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# UNIT II THEORY OF LUBRICATION

Part A
1. Discuss the function of lubricant in an engine. (NOV 2009) (AU 2009)
(Nov 2014)
(i) To minimize the heat liberated due to the relative movement between
the metal surfaces
(ii) To reduce the wear
(iii) To act as cleaning agent
(iv) To give better sealing action
2. What is blow by loss? What factors afect this loss? (AU 2009) (NOV
2008)
The blowby loss is due to the leaking of gas flow through crevices/gaps
between the piston, piston rings and cylinder walls. The gas usually
leaks/flows through them to the crankcase.
(i) Worn out piston rings (ii) Improper lubrication system (iii) Wear
on cylindrical surfaces
3. What is the elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication? (NOV 2008) (NOV-2012)
(MAY 2013) (MAY 2014) (May 2015)
Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication exists when a sudden reduction
of the oil film due to high pressure causes a temporary increase in viscosity.
When viscosity increases, the film can become rigid, creating a temporary
elastic deformation of the surfaces. The lubricants viscosity and additives
work together to protect surfaces in an elasto-hydrodynamic regime.
4 What is meant by crank case ventilation? (NOV-2006) (MAY 2007)
The Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) system reduces blowby
emissions from the engine by allowing fresh air to flow along the crankcase
and to collect the blowby gases. About 20% of the total hydrocarbon (HC)
emissions produced by a vehicle are blowby emissions from gases that get
past the piston rings and enter the crankcase. The higher the mileage on
the engine and the greater the wear on the piston rings and cylinders, the
greater the blowby into the crankcase.
5. What is the effect of blow-by losses? (NOV 2009) (May 2015)
6. What is viscous friction? (NOV 2013)
Viscous friction. This law simply says that the friction force F F is
proportional to the relative sliding velocity v between a solid and a liquid
or between two liquid layers: The proportionality factor (the greek letter
gamma) is often called damping constant.
7. What are the various frictional losses in an engine? (NOV-2006) (NOV2012) (MAY 2013) (NOV 2013) (MAY 2014) (Nov 2014)
(i) Direct frictional losses
(ii) Pumping losses

## (iii) Power loss to drive the components to charge and scavenge

(iv) Power loss to drive other auxiliary components
8. What is the diference between blending and compounding?
Blending : It is the process of mixing two or more things to make a think like
molecular
Compounding : It is the process of adding one more thing to the previous one.
Part B
1. Explain the hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication with neat sketches.
(NOV 2008) (AU 2009) (NOV 2012) (MAY 2013) (MAY 2013)
2. Explain the mechanism of lubrication of journal bearing with neat sketch.
.(NOV 2006)
3. Define and diferentiate between: (AU 2009)
(i) Hydrodynamic lubrication system and (ii) Elasto hydrodynamic
lubrication
4. Explain the six classes of mechanical friction and the various factors
affecting them.
(NOV 2008) (NOV 2009) (NOV 2012) (MAY 2013) (MAY 2014) (NOV
2006)
5. What are the various components to be lubricated in an engine? Explain
how it is accomplished. (NOV 2010) (NOV 2013)
6. Clearly explain the various wet sump lubrication system. Compare the
wet sump and dry sump lubrication system. (NOV 2013)