Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

United States Patent [19]

[111

4,125,999

Melchior

I451

Nov. 21, 1978

[54]

METHODS OF SUPERCHARGING A DIESEL

ENGINE, IN SUPERCHARGED DIESEL


ENGINES, AND IN SUPERCHARGING
UNITS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

[75] Inventor:

pipe enabling direct and permanent passage for the air


delivered through the compressor to the turbine inlet.

The diesel engine is supercharged by the compressor


driven by the turbine. Regulating means are provided to
limit the rotary speed of the supercharging unit so that

Related U.S. Application Data


Division of Ser. No. 437,748, Jan. 29, 1974, Pat. No.
3,988,894, which is a continuation-impart of Ser. No.

384,566, Aug. 1, 1973, abandoned, which is a


continuation of Ser. No. 139,080, Apr. 30, 1971,
abandoned.

Apr. 6, 1972 [FR]


Mar. 21, 1973 [FR]

France .............................. .. 72.12113


France .............................. .. 73.10041

[51]
[52]

Int. Cl.2 ...................... .. F0213 37/00; F02B 37/08


U.S. Cl. ....................................... .. 60/606; 60/619

[58]

Field of Search ............... .. 60/599, 605, 606, 608,

60/615, 617, 619, 614


I

it operates at or above a minimum threshold value such

that the engine, which has a compression ratio of less


than 12, can be started and kept running at low power

without dif?culty. For engines requiring scavenging,


throttle means with variable passage cross section are

Foreign Application Priority Data

[56]

ABSTRACT

An internal combustion engine of the expansible cham


ber type and preferably a diesel engine is equipped with
a turbo-compressor unit, comprising at least one com
pressor and at least one turbine, and at least one bypass

[73] Assignee: Etat Francais, Paris, France


[21] Appl. No.: 721,576
[22] Filed:
Sep. 8, 1976

[30]

Choate

[57]

Jean F. Melchior, Neuilly-sur-Seine,


France

[60]

Primary Examiner-Louis J. Casaregola


Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Barnes, Kisselle, Raisch &

References Cited

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

the pressure existing in the upstream part regardless of


the engine speed and therefore which is independent of
the air ?ow passing through said throttle means. The
increasing function may be a linear or substantially
linear function. A combustion chamber is arranged
upstream of the turbine and supplied by air which has
passed through the bypass pipe, by fuel under the con
trol of the regulating means and also, in some embodi

2,633,698

4/1953

Nettel ................... ..- .............. .. 60/606

3,096,615

7/1963

Zuhn

3,423,927

I/ 1969

Scherenberg ........................ .. 60/606

..... .. . ....

arranged so as to be traversed by generating between


the upstream and downstream parts of the bypass pipe a
pressure difference which is an increasing function of

. . . ..

ments, by exhaust gases from the engine.

60/606

18 Claims, 26 Drawing Figures

a)
J04,"

I US. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Z8

.26

Sheet 1 of 16

4,125,999

U.S. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 2 of 16.

FIG}
U

a! I

\
v

13 w

J&

_~_Z

H04

4,125,999

U.S. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 3 of 16

4,125,999

H65

60; \
30.

211-

70

4]
H06

//20

40

go.

50; \
30

211

f4!

U.S. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 4 of 16

4,125,999

%N

US. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 5 of 16

4,125,999

.707

U.S. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 8 of16

mum.

4,15,9Q9

US. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 901 16

4,125,999

FIGIZ
n

22L

Leo?

22.0

W 222_\ 226 A /2I3

\225
H2459 ,239) >232; 35" . 2
22/
L

(>264
99'
HUI}

_____
____

012

0.4

016

0:8

D
P

U.S. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 10 0f 16

U.S. Patent _ Nov. 21,1978

Sheet 11 of 16

4,125,999

P (BARS)
150

COMPARATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURE IN CONVENTIONAL


AND INVENTION CYCLES

20

H?M

20

'

40

60

'

80

'

'

100 120

CRANK ANGLE ()

US. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 12 of 16

4,1299

SPECIFIC CONSUMPTION
GR/H.P.H. (METRIC)
190

180

170

160

SUPERCHARGED

PER INVENTION (0)

I
600

POWER H.P.

(METRIC)

'

INVENTION S(l(J:I;ERCHARGED
500

N00

CONVENTIONALLY SUPERCHARGED

300 -

// //
/

/ ///

200
100

///
-

JNON-SUPERCHARGED

____ __

........ "

W
0

1500

2000

'

'

'

'

2500

US. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Shet 13 of 16

T(K)

2000 _1

. I

COMPARATIVE TEMPERATURE DEVELOPMENTS


IN CONVENTIONAL AND INVENTION CYCLES

1500 -

4,125,999

,"\

lOOO -

20

20

[IO

(319

60

80

100

CRANK ANGLE 1")

(x)

COMPARATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

I IN THE CONVENTIONAL AND INVENTION CYCLES


/ \

100 80

60

IO

20

'

20

A0

60

80

100 120

CRANK ANGLE _()

NO

US. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978 4

Sheet 14 of 16

COMPARATIVE DEVELOPMENTS OF
THE THERMAL FLOW DENSITY IN

4,125,999

CONVENTIONAL
AND INVENTION
A
.

l\ '\3/_

CYCLES

CONVENTIONAL SUPERCHARGING

AREA FAVO RAB LE FOR THE


1CYCLE

INVENTION SUPERCHARGING

FIG-2|

Z
.

TTIC

vl'l'l'll'l'l'l'I'I'l'l'

100

so

60

A0

20

20-

A0

60

80 100 120 1'A0


CRANK ANGLE <>

I.M.E.P. (BARS)
35 -

' *_

30 _

INDICATED MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE

(I.M.E.P.) AS A FUNCTION OF

,4

SUPERCHARGING PRESSURE AND /, /


OF THE ANGULAR DURATION
_ //

0F COMBUSTION

////

HEM

1O

SUPERCHARGING PRESSURE (BARS)

US. Patent _ Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 15 of 16

4,125,999

COMPARISON OF THE PATH OF THE OPERATING POINT OF THE


TURBOCOMPRESSOR IN ITS CHARACTERISTIC FIELD IN CON
VENTIONAL SUPERCHARGING AND OF THE INVENTION SUPER
CHARGING
PRESSURE RATIO
14.6 -

4.2 -

3.0. _

2 2 -

1. 8 -

1 LI ..

<-<DECELERATION

COMPRESSOR SPEE

H623

NOMINAL POINT

U.S. Patent

Nov. 21, 1978

Sheet 16 of 16

4,125,99@

OPERATING MODES OF AN ENGINE OF THE INVENTION

H. P. (METRIC)
s00

wMDlTNNNNNENNNN y
500

N00

300 '

200

\\

\*

- I

WITH POST-COMBUSTION
CONSTANT SUPERCHARGING
PRESSURE ZONE

100 -'

12'00

1600

2000

RIPIMI

HEM

ZLEOO

4,125,999

1
,

of low power operation, and this by reason of the fact


that the temperature of self-ignition of the fuel is no
longer reached at the end of the compression stroke.
It is a speci?c object of the invention to improve the

METHODS OF SUPERCHARGING A DIESEL

ENGINE, IN SUPERCHARGED DIESEL ENGINES,


AND IN SUPERCI-IARGING UNITS FOR DIESEL

operation of supercharged diesel engines and to permit,


for engines whose compression ratio is less than 12,

' ENGINES

This application is a division of my prior copending


application Ser. No. 437,748, (U.S. Pat. No. 3,988,894)

starting without having to resort to any special starting


method, and correct operation at idle and low power.
The supercharging method according to a preferred

?led in the United States Patent and Trademark Of?ce


on Jan. 29, 1974, which in turn is a continuation-in-part

?led Aug. 1, 1973, now abandoned, which in turn is a

embodiment of the invention is characterized by the


fact that, the engine having a compression ratio less
than 12, the minimal rotary speed of its supercharging

continuation of myprior copending application Ser.

unit is limited to a threshold value suf?cient to create, in

of my prior copending application Ser. No. 384,566,

the intake pipe of the engine, conditions of temperature


claiming the bene?t of the priority date of myFrench 15 and of pressure enabling its starting and its operation at
application Ser. No. 70/ 16289, ?led May 5, 1970, and
low power, this threshold value being all the higher, for
which application Ser. No. 437,748 is also a continua
a given supercharging unit, as the compression ratio of
tion-in-part of my prior copending application Ser. No.
the engine is lower.
Preferably, the abovesaid threshold value is obtained
345,968, ?led Mar. 29, 1973, now abandoned, and claim
ing the bene?t of the priority dates of my_French appli 20 by limiting, i.e., controlling or regulating, the supply of
fuel to the combustion chamber.
cations Ser. No. 72/ 12113, ?led Apr. 6, 1972, and Ser.
The diesel engine according to a preferred embodi
No. 73/10041, ?led Mar. 21, 1973.
v
The invention relates to supercharging methods for
ment of the invention is characterized by the fact that it
internal combustion engines of the expansible combus
has a compression ratio less than 12, by the fact that
tion chamber type, preferably a diesel engine with a 25 regulating means for the speed of its supercharging unit
supercharging unit comprising a compressor supplying
are provided and are arranged so that the minimal ro
No. 139,080, ?led Apr. 30, 1971, now abandoned, and

fresh air in parallel to-the engine and to a combustion

tary speed of this supercharging unit is limited to a


threshold value suf?cient to create, in the intake pipe of
the engine, conditions of temperature and of pressure

chamber, and a turbine supplied with combustion gas by


thev engineand said combustion chamber, the said tur
bine driving in rotation the said compressor, indepen
dent starting means being provided to bring the turbine

enabling its starting and its operation at slow speed, this


threshold value being all the higher, for a given super
charging unit, as the compression ratio of the engine is
lower.

compressor assembly to self-maintaining operation in


dependentofthe engine.

, t

The invention also relates to diesel engines super

Preferably, the abovesaid regulating means are con

charged by a supercharging unit comprising a compres 35 stituted by a supply device limiting, i.e., controlling or
sor, supplying fresh air in parallel to theengine and to a
regulating, the flow rate of fuel introduced into the
combustion chamber.
combustion chamber, and a turbine supplied with com
The supercharging unit according to a preferred em
bustion gas by the engine and the abovesaid combustion
bodiment of the invention is characterized by the fact
chamber, the abovesaid turbine driving said compressor

in rotation, independent starting means being provided


to bring the turbine-compressor assembly to self-main

40 that ?rst connecting means are provided for the com

pressor to supply with fresh air, in parallel, the combus

taining operation independent of the engine.

tion chamber and the intake pipe of a diesel engine with


a compression ratio less than 12, by the fact that second

The invention relates also to supercharging units for

internal combustion engines, preferably of the diesel

connecting means are provided so that the turbine can

type, comprising a compressor supplying fresh air to an

be supplied with the combustion gas by the combustion


chamber and by the exhaust pipe of the abovesaid diesel
engine, and by the fact that regulating means of the
speed of the supercharging unit are provided and are
arranged so that the minimal rotary speed of this super

auxiliary combustion chamber and also to the engine


combustion chamber via ?rst connecting means con
nected to an intake manifold of an engine, and a turbine

supplied with combustion gases provided by said auxil


iary combustion chamber and by the engine combustion

charging unit is limited to a threshold value suf?cient to


create, in the intake pipe of the engine, conditions of

chamber via second connecting means connected to the


exhaust manifold of said engine, said turbine rotating

temperature and of pressure enabling its starting and its


operation at low power, this threshold value being all

said compressor, independent startingvmeans being pro


vided to bring the turbine-compressor assembly to self
maintaining operation.

As set forth in more detail following the detailed


description of the embodiments shown in FIGS. 1-13, it

the higher, for a given supercharging unit, as the com


55 pression ratio of the engine concerned is lower.
The abovesaid regulating means can comprise an

has been} appreciated that it would be advantageous,

actuating member which can modify the threshold


value according to the compression ratio of the engine

especially from the point of view of speci?c power/

concerned.

strokevvolume ratio and from the point of view of ro 60

To a ?rst approximation, the power of an engine is

bustness and simplicity, to provide supercharged diesel


engines having a low compression ratio, less than 12,

proportional to the amount of air inspired. The power

and which can be as low a value as 8lor even ,6.

can only be increased at the cost of an increase in the

"

of a given engine, whose rotary speed is ?xed, hence

Now it is known that, all things being otherwise


equal, reduction of the compression ratio___of a super

density of the intake air. So it is necessary to increase


65 the pressure and to reduce the temperature of this air.
On the other hand to respect the longevity of the en
charged diesel engine causes" the appearance, below a

certain limiting compression ratio, which is situated


around 12, of impossibilities of starting and dif?culties

gine, the maximal admissible pressure must not be ex

ceeded and the temperature of the gases in the cylinder

4,125,999

correlated lowering of the compression ratio which is


accompanied by lesser heating of the air during the

low speed, much reduced noise level, exhaust of low


polluting effect, ease of cold starting, easy correction of
atmospheric variations, possibility of idling at very low
speed, and reduction in the speci?c bulk of the cooling

compression stroke. Below a limiting volumetric com

system.

must not be unduly raised. A considerable increase in


intake pressure is hence only possible at the cost of a

pression ratio of the engine comprised between 12 and


17 according to the bore, this heating may become

'

The system of the invention is readily adapted to the

majority of self-ignition internal combustion engines. It

insuf?cient to enable self-ignition of the fuel at least at

requires no internal modi?cation other than a different

starting, idling or low power operation.

geometry of the combustion chambers. Moreover, the


very high pressure necessary for the method is provided
by a supercharging system which is used instead and in

In accordance with one feature of the present inven

tion, such relatively low compression ratios comprised


between about 6 and 10, as the case may be, are em

place of conventional supercharging devices of similar

ployed, while around the engine an arti?cial atmo


sphere is maintained under sufficient pressure and tem

bulk.

perature to palliate the lack of compression in the cylin


der and this pressurized atmosphere is established prior
to the starting of the engine. The pressure of this atmo
sphere is sufficiently high to enable easy starting up at
the lowest ambient temperatures. The low compression
ratio gives the engine a smoothness of operation which
is manifested by a considerable reduction in the charac
teristic knock or chatter of a diesel engine and less wear

In such engines of the invention, the parallel branch


of the aforesaid connecting means preferably comprises
a bypass pipe enabling direct and permanent passage of
fresh air delivered by the compressor to the exhaust
gases emerging from the engine. A combustion chamber
is then generally provided upstream of the turbine, this

combustion chamber being supplied by the exhaust


gases and by the fresh air taken from the abovesaid

branch pipe.

of the moving connecting parts. It makes possible an


It is a further object of the invention to adapt the
excess of air in the cylinder, which in turn lowers the
turbo-compressor
group to high supercharging pres
maximal and average temperatures of the gases and 25 sures due to operation of the compressor close to the
hence the thermal load on the engine. Moreover, this
surge or pumping line, that is to say with optimum
excess of air reduces the creation of nitrogen oxide (due
yield.
to the lowering of temperatures) and the formation of
It is yet another object of the invention to enable
unburnt products and of smoke (due to the excess of
good
scavenging of the engine due to a difference of
30
oxygen at, all speeds).
pressure maintained between the intake and the exhaust.
To provide the high pressure of air required, the
It is another object of the invention, in engines of the
turbocompressor is operated within the narrow range of
above character, to reduce the work of discharging
good compression yields, that is to say like a gas turbine.
exhaust gases, which hence enables the power of the
The ability to operate in this high yield mode is
achieved by the system of the invention due to the 35 engine to be increased (by increasing the mean effective

previously described parallel connection in the form of


a bypass connecting the compressor outlet to the tur
bine inlet whose permeability is controlled to maintain

pressure) and to reduce its consumption.

In order to achieve such scavenging the engine ac


cording to another embodiment of the invention is pro

the good yield of the compressor. This bypass also

vided with throttle means with variable passage cross

situated upstream of the turbine and which enables


self-sustaining operation of the turboblower. The latter
can then be started up prior to the engine and kept
above a minimal speed in the whole range of operation

through the bypass pipe, these throttle means generat


ing between the upstream part of the bypass pipe (the

supplies fresh air to a combustion chamber which is 40 section, arranged so as to be traversed by the air passing

of the engine. The arti?cial pressurized atmosphere


defined above is thus realized.
The above features enable, moreover, the obtaining

part connected to the compressor) and the downstream

part of the bypass pipe (the part connected to the-tur


45 bine, if necessary through the combustion chamber) a

difference in pressure which is an increasing function,


preferably linear or substantially linear, of the pressure

of maximum torque at all rotary speeds, the supercharg


ing pressure being adjustable independently of the en
gine speed. The increase in power is not obtained by
increasing the forces on the connecting rod system but
by increasing the duration during which they are ap
plied. Therefore, the basic construction of the engine

existing in the upstream part regardless of the engine

the increase in power and hence the original cooling

high supercharging pressures, the compressor operating

existing self-ignition internal combustion engine and

tained between the intake (pressure upstream of the


throttle means) and the exhaust (pressure downstream
of the throttle means) enables good scavenging of the

speed and therefore which is independent of the air ?ow


passing through said throttle means.
It will hence be understood that the work of dis

charging the exhaust gases being reduced, the brake


mean effective pressure (b.m.e.p.) is increased to a value

equal to the aforesaid difference in pressure between the


can be preserved in adapting a conventional engine to
the system of the invention. Similarly, since the average 55 pressure upstream of the throttle means and the pres
sure downstream of said throttle means.
temperature of the gases in the cylinder is lower, the
Moreover, it is possible to make the engine operate at
water circulation of the original engine is suf?cient for

close to the pumping limit.


system need not be modified.
The method of the invention is applicable to any 60 Lastly, the existence of a difference in pressure main

enables the obtaining of three to four times the power of

the unsupercharged engine without changing its operat


ing life. Relative to conventional supercharging, the

engine.

'

According to one advantageous embodiment of the


power gain thus obtained can go from 50% to 150%, 65
invention, the throttle means comprises a throttle mem
depending upon the ratio of initial supercharging em
ber arranged in the bypass pipe and cooperating with a
ployed. The increase in power is also accompanied by a

certain number of secondary advantages: high torque at

?xed seat.

4,125,999

This throttle member can be operatively coupled to,

FIG. 5 shows a supercharging unit according to the


invention, with one compression stage, and constructed

or may consist of, a balancing piston, one working sur

face of which is subjected to the pressure existing in the


part upstream of the bypass pipe and of which a second
working surface is subject to a counter pressure (atmo
spheric pressure or pressure comprised between atmo
spheric pressure and the pressure existing in the up
stream part of the bypass pipe), and a third working
surface of which is subjected to the pressure existing in

according to the invention in a manner analogous to the

embodiment of the diesel engine shown in FIG. 2.


FIG. 6 shows a supercharging unit according to the
invention, with one compression stage, and constructed
in a manner similar to that of the embodiment of the
diesel engine shown in FIG. 3.
FIGS. 7 and 8 show two variations of a supercharged
diesel engine with two compression stages and con

the downstream part, and elastic return means being


able to act in one sense or the other on the movable

structed according to the invention in a manner similar

mechanism constituted by the throttle member and its

to the embodiment of the supercharged diesel engine


with one compression stage which is illustrated in FIG.

balancing piston.
According to a particular feature of the invention,

2.

which is applied in the case where there is provided a

FIG. 9 is a diagrammatic view of another embodi

combustion chamber which is supplied, with fresh air,

ment of a supercharged diesel engine equipped with a


combustion chamber with a single fresh air intake, and
constructed according to the invention.
FIGS. 9A and 9B are diagrammatic views of second

through a primary air intake to introduce fresh air into


a combustion zone, and through a secondary air intake
to introduce fresh air into a mixing zone, the throttle
means comprise, in parallel, ?rst throttle means with 20 and third embodiments of throttle means which are
variable passage cross section, arranged so as to be
equivalent to and may be substituted for the throttle
traversed by the secondary air, these ?rst throttle means
means shown in FIG. 9.
generating between the upstream part of the bypass pipe
FIG. 10 is a diagrammatic view of a supercharged
(the part connected to the compressor) and the down
diesel
engine, equipped with a combustion chamber
stream part of the bypass pipe (the part connected to the 25 with two fresh air intakes, and constructed according to
combustion chamber) a pressure difference which is an
an embodiment of the invention for which the combus
increasing function, preferably linear or substantially
tion chamber comprises a return injector.
linear, of the pressure existing in the upstream part, and
FIG. 11 is a diagrammatic view of a supercharged
second throttle means with variable outlet cross section
diesel
engine, equipped with a combustion chamber
subjected to the difference of pressure generated by the
with two fresh air intakes, and constructed according to
first throttle means and arranged so as to be traversed
an embodiment of the invention for which the combus

by the primary air, these second throttle means regulat


ing the ?ow-rate of primary air by offering an outlet
cross section to this primary air which is servocoupled

tion chamber comprises a nonreturn injector.


FIG. 12 is a partial view of an important element of
the engine of FIG. 10 showing a modi?cation of the
invention.
FIG. 13 is a graph relating to the operation of an

to the pressure existing in the downstream part or the

upstream part of the bypass pipe, this servocoupling


being according to a predetermined relationship.
Preferably, these second throttle means control in
addition a regulating device for the ?ow-rate of fuel

engine according to the invention.

for ?ow-rates of primary air and of fuel, a ratio ensuring

with the present invention.

FIG. 14 is a schematic diagram of a commercial


injected into the combustion chamber so as to preserve, 40 Poyaud Model 520-6L engine modified in accordance
FIG. 15 is a rear perspective elevational view of a

good combustion stability.

commercial Poyaud Model 520-6L engine also modi?ed


in accordance with the present invention and in particu
lar utilizing the system shown in FIG. 2.

The invention, apart from the features which have


been considered, consists of certain other objects, fea
tures and advantages which will be more explicitly
discussed below.

FIG. 16 is a front perspective elevational view of the

- :

commercial Poyaud Model 520-6L engine incorporat


ing the systems described in conjunction with FIGS.

The invention will, in any case, be better understood

with the aid of the supplementary description which


follows as well as of the accompanying drawings,

which description and drawings relate to preferred

11-14.

50

embodiments of the invention and do not have, of


course, any limiting character. In these drawings:
7 FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a supercharged

diesel engine, with one compression stage, constructed


" according to the invention and constituting a ?rst em

bodiment.

Y_,,FIG. 2 is andiiag'rammatic view of a supercharged


{diesel engine, with one compression stage, constructed
according to the invention and constituting a second
embodiment thereof.
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic view of a supercharged

'

'

FIG. 17 is a graph showing a plot of engine r.p.m.

against horsepower and against speci?c fuel consump


tion for nonsupercharged, conventionally supercharged
and invention supercharged versions of the engine
shown in FIGS. 14-16.

FIG. 18 is a graphic comparative development of


supercharging pressure versus crank angle for engines
supercharged conventionally and pursuant to the inven
tion, and FIGS. 19, 20 and 21 are corresponding

graphic comparative developments of temperature,


heat transfer coef?cients and thermal ?ow respectively.

diesel engine, with one compression stage, constructed

FIG. 22 is a graph of indicated mean effective pres


sure as a function of the supercharging pressure and of

according to the invention and constituting a third em~

the angular duration of combustion calculated for an

bodiment thereof.

engine supercharged pursuant to the invention.

FIG. 4 shows a supercharging unit according to the 65

invention, with one compression stage, and constructed

FIG. 23 is a graph of the paths of operative points of


a turbocompressor in its characteristic ?eld as operated

in a manner analogous to the embodiment of the diesel

in conventional supercharging and in supercharging

engine shown in FIG. 1.

pursuant to the invention.