

bit

of stem

there

time

blast

not

with

fused.

time

the

as

support it so

jointto

positionthe

the

this

It should

(forthis

countersunk, flat,or

head, length

When

or

tin the

of various

the

Riveting,

mixed

be

is reached

from

on

fiercer

make

hydrochloric acid
hours.

dusted

This

"

flux

Chloride

Zinc

red heat

should

difference

The

fillit when

same

to

around

joint "charged,"

the

work

observation, otherwise

is in

when

adjust

to

oxide.

in the

to

coke

melted.

work

the

into oxide ;

called,it must

clean, rubbed

the

The

ties prevent

The

taken

being

first,
graduallybringing

to

melt

may

wire

the

place in pickle(forcomposition of

then

suitable

soldering iron

be

difficult

operation.

to

open

joint,and

and

cool.

to

and

sufficient solder
a

the

Soldering.
a

be

are

receive

When

now

the

forge,care

jointto

heated

converted

the work

the

be

the solder

into and

flows

the

on

with

These

following

soldering.

fitted,the parts should

jointis

the

arrangingthe

and

water

sections

should

perishing or being

When

of the
vicinity

good joint.

borax

powdered

of the

When

pot.

parts should

watch

will not

in the

When

called,

other silver

The

124.)

xv.

purpose.

in the

silver

brazing or

of

progress

and

p.

slight,
speltershould

very

borax

the

see

together.

adjoining part

spelterlaid

moistened

be heated

when

that all the parts

being

these

be used.

should

joint.

small

with

moistened

of the

tied

of

same

it is sometimes

spelteris used

binding wire, when

the bed

on

fusing,some

melting temperatures

fit

the

answer

soldering,as

case

edges

iron

pins

the

on

hard

adopted

jointduring the

heat, place it so

the

be

the

adjusted
carefully

solder

the

and

be

ties of

togetherby

one

often

very

composition

the

procedureshould

of

method

brazing or

soldering,is that in the

is used.

solder

would

lamp

between

[chap.

oz.

of water

pieces
the

joined "togetherwith
shapes,such

head.

head, diameter

as

of

stem,

and

pint of
rivets.

half-round

rivet is known

the

zinc

in

it for twenty-four

leave
to

of

by

the

metal

acid.
These

or

snap

shape

are

head,
of the

it is made

of.

CHAP.

XV.]

PROCESSES

The

method

of

thickness

of

punched
rivet

burred

head

tool.

of

one

liable

are

have

screws

made

are

Bicyclestandard.
metal, and

Screws

length under

in. underhead.
has

screw

in

work

In

known

head,

drawn

for

with

and

Bolts

of the

bears

head

varietyin
etc., the

use,

required a

ordinary

Wedging
are
a

fits are

there

due

is

and

the

two

be

can

Metric,

and

by
A

in

their
set

the

head, brass,
head

of the

tapping

hole

This

threaded.
the

engineering shops

such

shape
grub

or

used

"square,"
is

screw

allows

screws
as

that

itself,
so

screw

that

one

it

parts

the

shape
to

lot of vibration

Of

these

is utilized

there

the

as

well

Morse

and

convenient
is where

are

of

diameter

is welded

of taper fits and

Fit

fixingtogether various

Whitworth

the

to

the

to

for

mostly

frictional contact,

to

extremelysimple and
Force

loose.

adopted by

"

end

The

means

of its axis

the

have

to

standard.

bolt.

the

hexagon, ball,cheese, coach, deck,

as

property

by

is used

usually made

now

"bolt

work

nuts

system

saw

fixed relation

pulleysthis
sizes

screws

pitches.

round
takes

that

part has

known

cut

are

of the standards

some

in. Whitworth

thread".

appliesgenerallyto

name

In

metal

direction

in the

steel,
cheese

from

in various

and

move

that it

so

are

for

as

diameter, standard, shape of head,

other

the

"acme

or

head, but

such

W"here

taper

on

be

can

screw-driver.

Bolting

is

cup
The

or

heads,

used

followingare

their

tightlytogether.

no

machines.

bolt

be avoided,

should

screws

togetherthe part

imparting motion

and

point

turned

be

(27).

distinguishthem

to

example ^

for

as

diameter

core

"buttress," "knuckle,"
a

of

depends

B.A., U.S.A., International

by

in it,while

the

All

it will

as

screwing work

as

be

to

machinery

has

xvi,

f 21

aid

heads, countersunk

The

nut.

known

are

clearinghole

this is also
the

the

iron, brass, bronze,

standards

many

distance

fixed

through a

and

of

screws

known
Whitworth, British Association,

form

tail should

with

pitch,"and

"

screws

combined.

to

is the

screw

revolution

one

the

made

are

metal-thread

or

They

pitch of

They

countersunk

and

for wood.
The

in

as

shapes, half-round

various

of

tapped

as

used

cup

with

plate and

flat,the

Ch.

see

either

down

set

the

the

to

then

are

metal

shape

to

togetherwith

loose.

work

to

heads

heads, half-round
known

be

tool

is known

other

the

joiningmetals

is

Screwing
and

and

set

according

of the work.

nature

screws

rivet

rivet from

finished

and

hammer

of

the

83

rivet

projectthrough

to

rivet should

tail of the

or

light

illustrations

For

distance
the

with

over

end

the

positionand

rivet is left

METAL.

is selected
for

holes

in

placed

is

rivet

ON

rivet

The

riveted, the

length of

; the

follows

as

be

plate to

sufficient

other

the

the

drilled,the

or

set

rivetingis

LESSONS

FOR

DATA

AND

forced

the

are

other

together.

An

When

have

forms.

companies

them

by

very

means

large

countersunk,

this is
to

extra

long

more

venient.
con-

be used

because

Wedging, keying,and

known

are

is

an

fixingof nearly all

the

in every

is made

"

nuts

many
in

removing
pin

lock

in what

as

square,

head.

the

size

The

There

length of rod, as

a
"

and

method

of

parts of

and

friction clutches.

as

for

wheels

holding drills

of

hand

lever

of all

is

an

way.

slightly
larger than

example

of this is the

the

lathe

hole

pulley

84

HANDCRAFT.

[chap.

t"

XV.

".-

Ch.

f. 22

XVII,

lathe

Fit is where

advantage is taken of the property

it is utilized in many

put

smaller

work

the

than

coolingit

joints(see A

Fig. 8,

folder, and

B,

soap

1.

Anneal

2.

When

Metals

3.

malleting.

Also

hand

by
are

lap

soft soldered

are

in

or

well

so

machine

that

done

called

they

are

METALS.

"

burner,

Bunsen

mark

warm

not

blowpipe, or

with

over

soap

common

volatilize.

it may
and

until

warm

annealed.

it is then

brass work

annealing sheet

Before

made

folded

illustrated
as
lap joints,

Folded

WORKING

annealingaluminium
;

plain lap joints

The

on.

i.

usuallyplain or

are

put

iron cannot

Cast

Fig. 12, No.

xii,

rivets.

be

can

Ch.

see

slightly

and

bright red

collar has

is made

collar

tightlytogether.

These

viii).

where

zinc with

black

turns

work

WHEN

HINTS

Annealing

the

expansion of

of

of soft solder.

aid

the

watertightwithout

to

by machinery they

made

when

it is heated

iron flat-headed

Letter

viii,

on,

Work."

Plate

tinned

Ch.

The

example

B, Fig. 8, Ch.

and

riveted with

go

For

manner.

in Tinned

Joints

to

binding

so

together.

it

hold

to

it has

contracts,

be utilized in this

in

work

some

on

one

is used

method

The

ways.

or

piece.

Shrink

as

appears

85

mandrel,

steel

This

be

and

in

if made

the

to

on

it is called.

metals, and

On

iron is forced

cast

METAL

ON

spindleas
A

to

pulleyof

This

(i).

LESSONS

FOR

DATA

AND

PROCESSES

XV.]

CHAP.

any

that

stresses

graduallyincrease

slowly and

very

ease

exist

may

to

temperature

by

avoid

fire cracks.

Soldering
1.

All

2.

Use

3.

2.

Butt

4.

If

5.

Before

not

red

be

soft soldered.

solderinggalvanized iron.
the

sure

before

melts

solder

the

job.

:
"

silver

brazing and
nicked

be

jointsshould

fusible

not

being brazed,

before

i.e. rubbed

with

sulphate

water.

jointsbefore

spelter is

jointbefore being

the

flux when

be reddened

(bluestone)and

brazing sheet

before

enough
rod

or

add

soldering.

brazing.
zinc

or
filings

brass, practiceon

little silver solder.

waste

piece of

before

brazing

the

same

first.
that

your
when

separate

7. See
to

should

File all

as

at

solderingpewter

Metals

Iron

6. See

does

soft

3.

material

tinned

be

hydrochloricacid

Before

of copper

:"

should

metals

Brazing
1.

Metals

that

heat

Forging

as

there
it will

work
on

is

is well
the

not

cause

packed

point of

any

lead

up

and

tied

solder

or

on

brass when

:"

1.

Keep

the

fire clean, and

2.

Keep

the

face

of your

free from

hammer

that

it

fusion.

hole.

so

in

13

clinker.

good condition.

bringingthe

brass

86

HANDCRAFT.

3.

work

iron

5.

Do

not

work

or

6.

When

do

for

handy
8.

the
of

dull

red

carbon

heat

of

out

forge

coal

thin

be

coke

breeze

steel

beyond

anvil

with

anvil

when

piece

fitting

material

should

that

the

accident.

an

heat.

the

the

with

avoiding

so

tool

on

face

copper

cutting

Good

work,

xv.

on,

in

even

hot

nearly

cold

or

heat.

red

bright

sett

see

through.

into

the

especially

if

size, glossy

material

the

black,

hot.

is

crumble,

should

and

anvil

the

in

hole

square

split.

not

9.

Pea-size

Other

1.

2.

3.

4.

of

See

have

you

you

all

need

may
tin

off

twice

no

When

Use

see

makes

plate

nice

the

clean

fire

for

ready

to

hand.

possible

tools

work.

light

"

much

as

as

use

instead,

mallet

that.

Measure

allowing
5.

that

hammers

Keep

by

Prevent

welding

Points

little

and

washed

Before

10.

so

touch

block

at

the

-material

cutting

not

fit

tongs

your

not

7.

is

that

Do

4.

tools

See

[chap.

before

heating
the

is

dampness
loading

in

brass

tube

material
slate

cutting

pencil

at

to

or

the

on

tube

for

loading
settle

for

used

bending,
and

reversing

marking

off.

moulds

end

material

your

on

see

work

that

no

or

scriber

made

form.

air-pockets
with

might

process

in.

lead

casting

downwards

the

iron,

for

blowpipe

the

cause

of

burst.

brass

wire.

i88

[chap.

HANDCRAFT.

Fiu.

I.

"

Suggested arrangement

of

workshop

for handcraft

and

technical

classes.

XVI.

Electric

is best

Heating^
the temperature.

frames

about

hung

for different

economical, and

good,

casements,
with

now

Flooring.
to

those

in

corners

be

the

Parquetry

"

avoided

with

45"

of

angle

and

varies

These

sometimes

and

and

of

arrangement

protected with

be

should

4 ft. 6 in.

them

high, changing

glazed
vals
inter-

at

aim

the

at

the

to

eyes
is

window

of

crude

for

by

grey

which
iron

of

means

buildings.

bricks

Air

advantage.
of

floors

wood

is

good plan
and

or

school

or

vivid colours

readilyeffected

pine

yellow deal

or

fit

to

lines,thus

floor

renderingsweeping

and

the

avoiding

walls

the

cabinets

tool

at

of

accumulation

easier than

cleaning much

becoming

not

round

placed

pieces between

preferable

are

feet and

the

cabinets

Projectingportionsof tool
a

Distemper

readilyrenewed, preferablylightgreen

an

or

of taste.

development
than

be

aesthetic merit, should

wood, affordinga better grip for

the wall

Cabinets.

according
is

be

can

designed to

is whitewood,

planes for juniorsand


saws,

gauges,

the

has

students
models

this cabinet
14
8

to

is

as

tenon

m.

of

leave

an

dust

otherwise

would

of

illustrated will

requirements.

serve

painted to

from

apparent

for

common

being readilyexamined
workshop.
various

the

for seniors.

are

with

harmonise

use.

by

the

cupboard

sections.

other

tools, comprising

The

arrangement

instructor

before

is provided for

complete

saw.

Large tryingplane.

Cutting gauge.

Small

6 in. try square.

trying plane.

Large jack plane.

Dividers,

Small

Bevel.

i"

tryingplane.

4.

in. mortise

chisels.

i. I.i in- firmer chisels.

jack plane.

Smoothing plane.
Rasp

and

Hammer.

Marking

Strikingknife.

Mortise

file.
gauge.
gauge.

1 2

in. rule.

Mallet.

Screwdriver.

the

storing

list of tools

Small

and

of small

set

"

saw.

first

the wall treatment.

Large tryingplane.
\

as

in technical

diagram, a
All

course

illustrated in

That

juniorpupilsand evening students

largeplanes

the

of these of

arrangement

examples

other

to

will be

belonging to

follows

in. dovetail

the

chisels,
etc.,

square,

exercises

or

set

advantage

allowed

are

but

for both

of the tools

arrangement

shown

particular
design and
adapted

serve

material

The

work.

The

"

conditions,

to

suggestions which

The

judiciousselection

the

working
in wood-

case.

Tool

Fig. 2

also

are

covers

rapidly.

be

should

discussed

much

yet possessingsome

accepted type

of teak

made

slipperyso

be

can

suitable

more

an

adjustable

plan

regulating

for

introduced

be

account

any

to eye-strain. Ventilation

conducive

so

are

they

as

being

tones, these

on

craftwork.

in institutions which

studied
carefully
are

not

walls about

the

in

represents

specimens.

Decoration,

colours

fires should

decorative

of

good examples

system, with valves

radiator

the

by

encouraged by

be

89

purposes.

spiritof emulation,

The

virtue,can

and

effected

Open

rooms.

abused

washing

sink for

earthenware

an

TOOLS.

this purpose.

utilized for

be

now

can

power

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

in.

for

rgo

HANDCRAFT.

ElEVATIOTNOFFOR.-

AND

Plan-shewingOF-TOOL3

Fig.

2.

"

-TOOL

AFITTED

HflNDlCRflFT-

"

Ci^BINET

TECHNICflU-

Suggestion

SECTIONAL-

"

CLASSES

flRR*=iMGEnENT
IN-TOP-RflCK.

[chap.

VIEW-

"

"

"

for tool cabinet

accommodating

junior and

senior

large and

students.

small

sets

of

tools

for

xVi.

XVI.]

CHAP.

BUILDINGS,

handcraft

checked

positionof tools

shoulder

tenon

saw

to

stored

in the

when

in

be

inets,
cab-

negotiated.

provided,

Elevation-

with

the

FOR-

"

"

"^

"

hanging

-tooc

CLASSES-

"

"

top
zinc.

in.

sharpening by pupils

should

be

effected

this table, which


the
the

also

reduces

of

oilstones

With

than

i-l

i-i

oil

Fig.

3.

and

"

DECIMETRES)

required.
not

five oilstones

tool cabinet

small

for the

use

of handcraft

F.

gauge.

G.

mallet.

H.

marking
marking

C.

6 in.

D.

4 in. chisel.

E.

chisel.

try square.

K.

pupils.

in. chisel,

knife,

B.

A.

number

SCPUE

i-i

CENTIMETRES

thirty pupils

more

Ui

ates
obvi-

benches,
the

INCHES

on

disposal of

upon

are

of

HflNDICR-flFT-

shown

about

with

plan

and

CABINET-

should

as

made

ft. long

All

dicates
in-

corners

(Fig, 4)

lined

in

Oilstone

plan,

ment
arrange-

sweeping, as

An

be

the

"

tage
advan-

inaccessible

Table

shows

may

continuous
of tool

decided

to

plan

A
follows

They

sion
occa-

as

workshop

arrangement

have

lesson.

ferred
trans-

are

are

L.

no

as

the

racks

cupboards

demands.

rack

each

to

during

there

these

as

tools

issued

of

class

when

the back

on

All extra

plan

bench

i'^ in. iron

part.

are

of

of

tached
at-

are

is hung

hung

is finished.

class

allowed

back

the

for

th^-front

shown, and

remain

and
after

suitable arrangement

on

commencement

191

or

and

saw

dovetail

and

benches

instructor

the

small

rule

students'

by

and

the

be

to

TOOLS.

indicates

Fig. 3

is intended

Upon

use.

the

to

be

illustrated in

outfit only, and

in actual

not

cabinet

small

The

AND

EQUIPMENT,

in. chisel.

I in chisel.
J. # in. chisel.
I.

hammer,

necessary.
A

in the
It is

Circular
timber

for the instructor

Saw

store, and

especiallyuseful

locking arrangement

operated
in

the

is advisable

either

student

or

by

foot

preparation
in order

to

of

or

teacher
a

small

material

would

be best

^ horse-power
for

placed
motor.

large classes.

prevent tampering.

HANDCRAFT.

192

of

secured

in

rack

It also

togetherwith

turned

work.
for

top.

illustrated in

flat work.

and

should

motor

also

be

to

minimum.

gas

slide rests

attached

if turned

and

master

pipe.

work

execution

two

riveted

iron

bar

for small

for the

is

obtained

tap attached, and

gas

suitable

includes

ft.,and

connexion

the

Fig. 22 (26),is
purposes,

length is

The

to

The

chisel

The

easily be

can

plan, consisting of

ring has

work.

illustration.

the

of accident

chance
in

handcraft

to

straightbevel

Each

for demonstration

centre

the

from

ringsis also fixed above

all the

Lathe,

The

the

ringsat

tap governing

and

is shown

Stand

Glue-pot

reduces

best suited

evident

fallingframe,

or

boy.

young

the type

will be

operatingsame

method

by

(Fig.5) is

Grindstone

The

[chap. XVI4

in

craft
hand-

simple

of

plate
face-

centre

is done

to

Fig. 6 (i),provided

with

work

extent.

any

Fig.

Bench

wooden

of German

these

are

frequently broken.

an

"

An

oilstone

table

It

stops.

also

can

advantage

double

with

zinc-lined

top.

is illustrated in

manufacture

iron

and

screws

handles, and

4.

obtained

be

in scholastic

work,

is shown

bench

in

with

wooden

iron

being

screws

Fig. 7, but

its

and

screws

is

use

so

not

recommended.
TOOLS.

Planes.
true

for

Fig. 6 (4) illustrates

"

varies

from

planingprocess
18-30 in.,the

work.
for the

Double

large one.

irons

former

for

Twenty-eight inches

special jointingwork.
are

used

in both

upon

requiresgreat

that

sizes

junior

is the
"

used

Plane,

surfaces,shooting joints,squaring ends

practically
every

length

Trying

for

shooting board,

truth and

use, and

standard

in. for the

obtaining perfectly

exactness.

the

The

latter size for

full size for


small

in fact

size and

general
2^ in.

Descriptionof Fig.
The

Jack
priorto

material

irons

{continued).

Plane

is illustrated in

the

of the

technical

and

use

tryingplane. Length

for all

Smoothing

it is used
and

for

smoothing

tryingplane.

suited

to

handcraft
to

is intended
for young

students.

In

the
all

student

planes the

soft wood

for

varies from

2-2I in.

roughly planing

14-20

wide.

craft
in. for hand-

Although gauged

preferthe ordinary or tapered

type.

5.

in

after

of iron varies

work,

or

surfaces

up

Width

his size.

for hard

is shown

Plane

irons

planes,some

F:g.

It is used

Fig. 6 (5).

with
respectively,

work

recommended

are

193

TOOLS.

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

from

(10), and

they

been

have

\\-2\

as

in. ; the

obtaining more
pitch of the

the

prepared with
smaller

control

iron varies

generallyspeaking,

indicates

name

over

size
a

jack

is best

tool

portionate
pro-

accordinglyas

low-pitched iron

it

is best

194

HANDCRAFT.

mtTT

[chap.

XVI.

lllllllllll
IIHI|IIIII|IIIII|
|IIII|IIII|IIII|IIII[IIH|IIII[IIII|IIII|
iiiii|iiiii|iiiii|ii-rTT

9
.10
)
5
a
BO
ittlHiliiiliiiliiililililililililililililililililililililililiff!!
mm

Fig,

6.

"

Miscellaneous

woodworking

tools.

96

HANDCRAFT,

Saws

of teeth

system

is used
from

is illustrated in

Saw

called

properly

for

Half-rip

of

classes

according

ripping

or

their

to

rip saw

stuff.

up

of

blade

The

in.,teeth

28

length
"

"

length, the

in. in

Fig. 8 (9).

Saw,

cutting

heavy

20-26

number

xVi,

design

and

(Fig.8).

Hand

into

divided

are

[chap.

spaced

The

steel, teeth

similar

of

in. apart, and

Hand

6^

Saw

ranges

in. and

the

to

is

shape

in.

deep.
Panel
The

Saws

length

handcraft
saws

from

ranges

students

tapering

in.

16-26

They

cutting and

cross

cross-section, reduces

in

the teeth

are

their

closer

being

with

made

together.
for

American

The

use.

necessity for

the

also

are

especially suitable

general

quality,and

speciallygood

of

are

for

in size and

smaller

rather

are

blade

much

"

young

Disston

slightly

"

set

the

upon

teeth.
Tenon

according

the

saws,

is then

curved

is restricted
tenons

and

the

as

and

handle.
used

cutting dovetails, small

(2)

shows

Saw,

Bow

Keyhole

inaccessible

material

(i)

shows

thin metals, mother


saws

are

used

varying degrees
and

the

again.

to

small

of
with

of the

its

sprung

The
It

saws

slightlyin

its

remainder

of

straightand
into

of this

use

is not

work

for

in.,

12-18

the teeth

saw

used

from

range

teeth

dovetail

spring back

to

in educational

or

spaced

are

15 per

with

inch.

an

open

They

are

cross-grainedgrooves,
of

its construction

with

string
bow-

box

wood

with

length

from

about

beech

or

8- 16

in.

in. ; teeth

They

spaced

used

are

for

brackets.

shaped
Saw.

It

particularuse.

but

saw,

of

of blade

It is however

generally known

is

for

only

used

cuttingaway

saw.

Fret

pearl,veneers,

frame

in

range

or

frame
If

tenon

made

are

CompasS

frame

the

the

to

because

frames

circles

the bow

of fineness.

opening

as

called
from

Saw

The

shoulders.

teeth

named

so

inch; width

the

sometimes

blade.

tension.

cutting,and

tenon

blades

the

cutting,such

general curved
(4) is

to

is bent

backs,

the

with

also

as

the back

for

of

spacing

is then

shoulder

shape

in. with

The

attachment.

12

the

back

for wide

former

in

6-10

for

approximately

Fret

from

vary

of
the

Disston

the

is similar

Saw

Lengths

for

end

brass

or

unwieldy.

not

are

separate handles, and

imply.

the

back

The

in constant

cutting and
to

and

iron

back, and,

tendency

rigidand

substitutes

they

tension

as

position,and

seems

Dovetail

the handle

the blade

name

excellent

are

smaller

over

light cross

to

follows

as

natural

blades

metal

into

The

steel.

holds

shape

is

fixingthem

pressed

the

over

the

with

Made

(7).

of the

tightlyby

closed

is then

blade

closed

of

process

length and
the

is held

blade

in

thickness

The

quality.

to

The

vary.

is illustrated

Saw

or

; to
saw

fretwood,

and

obtained

in

be

breaks

contracted,

the

Saw;

off,the

when

best

thin material

packets

thumbscrew

broken

for

pattern

saw

of

one

generally.
dozen

in

be slackened

can

can

cutting

be

fastened

in

Descriptionof Fig.
illustrates

(3)
mitre

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

TOOLS.

97

{continued).

joints in mouldings,

is of

It

etc.

Used

Cut.

Mitre

of

type

one

when

and

beech

be

can

butt

cutting
made

as

or

class

model.

(5) shows
and

angles

obtained

be

discloses

off

with

especiallyuseful

in

shoulders

rosewood

and

drills.
for

Drills

metals.

handle, which

the

in wood

boring simple patterns

for

of

thin

and

storing the

for

receptable used

small

are

woods

hard

attachment

screw

oblique

made

blade.

boring

for

Drill

Hand

settingout

stocks

The

edges.

adjustablesteel

dotted

shows

(6)
may

and

with

ebony

testingbevelled

for

Used

Bevel.

Adjustable

an

when

This

screwed

instrument

inlayingin

wax

is

other

or

material.

for

ready
to

than

operate

shoot

wood

metal

The

planing.

angles of

at

screw

45^

90',

(8)

with

illustrated

type.

These

position

better and

blocks

quicker

prepared

are

butt, mitre

or

in

moulding

is much

mitre

77^", square

and

of

piece

action

screw

wooden

the

in

is shown

Block

Mitre

and

to

mitres

half

respectively.
Block

Plane

(10)

Oilstones
for

stone

general

by rubbing
of

stones

the

thumb-nail

They

cutters,

lasting,and

(5) "Arkansas"
and

expensive kind,

fine tools.
has

stone,

diamond

sharpeners, rather

an

other

washita
a

when

and

gouges

to

be

(14),do

up;

obtained

various

sections.

any

keen

the above
and

varieties.

dentists'

ments
instru-

the

to

cutting

expensive.

preceding

detailed

impart

yields only

is very

demand

not

than

silica,crystallized
similarlyto

surface, and

of the

than

surgeons'

this stone
of

with

expensive

sharpeners,and

of pure

composed

grip

Suitable
kind

for

sharpening

of oilstones.

explanation here, being

tool

all.

(15) shows

Twist

(11),a London
(12),a Set

placed

Gimlet.

for

settingout

which

across

Used

for

boring

holes

to

receive

screws.

Hammer.

pattern

Mitre

(i 7),a Bradawl,
blade

trued

shaped plane-ironsin

Pincers
familiar

It is

more

best

judged

relative

the

good

(4) Turkey oilstones,excellent

for

excellent

latter.

be

can

rather

are

the

(i) Washita,

and

expensive

more

perfectlysmooth

being

Slips (13),may

the

oilstones

cutting stones, rapid

excellent

are

follows

as

surface, comparing

the

along

with

use

cutting qualitiesvary,

The

use.

are

(3) Charnley Forest, a close-grainedstone.

edge.

of

varieties

various

of

differingquality. (2) Indian

washita.

the

designed speciallyfor

Is

(12).

when

the

mitred

being

grain, thus

used

work.
should

avoiding

have

the

the

cutting edge

splittingof

the

of

wood

fibres.

(18),a Screwdriver.
Fig. 8 (19, 20), a Rasp
varying degrees

of

coarseness.

and

for wood.
File respectively

The

latter cut

speciallyfor

To
use

be

with

obtained
wood.

in

198

HANDCRAFT.

Fig.

8.

"

Saws

and

various

[chap.

other

woodworking

tools.

XVI.

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

Chisels
it is the

in. wide

of

blade

length,and

of extra

varies from

of blade

the

edges;

where

shows

another

Firmer

Firmer

of

kind

scribinggouges

Fig.

to

cut

made

be

Carving

etc.

with

the

Chisels

Boring

Tools.

permits the

be used.

with

mounted

if bored

The
a

clean

to

use

They
any

cocos

Twist

or

in diameter.

of

such

"

use

receive

are

tenon

of this tool

made

are

Fig.

10

of

and

the

on

the

and

the

or

Fig.
to

in

mortise

in

bevelled

(4)

corner.

(1) illustrates

varying

inside

curvature.

thus

"

enabling

Firmer

shape

concave

in

thinner

gouges
pen

tray,

in section,

shapes.

(2) ; sizes range

mortising,i.e.the

act

upwards
of

from

preparing the

lock.

with

Brace

where

corner,

with

10

bevelled

handles.

in various

made

are

width

face, distinguishing

outside

upon

as

Fig. lO (7)illustrates

"

boxwood.
width

entered

hard-tempered steel, much

is restricted
a

dovetailing and

(i),the

or

square

object or moulding.

an

illustrated in

are

best types

The

Dowel

made

Their

receptacleor cavityto

and

recessingwork

are

of

face

the

in
The

the

of chisels

types

is shown

firmer chisel.
either

yV-i^

strikingwith

where

in

sharpened

hardly perceptible,and

in. in sixteenths.

which

sharpened

are

Various

"

with

for

gouges

bevel

Mortise

9.

square

especiallyuseful

are

and

which

"

in. in

^-i^

from

in
be

not

chieflyin

made

handle,

always ground

are

gouges

could

edge

made

Gouge,

from

them

chisel

with

advantage

an

work

called

from

made

are

Chisel
to

made

Fig.9 (2),is so

chisels

Paring

are

199

see

general chisel

chisels

All

in.

Firmer

inaccessible

for work

(3), afford

square

for

used

necessary.

used

|-i|

latter,see

work

is not

mallet

or

Chisel,

paring chisel.

type of

firmest

TOOLS.

AND

Firmer

The

"

well-tempered steel,and

hammer

Gouges.

and

because

EQUIPMENT,

ratchet attachment

ordinary'brace

an

ball-bearinghead

could

not

(seediagram adjoining)

ebony wood.

or

Bits
used

are

for

illustrated

in

deep boring

sizes range

(4);

where

from

^^-i

centre

bit would

receive

screws

in.

"drift"

depth.

Spoon

Bit

hole, reducing

(3) is
the

used

for

boring

wood

of splitting
to
possibility

to
a

minimum.

and

effect

[chap.

HANDCRAFT.

200

Fig.

io.

"

Woodworking

tools.

XVI.

TOOLS.

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

20I

Descriptionof Fig. lo {continued).


boring,and
Centre
Bits, (5),are used chieflyfor comparatively shallow
when
the core
for
out
of specialutility,
as
boring
example,
the largersizes are
of

oilstone

an

(6) is
to

receive

is necessary'.

case

Countersink.

Rose-head

which

is

Gauges.

Mortise

The

"

stylesof finish,chieflyin
illustrated is
when

rosewood

be

to

the Snail-head

does

with

of

use

type

screwdriver

owing

best type

is the

qualitiesand

fittings.The

brass

require the

not

This

adjusted.

sink,
Counter-

in several

is made

ebony

or

holes

of

largework.

(n),

Gauge

serviceable,and

most

points have

the

useful for

and

quick cutter

heads

the

shape

to

cleaner than

type bores much

This

screws.

Used

"

its simple

to

action.
is

(12)
This

Cutting

for

tool is used

thin
splitting

every instance

almost

line than

All

gauge.

brass-cased

making

"

heads

owing

advantage

to

thinner

with

up

the

gripof

the extra

to

in

cleaner

and

faced

better when

are

brass,lastinglonger,but working rather heavier

adjustment.

screw

used

be

may

is necessary

gauge

and

head

material,and

gauging

where

marking

the

with

Gauge

metal-facing.
previousto planing,and
which

of steel filed to

sharp point.

and
(seeillustration)

character

described

are

(9) illustrates
arcs,

wood.

etc., upon

Cramps.
over

(14)

"

the wooden

necessitate

jointsand
obtained

the

They

and

special

speedy

more

their

to

circular

marking

for

use

in

striking

obvious

has

truer, easier

6 ft. long.

adjust,and

to

used

are

advantages

for

Lengthening

do

not

cramping

bars

up

also be

can

drawers.

usually made
pattern Handscrew,
splitEnglish ash handles.
Splitmaterial for the
is bound

running,is a

pattern
from

fixingmouldings and slipsin

"

English

easy

strong handscrew, and

Glue-pot

addition

They

screws.

for small work

grained,strong,

to

up

and

vary

of

gauges

permits of

type which

stronger and

of the

frequent breaking

Sizes of both

In

iron

an

are

made

are

Cramp

chops

German

pattern, which

Dividers.

is essential,or

The

piece

the action of the cramp.

illustrates the

beechwood

used

Compasses

alternate

frequentrenewal

(19) is a Gee
(20)

from

into the face of the

cut

its wearing qualities.Other

Steel

illustrates

pattern.

extend

round

small

edge

an

suited to the divisions of lines by trial.


specially

are

framing,and
to

strips

of

material

up

succeedingchapters.

Spring

the latter pattern

parallelto

sometimes

are

gauging

for

Used

marking point consists

to

of

An

adjustment, is called
arcs,

in the

(13).

production of lines

Brass

add

pair

in

also for the

is operated. The

the gauge

stock

is shown

Gauge

Marking

is illustrated

in.

is shown

in

most

Hickory, being

occur.

superiorwood

popular with

more

to

for these

craftsmen

screws

of

(16), made
than

and

hornbeam.

the

with
screws

close-

chops.
A

English type.

chops.
in

(10).

lining. Copper glue-pots,


although

The

more

14

example

is of

expensive,are

iron
better

with

galvanized

because

of the

HANDCRAFT.

202

Descriptioti
of Fig.

lo

[chap.

XVI.

{continued).

quicker heating qualitiesand

from

freedom

breakage

which

to

the

cast-iron

susceptible.
type is particularly
Holdfast

general work
(18) is
Square,
The

is illustrated in

to the

used

for

very

of

Oil-can,

largenumber

Straightedge,

of which

of
or

well-ordered

mahogany

that

boards

secure

and

are

important tool, the Try

most

in

is shown

of purposes,

II.

shop,is

handcraft

with rosewood

and

several

Fig.

of

to

bench.

suitable kind

is used

Fig. 10 (15),and

in the

necessary

Fig. 10 (17).

generalequipment

Straightedge.

"

illustrated in

Fig.

11

They

are

best made

satinwood

or

ebony edging ; length varying from

2-5 ft. 6 in.

Strips

Winding
Fig.

fixed
A

from

ivorine

ivory or
are

Made

12.

as

shown

to

keep

large Wooden

from

ranges
A

dowels

Short
a

is shown

Square

13.

generalequipment.
i"^-i^ length.
10-24

Length

isillustrated in

Board

Fig.

14.

"

in

in

not

Fig. 13.

Large wooden

"

in

Shooting

Fig.

pairtogetherwhen

Fig.

be included

with

mahogany

sights.

in

shown

are

12.

"

Winding strips,

use.

One

of this type

square.

of stock

Fig. 14.

and

blade

It is best

Fig.

Shooting board.

mitre attachment

is dowelled

to

the

board, this being used

in

clamps, flat mouldings,etc.

It

can

be removed

Fig. 1 5 is
is invaluable

for

horizontal

vice,one

holding metal

or

of which

tools

whilst

should

at

should

varies ; the latter

made

15,

"

for

in

mahogany.

horizontal

vice.

shooting mitre

will.
be in every

equipment.

cuttingor repairing.

It

204

HANDCRAFT.

[chap,

XVI.

|lilililililililililnililililililililililililililiiilililili

Fig.

i6.

"

Metalworker's

tools.

xvi.J

CHAP.

Descriptionof Fig.
teeth.

Should

be held

not

(13) Star
for

and

steel

metals.
8 in.

had

Fig. 17.

Hack

Saw."

iron

be

also

Can

in.

per

Blade."

Saw

Hack

(14)

Fig.
,,

taken

tempered
hard

filed,or

over

that

so

The

can

tools illustrated

made

Tap

sized tap heads.

adjustment

which

has

that

hole

iron with

for

lever

case-hardened

to

(5) Stillson Wrench.


put

directions,

and

jaws

and

left handed

open

obtained.

; also

of sets

of dies

screwing of
usuallyused

all sorts

for

up

and

"

to

the

Dies.

This

thread

sizes and

denote

the

is used

outside

the

steel.

or

same

turning

by

No.

as

purposes
the

i,

right-hand

tightening,
turning bolts

objectbeing
"

the

and

Made

nuts.

of

diameter
the

purpose

the

3.

with teeth ; the

jaws.

The

teeth

more

in opposite

are

held.

Also
to

No.

as

the

but

adjustable spanner,

an

two

which

screws

held

in

the

right

are

jaws

be

can

wrench.

is that

stock

with

means

with

portion
of the

the stocks.

set

handles
and

screw,

These

are

fine dies

for

which
number

for outside

used

the stocks.

Sometimes
and

same

object being

copper

largelyin brass

thin tube, which, Hke

gold.

adjustablespanner

capacityof
"

and

hardened

"

for the

adjustableby

are

screwing brass

the inch.

cuttingoff

The

usually supplied

are

(8) Stocks

dies

in

used

gauges

steel and

for

for

Wrench.

monkey

the

of iron

assist in

Used

grip of

Dies.

and
The

the dies.

better

or

Made

quickly,owing

very

called

Sometimes

(7) Stocks
holds

of

obtained

Used

"

the

Coach

close

and

the

with

generallyfor turning a tap.

tighterthe grip in

the
mark

they

(6) Double-action

is

Reallyan

"

handle

the

on

be

cannot

jaws.

Spanner.

(4) Double-ended

pressure

they

saw.

Used

Used

"

(3) Single-ended Spanner.^


malleable

"

of

One

"

follows

as

are

Wrench.

exception

handle

that

hack

steel,sometimes

or

or
wire, lead,zinc, silver,

Wrench.

the

holding

so

Made

metal.

of

(2) Adjustable Tap


with

hardened

Gauge.

Wire

Fig. 18

on

suit various

to

of

soft.

thicknesses

(i) Double-handed
Holes

Method

"

of all iron

Made

"

or

for steel

used

17.

filed,or

be

Standard

various

Not

tempered.

they

hardened

(16) Imperial
the

times
Some-

Square.

Try

measurements,

measuring

all.

soft backs.

with

teeth

(15) Steel
without

,10

Measurements

Should

the inch.

loto

or

be filed.

twenty-threeteeth

with

other

as

cannot

inch.

the

to

Teeth

cast-iron, blades

long,hardened,
14

iron.

or

Used

well

as

of

Frame

Teeth

for steel

used

in

shown

as

{continued).

i6

be

205

TOOLS.

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

called

tube, and
work.

of finished

The

the

thread

dies

work.

dies,is adjustableby

brass, as they

are

There
means

is

twenty-sixto

for three
is also
of

are

different
wheel

thumbscrew.

for

206

HANDCRAFT.

Ficj.

i8.

"

Metalworker's

[chap.

tools.

XVI.

Descriptionof Fig.

piece.

sizes

from

to

allow

to

screw

for

compensate
set

(B.A.

dies

die is in

the

The
and

shown,

screw

one

small

wear.

is the

the largest. This

being

10,

to

set

milled-headed

the

of

means

small

die

springinessof the

number

by

are

and

stocks

gunmetal,and

usuallyof

side of die and

place by

B.A.

called

Sometimes

"

one

of the

means

known

are

in

put

in their

held

are

is

saw-cut

adjustmentby
dies

Dies.

Association).Stocks

British

207

{continued)

and

(9) Stocks
means

TOOLS.

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

B.A.

standard.

Split Die.

(10) Circular
hardened,

chaser.

fixed into

Chaser.

handle

and

(13) Outside
sizes.

Makes

is

that

Made

to
largely

screwing tool,

inside

pitchesfor screwinginternal

Chaser.

cuttingexternal

for

Used

"

threads

vee

inside

or

it has

be

to

hand.

by

used

Bottoming

or

twenty-sixto

threads

of all kinds

and

for \ in. and

Makes

"

in. would

Tap.

The

"

in. fine thread,

illustrated is a

one

inch.

the

(15) Taper Tap.


ones

9.

pairwith (12).

(14) Plug

running down.

once

of No.

flat steel,
pierced,tapped,

pieceof

called

Sometimes

"

in all

Made

stocks

threads.

standardized

(12) Inside

"

tempered,for screwingpinsby

and

suit Whitworth

comb

Plate.

Screw

(11) Double-handed

in the

die used

is the

This

"

pairwith (14),and

make

the

with

set

this

stocks

pairwith

the

dies

and

remaining

(8).

(16) First Taper Tap.


(17) Second
Taper Tap.
(18) Plug
of

size and

one

(19)

Bottoming

or

pitch.

necessityfor using a

ends

tap wrench

or

made

are

(21) Broach.

Rimer.

in

which

against the
pattern

on

runs

on

"

sizes; it does

away

are

(7).
with

the

pin

hardened
is revolved

in

for

in

for

enlargingholes.

be turned

by

Fig, 20 (9).

enlargingholes.

of
knurlingtool, consisting

an

of

means

iron

holder.

lathe, when

the

Used

ing
knurl-

by pressing

knurling wheel

cuts

work.

mostly used

to

"

in the

Used

decorate, or put

series of
"

Used

manner

same

pearlsor

as

beads

in the holder

on

knurlingwheel,

a
a

circular object.

(22).

Made

of steel

hardened.

(27) Lancashire
holdingtemplets to
of all steel

or

of

SMITH'S
are

taps and

dies

stocks

they can

Used

called

(24, 25, 26) Knurling Wheels.


and

that

squared so

Sometimes

(23) A Pearling Wheel.


but

of

set

and

the

small

in all sizes,
and used

five flat sides.

Has

"

work, which
the

form

fitter's brace, illustrated in

(22) Milling Tool.


wheel

with

in

Made

"

taperedand

used

or

only

three

tap wrench.

(20) A Reamer
The

Made

"

These

"

in combination

Used

Tap.

Wire

Tap.

used

in the

Hand

Vice.

Used

"

while the metal

metal

is

for

holding work

being marked

wrought iron with jaws faced with

steel.

Tools.

Fig. 19

"

forgingof

The
metals.

tools

illustrated in

out.

are

in the hand
Sometimes

some

or

for

made

of those

that

208

HANDCRAFT.

Fig.

19.

"

"

Smith's

[chap.

tools.

xvr.

Descriptionof Fig.
The

in the proper

or

Tongs.

and
securely,

that it is held

so

Forge tongs

occur.

for

Used

of

made

are

Used

"

pieces of

medium-sized

holding

flat bills.

called

Tongs.

for

holding

sizes of round

small

or

called flat bills.

Sometimes

(3) Hollow-bit

Tongs.

for

Used

"

called

Sometimes

iron.

holding round

bits.

round

Tongs.

(4) Rivet
anglesto

Tongs.

Bolt

the head

allows

Used

"

clear the

to

holding

rivets

iron

round

small

or

right

at

ring tongs.

holdingbolts

For

"

for

called

Sometimes

tongs.

(5)
jaw

work

likelyto

"

Sometimes

iron.

square

iron.

fit the

in hand

fit the work

to

is

there

but

of all sizes.

(2) Close-mouthed
square

in general use,

tongs

generallymade

are

is

accident

an

(i) Open-mouthed
round

of the

some

unless the tongs

manner,

iron and

wrought

show

of different shapes which

altered to fit,
as

are

^69

TOOLS.

ANt)

{continued).

19

numbers

first few

largenumber
or

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

similar work.

or

Also

tongs.

for

used

hollow

The

holding flat

back

at

iron

of

bend

to

it

edgewise.
(6) Bolt Tongs.
(7) Pick-up
called mandrel

Tongs.

side

For

"

Tongs.

For

"

iron

holding flat

for

Tool.

(9) Bottom

of the tool, is heated

by

of

flatter and

(10) Bottom

iron

in

shown

are

parallelto

Sometimes

tongs.

Fig. 20 (8).
The

than

iron,a littlesmaller

into the tool

is driven

placed in positionand
Tool.

Rounding
for

it. Used

Swage.

Corresponds

"

making anything round,

with the

and

rodded
made

they are

in the

Fuller.

Fuller.

Sett.

for

Used

"

in

in. ; for

rounding up

conjunction with (13) for putting hollows

Set

Hammer.

(17)

Cold

Sett.

cuttinghot

hard, and

so

(16)

conjunction with (12) as

bringingwork

for

Used

tempered

not

in

Used

"

Used

"

Flatter."

(15) Hot

work.

(13) Top
(14)

Of three different sizes,\, /g,

"

similar work.

or

(12) Bottom

sett and

Sometimes

sizes.

tenons

necks

holding

and

or

justabove

(11) Bottom

or

irregular
shape.

sledge hammer.

Swage

shown

in various

small

of

making mouldings.

For

"

the width

top swage

work

picking up

tongs.

Tongs

means

(5).

of

tongs.

(8) Bent-bit
called

form

Another

"

"

has

for

Used

to

above.

smooth

flat surface.

It is much

metal.

sharper angle

settingdown

for

square

thinner

than

cold

cuttingedge.
shoulders

similar

or

work.

hot

sett

and

fitted with

hazel rod

(18)

tempered
a

to

Square

dark

withy twisted

fitted into the


A

Used

"

round

eye

Drift

as

for

cuttingcold

brown

chisel

colour, and
as

shown

Is much

metal.

thicker

cuttingangle is
in Ch.

xiv,

60".

"

Used

for

punching

square

holes.

Usually

Fig.5 (10),or

shown.

Punch.

than

has

210

HANDCRAFT.

Descriptionof Fig.
(19) Round
(20

(20) is forged

forms;
from

piece,and

one

(22) Scroll
shape

same

holding
iron is

the

at

quicker

end

of the

(20

and

Horn

which

forms

smith

all the

are

scrolls

it

on

(usuallywhen

by
the

in

used

conjunction

fire.
fire

The

for

Used

of

hole

and

in the fire,etc.
bar

tail of

iron

is struck

iron

rod

or

in the

the

the

out.

the work

over

that

so

up

cuttingoff piecesof

square

and

reversed

picked

fuel

hardie

the

is turned

end
be

can

forge fire.

anvil.

the

with

repeated, a slighttap

process

the
and

Fig.

20

of the

are

tools

and

plant

by

largelyused

the

other

the

forge

is of

sizes

the

in.

27

has

hood, and

sizes,and

illustrated is 33

one

of

part

in various

made

are

fitted with

of the bed

those

hearth

The

riveted

iron

wrought
are

iron

solid tue

be

should

tuyere

or

together.
or

hearth,

ft. 3 in.

about

the floor.

are

at

tue

iron

the

to

Circular

bellows

littledistance

by

of

means

face

of the

natural

degrees

The

stone.

of

or

Yorkshire, Newcastle

forge,the

and

hardness,

this tends

the

by

to

easilydrilled

with

(5) Smith's
parts

are

as

hand

wheel

of the

one
are

of

The

the

of the

They

should
so

make

up

of

are

as

in

different
follows

for

water

Made

mostly of

wards
drill is fed down-

The
to

are

unevenly.

wear

simplestforms.
holes

of

itselfis either

rest

not

it

width

and

stone

names

wrought iron.

top, and

on

of

stone

soften it and

spindles,which

of the

means

diameter

the

5 in.

some

The

(4) Hand-drilling Machine,


iron, except

by

artificial composition.

some

back

the

to

nozzle

If the bellows

tubing.

leather

The

size is the diameter.

The

illustrated is 36

sizes.

is conducted

blast

barrel.

Blue, Bilston.

as

piece of

size of this is known


one

and

of time

the

The

"

coarseness

length

of

means

in various

made

Bellows,

large-boregas

sandstone,

of

by

from

(3) Grindstone.

The

vice and

the

at

pullingthe

"

edge

Forge,

The

is connected

cast

round

on.

off.

(2) Double-blast

any

all the

pullingit

use

fits into the

iron is then

The

iron.

the

from

of

which

pieces

forged

Forges

the

fork is

the

"

cast

and

the

across

for

Cutter.
hardie

The

For

"

of the

Used

"

Anvil

or

(i) Portable
of

(21)

different

all alike.

the smith's

at

illustrations in

The

bend

It is put in the

"

Slice.

or

Rake.

is laid

breaks

iron

the

iron and

into

metal

barrel is shrunk

gas

of

and

them

the bottom

at

cold.

or

hammer.

hand

Fork.

or

Used

"

(27) Hardie
iron

the centre

in

and

number

holes.

bending

piece of

scroll

making

Shovel

(26) Smith's

The

from

doing

at

for

round

21).

(25) Poker.

either hot

iron

punching

Used

"

made

make

to

for

piece of metal,

one

When

heat),thus

(24) Smith's
clinker

of

"

it is

red

Used

"

Wrenches.

handle

Iron.

(23) Scroll
with

Punch.

out

xvi.

{continued).

19

Drift

21) Scroll

and

[chap.

in. diameter

can

be

it.
Anvil

follows

and
:

The

Stand.
horn

or

"

The

beak

anvil is of wrought iron faced with steel.


; the

chopping step

or

block

or

table,

HAiJDCRAFt.

212

Description of Fig.
which

is left soft for

which
tail,
bottom

anvil.

The

(continued).

20

and

is of cast

stand

(8) Box
drills and

the

The

they

tools in

fixed with

are

Fig.21

(i) Two-hole
should

be

stated,

5 in. size

burner

called

are

Known

also

(4)

known

then

are

from

blade

saw

lb.

weighs

and

hammer,

smoothing

in all

Made

Tool,

Setting-down
Pearling
(19)

is

modelled

or
or

Riffler
and

cast

or

"

the

length

varied.

The

in. long.

6-18

also with curved

jaws ;

long.

size

steel,used

by piercers;

in.

12

about

from

weighs

Head

oz.

to

fitter's cross-pane

engineer'sor

an

long.

long.

of tool

Usual

"

Hammer.

Planishing
smoothing

or

Sometimes

"

flatteningsheet

metal.

of head

or

the

from

Tracer;

(18)

Riffle,used

is
is

Flatter

for

and

Punches,

Raising
(16)

"

or

Cushion

higher
a
or

Cup

than
or

Facing

the
filing

Used

chiefly by

oz.

2-4

Repouss6

straightside
is

Hammer.

hollows

numbers

(lo-ii)

(14)is a

Tools;
the

Ring
Tool
and

round

Tool;
or

(15) is

(17) is

Planisher

shaped

(21) Creasing

for

finishinga

Iron.

"

Used

square
for

hole

knocking

to

up

an

accurate

and

surfaces in

work.

(20) Drift, used


edges, etc.

in.

Made

"

in.

Repouss6

or

Tool;

Ball

Cutting Pliers.

from

Made

"

for

(12-13) are

Curved

are

follows

lb.

as

for

lb.

Used

Tracers;

or

Half-round

about

Tools

(10-19) Chasing
Liners

to

Weight

embossers.

and

quality.

is called

head

5-10

6-16

Hammer.

Hammer

(9) Chaser's
chasers

to

uses

5-10
in.

Made

of frame.

of

hammer.

weights up

as

are

all and

over

from

"

from

Square-faced

and

(8) Round
called

up

tools and

Flat-nosed

Snips.

or

Made

back

to

make

heavier

hole

taper square

pliers.Their

from

Nippers.

Riveting

(7) Cross-pane

8 lb.

weight is about

has

measured

Made

Made

"

best

Frame,

(6) Fret-saw
measured

all.

over

snips.

bent

as

It

"

are

gas

Straight Shears

(5) Tinman's

iron.

bar

and

sheets

useful

Pliers,or

Cutting

Manchester

jump

metalworker's

They

"

Pliers.

(3) Round-nosed

makes

pliers.

their length

by

ground

like the cast-iron stands.

thumbscrew.

Cutting

(2) Bellhanger's

the
lifting

cropper.

"

Brace.

in. two-hole

10

as

Underneath

flat iron rod.

Pliers.

Gas
such

the

square

holes.

in the

; the

is for

hole

lever in,to assist in

not

Hammer.

mostly sheet

are

small

cutting thick

for

Metalworker's

or

The

half-buried

trunk

is called

rods

holding

for

punching

does

sUghtlyrounded

and

is flat.

placing a

tree

and

Sledge

Pane

Tongs

(9) Fitter's

Machine

the

shears

(7) Straight

are

iron.

Shearing;

portion which

when

use

is for

vibration

good stand, as it absorbs

That

is for

hole which

usuallya

(6) Lever

is hardened

in it and

hole

round

hole

the round

face,which

; the

cuttingon

square

tools,and

tail there is

the

has

[chap.xVl.

size.

finishingbeads,

wired

CHAP.

XVI.]

BUILDINGS,

EQUIPMENT,

Fig.

21.

"

AND

Metalworker's

TOOLS.

tools.

213

HANDCRAFT.

214

Descriptionof Fig. 21

(22) Tinman's
but

the

curved

hardened

and

(24)

Funnel

Made

Stake.

(25) Half-moon

The

"

of

and

covered

iron and

wrought

Stake.

Edging

iron

wrought

with

faced

steel,

up.

polished.

and

polished,

steel faced.

not

with

Faced

"

side is curved,

one

is of steel hardened

edge

Made

"

of

off and

kept polishedand

be

Must

Stake.

is rounded

edge

One

"

is square.

polished.

(23) Hatchet

xvi.

{continued).

Anvil.

edge

[chap.

and

steel, hardened

polished.
(26) Pepper-box
and

hardened
Note.

marks

by

these

on

(8)and
the

Nos.

"

(21-26) must
stakes

(29).

These

placed in

Set.

(29) An
Must

be

Only

the

with steel

Faced

"

well

sizes and

looked

This

metal.

and

after,as

appliesto

also

weights,and

any

Nos.

usuallysold

are

the

Blowpipe.

foot-bellows

in

planingmachine.

in various

Made

blowpipe work

brazingand

sizes.
useful for

; very

in different sizes.

and
silver-soldering

tube.

by

Known

illustrated is

one

folds in sheet metal.

testingand settingout.

for

Made

india-rubber

The

of.

been

rounding up

for

cup

or

planed up

for

room.

for

Used

"

seams

scraped.

much

up

(30) by

it is made

tube

iron and

hand

rivet has

after the

hollow

Used

"

Foot-bellows

take

not

metal

is

over.

Plate.

of cast

are

Russell

the

there

settingdown

Surface

Usually

does

for

Set

expensiveones

most

hole

hammered

been

Seam

or

settingdown

for

Engineer's

(31) Gas

connected
size of

the

the

| in. blowpipe with lever-

control.

gas

Pan.

(32) Brazing

of sheet

Made

"

coke, fireclay,
asbestos, charcoal,

etc.
silver-soldering,

6 in.

the

to

side of the

the

kept covered.

work

outside

Used

"

At

(30) Fletcher

with

Head-stake.

kept polishedand

in many

made

rivet after it has

(28) Groover

valve

be

transferred

are

are

position.

the tail of the

with

Ball

or

pound.

(27) Rivet

small

Head-stake

polished.

and

high
The

the

to

The

top edge.

18

trays at the side

mostly lathe

are

and

stone,

about

one

small

Fig. 22

illustrated in

tools

pumice

or

size is

handy

bar iron riveted

and

tools

for

used
in. and

24
are

together.

for

brazing,

about

spelterand

follows

as

Filled

ft.

borax.

"

shank.
(i) Straight-fluted Drill with parallel
shank.
Drill with parallel
(2) Morse-twist

Countersink

Rose

(3)

Drill

(4) Slocombe
is the

countersink

(5)
and

the holes

Lathe

they

work

"

tool

or

hook

made

tool.

that

used
are

centres

Nos.

accordingto requirements.
down

is only suitable for

of

No.

for
to

at

be

5 is known

the

of

centres

turned

lathes.

in the lathe, as

angle
This

of

the

is used

it drills and

operation.

one

(5-13)make
carbon

The

combined.

Countersink

.angle

for the

Tools.

usually

are

and

average

largelyfor the piecesof


countersinks

This

shank.

rehardencd.

unless

soft metals

with taper square

tool
as

useful

steel,and
a

set

for

use

in the slide rest,

in different size material

Diamond-pointed

Roughing-

Description of Fig.

[continued).
Roughing-down

22

(6) Round-nosed
mild

steel it

lower
the

than

the

being

metal

left-hand

front

down

ground
it

But

i"- lower.

or

bit

depends

on

Tool."

Used

Tool."

Used

Side

squaring up

for

facingoff shoulders,

or

right-handside.

the

on

yV'i

about

corner,

is

iron

wrought

on

cut.

(7) Right-hand
etc.,

marked

right-hand corner

if the

better

cuts

If used

Tool."

2!

TOOLS.

AND

EQUIPMENT.

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

Side

(8) Left-hand

the

for

same

purpose

as

with

the

(7), only

opposite hand.
(9)

(10) Square
slide

automatic
easier

Threading

Tool

in action.

Could

rest

the

forge

to

Simply

drawn.

at

nose

of

matter

threads

cuttingexterior

for

also

used

be

side

one

automatic

the

of

for

with

threads

square

It is

tool.
cutting-off

tool, instead

of the

the

centre

as

taste.

Boring

Tool

for

(12) Inside

Boring

Tool

for

(13) Inside

Vee

(11) Inside

roughing

Used

out.

mostly for

shallow

the automatic

slide

holes

rings.

or

action.

The

of

tool

(15) is

As

these

small

strain of the
and

tools

of

(19) Spring
much

be

can

piece of

is

jaws

the

ones

(22)

bolts, and

used

on

of

an

as

is used

vee

top rake, and

no

Ripper,

smoothing

for

used

for

finishing;(16) is

or

Side

Tool

or

offset

an

inside work.

and

for

have

They

Right-hand

holdinghigh-speed steel turningtools.


wheel, and

emery

section

for

be

can

finishingoff

used,

the

holder

saving

so

takes

the

of material

cost

iron and

chuck
"

of

means

fitted

are

outside

For

Cushman

to

on

of
face-plate

key.

scroll

Used

for

Four-jawed

has

fitted

been

parts of

it

If

springstoo

to

which

It

lathe.

The

usuallyhas

correct

two

sets

of

jaws.

Independent
not

steel.

in the hollow.

wedged

Chuck

Jaws.

shaped piecesof work,


cannot

instead

Is known

three-jawed geared scroll chuck.

in the

simultaneouslyby
for

ground

is

hardwood

(21) Inside
An

(14)

Used

"

Planisher

Cushman

end

square

in

rest

forging.

(20) Three-jawed
name

90^

(17) is

cutting,steel of small

trouble

the

with

use

turning brass.

to

Planisher,

Holder.

Tool

Lathe

(18)

squaring up shoulders, ends,

for

tool, used

for

70"

Planisher;

Round-nosed

for

with

only

used

cuttingangles of about

roughing down;

Tool

threads.

square

(14, 15, 16, 17) Tools


have

finishingcuts.

Threading

kind

same

cuttinginside

for

cutting exterior

for

in action.

slide rest

also

Tool

Threading

Vee

chuck.

holding work

Chuck,

face-plate.

have

to

These

be

with

that

has

to

moved

be turned.

reversible jaws, slotted


for

Used

turned.

all

are

holding irregular

Holds

work

that

(20)

hand

for

light

hold.

(23)
drilling.

An

Archimedean

Breast

Drill-stock."

Used

by

2l6

HANDCRAFT.

Fig.

22.

"

Metalworker's

[chap.

tools.

XVI.

Description of Fig.

(24)

in many

Made

is the

top

on

also

lathe, but it can

the

underneath
the

lathe.

The

lower

bottom

be moved
The

screw.

The

top slide

in

of

the

slide

rightangles

at

slide, which

top

side of

plate.
Used

circular

piece

The

the

parallelwith

of the

lathe

by

bed

of

which

are

the

bed

to

whole

of the

means

of the

slide,allows

bottom

set

two

the

bolts

rightangles

at

the

on

on

lathe.

is fixed,but the

rest

turns

of

circle,and

line

driver

the

looseningtwo

the bed

to

bed

moves

circle by

30"

moved

piece

steel.

precision.
in

be

each

part

with

them

of

tail catches

The
in

dog

the

to

the end

to

lathe.

iron,and

can

moved

be

top slide, about

the

portion can

top

it

position.

tool in

the

hold

screws

217

on

the

or

bolted

Rest,

and

holder

tool

J (26)

moving

and

holding turning tools

for

of

Slide

Compound

(25) A

of

centres

iron, malleable

in cast

and

forms

the

driving chuck

in the

angle piece

the

screwing down

for

Used

"

between

being turned

that is

of work

TOOLS.

{continued).

22

Carrier.

Lathe

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

XVI.]

CHAP.

for

taper turning.

(26)

Plain

of order.

out

is

It

With

J.

A.

Standards

B.

Lathe

names

or

legsof

of the

parts

bed

are

and

to

the

follows

as

with it.

its centre.

height of

point of

the

gets

never

done

be

can

the

in the

centre

:
"

top edges planed smooth

iron with the top and

cast

D.

Crankshaft.

bearings.

screw,

the

E.

Crank.

of

ends

burred,

bar at the back

to

The

use.

which

and

be

taking a

wide

with

or

pitman.

convenient, as then

as

and

loose

should

drop

riveted,and which

are

key

shaft.

work

they soon

the treadle supports

by

called the
as

for the

case-hardened

ends

being tightenedup

bolts after

riveted up ; if not,

or

into the

be of hardwood

to

the

Sometimes

iron.

wrought

It should

for

grooves,

the crankshaft

to

on

littleway

goes

vee

preferable.

fly-wheelis fixed

Made

iron,with

cast

wrought iron, with

of

of which

comfortable

more

is

one

Made
The

end

F. Treadle.
it is

fly-wheelof

fairlyheavy

conical

have
The

out.

between

works

centres, is called the treadle shaft.

two

G.

Back

rigidand
H.
the

the
Fast

tail screw,

stay

stretcher.

or

distance

correct

headstock.
the

front end

with

kept

catch

in

bar which

This
is

of

of cast

bored

Driving pulley of cast


positionby being a force fit.
J. Drivingchuck.

Made

wrought

iron.

Keeps

standards

the

apart.

Made

I.

is

range
bed

the

rarelyor

of work

iron.

cast

Usuallyof

Driving-wheel or

belt.

round

the

of

face of the lathe

The

bed.

wide

true.

C.

set

length

the

simple, and

It is very

"

accessories

the

by

height from

drivingchuck

and

few

usuallyknown
is the

That

Foot-lathe.

to

iron,the tailend
take

iron.
Has
screws

kept

on

grooves
to

the

in its place by

positionby being a taper

fit.

15

to

on

with

hole

collar of hardened

coned

Fitted

four

bored

Kept in

for the receptionof the

nose-pieceof
means

of

set

mandrel
screw.

take

steel.

steel mandrel.

the

to

gut band.

and
The

is fitted
centre

21

HANDCRAFT.

Description of Fig.
Tailstock

K.

of the

means

the

barrel
M.

M,

Slidingbarrel.

is fixed

centre, and

has

N.

Set

O.

Tool

bed

of

screw

broken.

drilled in the

Q.

Set

R.

Hand

of

belts
end
end

fit the

which

or

how

how

hook

down

best and
of

course

fixingthe

venting
pre-

barrel.

plate,which

is fitted to

generally gets

consequence

If

iron.

wrought

or

steel.

Fixes
Made

or

Made

"

Tee

holes

are

They

they

that

so

run

have

cast

in them,

hole

be

can

against the

up

these

position.

in the correct

rest

like this

spanner.

of

of the

instruction

student

student

a
a

can

All

the most
many

can

he

is

be

done

be

with

given

well

as

With

the

it is

as

through ;

this

belts

can

be

given time,

given space,

but rather,

minimum

his

adaptiveness.

shop planned

and

teaching of
many

have

equipped

have

been

proved

can

be

added

over,
More-

with

the

indicated

work

broad

the

broken, and

all the

on

and

expensive

do

metalwork
more

of tools

expensive equipment

may

that

possibleto

in

out

he

tool

givinginstruction,

likelyto damage

more

appliancesshown

without, or

the

the aid of

repair a simple

for the

gut
the

Gut

of

purpose

put into

student, is

Fig. 23,

of iron.

tapered at

comes

be turned

can

we

without

the tools and

necessary

can

developed

good training.

tools illustrated in
pages.

is

for the

work

much

instruction

connecting

to

SHOP.

metalworking shop
be how

gut

the

by untwistingthem.

loosened

not

of

piece

red-hot

tempered

gut belt is

The

end

and

for

used

are

until the

on

or

up,

They

foot-lathes.

with

level

student, just because


Often

and

fast headstock.

tool steel hardened

of

inside.

labour-savingmachinery

this in itself is

these

in

iron.

METALWORKING

settingout

resourcefulness

on

take

to

position.

iron

THE

the maximum

plant and

end

is fitted,
so

screw

base

part of lathe bed

screwed

eye

appliances. By giving

tools.

or

lever

screwed

or

burnt

much

which

screw

its convenience.

of

Eye.

are

idea should

can

for the

set

for

on

iron, which

of cast

tightened by twistingthem

the main

in

works

is turned.
Used

in any

cast

iron

lightmachinery

the

When

screw

screwed

which

Moves

plate for tighteningup

and
and

on

is then

cast

underneath

cast

Hook

colour

and

N.

screw

which

the bolt passes.

and

used

of

to

use

steel.

or

iron.

placed

Made

the

iron and

hand-wheel

malleable

to

on

the set

by

by

forwards.

length into

be

wrought

nuts.

plateswhich

purple

of

top they add

tightened without

(27)

Can

be

screw

Nut

of cast

it is fixed

the

forwards

and

at the forward
taper fitting

iron

drilled to receive

backwards

move

keyed

wrought

the

wrought

is

and

in its

cut

Usually

rest.

Should

S.

Has

Made

rest.

Tee

through

L.

turning when

of the lathe.

P.

of

keyway

barrel

the

the

Made

the hand-wheel

to

to

This

iron and

cast

necessary

iron.

it backwards

moving

so

When

L.

of cast

of

is made

and

hand-wheel

Hand-wheel

L.

Made

head.

poppet

is screwed

which

barrel M,

xvi.

{continued^.

22

or

[chap.

to

be the

lines.
as

But

occasion

220

HANDCRAFT.

demands.

The

plan

be

modified

if necessary
is very

and

dipping

to

page

small

in

used

advantage
suitable
for

with

as

would
for the

work

patterns, tools,etc., necessary

use,

for the

pickling,washing, and

The

working

necessary

be

could

for reference

could

storeroom

XVI,

in actual

one

on

be

lacquering.

the

suggestion,and

it is based

; but

room

room

connexion

is offered

219

additional

An

metals, etc., and

be

the

as
itself,

of

on

suit conditions

to

metals, with

of

drawings

shop

convenient.

keeping

safe

of

[chap.

are

in

done

all

the

shop

handy.

With

reference

the

to

and
ventilating,
lighting,

ing
heat-

:"

and

casements

used

the

the

use

lightsto

consistingof
lamp

holder

best.

These

single

with

and

seems

be

The

bench

be

of beech

file rack
for

be

large vices

smith's

tools

side

the

of

Fig. 26

out

work
12

fixed

on

page
the

then

strong

wood

with
12

from

3^

are

stand

for

2^ in.

and
A

The

by

holding a

and

forges.

handy

chisel,as illustrated
fillet of

wood

board

should
the

of

suitable

very

Various

rack

The

if fixed to the wall

cast-iron

bench

jaws vary by ^

The

the

bottom
are

will

files above.

for

front

of

parallelvices.

than

convenient
close

tools

hammer

on

proximity to

is most

rack

vices

Leg

4I in. jaw width.

in close
221

work

to

to

steam

Fig. 24

section

; the

in. thick.

in

shop

pressure

In

the
a

ft. 8 in. broad

bench.

the

solid

more

be

should

not

less than

in. from

obtained, say

forges,as

is shown

measures

they are

as

high and

and

ft. 3

illustrated

chopping

block

ft. 9 in.

in. wide

be

should

sizes should

for

ft. 3

general use,

The

be

should

with

the

and
satisfactory

very

seen

used.

heating
-

are

light actually

comfortable.

I'^G- 24-

lamp,

be

low

switch

economical,

are

need

winter

lathe,

weight
counter-

the

only

ing
light-

individual

vice and

pendant,

For

be

casements

of

each

wanted

ther
wea-

artificial

For

cannot.

as

not

fanlights can
when

opened

bad

In

suggested.
the

light is

is necessary,

than

more

are

with

above,
fanlights

artificial

that

so

windows

of

Plenty

for

block
on

is screwed

which

page
down

62.

for

by

working.

in.

the
In

is used
The
all the

XVI.]

CHAP.

TOOLS.

AND

EQUIPMENT,

BUILDINGS,

RACK

FOR.

RACIC

221

BOTTOM

FOR,

TOOLS

ETC.

TOrSG"

2.'6'

ELEV:

SMITHS

END

S^ECT^

PLAN

OFA-RACIC-

IRON

VIENX/

'A"

FOR.
-TOOLS

LINE

Fig.

round

way

to

for the

provided,two
use

without

the

prevent

power

stands

and

if power

was

eighteenboys

and

one

little arrangement

of

the

six lathes and

two

for

twenty-eight.
If the

machinery
etc., and

would

shop
would

was

be

then power

be best

to

have

for smith's

Rack

"

iron block

machines
drilling

and

25.

jumping

installed the
have

be

to

instructor,but with
the

work

ten

more

two
forges,

boys

required for

the

required,such
be

would

all the

Fig.

26.

"

to

The

is

arrangement

boys

could

in

shop
of

the

It is also

modified.
aid

of another

should

designed

for

lathes,grindstone,

arranged for

instructor

be accommodated

forge,so making

be

and

by using

accommodation

additional

students,some

planing machine, screw-cuttinglathes,

and
necessity,

chopping

blocks

use.

the

each

Six of these

of advanced

use

as

machines

off.

four for bench

would

tools.

block

for the

convenience

separate shop.

on

wood

stand.

of

working

it

XVII

CHAPTER

There

and
to

has

who

one

any

the

Only

The

be

itself but

also

minimize

lubricant

the

be

must

heat

the

of

TOOLS
cutting tools,

many

methods

is of

sharpened

without

importance

which

be

can

expensive

here.

condition

and

generated

the

of

action

the

by

only

not

the

on

metal

of

material

to

be

oil

cutting,

of

the

cut.

other

some

or

used.

operations

Cutting

principles

tools

material

the

on

necessarily

and

cutting angle depends

efficient

most

To

with

dealt

OF

metals.

cutting

elementary

will

equipment

manipulate

to

metals

main

the

of

general knowledge

ACTIONS

cutting

of

methods

many

are

tool

CUTTING

OF

THEORY

classified

be

may

Chiselling, sawing,

with

(including cutting

drilling, turning

shearing, punching,

follows

as

filing,

diamond),

ing,
screw-

milling, fusing.

be

these

of

Some

when

done

the

for

others

the

metal

either

be

may

must

some

hot

cold.

or

action

The

main

the

body

with

metal

side

opposite

is

in

tool

under

are

In
and

the

opposes

portion

the

same

time

to

the

work.

When

tool

action

than

the

and
In
that

or

the

of

use

the

twist

point
of

tool

"

edge
hot

is

in

is

too

the

keen,

as

to

sheared

gets

sett

"

"

or

and

from

shearing

pressure,
of

faces

or

the

as

turning

sides

tool.
of

given

slope

of
the

drawn

to

the
case

into

body,
tool

so

with
the

the

of

the

tool

material

tool, which

the

main

the

of

cutting edge
tenacity

the

cutting edge gets

metal

2.

the
The

be

under

both

from

may

the

"

action

the

action.

shearing

away
:

tool

No.

motion

it is away
on

tear

of shears

applied

first

down

drill, the
or

the

directly

still presses
the

the

Fig. 1,

in

force

tool, but

shaving which,

at

turning

of

of

pair

pressing, tearing,

particle by particle.

is severed

entry

or

moving

With

i.

as

as

to

follows

of

only
work,

the

is shown

this

instances

substance

the

No.

applied

consists

face

or

of

clear

Fig. 1,

pressure

many

side

one

generally

is illustrated

This

the

is

taken

be

tool

considered

generally

force

may

cutting

metal

with

away

action

the

is

tool

sufficient

when

that

so

cutting

metal

place

Cutting
the

of

takes

Shearing

whilst

is hot,

metal

the

is cold,

metal

when

performed

are

processes

severs

is curled

keeping

up,

it up

badly ground

metal

by

the

same

off.

chisel

shearing.

(222)

"

the

action

is rather

that

of

wedging

223

TOOLS.

OF

ACTIONS

CUTTING

OF

THEORY

XVII.]

CHAP.

^ -^RE.Uie.FAE)OuT/^fcjsv
l"

2.'

OR

U?^

"

Ife

BREAKING
UP

OF

CMP

J"3SS^SSS57a;

FDIliT

NOTt

or

ll:Hhin.i:l:!'.nTTK-

\'^\, ~T1
X(f^^^jl
^

TOOL

BELEVCLWITH

CtMTRt

OF

WORK

MATERIAL
BEING

A-/S
.

5-B

,V
1

1" OF?

Z"

BLADES

'1

C*-'"r

OF

SHEARS.

Il

PEUtF

NO

AEbOUT.

KEUZ.F

SHOULD

VIEW

5IDE:

lathe:

or

NO

z.

SHCAJ^S

IN ACTIOM

iri ACTIOIi

TOOL

No

5. HACK

NOTt

NO

blade:

SAW

SOFT

rOR

OF

BLADE

MtTAlS.
SET

PAR'M-LEl..

TttTH

OF

No 4-

SAW
TEETH

NOTE.

AieE

BLADE

Na5"

TEETH

ALL

FOR

BLADt

NOT

SET

No

6'5ECT"ori
Die.

OF

OF

CUTTino
OR

No 8

SHAPE

/No9"

FORM

ECXJE

ON

Examples

BACK-

OFF

of

OF

AMD

TEETH

CUTTERS

/g) FORMS

"

BLAMKS

CEIiTRE

I,

OUT

PLAMOFPOIMT
IMC

Fig,

5,

FOR

LIP.

SHOVING

PUMCH

PRESS

PUhCHIMG

THE

IS.

FILE

OF

ENLARGED

'^\

MELTALS
BUT

OF

niLLIMG

FOR

No

TEETH

USED

WITH

CUTTERS

cuttingtools,their

10 CIRCULAR
IMSEETED

TCIETH

actions

and

cutting angles.

SAW

HANDCRAFT.

224

Chisels.
is

hammer,
and

in

In

small

Chipping,

"

pneumatic

in

be

Ch.

VI,

into the

metal.

For

cuttingangle could

acute

more

so

it could

be

left

little harder

with

and

but

metals

such

break

advantage,say 50" instead

by cooling

when

out

used

off

brass,copper,

as

or

etc.,

of

60",and

is

colour

temper

one

(as drawn)

will not

corners

the

when

being straightacross
the

hammer.

tool,and

purposes;

and

quicker,

chisel and

the

xvii.

chisel

better

necessary

general

use

cutting soft
be used

place of

of

that in actual

of

means

the work

very

for

instead

by

does
the

take

useful

cutting edge

slightlycurved,

drawn

metal

chisel is still a

f. i, is very

chipping only, the


be

of

tools often

the

shops, however,

should

removal

becoming obsolete, for machinery

largeworks

illustrated
for

the

[chap.

light

brown.

Saws.

which

the

teeth

the

teeth

to the

teeth

so

the

prevent

shown

on

long life ;
that

same

the

peculiar
"

Metals

are

in

tooth

from

by

measured

root

the wire gauge

direction

"

Filing.

cut

the

on

described
terms

"

"

the amount

handle.

to

describe

to

wards

section.

A
a
or

smooth, and

of

the

knife

in keys.

riffleris

rhombic
cut

dead

bent

file

smooth,

rat

blade;

are

or

of

"

other

according

teeth

to

the

depth

the

tooth

of the

tooth

chips.
and

the most

variable form

Files

and

and

size

are

classified and

are

their teeth.

of

from

teeth in either

saw

of very

tempered.

metal.

of

Most

the

explanation,e.g. parallel,half round,


file is

files

are

knife

narrow

acute

as

the

and

file has

two

section

thin flat file used


files of

surfaces.

filingconcave

very

to

very

with

distance

of suitable form

nature

cotter

of

generallymeasured

saw

very

spoken

has

oil for cold

is the

warding

two

is

metals

made

metalworker

body

Teeth

and

for

edge

mersed
running partlyim-

saw

is the

file used
with

"

triangular
tail),
;

Pillar and

section

of

throat

"

blade

requireno

form

is called

their

keep

are

of

bath

clear away

and

use,

kerf and

clear

for

as

circular

Space

or

to

form,

keep

saws

given

fixinginto

is

only grinds

not

backs

well

as

of clearance

steel

the

in

tools
principal

of the

one

thin

of the

binding and

saw

teeth to

thickness

is the

gauge

according

filingthe

teeth

gullet

the latter is hardened

section

files have

"

"

"

:
"

(a taper round

like the

points;
"

"

follows

as

to

left soft.

metal,

It consists of
for

tang

are

which

Some

cold, a

or

for hot

blade, and

used

round

The

set

file is

"

difficult to master.
a

prevent the

to

size with

saw

the

at

the

point to

the backs

angle

common.

steel

or

be noticed.

either hot

sawn

of cold water

of the parts of

Names
to

and

be held

best method

the

4). This, a Bradenberg patent,

should

set

hardened

now

bath

"

"

of

more

are

iron

cold

(Fig. 1, No.

page

and

for

3, but

machine

with

saws

the

well.

as

"set"

the

and

purpose,
saw

on

Fig. 1, No.

them

spaces

should

soft metals, and

grinding

binding, as

same

in

3, which

Fig. 1, No.

only

always relyon

not

the

"set

are

7, is used

slope but

efficient

most

automatic

an

from

saw

better,answer
A

on

do

the

be filed is shown

correct

Metalworkers

illustrated in

saw

XVI,

should

the

sharpen

"

"hack

in Ch.

illustrated

as

to

The

"

very

rectangular

Feather-edge
obtuse

angles.

rough, middle, bastard, second


number

of

teeth

for

per

cut,

inch, which

XVII.]

CHAP.

about

from

ranges

which

one

files ;
and

of

"

their

though

of
"

burrs

thrown

action

The

is
the

at

of the

tooth

of
efficiency

or

away

wear

file is also
metal

to

flat surface

with
A

are

scraper

file,only

the

point

is the

the

work

as

with
the

10

his elbow

jaws

should

The

most

in., 12
few

of the

tops
close

suitable

Files used

them

files used

for

; and

the

on
on

bastards

iron

and

so

iron and

of

it will

cut

the

to

be

so

vice

the

the

on

steel

had

port
sup-

the

causes

If

flat file is

surface
of the

end

nearly

be

can

file and

to

as

his

filed

ing
press-

of

in the

there

course

same

way

it has

and

so

as

vantage
the ad-

Another

obtain

touching

results,and

work.

is

worker

the

best

the

the

important

most

The

right

standing upright

his shoulder

the

tops of

of his elbow.

use

and

steel

in

general

smooths

should

iron and

get

stone

the faces

quickly or slowly according

this governs

hand

all

on

number,

work.

vice is,when

files that

new

used

chip

axis of the

this allows

handle

at

on

up

safe-edge squares

some

the

ease.

middle, and

instead

that

point

files for

when

to be

used

his side and

to

just touch

to

and

the

length.

acts

of

jaws

slicing

is ver}- eff'ective. This

in

height

to

oil

should

is usually held

it is liable

which

of

with

do

of

width

having plenty of

to

in their

The

to

in relation

high part

finished

presented

work

in. ; half round

soft metals

cut, pass
New

the

rat-tail files,
and

arose.
on

height

the similarity
front part

".

rake

cut

with

portion of the blade.

being

face

straight-

compared
page,

narrow

the

be held

to

of the

for the

height

tooth

one

able

cut

slightlyraisingthe

are

forms, but this

being

angle

which

consist

the

files the

comparative

in the
any

teeth

of

great deal

and

get

we

same

in all

life owing

triangularfile ground

on

of medium

curvature

be thickest

the

are

4,

the

"negative

was

with

as
by filing,

on

edges

it is like

of

of

the front

usually

keen

other

many

to

is

this

chips and

particularplace by

5,

angle of the
of

with

grouped

trades, their form

instead

3 and

high

length of

means

to

seen

left hand

the

giving three

be

is

or

safe-edged file

be

may

two

double

file.

it have

if the tooth

amount

be obtained

to

in that

down

small

chisel

the

files; but

that

height of

The

in curled

away

it will

examined

by

as

of

is termed

what

the

cuttingedge.

files have

All

and

Rasps

form

sawing,consequently it is a scraping

noticed

file,for if the tooth

important,

come

has

or

float.

Fig. 1, Nos.

be

gives solidityand

the

under

of

ordinary file

an

woodworking

those

tooth. Fig. 1, No.

rapidly that

more

base, which

in

It should

bottom

the

at

that

to

saws

file

slopes backwards

life and

wide

of the

teeth

the

to
to

225

constitutes

teeth.

the teeth of

making

similar

of

is termed

diamond-pointed

in

filingis

of

apparent.

once

tooth

of the

with

up

enlarged section

the

are

TOOLS.

arrangement

without

similar

OF

teeth

teeth

chieflyconfined

is used

if the

action, and

is

use

; this

of

edge

or

manufacture

chisel which

edged

singleset

size

The

angle

an

ACTIONS

more.

or

at
a

one

CUTTING

100

other

has

process

to

file with

cut.

cross

OF

14

crossing each

sets

is

THEORY

the

have

safe

kept

been

steel which

teeth

edge

might
be

are

way

be

in., 6 in., 8 in.,

bastards

added

chipped,

the

necessity

from

those

soft metals

on

they

smooths.

as

separate

used

and

will

and

wear

cut

will

used
not

admirably.
out

rapidly.

226

HANDCRAFT,

When
f.

file gets

if

i6) ;

pieces of

some

scratches

cause

it should

clogged

brushed

be

with

in

get jammed

metal

being filed,they

the work

on

[chap.

file cleaner

between

brass

the

these

by pushing

these
"

called

are

small

put

it.

When

aluminium
filing

turpentine.

or

standing and

spot

The

holding

chalk
oil

of

on

paraffin

use

method

proper

of

file is shown

of

avoid

steel
two

or

piece of

To

or

file or

them

pieces

pins ".

the

flat

filingiron

when

(Ch. XVI,

of the file and

of

corner

iron ;

or

metal

the teeth

be removed

can

with

out

the

XVII,

in

Fig. 2.
and

Shearing
Shearing
this

of

chapter, and

the

punching,

both

in

same

each

punch binding.
as

when

in it

The

of the

use

is

piece of iron
with

This

makes

action

aid of

side

each

from

weakened

according to

machine

does

operations.

is

in

placed
This

action

of

metal

punching

of
the

amount

boring

punched

the top,

through

usuallydriven half-way
enlargingthe

and

been

has

hole

the

Fig. 1,

in

illustrated

hole.

punched,

the bar

to

6, the

No.

so

any

bar is

removed, but it is quicker and

in

the

is

stationaryand

the

is fixed

work

boring
of

centres

the

is similar

to

it cannot

the bearingof the

be

work

tool

boring

lathe

general practice,but

Drillingdiffers

cutting,as

is

and
of

principlefrom

guided

cuttingedges

of

the drill

of

saddle

is fixed

there

course

in any

drill revolves, in

the

in

turning

lathe

which

boring bar

which

revolves.

drilling,
though
in

the
to

three different

boring are

Drilling,turning,and

"

given direction,while

is the

as

of material

the

prevent

hole is

hardly weakening

and

has

is first of all pressed from

punch

bar where

material

the

of

then

outwardly

metal

the

and

heat

metal

the

then

forcing the

drillingthe

between

boring tool.

punch

Turning.

revolves, and

the work
travels

and

In

the

and

die

the
to

little outwardly towards


hot

itself

punch

work.

the

Drilling

the

by

seen

shops,however, is quite different,

brightred

tapers

swellingon

the action

In

to

hammer,

so

retainingpracticallyall
extent.

brought

face of the

the

underneath

through

the

y^j-y

sides

It will be

6.

slight clearance

in smiths'

punch

which

by drivinga punch

the metal

ni.ng.

be

in

cut

the two

can

that

is the

edges

on

parallel sides while

has
when

early part

action

Fig. 1, No.

noticed, however,
2,-Posit,on

act

This

metal.

referringto

Fig,

as

both

and

case,

the

of

Punching."

is explained in the

could

one

almost

given

are

variations

many
not

every

direction

drill
other
and

against the material.

hole

the

with

operationin

is supported
The

by

ordinary

228

practicethe

actual

In

longest, but

lasts the
of

tool

turning

Actual

tend

which

towards

the sweetest

cuts
or

cause

and

destruction

the

"

due

wear

to

use.

in

material

the

being

impurities which

of

cut

than

harder

are

itself.
heat

The

3.

which

generated
does

factor

last

not

be

may
the

to

operate

sufficient to soften
extent

same

cuttingedge.

the

high-speed

where

steel

is

No.

6,

used.

being

be

should

there

roughing

round-nosed

In

iron should

Castings of

well

as

by chipping, before

rake

Side

".

with

the

ruins

as

scale

f. 22,

XVI,

is not

rake

marked

corner

scale removed

turned,

are

in Ch.

shown

as

top

as

the

have

they

such

"

by lowering the

obtained

be

tools

down

''

side rake

"

it could

6, but

No.

is that

angle

which

factors

three

the

are

Presence

the tool

This

efficient

most

XVII.

2.

or

[CHAP.

HANDCRAFT.

A.

by pickle,

old file,or

an

in

shown

owing

turning tools

the

to its hardness.

be

obtuse

very

if the

and

job

is done

Screwing
in

work

lathe,

in

the

same

than

used

in

that

into suitable

that

users

carbon

steel

be

to

they are

be

to

full of

being

are

superior to

as

iron.

turning

shanks

in the

tools, and

of

action

long

speed
highthey

run

of the
the

by

if the

strain.

its way

into

between

the

on

of the

when

the

then

hole

of the

thread

shape

and

diameter

flowing

power,

or

ways,

piece of

on

of

movement

by hand, by taps.
in

Fig.

of which

one

the

cut

18

the

on

the

milling

by specialthread

cut

are

illustrated

are

different numbers

of

it is

tap cutting a thread

practicethat

been

turning,only

as

is

thread

Taps
same

are

page.

illustrated

is in the stocks

page.

edge
caused

when

Threads

Dies

speciallydesigned, and

be

same

operated by

in various

held

and

ways,

is the

are

cutting screws

For

"

be

brazed

the

different.

Fig. 18, p. 206.

dies have

The

action

the

dies which

machines, by
illustrated

in

by
to

are

in many

is sometimes

tool

threading

to

latter

should

in,''

draw

"

or

it is liable

shake

any

metal

cheaper.

are

on

the

as

without

cutting angles must

the

they tear

acute

diamonds

it is claimed

and

tools

steel

if made

quicker speed

their

simple, and

very

firmlyand

held

consistingof black

tools

in America,

used

are

as,

square

not

striae.

ripples or
Turning

even

or

is

brass

tools for

turning

The

had

been

metal,

threads,

"

power

tap has

hollows
hole

of

so

the
the
not

usuallyknown

is the

cutting

of the

only is the

This

backing

"

of the

out

diameter
does

the

owing
but

removed
of the
not

hole.

take

This

portion

tap

it is also

core

have

would

the

ting
cut-

rake

It is found

tap of

to

place

and

theoretical
as

this relieves the

thread, and

off"

tap.

is obtained

thread

material

action

the

by

The

the

turning tool, as

slightlylargerthan

size,and

correct

of

lathe has

the

lathe

screw-cuttinglathe.

milled

are

good

as

as

relief made

in

threads

that

as

which

decreasing the

metals.

same

is drilled

tapped, nearly

During
the

the

of

forcing

squeezed

illustrates the

in cast

iron.

In

XVII.]

CHAP.

comb

hand

or

rake,

no

THEORY

they

as

is

Milling

with

varying

the

Some

it could

higher

by

the

the

only

small

radial

of

retain

their

original
Fig.

A,

shown

in

the

is, the

that

fitted

are

tool, for

into

cut

the
is

is

metal

as

follows
and

oxygen
a

rapidly
The

coal

speed
in

the
of

it is

is

is made

metal

with

that

hydrogen

to

clean
hot

is used

sawing.
instead

upon

When

of

coal

as

teeth,

special

steel

durable

very

it.

of

the

cutting

the

through
material

oxygen

jet of

cence,
incandes-

duces
pro-

oxide.

oxide
the

more

that

operation

mixed

immediately
iron

are

result

of

state

This

sorts,

jet of

by

iron

effected

gas.

to

all

cutting

formation
away

is

that

it, with

heated

brought

blow

cut

narrow

they
tooth

inserted

The

is first

cut

been

to

at

of

fact

the

oxide.

resulting

the

grinding

makes

ignites

an

discharged

sufficiently strong

similar

be

has

part

jet of oxygen

of

to

that

so

the

structures

on

metal

form

metal

this

When

the

This

and

based
of

"

of

cutters

of

made

are

with
"

Form

with

of

each

easily replaced.

plates,

spot
in

which

be

can

process

the

are

position.

steel

heated

of

the

it

made

also

teeth

the

and

away

surface

of

result

travel

thickness,

taken

cutting

oxygen

it, with

damaged

and

gas.

combustion

jet of

gets

previously

fine

screwed

oxygen,

cutters

by

cooled

9, and

face

the

faces

better

off
the

sharpened

are

into

and

Wrought-iron

"

upon

and

backed
on

being
front

cut

necessary.

is done

with

1, No.

"

"

which

of

steel

are

considerably

the

Fig.

223,

as

machine

contact

chance
have

mild
is

and

cutters

Milling

p.

for

as

at

run

is in

cutter

cutters

rake

surface

iron

soft

of

tooth

by

up

9.

grooves

when

directed

is

negative

be

and

well

milling

able
suit-

variety

revolves

on

forms

many

is

and

cutter,

infinite

work

has

on

Cutters

Other

diagram.

same

as

the

but

necessary.

in

can

and

shown

grinding,

after

shape

of

milling

of

tool.

formed

No.

1,

body

Fusing'.
now

produce

almost

quicker

revolution

brass

for

made

of

machines

is relief

there

revolving

the

much

tooth

not

are

machines

each

rake,

of

means

229

f. i8,

it is

made

very

TOOLS.

XVI,

which

milling

as

Ch.
metals

are

majority
any

but

by

the

turning

rake,

which

marked

as

metal

some

as

of

The

without

or

act

amount

those

are

tools,

used.

soft

done

lathe,

portion

small

should

on

other

than

In

be

can

done

lubricant

teeth

tooth

be

speeds
for

work

work

on

Cutters

teeth.

of

OF

in

machines,"

milling

requirements.
number

cutter.

than

in

various

used

cutting

or

"

ACTIONS

illustrated

are

usually

are

shaping

performed

for

CUTTING

which

chasers,

and

usually

OF

in

The

front

metal
than

of
at

in.

INDEX

The

Note.

numbers

by

black

in

refer

type

illustration

an

thin

in

numbers

page

the

on

refer

type

illustrations,

to

text;

accompanied

references

to

or

the

in

references

to

page.

same

WOODWORK

index

(For

Section,

Metalwork

to

see

Bradawl,
Bread

Abacus,

R.

Adam,

"

J.,

facing

Ages

periods

or

Stone,

brackets,

Animal

forms

furniture,

sculpture,

Cabinet

prehistoric

in

m.arquetried

showing
/ac/wo"

art,

Cabinets,

Candle

Architect's

perspective,

tool,

189,

bracket,

Candlesticks,

144

191

190,

36,

the,

37

brass,

iron,

wrought

no

gaWs, facing

Artichoke

craftsmen,

Artist

of

evidences

construction,
p.

Carbon

of,

use

paper,

Carving,

120

ment,
orna-

143

p.

"

Ark,

etc.,

49

Architects,

Architrave,

iron,

and

bronze,

Egyptian

Angle

equipment,

centres,

"

copper,

Ancient

for

187

no

p.

42

41,

40,

52

Buildings

109

^oot\v3.\s,

Adam

198

197,

platters,

Bridling,

10

236.)

p.

98

97,

24

158

27,

application

of

Norwegian

and

39,

"

55

Scandinavian

,,

Cavetto,

Base,

no

Celts,

Bead,

no

Centre
116

Bench,

demonstration,

188

woodworker's,

194,

192,

195

adjustable,

Bookstand,
Boring
Boule

tools,

Brace,

Chisels,

200

Chisel,

"

199,

angle,

Egyptian,
no

Circular

ratchet,
for

"

Early

200

199,

36,

37

Japanese,
rims,

164

construction

Climatic

conditions,

(2 31)

case,

20,

21

circular,

no

3.
116

foreign

and

of, 165

quotations,

Column,

165

/rtc/"o- p.

English

Early

Classical

Clock

49

candle,

164,

201

Channelling,

200

199,
122

198

Brackets,

chisel,

200,

forms

196,

saw,

198

bit,

26, 27

work,

Bow

197,

of

forms

"

Bevel,

150

no

Chair,

Beech,

/itic/ho"p.

examples,

of,

53

INDEX

232

TO

various

and

development

Column,

SECTION.

WOODWORK

forms

of, no
origin of, no
201
Compasses, steel,200,
Composite order, no
Conventional
designs, 144
Cornice, no
Corona, no
201
Countersink, 200,
application
Craftv^ork, historic ;
classwork, 109
201
Cramp, thumbscrews, 200,
201
woodworkers,
200,

Evidences

of

Exogenous
Expansion

growth,
bit,200

early art,

115

"

Facia, no
File, wood,
Fillet,
to

Currant

etc., 38, 39
Firmer
chisel, 199

52

recta,

,,

support,

Forking,
Fretsaw,

no

200

199,

fall,50

or

Flower

no

reversa,

gouge,

"

Flap

galls, 120

Cyma

plates, inlaid, carved, tooled,

Finger

,,

Crossbanding,

198

197,

no

52

196, 198

moulding,

Frieze

11

10,

no

D
Q

diaper,46

Decoration,

Dentil,

143,

processes,

149

no

Design,

use

201
201

,,

145

Dividers,

Doorways,

201

24,

Glove

25

features

of,

styles,
object lessons on,

,,

Doric, no
Dovetailing,

box,

Glue

in

historical
,,

201

"

200,

knocker,

Door

of, 157
cutting, 200,
marking, 200,
mortise, 200,
Gimlet, twist, 197, 198

Garlic,
Gauges,

geometrical, 46

,,

Decorative

11

pot,

Gopher
Gouge,

1
in

,,

51

22,

23
201

200,

wood, 4
carving, 199
firmer, 199,
flint,165

200

angles for, 26
diminished, 29
lapped, 27
through, 18
Dovetails, cutting, 26

tooling, 27, 35
Grain, twisted, 117
Grindstone, 192, 193
Grooving, 29

Dovetail

Guttae,

,,

"

"

196

saw,

patterns,

,,

,,

bits, 199, 200


Drawing, 135
oi,facing p. 170
Drill, evolution
hand, 197, 198
Drip moulding, no
Diirer, A., sixteenth
century tools, 162

146

no

Dowel

,,

Hafting, early forms


Half-happed frame,
"

"

evolution

Hammer,

of, 165
13

in, 13
setting out, 1-3
of, 167, facing p.

joints used

168

Egyptian chairs,facing
stools,facing
,,

Entablature,

Entasis,

meditcval

p. 4
p.

167

tendon

no

"

Hand

no

Equipment

and

tools

forms, facing

,,

for centres,

187

,,

pattern, 197,

holes, cutting, 19
setting out,
,,

19

198

p.

Handkerchief

box,

,,

Hingeing

German,
knocker,

201

Mallet,
Marking

201

Marquetried cabinet, /acfwo-p.

23

22,

English, 200,

Handscrew,

200,

25

notes

Mirror

craftwork,

on

Holdfast, bench, 200,


Hollow
moulding, no
Husk

ornament,

Mitre

202

awl,

and

Inlaying,50, 52
applicationof wood,
"

39,

Mosaic
33,

198

i, 14

joints,34,

tenon

55

"

"

of, 151
p.

/aczHo^p.
pictorial,
procedure for, 38,

"

with

wax,

145,

ing
fac-

Oak

apples,facing
European,

"

148

27,

Inlay, limitations of wood,


of gold, i
Introduction
Ionic,

145

143

p.
"

143

iig,

facing

p.

table, 52,

135

53

Oilcan, 200, 202


Oilstones, varieties of, 197, 198
Oilstone
table, 191, 192
Old woman's
tooth, 194, 195

135

of, 122

Ivory, uses

of an,

/ac/ho'p.
Oblique projection,

136

axes,

120

120

Occasional

/rtawo'p.
projection,

p.

116

growth

tree,

"

no

Isometric

35

pearl,122
146
inlaying,/acfKO'p.
Mouldings, 29

146
"

36

of

Mother

35,

examples, facing

Eastern
,,

143

work, 115

chisels, 199, 200


edging, 16, 35, 146

"

37.

in handcraft

frames, 34, 35,


block, 197, 198

Mortise

definition

used

cut, 197,

"

195

194,

Modillion, no
Module, no
Morris, William,

no

"

195

194,

Materials

pivot,23
Historical

233

SECTION.

WOODWORK

TO

INDEX

/aczHO' p.
Orthographic projection,
Ovolo
no
moulding,

135

Japanese pearl,122
K

decoration, applicationof,33
196, 198
saws,
chisel,
Paring
199

Painted

Keyhole

saw,

196, 198

Panel

Key rack, 10, 11


Knife box, 18, 19
Knocker, 24, 25

Paterae, no
Pedestal,
Pen

no

trays, 16, 17

Perspective,drawing in, 136, 138


/ac/wo-p. 135
projection,
Picture
panels, 12, 13, 14, 34, 35,
Pictorial

Lamp bracket, 31,


Lettenng, 24, 25,

32
139

of

methods
"

cutting,24

Pigeon holes, 50
Pilaster, in
Pin bit,200
Pincers, 197, 198
Pine

Mahogany,

yellow, 116

116

Pinning,
Pin

"

Cuba, 116
Honduras,

"

Spanish,

"

116
"

116

or

43

pivot hanging,

trays, 16, 17

Plane, block,
16

194,

195

43

36

SECTION.

WOODWORK

TO

INDEX

234

Plane, jack, 193, 194


rebate, 194, 195
shoulder, 194, 195

Shop,

smoothing,
trying, 192,

Silver

"

"

"

"

"

193,

grain, 117
Skirting, no

194

194

Plinth, no
Plough, 194, 195
Poplar, 116
Portico, 109
Adam, facing
Punch
work, 158
,,

of, 189
flooringof, 189
ventilation
of, 189
decoration

Slips, oilstone, 197, 198


Slot screwing, 33
Spokeshaves, iron and wood,
bit, 199,

p.

Spoon
Spring growth,
Square, try, 200,

no

194,

195

200
120
202

wooden,

202

"

Stationery case,
Stencilling,14,
Stiles, III
Stool, ancient

Ramification, 120
Rasp, wood,

35,

39

Egyptian, facing

construction
"

Store, timber,

Rays, medullary, 117


Recessing, application of, 32
patterns for,149

51

50,

49,
22,

of,47, 48,

p. 4

49

197

Straightedge,
Strap, method

202

of

cutting,26

"

Roots, hair, 120

secondary

"

work,

"

and

primary,

120

Router, 42
Ruler, round, 10, 11
Rule, steel,194, 195

Surbase,

Swag,

Sap,

25

Striking plate for knocker, 25


Stringings, drawings of, 53
Strips,winding, 202
no

no

120

Saw, bow, 196, 198


circular,191
196, 198
compass,
dovetail, 196, 197
Egyptian chert,jfacing p. 163
fret saw,
196, 197, 198
hand, 196, 198
"

Table, circular sketch


,,

making
making

,,

a,

of, 54

of, 52,

construction

53

53

oblong, 54
oblong drawings of, 55

"

.,

,,

an

,,

,,

occasional, 52,

,,

tray, 28,

Tea

55

29

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

"

,,

Japanese, 164
keyhole, 196, 198
knife,facing p. 163
mediseval, facing p. 163
panel, 196
Swiss
/acj"o' p. 15^
flint,

196
various, 162, 196, 198
Scandinavian
cha.ir,
facing
,,

Templet,
Tenon

Tenons,

of, 53
196, 198
mitred, 48
use

saw,

Timber, characteristics
classification
,,

conditions

tenon,

of, 121

chart, 115

of, 115,

116

affectinggrowth

of,

,,

117

"

Scotia,

growths,

p. 150

hard

no

building up,

mitre, 197, 198


Shaft of column, no
Shooting board, 202

Set

115,

n7,

ng

soft, identification

,,

of,

stock, 147
Screwdriver, 197, 198
Scratch

Segmental

and

,,

53.

n7

object lessons

on,

121,

122

mirror, 45, 46, 47


Tool cabinets, 189, 190,
191
of,
application
39,
55
Tooling,
forms
164,
of,
165
162,
Tools, early
Toilet

236

TO

INDEX

SECTION.

METALWORK

Core

Brazing, 181-85

Corner

213,

pan,

"

metal^

Britannia

Broach, 206,

Bronzes,

214

"

128

Age,

123

classwork,
Creasing iron,

Bronzing, 154
Building and equipment

"

for handcraft

Cropper,
Cutters,

Cutting

218, 219

centres,

Historic

Craftwork,

gates,

coles, 178

Cowper

121,

213

212

223
action

of tools, 222-9

Dagobert, 8
Damascening,

60, 61.

Decorative

brass, 94,

turned

204

95

iron, 97, 98
wire, 203,

204

141
brass

candlestick, turned, 94, 95


Casting or founding, 175
faults of, 175
mitre
Centre
punch, 60, 61, 211
or
a
loose, 80, 81
Chandelier, Dutch, in brass, facing
"

p.

140

outside,

and

153

129

Die, circular split,206,


Dishes
or
paterae, 85

Dividing

of metals,

bars,

Dog

207

134

of, 93

line, method
114

Drillingappliances, 169
machine,

"

Chaser, inside

processes,

metal,

Distillation

Casket,
Cast

Delta

6
8

Darby, Abraham,

Calipers,outside, 64, '65, 203,

Card

155

swords,

Damascus

129

Candlestick,

to

hooks,

Cadmium,
Calamine,

application

109
212,

Burning, 180
Byzantium, 7

Cabin

making, 96

clamps, 68, 71
plates, 62, 63
Countersink, rose, 214

207

120,

of

box, method

Brass, 128

,,

210,

2ii

plug, 81
and
turning, 226
Drills, evolution of, 169
stock, archimedean, 215, 216
various, 64, 65, 214, 216
Drift punch, 208, 209-10,
212,
213
Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury,
,,

,,

207

,,

Chasing,

155

tools,

"

12,

213

method

of

"

"

holding, 86

burials, 7
Chisel, hand or cold, 66, 67, 211, 212
of holding, 63, 167
method
cutting action of, 224
Chopping blocks, 221
out, facing p. 62, 63
Chromium,
129

chandelier,facing

Dutch

Chariot

metal,

"

p. 140

129

"

"

"

Chryselephantine work,
Chucks,

various, 79, 80,

5
224

Cleaning, colourings,etc., 177-8


Clip,development of, 74

Enamelling, 7, 8, 156
Engraving, 160

set, 208, 209

Compasses, wing,
Constantine,

,.

age,

203, 204

punched

and
"

decoration,

157

Constantinople,
Copper, 7, 129

142,

156

Cloisonne, 8, 156
Cobalt, 129
Cold

Eighteenth century gates, 112


Eleanor, Queen, 8
Electric welding, 181
Electrolyticmethods, 134
Electroplating,155
Embossed
work, facing pp. 140,

7, 8

"

chisel, method

Equipment,
Escutcheons,

203,

218

57, 58, 59

of use,

159

237

SECTION.

METALWORK

TO

INDEX

evolution

Hammers,

of, 167

various,

80,

"

bastard, 203, 204


half round, 203, 204

File, hand
"

Handle,

204,

213

212,

of making,

method

cage,

81, 203,

211,

209,

107,

108

teeth, 223, 224


Filigreework, 166
"

companion, /ac/no'p.

Fireside

"

various, 70-73,

99,

casting, object lesson

on,

Hints

when

of

of

"

holding, 91

Hook

and

5, 7

eye, 216

Huntsman,

Fuller, 208, 219


Funnel
stake, 213,

61

"Odyssey,"

Homer's

213

212,

214

loi

100,

Holdfast, 60,

"

metals,

making, 102
working metals, 185

"

frame,

Fusing,

stake, 213,

Hinges,

method
"

102,

Henkle, J.,7

211

90

saw

74

210

Hatchet

175
Fret

82,

of

tempering

method

or

73,

79,

201

Hardie,

Forge, portable,210,
Forging, 60, 62, 185
Founding

103
and

Hardening

142

Flatter, 209
Fluxes, 184
Force
fit,183

Footman,

of making,

method

Filing, 224
Finger plates,66, 67, 76, 77, 78
Finishing metal objects,177

of, 74

decoration

Handles,

214

229

Inlaying, 159
Iridium,

Iron
Gas

stove,

Gates,

tinman's,

eighteenth century,
wicket,

"

203
112

113

grilles,7, 68,

"

/ac/^o-p.
railings,

71,

soldering,203
wrought and

"

75

112,

"

to

"

distinguish,174

German

silver,129

Gilding, 159
Gilding metal,
Gold, 5, 129
Grilles, iron,

Joining metals, 180-5


Joints in tin plate, 1S5

129
7, 68, 71,

72,

T 5,

facing

P- 143

Grindstone,
Groover

or

Gunmetal,

210,

211

set, 213,

seam

214

Keltic

work,

Knurling wheel, 206,

129

207

irons, 113
standards, 1 13
Lathe, carrier, 216, 217

Lamp
Hack

saws,

method

"

"

203,

204

sawblades,

"

of holding, 205

"

223

Hafting, method
of, 169
Half-moon
edging stake,
Hammered

work,

84, 85

"

"

214

113

cast, 6, 8, 130

how

205

72,

scroll, 210

"

"

Gauls,

"

,,

Galvanizing, 178
Gauge, grinding, 64, 65
Imperial standard,

130
6

age,

chucks,
tool

"

"

215,

216

foot, 216,

217
in action, 223

tools, 214-5,

216,

217

238

TO

INDEX

Lead,

6i

of

method

zinc

and
"

from

metal

Leonardo

da

Vinci,

Lever,

"

Lock

extracting
Object lessons,

134

ore,

Oil-can,

Lettering in metalwork,
Link

SECTION.

METALWORK

Ormolu,

140

of

making,

gi,

92

131

Osmium,

61

for, 172

data

method

131

extinguishers,114
holders,
plates

p.

114
and

handles,

facing

142

Pala

Magnesium,
Manganese,

Paterae, 84, 85
Pearling wheel, 206, 207
Pepper-box, head-stake,
Pewter,

213,

214

Phidias, 5

Phosphor bronze,

130

Picture
130

131

suspender, 65,

66

Piercing, 160
(saw), 91

steel, 130

"

8
131

130

bronze,

"

d'Ora,

Palladium,

"

Mercury, 131
Metal
spinning, 160
Metals,

of Alcinous, 5, 6

Palace

Lubricants, table of, 83


Lubrication, 83
Lyre forms, 114

Pilaster, 114
Pin

cutter, 68, 69

123

Pitch, to make
up, 86
characteristics
of, 124
Platinum, 132
descriptionsof, 128-33
Pliers,various, 212, 213
extraction
of, 133
Poker, 106, 208, 210
historical notes
on
craftwork,
Polishing metals, 178
4-9. 112
Preserving metalwork, 177

"

"

"

"

of

method
"

and

hardening

pering,
tem-

201

"

"

"

"

"

to
"

joining, 180-5

clean, finish,etc.,
bench, 220
shop, 219
tools, 204-6,
213-6

125

drift,208,
decoration, 150, 158
round
drift,208, 210

Punch,
,,

object lessons on, 172


propertiesof, 125-8
shrinkage of, 127

"

Properties of metals,

,,

square

209

177

Metalworker's
,,

"

Mild

Quicksilver,131
208-11,
R

steel, 131
for smith's

Milling, 229

Rack

tool, 206, 207


of, 60,
Models, course
Muntz
metal, 131

Raising,

tools, 221
of, 85, 86

method

"

71

Rake, smith's, 208,


Ramps, 114
Reamer,

206,

Recipes

for

154,

Rejas, 8,
Nickel,

131

Nippers, cutting,212,

207

cleaning, colouring, etc.,

179,

iSo

113

Repousse tools, 212,


Riffler,212

steel, 131
Niello, 8, 160

Riveting, 182
213

Rivet

210

set, 213,

214

213

TO

INDEX

SECTION.

METALWORK

tool,

Steels, carbon
cast,

"

blades,

Saw
"

iron
"

hack,

Lancashire

of holding hack,
method
piercing in metal, 91

"

hack,

star

of, 223,

cutting action

Saws,

205

"

brushing,

177

cord,

204

203,

206

205,

dies, 205, 206,

207

Swage, bottom, 208, 209


Swaging, /rtr/"o-p. 62, 63
Swape, 79, 82

224

60, 61

Screwdriver,

228

Screwing, 183,

handed,

plate, double

Screw

174

Stove, tinman's
gas,
203
Surface
plate, 213,
214

Scraper, 225
Scratch

and

Stocks

205

"

wrench,

Stillson

203

"

"

distinguish,
tempering, 173
to

"

fret,212

172

7, 9

how

205

239

Scriber, 66, 67, 203,


Scroll horn, 208, 210
iron, 208, 210

207

204

Tablets, /ac/"o^ pp.


Tantalum,

140,

142.

132

"

wrench,

"

Seam

208,

set, 213,

hammer,

Set

214

208,

and

Sett, hot
Shalmaneser

Tap wrench, 60, 61


Taps, various, 206, 207
Tempering of metals, 172,

210

209

cold, 209
II, 6

in action, 223

Shears

of

Theory

of

Thomas

Tin,

tinman's, 212, 213


Shearing and punching, 226

173

scale, 173

"

"

cutting actions, 222


Leighton Buzzard,

132

"

machine,

"

metal

Shop

work,

Tinman's
211,

Silver,

in

210

castings, 127,

"

209,

racks, 220, 221


steel, 133, 174
Tools, metalworking,

128

rest, 207

"

61
211,

212

"

solder, 132

Smith's

203

Tool

dish, jug, /ac/^o- p. 89

"

Smelting,

stove,

Tinning, 88, 178


or
lever, 60,
Tommy
Tongs, smith's, 208,

132

cup,

Slide

132

gas

212

219

Shovel, smith's, 208,


Shrink
fit,185

Shrinkage

plate,

,,

Tripods, 89,

90

Tubal

Cain,

Tungsten,

133

tool

rack,
tools, 207,

207-15

133

steel, 133

221

Turned

208,

210,

2n,

212,

of, 78, 82, 94,

work, examples

95

213

decoration, 160
tinman's, or soft, 132,
Soldering fluid, 182
iron, 203, 204

Turning,

Solder

182

227

with

brass

"

ripper, 83

"

iron

with

notes

on,

"

"

graver,

82, 83

"

metals,

185
Spanner, double ended, 205,
single ended, 205,
"

"

Spelter, 132
Square, steel try,
Stakes,

various,

Standards,

Staple, 60,

lamp,
61

204,

213,
113

206

Twisting, method
Type metal, 133

of, 74

206

205
214

Upsetting, facing
Uzziah,

p. 62,

63

8^

INDEX

240

TO

SECTION.

METALWORK

Wohler,

Working
Vee

hand,

Vice, Lancashire
method

of

"

Vinci,

Leonardo

Vulcan,

6, 7

drawings,

140

Wortz, 6, 7
Wrenches,
various, 60,

block, 81
207

fixing,220

Wrought-iron

da, 8

pediment for a
facing p. 142
gnWt, facing p.

Wedging, 183
Welding, various, 180, 181
of extractingmetal
methods
Wet
ore,

Wicket
Wire

Andrew,

Yarrenton,

gate,

from
Z

134

gauge,

13

Imperial standard,

204,

205

Zinc, 7, 133
"

Aberdeen:

61, 205,

206,

210

the

univbrbity

chloride,

press

182

gate,
142